Docoh
Loading...

PFE Pfizer

Filed: 25 Feb 21, 1:59pm
0000078003us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:QualifiedPlanMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMembercountry:US2020-12-31

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 1-3619
pfe-20201231_g1.jpg
PFIZER INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware13-5315170
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
235 East 42nd Street, New York, New York 10017
(Address of principal executive offices) (zip code)
(212) 733-2323
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.05 par valuePFENew York Stock Exchange
0.250% Notes due 2022PFE22New York Stock Exchange
1.000% Notes due 2027PFE27New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   Yes    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files.)     Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated filer               Accelerated filer                 Non-accelerated filer           Smaller reporting company   Emerging growth company ☐

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing price as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, June 28, 2020, was approximately $169 billion. This excludes shares of common stock held by directors and executive officers at June 28, 2020. Exclusion of shares held by any person should not be construed to indicate that such person possesses the power, directly or indirectly, to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of the registrant, or that such person is controlled by or under common control with the registrant. The registrant has no non-voting common stock.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock as of February 23, 2021 was 5,577,629,491 shares of common stock, all of one class.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of ShareholdersPart III



TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTSN/A
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURESN/A
ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATIONN/A
N/A = Not Applicable




DEFINED TERMS
Unless the context requires otherwise, references to “Pfizer,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” in this Form 10-K (defined below) refer to Pfizer Inc. and its subsidiaries. The financial information included in our consolidated financial statements for our subsidiaries operating outside the U.S. is as of and for the year ended November 30 for each year presented. Pfizer's fiscal year-end for U.S. subsidiaries is as of and for the year ended December 31 for each year presented. References to “Notes” in this Form 10-K are to the Notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data in this Form 10-K. We also have used several other terms in this Form 10-K, most of which are explained or defined below.
2018 Financial ReportExhibit 13 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
Form 10-KThis Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
Proxy StatementProxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which will be filed no later than 120 days after December 31, 2020
AbbVieAbbVie Inc.
ABOAccumulated benefit obligation represents the present value of the benefit obligation earned through the end of the year but does not factor in future compensation increases
ACA (also referred to as U.S. Healthcare Legislation)U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act
ACIPAdvisory Committee on Immunization Practices
AkceaAkcea Therapeutics, Inc.
ALKanaplastic lymphoma kinase
Alliance revenuesRevenues from alliance agreements under which we co-promote products discovered or developed by other companies or us
AllogeneAllogene Therapeutics, Inc.
AMLAcute Myeloid Leukemia
AnacorAnacor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
AOCIAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income
ArrayArray BioPharma Inc.
AstellasAstellas Pharma Inc., Astellas US LLC and Astellas Pharma US, Inc.
ATTR-CMtransthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy
Bain CapitalBain Capital Private Equity and Bain Capital Life Sciences
BiogenBiogen Inc.
BioNTechBioNTech SE
BiopharmaPfizer Biopharmaceuticals Group
BMSBristol-Myers Squibb Company
BNT162b2Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine
BODBoard of Directors
BRCABReast CAncer susceptibility gene
CAR Tchimeric antigen receptor T cell
CDCU.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CellectisCellectis S.A.
CerevelCerevel Therapeutics, LLC
cGMPscurrent Good Manufacturing Practices
CIAScognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia
Consumer Healthcare JVGSK Consumer Healthcare JV
COVID-19novel coronavirus disease of 2019
CMAconditional marketing authorization
CStoneCStone Pharmaceuticals
DEAU.S. Drug Enforcement Agency
Developed EuropeIncludes the following markets: Western Europe, Scandinavian countries and Finland
Developed MarketsIncludes the following markets: U.S., Developed Europe, Japan, Canada, Australia, South Korea and New Zealand
Developed Rest of WorldIncludes the following markets: Japan, Canada, Australia, South Korea and New Zealand
EMAEuropean Medicines Agency
Emerging MarketsIncludes, but is not limited to, the following markets: Asia (excluding Japan and South Korea), Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Central Europe and Turkey
EPSearnings per share
ESOPemployee stock ownership plan
EUEuropean Union
EUAemergency use authorization
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FCPAU.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
FDAU.S. Food and Drug Administration

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-Ki


FFDCAU.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles
GDFVgrant-date fair value
GISTgastrointestinal stromal tumors
GPDGlobal Product Development organization
GSKGlaxoSmithKline plc
HospiraHospira, Inc.
IonisIonis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
IPR&Din-process research and development
IRCInternal Revenue Code
IRSU.S. Internal Revenue Service
IVintravenous
J&JJohnson & Johnson
JVjoint venture
KingKing Pharmaceuticals LLC (formerly King Pharmaceuticals, Inc.)
LDLlow density lipoprotein
LIBORLondon Interbank Offered Rate
LillyEli Lilly & Company
LOEloss of exclusivity
MCOmanaged care organization
mCRCmetastatic colorectal cancer
mCRPCmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
mCSPCmetastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer
mRNAmessenger ribonucleic acid
MD&AManagement’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
MedivationMedivation LLC (formerly Medivation Inc.)
MeridianMeridian Medical Technologies, Inc.
Moody’sMoody’s Investors Service
MylanMylan N.V.
Mylan-Japan collaborationa pre-existing strategic collaboration between Pfizer and Mylan for generic drugs in Japan that terminated on December 21, 2020
MyovantMyovant Sciences Ltd.
NAVnet asset value
NDAnew drug application
nmCRPCnon-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
NMPANational Medical Product Administration in China
NYSENew York Stock Exchange
OTCover-the-counter
PBMpharmacy benefit manager
PBOProjected benefit obligation; represents the present value of the benefit obligation earned through the end of the year and factors in future compensation increases
PCPPPfizer Consolidated Pension Plan
PGSPfizer Global Supply
PharmaciaPharmacia Corporation
PMDAPharmaceuticals and Medical Device Agency in Japan
PsApsoriatic arthritis
QCEquality consistency evaluation
RArheumatoid arthritis
RCCrenal cell carcinoma
R&Dresearch and development
ROUright of use
SandozSandoz, Inc., a division of Novartis AG
S&PStandard & Poor’s
SECU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
ServierLes Laboratoires Servier SAS
ShireShire International GmbH
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act or TCJALegislation commonly referred to as the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
TevaTeva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.
TherachonTherachon Holding AG

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-Kii


Upjohn BusinessPfizer’s global, primarily off-patent branded and generics business, which includes a portfolio of 20 globally recognized solid oral dose brands, including Lipitor, Lyrica, Norvasc, Celebrex and Viagra, as well as a U.S.-based generics platform, Greenstone, that was spun-off on November 16, 2020 and combined with Mylan to create Viatris
UCulcerative colitis
U.K.United Kingdom
U.S.United States
VAIVoluntary Action Indicated
ValnevaValneva SE
VBPvolume-based procurement
ViatrisViatris Inc.
ViiVViiV Healthcare Limited
WRDMWorldwide Research, Development and Medical
This Form 10-K includes discussion of certain clinical studies relating to various in-line products and/or product candidates. These studies typically are part of a larger body of clinical data relating to such products or product candidates, and the discussion herein should be considered in the context of the larger body of data. In addition, clinical trial data are subject to differing interpretations, and, even when we view data as sufficient to support the safety and/or effectiveness of a product candidate or a new indication for an in-line product, regulatory authorities may not share our views and may require additional data or may deny approval altogether.
Some amounts in this Form 10-K may not add due to rounding. All percentages have been calculated using unrounded amounts. All trademarks mentioned are the property of their owners.
FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION AND FACTORS THAT MAY AFFECT FUTURE RESULTS
This Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. We also provide forward-looking statements in other materials we release to the public, as well as public oral statements. Given their forward-looking nature, these statements involve substantial risks, uncertainties and potentially inaccurate assumptions.
We have tried, wherever possible, to identify such statements by using words such as “will,” “may,” “could,” “likely,” “ongoing,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “assume,” “target,” “forecast,” “guidance,” “goal,” “objective,” “aim,” “seek” and other words and terms of similar meaning or by using future dates.
We include forward-looking information in our discussion of the following, among other topics:
our anticipated operating and financial performance, reorganizations, business plans and prospects;
expectations for our product pipeline, in-line products and product candidates, including anticipated regulatory submissions, data read-outs, study starts, approvals, post-approval clinical trial results and other developing data that become available, revenue contribution, growth, performance, timing of exclusivity and potential benefits;
strategic reviews, capital allocation objectives, dividends and share repurchases;
plans for and prospects of our acquisitions, dispositions and other business development activities, and our ability to successfully capitalize on these opportunities;
sales, expenses, interest rates, foreign exchange rates and the outcome of contingencies, such as legal proceedings;
expectations for impact of or changes to existing or new government regulations or laws;
our ability to anticipate and respond to macroeconomic, geopolitical, health and industry trends, pandemics, acts of war and other large-scale crises; and
manufacturing and product supply.
In particular, forward-looking information in this Form 10-K includes statements relating to specific future actions and effects, including, among others, our efforts to respond to COVID-19, including our development of a vaccine to help prevent COVID-19, the forecasted revenue contribution of BNT162b2 and the potential number of doses that we and BioNTech believe can be delivered; our expectations regarding the impact of COVID-19 on our business; the expected impact of patent expiries and competition from generic manufacturers; the expected pricing pressures on our products and the anticipated impact to our business; the availability of raw materials for 2021; the expected charges and/or costs in connection with the spin-off of the Upjohn Business and its combination with Mylan; the benefits expected from our business development transactions; our anticipated liquidity position; the anticipated costs and savings from certain of our initiatives, including our Transforming to a More Focused Company program; our planned capital spending; the expectations for our quarterly dividend payments; and the expected benefit payments and employer contributions for our benefit plans.
Given their nature, we cannot assure that any outcome expressed in these forward-looking statements will be realized in whole or in part. Actual outcomes may vary materially from past results and those anticipated, estimated, implied or projected. These forward-looking statements may be affected by underlying assumptions that may prove inaccurate or incomplete, or by known or unknown risks and uncertainties, including those described in this section and in the Item 1A. Risk Factors section in this Form 10-K.
Therefore, you are cautioned not to unduly rely on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to update forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable securities law. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects.
Some of the factors that could cause actual results to differ are identified below, as well as those discussed in the Item 1A. Risk Factors section in this Form 10-K and within MD&A. We note these factors for investors as permitted by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The occurrence of any of the risks identified below or in the Item 1A. Risk Factors section in this Form 10-K, or other risks currently unknown, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations, or we may be required to increase our accruals for contingencies. It is not possible to predict or identify all such factors. Consequently, you should not consider the following to be a complete discussion of all potential risks or uncertainties:

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-Kiii


Risks Related to Our Business, Industry and Operations, and Business Development:
the outcome of R&D activities, including, the ability to meet anticipated pre-clinical or clinical endpoints, commencement and/or completion dates for our pre-clinical or clinical trials, regulatory submission dates, and/or regulatory approval and/or launch dates, as well as the possibility of unfavorable pre-clinical and clinical trial results, including the possibility of unfavorable new pre-clinical or clinical data and further analyses of existing pre-clinical or clinical data;
our ability to successfully address comments received from regulatory authorities such as the FDA or the EMA, or obtain approval from regulators on a timely basis or at all; regulatory decisions impacting labeling, manufacturing processes, safety and/or other matters; the impact of recommendations by technical or advisory committees; and the timing of pricing approvals and product launches;
claims and concerns that may arise regarding the safety or efficacy of in-line products and product candidates, including claims and concerns that may arise from the outcome of post-approval clinical trials, which could impact marketing approval, product labeling, and/or availability or commercial potential, including uncertainties regarding the commercial or other impact of the results of the Xeljanz ORAL Surveillance (A3921133) study or any potential actions by regulatory authorities based on analysis of ORAL Surveillance or other data;
the success and impact of external business development activities, including the ability to identify and execute on potential business development opportunities; the ability to satisfy the conditions to closing of announced transactions in the anticipated time frame or at all; the ability to realize the anticipated benefits of any such transactions in the anticipated time frame or at all; the potential need for and impact of additional equity or debt financing to pursue these opportunities, which could result in increased leverage and/or a downgrade of our credit ratings; challenges integrating the businesses and operations; disruption to business and operations relationships; risks related to growing revenues for certain acquired products; significant transaction costs; and unknown liabilities;
competition, including from new product entrants, in-line branded products, generic products, private label products, biosimilars and product candidates that treat diseases and conditions similar to those treated by our in-line drugs and drug candidates;
the ability to successfully market both new and existing products, including biosimilars;
difficulties or delays in manufacturing, sales or marketing; supply disruptions, shortages or stock-outs at our facilities; and legal or regulatory actions;
the impact of public health outbreaks, epidemics or pandemics (such as the COVID-19 pandemic) on our business, operations and financial condition and results;
risks and uncertainties related to our efforts to develop a vaccine to help prevent COVID-19 and potential treatments for COVID-19, as well as challenges related to their manufacturing, supply and distribution;
trends toward managed care and healthcare cost containment, and our ability to obtain or maintain timely or adequate pricing or favorable formulary placement for our products;
interest rate and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, including the impact of possible currency devaluations in countries experiencing high inflation rates;
any significant issues involving our largest wholesale distributors, which account for a substantial portion of our revenues;
the impact of the increased presence of counterfeit medicines in the pharmaceutical supply chain;
any significant issues related to the outsourcing of certain operational and staff functions to third parties; and any significant issues related to our JVs and other third-party business arrangements;
uncertainties related to general economic, political, business, industry, regulatory and market conditions including, without limitation, uncertainties related to the impact on us, our customers, suppliers and lenders and counterparties to our foreign-exchange and interest-rate agreements of challenging global economic conditions and recent and possible future changes in global financial markets;
any changes in business, political and economic conditions due to actual or threatened terrorist activity, civil unrest or military action;
the impact of product recalls, withdrawals and other unusual items;
trade buying patterns;
the risk of an impairment charge related to our intangible assets, goodwill or equity-method investments;
the impact of, and risks and uncertainties related to, restructurings and internal reorganizations, as well as any other corporate strategic initiatives, and cost-reduction and productivity initiatives, each of which requires upfront costs but may fail to yield anticipated benefits and may result in unexpected costs or organizational disruption;
Risks Related to Government Regulation and Legal Proceedings:
the impact of any U.S. healthcare reform or legislation or any significant spending reductions or cost controls affecting Medicare, Medicaid or other publicly funded or subsidized health programs or changes in the tax treatment of employer-sponsored health insurance that may be implemented;
U.S. federal or state legislation or regulatory action and/or policy efforts affecting, among other things, pharmaceutical product pricing, intellectual property, reimbursement or access or restrictions on U.S. direct-to-consumer advertising; limitations on interactions with healthcare professionals and other industry stakeholders; as well as pricing pressures for our products as a result of highly competitive insurance markets;
legislation or regulatory action in markets outside of the U.S., including China, affecting pharmaceutical product pricing, intellectual property, reimbursement or access, including, in particular, continued government-mandated reductions in prices and access restrictions for certain biopharmaceutical products to control costs in those markets;
the exposure of our operations outside of the U.S. to possible capital and exchange controls, economic conditions, expropriation and other restrictive government actions, changes in intellectual property legal protections and remedies, as well as political unrest, unstable governments and legal systems and inter-governmental disputes;

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-Kiv


legal defense costs, insurance expenses, settlement costs and contingencies, including those related to actual or alleged environmental contamination;
the risk and impact of an adverse decision or settlement and the adequacy of reserves related to legal proceedings;
the risk and impact of tax related litigation;
governmental laws and regulations affecting our operations, including, without limitation, changes in laws and regulations or their interpretation, including, among others, changes in taxation requirements;
Risks Related to Intellectual Property, Technology and Security:
any significant breakdown, infiltration or interruption of our information technology systems and infrastructure;
the risk that our currently pending or future patent applications may not be granted on a timely basis or at all, or any patent-term extensions that we seek may not be granted on a timely basis, if at all; and
our ability to protect our patents and other intellectual property, including against claims of invalidity that could result in LOE and in response to any pressure, or legal or regulatory action by, various stakeholders or governments that could potentially result in us not seeking intellectual property protection for or agreeing not to enforce intellectual property related to our products, including our vaccine to help prevent COVID-19 and potential treatments for COVID-19.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-Kv


PART I
ITEM 1.BUSINESS
pfe-20201231_g1.jpg
ABOUT PFIZER

Pfizer Inc. is a research-based, global biopharmaceutical company. We apply science and our global resources to bring therapies to people that extend and significantly improve their lives through the discovery, development, manufacture, marketing, sales and distribution of biopharmaceutical products worldwide. We work across developed and emerging markets to advance wellness, prevention, treatments and cures that challenge the most feared diseases of our time. We collaborate with healthcare providers, governments and local communities to support and expand access to reliable, affordable healthcare around the world. The Company was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on June 2, 1942.

Most of our revenues come from the manufacture and sale of our products, principally biopharmaceutical products, and to a lesser extent, from alliance agreements, under which we co-promote products discovered or developed by other companies or us. We believe that our medicines and vaccines provide significant value for healthcare providers and patients, through improved treatment of diseases, improvements in health, wellness and productivity as well as by reducing other healthcare costs, such as emergency room or hospitalization. We seek to enhance the value of our medicines and vaccines and actively engage in dialogues about how we can best work with patients, physicians and payers to prevent and treat disease and improve outcomes. We seek to maximize patient access and evaluate our pricing arrangements and contracting methods with payers to minimize adverse impact on our revenues within the current legal and pricing structures.

We are committed to fulfilling our purpose: Breakthroughs that change patients’ lives. By doing so, we expect to create value for the patients we serve and for our colleagues and shareholders. Pfizer’s growth strategy is driven by five “Bold Moves” that help us deliver breakthroughs for patients and create value for shareholders and other stakeholders:

1.Unleash the power of our people;
2.Deliver first-in-class science;
3.Transform our go-to-market model;
4.Win the digital race in pharma; and
5.Lead the conversation.

We are committed to strategically capitalizing on growth opportunities by advancing our own product pipeline and maximizing the value of our existing products, as well as through various business development activities. We view our business development activity as an enabler of our strategies and seek to generate growth by pursuing opportunities and transactions that have the potential to strengthen our business and our capabilities. We assess our business, assets and scientific capabilities/portfolio as part of our regular, ongoing portfolio review process and also continue to consider business development activities that will advance our business.

Following (i) the recent spin-off and combination of the Upjohn Business (which was our global, primarily off-patent branded and generics business) with Mylan, which created a new global pharmaceutical company, Viatris, in November 2020 and (ii) the formation of the Consumer Healthcare JV in 2019, we saw the culmination of Pfizer’s transformation into a more focused, innovative science-based biopharmaceutical products business.

Our significant recent business development activities in 2020 include: (i) the April 2020 agreement with BioNTech to develop, manufacture and commercialize an mRNA-based coronavirus vaccine program, BNT162, aimed at preventing COVID-19, (ii) the June 2020 agreement to co-develop and commercialize Valneva’s Lyme disease vaccine candidate, VLA15, (iii) the September 2020 entry into a strategic collaboration with CStone to develop and commercialize a PD-L1 antibody, sugemalimab, and to bring additional oncology assets to China, (iv) the November 2020 spin-off and combination of the Upjohn Business with Mylan, and (v) the December 2020 entry into a collaboration with Myovant to jointly develop and commercialize relugolix in advanced prostate cancer and women’s health in the U.S. and Canada. For a further discussion of our strategy and our business development initiatives, see the Overview of Our Performance, Operating Environment, Strategy and Outlook section within MD&A and Note 2.

In 2020, our business, operations and financial condition and results were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. To confront the public health challenge posed by the pandemic, we have made some important advances, including, among others, the development of a vaccine to help prevent COVID-19. For additional information, see the Overview of Our Performance, Operating Environment, Strategy and Outlook—COVID-19 Pandemic section within MD&A and the Item 1A. Risk Factors—Development, Regulatory Approval and Marketing of Products and —COVID-19 Pandemic sections in this Form 10-K.
COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS

In 2020, we managed our commercial operations through a global structure consisting of two businesses—Biopharma, and, through November 16, 2020, Upjohn, each led by a single manager.

On November 16, 2020, we completed the spin-off and combination of the Upjohn Business with Mylan. Following the combination, we now operate as a focused innovative biopharmaceutical company engaged in the discovery, development, manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution of biopharmaceutical products worldwide. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020, the financial results of the Upjohn Business are reflected as discontinued operations for all periods presented. Prior-period information has been restated to reflect our current organizational structure following the separation of the Upjohn Business. In 2019, Consumer Healthcare, which was our OTC medicines business, was

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K1


combined with GSK’s consumer healthcare business to form a consumer healthcare JV in which we own a 32% equity stake. For additional information, see the Overview of Our Performance, Operating Environment, Strategy and Outlook section within MD&A and Notes 1A and 2C.

Our business includes the following therapeutic areas and key products:
Therapeutic AreaDescriptionKey Products
Internal MedicineIncludes innovative brands from two therapeutic areas, Cardiovascular Metabolic and Pain, as well as regional brands.Eliquis*, Chantix/Champix* and the Premarin family
OncologyIncludes innovative oncology brands of biologics, small molecules, immunotherapies and biosimilars across a wide range of cancers.Ibrance*, Xtandi*, Sutent*, Inlyta, Retacrit, Lorbrena and Braftovi
HospitalIncludes our global portfolio of sterile injectable and anti-infective medicines, as well as Pfizer CentreOne, our contract manufacturing and active pharmaceutical ingredient sales operation.Sulperazon, Medrol, Zithromax, Vfend and Panzyga
VaccinesIncludes innovative vaccines across all ages—infants, adolescents and adults—in pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, tick-borne encephalitis and COVID-19, with a pipeline focus on infectious diseases with significant unmet medical need.Prevnar 13/Prevenar 13 (pediatric/adult)*, Nimenrix, FSME/IMMUN-TicoVac, Trumenba and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine
Inflammation & ImmunologyIncludes innovative brands and biosimilars for chronic immune and inflammatory diseases.Xeljanz*, Enbrel (outside the U.S. and Canada)*, Inflectra and Eucrisa/Staquis
Rare DiseaseIncludes innovative brands for a number of therapeutic areas with rare diseases, including amyloidosis, hemophilia and endocrine diseases.Vyndaqel/Vyndamax*, BeneFIX and Genotropin
*Each of Prevnar 13/Prevenar 13, Ibrance, Eliquis, Xeljanz and Enbrel recorded direct product and/or Alliance revenues of more than $1 billion in 2020, 2019 and 2018. Each of Xtandi and Vyndaqel/Vyndamax recorded direct product and/or Alliance revenues of more than $1 billion in 2020, Chantix/Champix recorded direct product revenues of more than $1 billion in 2019 and 2018 and Sutent recorded direct product revenues of more than $1 billion in 2018. Eliquis includes Alliance revenues and direct sales.

For additional information on the key operational revenue drivers of our business, see the Analysis of the Consolidated Statements of Income section within MD&A. For a discussion of the risks associated with our dependence on certain of our major products, see the Item 1A. Risk Factors—Concentration section in this Form 10-K.
COLLABORATION AND CO-PROMOTION

We use collaboration and/or co-promotion arrangements to enhance our development, R&D, sales and distribution of certain biopharmaceutical products, which include, among others, the following:
Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (BNT162b2) is an mRNA-based coronavirus vaccine to help prevent COVID-19 which is being jointly developed and commercialized with BioNTech. Pfizer and BioNTech will equally share the costs of development for the BNT162 program. BNT162b2 has now been granted a CMA, EUA or temporary authorization in more than 50 countries worldwide. We will also share gross profits equally from commercialization of BNT162b2 and are working jointly with BioNTech in our respective territories to commercialize the vaccine worldwide (excluding China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), subject to regulatory authorizations or approvals market by market. For discussion on BNT162b2, see the Overview of Our Performance, Operating Environment, Strategy and Outlook—COVID-19 Pandemic section within MD&A.
Eliquis (apixaban) is part of the Novel Oral Anticoagulant market and was jointly developed and commercialized with BMS as an alternative treatment option to warfarin in appropriate patients. We fund between 50% and 60% of all development costs depending on the study, and profits and losses are shared equally except in certain countries where we commercialize Eliquis and pay a percentage of net sales to BMS. In certain smaller markets we have full commercialization rights and BMS supplies the product to us at cost plus a percentage of the net sales to end-customers.
Xtandi (enzalutamide) is an androgen receptor inhibitor that blocks multiple steps in the androgen receptor signaling pathway within tumor cells that is being developed and commercialized in collaboration with Astellas. We share equally in the gross profits and losses related to U.S. net sales and also share equally all Xtandi commercialization costs attributable to the U.S. market, subject to certain exceptions. In addition, we share certain development and other collaboration expenses. For international net sales we receive royalties based on a tiered percentage.
Bavencio (avelumab) is a human anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody that is being developed and commercialized in collaboration with Merck KGaA. We jointly fund the majority of development and commercialization costs and split profits equally related to net sales generated from any products containing avelumab.
Orgovyx (relugolix) is an oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist approved by the FDA for the treatment of adult patients with advanced prostate cancer that is being developed and commercialized with Myovant. The companies are also collaborating on relugolix combination tablet (relugolix 40 mg, estradiol 1.0 mg, and norethindrone acetate 0.5 mg) in women’s health. The companies will equally share profits and allowable expenses in the U.S. and Canada for Orgovyx and the relugolix combination tablet, with Myovant bearing our share of allowable expenses up to a maximum of $100 million in 2021 and up to a maximum of $50 million in 2022. Myovant will remain responsible for regulatory interactions and drug supply and continue to lead clinical development for the relugolix combination tablet.

Revenues associated with these arrangements are included in Alliance revenues (except in certain markets where we have direct sales and except for the majority of revenues for BNT162b2, which are included as direct product revenues). In addition, we have collaboration arrangements for the development and commercialization of certain pipeline products that are in development stage, including, among others, with Lilly to jointly develop and globally commercialize tanezumab for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain and cancer pain, under which the companies share equally the ongoing development costs and, if successful, will co-commercialize and share equally in profits and certain expenses in the U.S., while Pfizer will be responsible for commercialization activities and costs outside the U.S., with Lilly having the right to

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K2


receive certain tiered royalties outside the U.S. For further discussion of collaboration and co-promotion agreements, see the Item 1A. Risk Factors—Collaborations and Other Relationships with Third Parties section in this Form 10-K and Notes 2 and 17.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

R&D is at the heart of fulfilling our purpose to deliver breakthroughs that change patients’ lives as we work to translate advanced science and technologies into the therapies that may be the most impactful for patients. The discovery and development of drugs and biological products are time consuming, costly and unpredictable. In addition to discovering and developing new products, our R&D efforts seek to add value to our existing products by improving their effectiveness and ease of dosing and by discovering potential new indications.

Our R&D Priorities and Strategy. Our R&D priorities include:
delivering a pipeline of highly differentiated medicines and vaccines where we have a unique opportunity to bring the most important new therapies to patients in need;
advancing our capabilities that can position us for long-term R&D leadership; and
advancing new models for partnerships with creativity, flexibility and urgency to deliver innovation to patients as quickly as possible.

To that end, our R&D primarily focuses on our main therapeutic areas.

While a significant portion of our R&D is internal, we also seek promising chemical and biological lead molecules and innovative technologies developed by others to incorporate into our discovery and development processes or projects, as well as our product lines. We do so by entering into collaboration, alliance and license agreements with universities, biotechnology companies and other firms as well as through acquisitions and investments. We also have arrangements with third parties that fund a portion of the development costs of one or more of our pipeline products in exchange for rights to receive future payments, such as milestone-based, revenue sharing, or profit-sharing payments or royalties. These collaboration, alliance, license and funding agreements and investments allow us to share knowledge, risk and cost. They also enable us to access external scientific and technological expertise, as well as provide us the opportunity to advance our own products and in-licensed or acquired products. For information on certain of these collaborations, alliances, license and funding arrangements and investments, see Note 2.

Our R&D Operations. In 2020, we continued to strengthen our global R&D operations and pursue strategies to improve R&D productivity to achieve a sustainable pipeline that is positioned to deliver value in the near term and over time. Our R&D activity is conducted through various platform functions that operate in parallel within our global operations, including the following:
WRDM. Research units are generally responsible for research and early-stage development assets for our business (assets that have not yet achieved proof-of-concept) and are organized by therapeutic area to enhance flexibility, cohesiveness and focus. We can rapidly redeploy resources within a research unit and between various projects to leverage, as necessary, common skills, expertise or focus.
GPD. GPD is a unified center for clinical development and regulatory activities that is generally responsible for the clinical development strategy and operational execution of clinical trials for both early-stage assets in the WRDM portfolio as well as late-stage assets in our portfolio.
Science-based platform-services organizations. These organizations provide technical expertise and other services to various R&D projects, and are organized into science-based functions (which are part of our WRDM organization) such as Pharmaceutical Sciences and Medicine Design. These organizations allow us to react more quickly and effectively to evolving needs by sharing resources among projects, candidates and targets across therapeutic areas and phases of development. Another platform-service organization is the Worldwide Medical and Safety (WMS) group, which includes worldwide safety surveillance, medical information and the Chief Medical Office. The WMS group provides patients, healthcare providers, pharmacists, payers and health authorities with complete and up-to-date information about the risks and benefits associated with Pfizer’s R&D programs and marketed products so they can make appropriate decisions on how and when to use our products.

We manage R&D operations on a total-company basis through our platform functions described above. Specifically, the Portfolio Strategy & Investment committee, comprised of senior executives, is accountable for aligning resources among all of our WRDM, GPD and R&D projects and for seeking to ensure optimal capital allocation across the innovative R&D portfolio. We believe that this approach also serves to maximize accountability and flexibility.
We do not disaggregate total R&D expense by development phase or by therapeutic area since, as described above, we do not manage our R&D operations by development phase or by therapeutic area. Further, as we are able to adjust a significant portion of our spending quickly, we believe that any prior-period information about R&D expense by development phase or by therapeutic area would not necessarily be representative of future spending.

In 2020, the R&D organization within Upjohn supported the off-patent branded and generic established medicines and managed its resources separately from the WRDM and GPD organizations. Following the spin-off and combination of the Upjohn Business with Mylan to create Viatris, we have agreed to provide certain transition services to Viatris including support for R&D, pharmacovigilance and safety surveillance.

For additional information, see the Costs and ExpensesResearch and Development (R&D) Expenses section within MD&A.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K3



Our R&D Pipeline. The process of drug and biological product discovery from initiation through development and to potential regulatory approval is lengthy and can take more than ten years. As of February 2, 2021, we had the following number of projects in various stages of R&D:
pfe-20201231_g2.jpg
Development of a single compound is often pursued as part of multiple programs. While our drug candidates may or may not receive regulatory approval, new candidates entering clinical development phases are the foundation for future products. Information concerning several of our drug candidates in development, as well as supplemental filings for existing products, is set forth in the Analysis of the Consolidated Statements of Income—Product Developments section within MD&A. For information on the risks associated with R&D, see the Item 1A. Risk Factors—Research and Development section of this Form 10-K.
INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS

Our operations are conducted globally, and we sell our products in over 125 countries. Emerging markets are an important component of our strategy for global leadership, and our commercial structure recognizes that the demographics and rising economic power of the fastest-growing emerging markets are becoming more closely aligned with the profile found within developed markets. Urbanization and the rise of the middle class in emerging markets provide potential growth opportunities for our products.

Revenues from operations outside the U.S. of $20.2 billion accounted for 48% of our total revenues in 2020. Revenues exceeded $500 million in each of 8, 10 and 10 countries outside the U.S. in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. By total revenues, China and Japan are our two largest national markets outside the U.S. For a geographic breakdown of revenues, see the Analysis of the Consolidated Statements of IncomeRevenues by Geography section within MD&A and the table captioned Geographic Information in Note 17A.
pfe-20201231_g3.jpg
Our international operations are subject to risks inherent in carrying on business in other countries. For additional information, see the Item 1A. Risk FactorsGlobal Operations and Item 1. BusinessGovernment Regulation and Price Constraints sections in this Form 10-K.
SALES AND MARKETING

Our prescription pharmaceutical products are sold principally to wholesalers, but we also sell directly to retailers, hospitals, clinics, government agencies and pharmacies. In the U.S., we primarily sell our vaccines products directly to the federal government, CDC, wholesalers, individual provider offices, retail pharmacies and integrated delivery networks. Outside the U.S., we primarily sell our vaccines to government and non-government institutions. A portion of our government contracts are subject to renegotiation or termination of contracts or subcontracts at the discretion of a government entity. We seek to gain access for our products on healthcare authority and PBM formularies, which are lists of approved medicines available to members of the PBMs. PBMs use various benefit designs, such as tiered co-pays for formulary products, to drive utilization of products in preferred formulary positions. We may also work with payers on disease management programs that help to develop tools and materials to educate patients and physicians on key disease areas. For information on our largest biopharmaceutical wholesalers, see Note 17B.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K4


We promote our products to healthcare providers and patients. Through our marketing organizations, we explain the approved uses, benefits and risks of our products to healthcare providers; MCOs that provide insurance coverage, such as hospitals, Integrated Delivery Systems, PBMs and health plans; and employers and government agencies who hire MCOs to provide health benefits to their employees. We also market directly to consumers in the U.S. through direct-to-consumer advertising that seeks to communicate the approved uses, benefits and risks of our products while motivating people to have meaningful conversations with their doctors. In addition, we sponsor general advertising to educate the public on disease awareness, prevention and wellness, important public health issues and our patient assistance programs.
PATENTS AND OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

Patents. We own or license a number of patents covering pharmaceutical and other products, their uses, formulations, and product manufacturing processes.

Patents for individual products extend for varying periods according to the date of patent filing or grant and the legal term of patents in the various countries where patent protection is obtained. The scope of protection afforded by a patent can vary from country to country and depends on the patent type, the scope of its patent claims and the availability of legal remedies. Patent term extensions (PTE) may be available in some countries to compensate for a loss of patent term due to delay in a product’s approval due to the regulatory requirements. One of the primary considerations in limiting our operations in some countries outside the U.S. is the lack of effective intellectual property protection for our products, although international and U.S. free trade agreements have included some improved global protection of intellectual property rights. For additional information, see the Item 1. BusinessGovernment Regulation and Price Constraints section in this Form 10-K.

In various markets, a period of regulatory exclusivity may be provided for drugs upon approval. The scope and term of such exclusivity will vary but, in general, the period will run concurrently with the term of any existing patent rights associated with the drug at the time of approval.

Based on current sales, and considering the competition with products sold by our competitors, the patent rights we consider most significant in relation to our business as a whole, together with the year in which the basic product patent expires, are as follows:
Drug
U.S. Basic Product Patent Expiration Year(1) 
Major Europe Basic Product Patent Expiration Year(1)
Japan Basic Product Patent Expiration Year(1)
Chantix/Champix
2020(2)
20212022
Sutent202120222024
Inlyta202520252025
Xeljanz2025
2028 (3)
2025
Prevnar 13/Prevenar 132026__(4)2029
Eliquis(5)
202620262026
Ibrance202720282028
Xtandi(6)
2027
*(6)
*(6)
Vyndaqel/Vyndamax2024
(2028 pending PTE)
20262026
Xalkori202920272028
Besponsa20302028
2028(7)
Braftovi(8)
2031
(2031 pending PTE)
*(8)
*(8)
Mektovi(8)
2031(9)
*(8)
*(8)
Bavencio(10)
203320322033
Lorbrena203320342036
(1)Unless otherwise indicated, the years pertain to the basic product patent expiration, including granted PTEs, supplementary protection certificates (SPC) or pediatric exclusivity periods. SPCs are included when granted in three out of five major European markets (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the U.K.). Noted in parentheses is the projected year of expiry of the earliest pending patent term extension in the U.S. or Japan and/or SPC application in Europe, the term of which, if granted, may be shorter than originally requested due to a number of factors. In some instances, there are later-expiring patents relating to our products which may or may not protect our drug from generic or biosimilar competition after the expiration of the basic patent.
(2)The basic product patent for Chantix in the U.S. expired in November 2020.
(3)Xeljanz Europe expiry is provided by regulatory exclusivity.
(4)The Europe patent that covers the combination of the 13 serotype conjugates of Prevenar 13 was revoked following an opposition and has now been withdrawn. There are other Europe patents and pending applications covering the formulation, various aspects of the manufacturing process, and the combination of serotype conjugates of Prevenar 13 that remain in force.
(5)Eliquis was developed and is being commercialized in collaboration with BMS. For Eliquis in the U.S., two patents listed in the FDA Orange Book, the composition of matter patent claiming apixaban specifically and a formulation patent, were challenged by numerous generic companies and are the subject of patent infringement litigation. Prior to the August 2020 ruling referenced in the following sentence, we and BMS settled with a number of these generic companies (settled generic companies) while continuing to litigate against three remaining generic companies (remaining generic companies). In August 2020, the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware decided that the two challenged Eliquis patents are both valid and infringed by the remaining generic companies. The remaining generic companies have appealed the Delaware court decision and the final decision in this case could determine when generic versions of Eliquis will come on the market.
While we cannot predict the outcome of this pending litigation, these are the alternatives that might occur: (a) If the district court’s decision is upheld in the current appeal with respect to both patents, under the terms of previously executed settlement agreements with the settled generic companies, the permitted date of launch for the settled generic companies under these patents is April 1, 2028; (b) if the formulation patent is held invalid or not infringed in the current appeal, the settled generic companies and the remaining generic companies would be permitted to launch on November 21, 2026; or (c) if both patents are held invalid or not infringed in the current appeal, the settled generic companies and the remaining generic companies could launch products immediately upon such an adverse decision.
In addition, both patents may be subject to subsequent challenges by parties other than the remaining generic companies. If this were to occur, depending on the outcome of the subsequent challenge, the potential launch by generic companies, including challengers, if successful, could occur on timelines similar to those discussed above.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K5


Refer to Note 16A1 for more information.
(6)Xtandi is being developed and commercialized in collaboration with Astellas, which has exclusive commercialization rights for Xtandi outside the U.S. Pfizer receives tiered royalties as a percentage of international Xtandi net sales.
(7)Besponsa Japan expiry is provided by regulatory exclusivity.
(8)We have exclusive rights to Braftovi and Mektovi in the U.S. The Pierre Fabre Group has exclusive rights to commercialize both products in Europe and Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. has exclusive rights to commercialize both products in Japan. We receive royalties from The Pierre Fabre Group and Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. on sales of Braftovi and Mektovi outside the U.S.
(9)Mektovi U.S. expiry is provided by a method of use patent.
(10)Bavencio is being developed and commercialized in collaboration with Merck KGaA.

The loss, expiration or invalidation of intellectual property rights, patent litigation settlements with manufacturers and the expiration of co-promotion and licensing rights can have a significant adverse effect on our revenues. Once patent protection has expired or has been lost prior to the expiration date as a result of a legal challenge, we typically lose exclusivity on these products, and generic and biosimilar pharmaceutical manufacturers generally produce identical or highly similar products and sell them for a lower price. The date at which generic or biosimilar competition commences may be different from the date that the patent or regulatory exclusivity expires. However, when generic or biosimilar competition does commence, the resulting price competition can substantially decrease our revenues for the impacted products, often in a very short period of time. Also, if one of our product-related patents is found to be invalid by judicial, court or regulatory or administrative proceedings, generic or biosimilar products could be introduced, resulting in the erosion of sales of our existing products.

We continue to vigorously defend our patent rights against infringement, and we will continue to support efforts that strengthen worldwide recognition of patent rights while taking necessary steps to help ensure appropriate patient access. For additional information, see the Item 1A. Risk FactorsIntellectual Property Protection, Third Party Intellectual Property Claims and —Competitive Products sections in this Form 10-K and Note 16A1.

Losses of Product Exclusivity. Certain of our products have experienced patent-based expirations or loss of regulatory exclusivity in certain markets in the last few years, and we expect certain products to face significantly increased generic competition over the next few years. The basic product patent for Chantix in the U.S. expired on November 10, 2020. Also, the basic product patent for Sutent in the U.S. will expire in August 2021. For additional information on the impact of LOEs on our revenues, see the Analysis of the Consolidated Statements of Income––Revenues––Selected Product Discussion section within MD&A.

Trademarks. Our products are sold under brand-name and logo trademarks and trade dress. Registrations generally are for fixed, but renewable, terms and protection is provided in some countries for as long as the mark is used while in others, for as long as it is registered. Protecting our trademarks is of material importance to Pfizer.
COMPETITION

Our business is conducted in intensely competitive and often highly regulated markets. Many of our products face competition in the form of branded or generic drugs or biosimilars that treat similar diseases or indications. The principal forms of competition include efficacy, safety, ease of use and cost. Though the means of competition vary among our products, demonstrating the value of our products is a critical factor for success.

We compete with other companies that manufacture and sell products that treat diseases or indications similar to those treated by our major products. These competitors include other worldwide research-based biopharmaceutical companies, smaller research companies with more limited therapeutic focus and generic and biosimilar drug manufacturers. Our competitors also may devote substantial funds and resources to R&D and their successful R&D could result in erosion of the sales of our existing products and potential sales of products in development, as well as unanticipated product obsolescence. In addition, several of our competitors operate without large R&D expenses and make a regular practice of challenging our product patents before their expiration.

To address competitive trends we continually emphasize innovation, which is underscored by our multi-billion-dollar investment in R&D, as well as our business development transactions, both designed to result in a strong product pipeline. Our investment in research continues even after drug approval as we seek to further demonstrate the value of our products for the conditions they treat, as well as potential new applications. We educate patients, physicians, payers and global health authorities on the benefits and risks of our medicines, and seek to continually enhance the organizational effectiveness of our biopharmaceutical functions, including to accurately and ethically launch and market our products to our customers.

Operating conditions have also shifted as a result of increased global competitive pressures, industry regulation and cost containment. We continue to evaluate, adapt and improve our organization and business practices in an effort to better meet customer and public needs. We believe that we have taken an industry-leading role in evolving our approaches to U.S. direct-to-consumer advertising, interactions with, and payments to, healthcare professionals and medical education grants. We also continue to sponsor programs to address patient affordability and access barriers, as we strive to advance fundamental health system change through our support for better healthcare solutions.

Our vaccines may face competition from the introduction of alternative vaccines or “next-generation” vaccines prior to or after the expiration of their patents, which may adversely affect our future results.

Our biosimilars compete with branded products from competitors, as well as other generics and biosimilars manufacturers. We sell biosimilars of certain inflammation & immunology and oncology biologic medicines. We seek to maximize the opportunity to establish a “first-to-market” or early market position for our biosimilars to provide customers a lower-cost alternative immediately when available and also to potentially provide us with higher levels of sales and profitability until other competitors enter the market.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K6


Generic Products. Generic pharmaceutical manufacturers pose one of the biggest competitive challenges to our branded small molecule products because they can market a competing version of our product after the expiration or loss of our patent and often charge much less. Several competitors regularly challenge our product patents before their expiration. Generic competitors often operate without large R&D expenses, as well as without costs of conveying medical information about products to the medical community. In addition, the FDA approval process exempts generics from costly and time-consuming clinical trials to demonstrate their safety and efficacy, allowing generic manufacturers to rely on the safety and efficacy data of the innovator product. In China, for example, we are expected to face further intensified competition by certain generic manufacturers in 2021 and beyond, which may result in price cuts and volume loss of some of our products. In addition, generic versions of competitors’ branded products may also compete with our products.

MCOs that focus primarily on the immediate cost of drugs often favor generics over brand-name drugs. Many governments also encourage the use of generics as alternatives to brand-name drugs in their healthcare programs, including Medicaid in the U.S., and U.S. laws generally allow, and in some cases require, pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for brand-name drugs. In a small subset of states, prescribing physicians are able to expressly prevent such substitution.

Biosimilars. Certain of our biologic products, including Enbrel (we market Enbrel outside the U.S. and Canada), already face, or may face in the future, competition from biosimilars (also referred to as follow-on biologics). Biosimilars are versions of biologic medicines that have been developed and proven to be highly similar to the original biologic in terms of safety and efficacy and that have no clinically meaningful differences in safety, purity or potency. Biosimilars have the potential to offer high-quality, lower-cost alternatives to innovative biologic medicines. In the U.S., biosimilars referencing innovative biologic products are approved under the U.S. Public Health Service Act.
PRICING PRESSURES AND MANAGED CARE ORGANIZATIONS

Pricing Pressures. Pricing and access pressures in the commercial sector continue to be significant. Overall, there is increasing pressure on U.S. providers to deliver healthcare at a lower cost and to ensure that those expenditures deliver demonstrated value in terms of health outcomes. Many employers have adopted high deductible health plans, which can increase out-of-pocket costs for medicines. This trend is likely to continue. Private third-party payers, such as health plans, increasingly challenge pharmaceutical product pricing, which could result in lower prices, lower reimbursement rates and a reduction in demand for our products. Pricing pressures also may occur as a result of highly competitive insurance markets. Healthcare provider purchasers, directly or through group purchasing organizations, are seeking enhanced discounts or implementing more rigorous bidding or purchasing review processes.

Longer term, we foresee a shift in focus away from fee-for-service payments towards outcomes-based payments and risk-sharing arrangements that reward providers for cost reductions and improved patient outcomes. These new payment models can, at times, lead to lower prices for, and restricted access to, new medicines. At the same time, these models can also promote utilization of drugs by encouraging physicians to screen and diagnose and consider drugs as a means of forestalling more costly medical interventions.

We believe medicines are the most efficient and effective use of healthcare dollars based on the value they deliver to the overall healthcare system. We work with law makers and advocate for solutions that effectively improve patient health outcomes, lower costs to the healthcare system, and help ensure access to medicines within an efficient and affordable healthcare system. In addition, in response to the evolving U.S. and global healthcare spending landscape, we work with health authorities, health technology assessment and quality measurement bodies and major U.S. payers throughout the product-development process to better understand how these entities value our compounds and products. Further, we seek to develop stronger internal capabilities focused on demonstrating the value of the medicines that we discover or develop, register and manufacture, by recognizing patterns of usage of our medicines and competitor medicines along with patterns of healthcare costs.

For information on government pricing pressures, see the Item 1. BusinessGovernment Regulation and Price Constraints and Item 1A. Risk FactorsPricing and Reimbursement sections in this Form 10-K.

Managed Care Organizations. The evolution of managed care in the U.S. has been a major factor in the competitiveness of the healthcare marketplace. Approximately 299 million people in the U.S. now have some form of health insurance coverage, and the marketing of prescription drugs to both consumers and the entities that manage coverage in the U.S. continues to grow in importance. In particular, the influence of MCOs has increased in recent years due to the growing number of patients receiving coverage through MCOs. At the same time, consolidation in the MCO industry has resulted in fewer, even larger entities, which enhances MCOs’ ability to negotiate pricing and increases their importance to our business. Since MCOs seek to contain and reduce healthcare expenditures, their growing influence has increased pressure on drug prices as well as revenues.

MCOs typically negotiate prices with pharmaceutical providers by using formularies (which are lists of approved medicines available to MCO members), clinical protocols (which require prior authorization for a branded product if a generic product is available or require the patient to first fail on one or more generic products before permitting access to a branded medicine), volume purchasing, long-term contracts and their ability to influence volume and market share of prescription drugs. In addition, by placing branded medicines on higher-tier or non-preferred status in their formularies, MCOs transfer a portion of the cost to the patient, resulting in significant patient out-of-pocket expenses. This financial disincentive is a tool for MCOs to manage drug costs and channel patients to medicines preferred by the MCOs. The ACA has accelerated payment reform by distributing risk across MCOs and other stakeholders in care delivery with the intent of improving quality while reducing costs, which creates pressure on MCOs to tie reimbursement to defined outcomes. We are closely monitoring these newer approaches and developing appropriate strategies to respond to them.

The breadth of the products covered by formularies can vary considerably from one MCO to another, and many formularies include alternative and competitive products for treatment of particular medical problems. MCOs also emphasize primary and preventive care, out-patient treatment and procedures performed at doctors’ offices and clinics as ways to manage costs. Hospitalization and surgery, typically the most expensive forms of treatment, are carefully managed, and drugs that can reduce the need for hospitalization, professional therapy or surgery may become favored first-line treatments for certain diseases.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K7


Exclusion of a product from a formulary or other MCO-implemented restrictions can significantly impact drug usage in the MCO patient population and beyond. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies compete to gain access to formularies for their products, typically on the basis of unique product features, such as greater efficacy, better patient ease of use, or fewer side effects, as well as the overall cost of the therapy. We have been generally, although not universally, successful in having our major products included on MCO formularies. However, increasingly our branded products are being placed on the higher tiers or in a non-preferred status. For additional information, see the Item 1A. Risk FactorsManaged Care Trends section in this Form 10-K.
RAW MATERIALS

We procure raw materials essential to our business from numerous suppliers worldwide. In general, these materials have been available in sufficient quantities to support our demand and in many cases are available from multiple suppliers. We have supplier management activities in place to monitor supply channels and to take action as needed to secure necessary volumes. No significant impact to our operations due to the availability of raw materials is currently anticipated in 2021.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND PRICE CONSTRAINTS

We are subject to extensive regulation by government authorities in the countries in which we do business. This includes laws and regulations governing pharmaceutical companies, such as the approval, manufacturing and marketing of products, pricing (including discounts and rebates) and health information privacy, among others. These laws and regulations may require administrative guidance for implementation, and a failure to comply could subject us to legal and administrative actions. Enforcement measures may include substantial fines and/or penalties, orders to stop non-compliant activities, criminal charges, warning letters, product recalls or seizures, delays in product approvals, exclusion from participation in government programs or contracts as well as limitations on conducting business in applicable jurisdictions, and could result in harm to our reputation and business. For additional information, see Note 16A. Compliance with these laws and regulations may be costly, and may require significant technical expertise and capital investment to ensure compliance. While capital expenditures or operating costs for compliance with government regulations cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not currently anticipate they will have a material effect on our capital expenditures or competitive position.

In the United States

Drug and Biologic Regulation. The FDA, pursuant to the FFDCA, the Public Health Service Act and other federal statutes and regulations, extensively regulates pre- and post-marketing activities related to our biopharmaceutical products. The regulations govern areas such as the safety and efficacy of medicines, clinical trials, advertising and promotion, quality control, manufacturing, labeling, distribution, post-marketing safety surveillance and reporting, and record keeping. Other U.S. federal agencies, including the DEA, also regulate certain of our products and activities. Many of our activities are subject to the jurisdiction of the SEC.

For a biopharmaceutical company to market a drug or a biologic product in the U.S., the FDA must evaluate whether the product is safe and effective for its intended use. If the FDA determines that the drug or biologic is safe and effective, the FDA will approve the product’s NDA or Biologics License Application (BLA) (or supplemental NDA or supplemental BLA), as appropriate.

A drug or biologic may be subject to postmarketing commitments, which are studies or clinical trials that the product sponsor agrees to conduct, or postmarketing requirements, which are studies or clinical trials that are required as a condition of approval. Once a drug or biologic is approved, the FDA must be notified of any product modifications and may require additional studies or clinical trials. In addition, we are also required to report adverse events and comply with cGMPs (the FDA regulations that govern all aspects of manufacturing quality for pharmaceuticals), as well as advertising and promotion regulations. For additional information, see the Item 1A. Risk FactorsDevelopment, Regulatory Approval and Marketing of Products and Post-Approval Data section in this Form 10-K.

In the context of public health emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic, we may apply for EUA with the FDA, which when granted, allows for the distribution and use of our products during the term declared and extended by the government, in accordance with the conditions set forth in the EUA, unless the EUA is otherwise terminated at the government’s discretion. Although the criteria of an EUA differ from the criteria for approval of an NDA or BLA, EUAs nevertheless require the development and submission of data to satisfy the relevant FDA standards, and a number of ongoing compliance obligations. The FDA expects EUA holders to work toward submission of full applications, such as a BLA, as soon as possible. For BNT162b2, we are working towards submitting a BLA for possible full regulatory approval.

Biosimilar Regulation. The FDA is responsible for approval of biosimilars. Innovator biologics are entitled to 12 years of market exclusivity by statute, and biosimilars applications may not be submitted until four years after the approval of the reference innovator biologic.

Sales and Marketing Regulations. Our marketing practices are subject to state laws as well as federal laws, such as the Anti-Kickback Statute and False Claims Act, intended to prevent fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry. The Anti-Kickback Statute generally prohibits soliciting, offering, receiving, or paying anything of value to generate business. The False Claims Act generally prohibits anyone from knowingly and willingly presenting, or causing to be presented, any claims for payment for goods or services to third-party payers (including Medicare and Medicaid) that are false or fraudulent and generally treat claims generated through kickbacks as false or fraudulent. The federal government and states also regulate sales and marketing activities and financial interactions between manufacturers and healthcare providers, requiring disclosure to government authorities and the public of such interactions, and the adoption of compliance standards or programs. State attorneys general have also taken action to regulate the marketing of prescription drugs under state consumer protection and false advertising laws.

Healthcare Reform. Any significant efforts at the federal or state levels to reform the healthcare system by changing the way healthcare is provided or funded could have a material impact on us. This includes potential replacements for the ACA, if it is ultimately invalidated by the U.S. Supreme Court in California v. Texas, as well as efforts at the state level to develop additional public insurance options or implement a single payer healthcare system. We do not expect that invalidation of the ACA itself would have a material impact on our business given the modest revenues the health insurance exchanges and Medicaid expansion generate for us. However, a future replacement of the ACA or other healthcare reform efforts may adversely affect our business and financial results, particularly if such replacement or reform reduces incentives for employer-sponsored insurance coverage or dramatically increases industry taxes and fees.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K8


Pricing and Reimbursement. Pricing and reimbursement for our products depend in part on government regulation. In order to have our products covered by Medicaid, we must offer discounts or rebates on purchases of pharmaceutical products under various federal and state programs. We also must report specific prices to government agencies. The calculations necessary to determine the prices reported are complex and the failure to do so accurately may expose us to enforcement measures. See the discussion regarding rebates in the Analysis of the Consolidated Statements of IncomeRevenues by Geography section within MD&A and Note 1G.

Government and private payers routinely seek to manage utilization and control the costs of our products, and there is considerable public and government scrutiny of pharmaceutical pricing. Efforts by states and the federal government to regulate prices or payment for pharmaceutical products, including proposed actions to facilitate drug importation, limit reimbursement to lower international reference prices, require deep discounts, and require manufacturers to report and make public price increases and sometimes a written justification for the increase, could adversely affect our business if implemented. In the Fall of 2020, the Trump Administration finalized an importation pathway from Canada and a payment model to tie Medicare Part B physician reimbursement to international prices, though ultimate implementation of both is uncertain due to legal challenges. We expect to see continued focus on regulating pricing resulting in additional legislation and regulation under the newly elected Congress and the Biden Administration. In addition, U.S. government action to reduce federal spending on entitlement programs including Medicare and Medicaid may affect payment for our products or services associated with the provision of our products. For additional information, see the Item 1A. Risk FactorsPricing and Reimbursement section in this Form 10-K.

A majority of states use preferred drug lists to manage access to pharmaceutical products under Medicaid, including some of our products. For example, access to our products under the Medicaid and Medicare managed care programs typically is determined by the health plans with which state Medicaid agencies and Medicare contract to provide services to beneficiaries. States seek to control healthcare costs related to Medicaid and other state healthcare programs, including the implementation of supplemental rebate agreements under the Medicaid drug rebate program tied to patient outcomes. In addition, we expect that consolidation and integration among pharmacy chains, wholesalers and PBMs will increase pricing pressures in the industry. For additional information, see the Item 1A. Risk FactorsManaged Care Trends section in this Form 10-K.

Anti-Corruption. The FCPA prohibits U.S. corporations and their representatives from offering, promising, authorizing or making payments to any foreign government official, government staff member, political party or political candidate to obtain or retain business abroad. The scope of the FCPA includes interactions with certain healthcare professionals in many countries. Other countries have enacted similar anti-corruption laws and/or regulations.

Data Privacy. The collection and use of personal data by us as part of our business activities is subject to various federal and state privacy and data security laws and regulations, including oversight by various regulatory or other governmental bodies. Such laws and regulations have the potential to affect our business materially, continue to evolve and are increasingly being enforced vigorously.

Outside the United States

We encounter similar regulatory and legislative issues in most countries outside the U.S.

New Drug Approvals. In the EU, the EMA conducts the scientific evaluation, supervision and safety monitoring of our innovative medicinal products, and employs a centralized procedure for approval for the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) countries. From January 1, 2021, as a consequence of the U.K. leaving the EU (Brexit), the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency is the sole regulatory authority for the U.K. In China, following significant regulatory reforms in recent years, the NMPA is the primary regulatory authority for approving and supervising medicines. In Japan, the PMDA is involved in a wide range of regulatory activities, including clinical studies, approvals, post-marketing reviews and pharmaceutical safety. Health authorities in many middle- and lower-income require marketing approval by a recognized regulatory authority (i.e., the FDA or EMA) before they begin to conduct their application review process and/or issue their final approval.

Pharmacovigilance. In the EU/EEA, the EMA’s Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee is responsible for reviewing and making recommendations on product safety issues. Outside developed markets, pharmacovigilance requirements vary and are generally not as extensive, but there is a trend toward increasing regulation.

Pricing and Reimbursement. Certain governments, including in the different EU member states, the U.K., China, Japan, Canada and South Korea, provide healthcare at low-to-zero direct cost to consumers at the point of care and have significant power to regulate pharmaceutical prices or patient reimbursement levels to control costs for the government-sponsored healthcare system, particularly under recent global financing pressures. Governments may use a variety of measures including proposing price reform or legislation, cross country collaboration and procurement, price cuts, mandatory rebates, health technology assessments, forced localization as a condition of market access, “international reference pricing” (i.e., the practice of a country linking its regulated medicine prices to those of other countries), QCE processes and VBP. In addition, the international patchwork of price regulation, differing economic conditions and incomplete value assessments across countries has led to varying access to quality medicines in many markets and some third-party trade in our products between countries. Several important multilateral organizations, such as the World Health Organization and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, are increasing scrutiny of international pharmaceutical pricing through issuing reports and policy recommendations. On November 25, 2020, the European Commission published its new Pharmaceutical Strategy for Europe which envisions a broad range of new initiatives and legislation including a significant focus on affordability and access to medicines.

In China, pricing pressures have increased in recent years, with government officials emphasizing improved health outcomes, healthcare reform and decreased drug prices as key indicators of progress towards reform. Drug prices have decreased dramatically as a result of adding innovative drugs (including oncology medicines) to the National Reimbursement Drug List (NRDL). In the off-patent space, numerous local generics have been officially deemed bioequivalent under a QCE process that required domestically-manufactured generic drugs to pass a test to assess their bioequivalence to a qualified reference drug (typically the originator drug). A centralized VBP program has also been initiated and expanded nationwide, under which a tender process has been established where a certain portion of included molecule volumes are guaranteed to tender winners. The program is intended to contain healthcare costs by driving utilization of generics that have passed QCE, which has resulted in dramatic price cuts for off-patent medicines. Furthermore, the Chinese government has discussed moving toward efforts to unify the reimbursement price between QCE-approved generic medicines and the applicable original medicines, which the government currently plans to

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K9


implement within the next few years. We and most off-patent originators have mostly not been successful in the VBP bidding process. The government has indicated that additional post-LOE drugs could be subjected to QCE qualification in future rounds, which could also be tied to volume-based procurement. While certain details of future QCE expansion have been made available, we are unable to determine the impact on our business and financial condition until the initiation of these future rounds.

Healthcare Provider Transparency and Disclosures. Several countries have implemented laws requiring (or their industry associations have recommended) disclosure of transfers of value made by pharmaceutical companies to healthcare providers.

Intellectual Property. Reliable patent protection and enforcement around the world are among the key factors we consider for continued business and R&D investment. The World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (WTO-TRIPS) requires participant countries to provide patent protection for pharmaceutical products by law, with an exemption provided for least-developed countries until 2033. While some countries have made improvements, we still face patent grant, enforcement and other intellectual property challenges in many countries.

While the global intellectual property environment has generally improved following WTO-TRIPS and bilateral/multilateral trade agreements, our growth and ability to bring new product innovation to patients depends on further progress in intellectual property protection. In certain developed international markets, governments maintain relatively effective intellectual property policies. However, in the EU, following a review of pharmaceutical intellectual property and regulatory incentives, legislative change may result in the reduction of certain protections. In several emerging market countries, governments have used intellectual property policies as a tool to force innovators to accept less than fair value for medicines, as well as to advance industrial policy and localization goals.

Considerable political and economic pressure has weakened current intellectual property protection in some countries and has led to policies such as more restrictive standards for obtaining patents and more difficult procedures for patenting biopharmaceutical inventions, restrictions on patenting certain types of inventions, revocation of patents, laws or regulations that promote or provide broad discretion to issue a compulsory license, weak intellectual property enforcement and failure to implement effective regulatory data protection.

Our industry advocacy efforts focus on seeking a fair and transparent business environment for foreign manufacturers, underscoring the importance of strong intellectual property systems for local innovative industries and helping improve patients’ access to innovative medicines.

Data Privacy. Outside of the U.S., many countries have privacy and data security laws and regulations concerning the collection and use of personal data, including the EU’s General Data Protection Regulations. The legislative and regulatory framework for privacy and data protection issues worldwide is rapidly evolving as countries continue to adopt privacy and data security laws.
ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

Our operations are affected by national, state and/or local environmental laws. We have made, and intend to continue to make, the expenditures necessary for compliance with applicable laws. We also are cleaning up environmental contamination from past industrial activity at certain sites. We incurred capital and operational expenditures in 2020 for environmental compliance purposes and for the clean-up of certain past industrial activity as follows: $42 million in environment-related capital expenditures and $120 million in other environment-related expenses.

While capital expenditures or operating costs for environmental compliance cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not currently anticipate they will have a material effect on our capital expenditures or competitive position. See also Note 16A3.

Climate change presents risks to our operations, including the potential for additional regulatory requirements and associated costs, and the potential for more frequent and severe weather events and water availability challenges that may impact our facilities and those of our suppliers. We cannot provide assurance that physical risks to our facilities or supply chain due to climate change will not occur in the future. We periodically review our vulnerability to potential weather-related risks and other natural disasters and update our assessments accordingly. Based on our reviews, we do not believe these potential risks are material to our operations at this time.
HUMAN CAPITAL

Our purpose is clear: Breakthroughs that change patients’ lives. These breakthroughs are delivered through the relentless collaboration of our talented workforce. As of December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 78,500 people worldwide, with approximately 29,400 based in the U.S. Women compose approximately 48% of our workforce, and approximately 32% of our U.S.-based employees are individuals with ethnically diverse backgrounds.
Our continued success links directly to the commitment, engagement and performance of our employees. It is important that we not only attract and retain the best and brightest diverse talent but also ensure they remain engaged and can thrive in an environment that is committed to helping them grow, succeed and contribute directly to achieving our purpose. As part of these efforts, we strive for an inclusive and empowering work environment, adopting practices to simplify processes and remove needless complexity, rewarding both performance and leadership skills, and offering competitive compensation and benefits programs that encourage healthy work-life balance, so that all colleagues feel ready, equipped and energized to deliver innovative breakthroughs that extend and significantly improve patients’ lives.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. At Pfizer, every person deserves to be seen, heard and cared for, and we work to further this goal by bringing together people with different backgrounds, perspectives and experiences. Our new and expanded commitments to equity include specific actions to help foster a more inclusive environment within Pfizer, including, among others: (i) increasing the representation of both women and underrepresented ethnic groups; (ii) providing resources to support managers in having courageous conversations about equity, race and the avoidance of bias within their teams; (iii) revising our Political Action Committee (PAC) bylaws to help ensure that PAC recipients consistently demonstrate conduct that align with our core values; and (iv) working to help ensure recruitment demographics of all clinical trials correlate to those of the countries where trials are taking place.

Colleague Engagement. We understand the importance of continuously listening and responding to colleague feedback. Our annual engagement survey, Pfizer Pulse, provides a forum for our colleagues to give structured feedback about their Pfizer experience and equips leaders with

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K10


actionable insights for discussion and follow up. Regular topics in the survey include (i) employee engagement, such as colleagues’ commitment to and advocacy for Pfizer, and (ii) purpose, including how colleagues’ work connects with our purpose. Through these surveys, we can measure and track the degree to which colleagues are proud to work at Pfizer, would recommend Pfizer as a great place to work to others and intend to stay with Pfizer.

Performance, Leadership and Growth. We are committed to helping our colleagues reach their full potential by rewarding both their performance and leadership skills and by providing opportunities for growth and development. Our performance management approach—called Performance and Leadership Insights—is based on six-month semesters during which our colleagues and their managers set goals, receive feedback and meet to discuss performance. These conversations are meant to help colleagues grow and develop by evaluating performance (what the colleague achieved, measured by outcomes), leadership (how they achieved it, taking into account Pfizer’s values of courage, excellence, equity and joy), and identifying areas of growth that help move colleagues towards fulfilling their career goals and their potential. We strive to ensure that all colleagues have an equal opportunity to grow and offer a variety of programs including mentoring, job rotations, experiential project roles, skill based volunteering and learning programs focused on many topics, including leadership and management skills and industry- and job-specific learning, as well as general business, manufacturing, finance and technology skills.

Health, Safety and Well-Being. We are committed to the health, safety and well-being of our colleagues and continue to advance a comprehensive occupational injury and illness prevention program.

During 2020, our COVID-19 pandemic preparedness and response was a primary focus. Our comprehensive pandemic response plan incorporates guidance issued by external health authorities and is designed to keep onsite workers at our manufacturing and research sites safe and healthy. A global employee assistance program provides stress management, mental health, emotional, resiliency and pandemic guidance and support to our colleagues.

Pay Equity. We are committed to pay equity, based on gender or race/ethnicity, and we conduct and report publicly on pay equity on an annual basis.

Additional information regarding our human capital programs and initiatives is available in the “Careers” section of Pfizer’s website.

Our website is located at www.pfizer.com. This Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K and our proxy statements, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are, or will be, available (free of charge) on our website, in text format and, where applicable, in interactive data file format, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file this material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

Throughout this Form 10-K, we “incorporate by reference” certain information from other documents filed or to be filed with the SEC, including our Proxy Statement. Please refer to this information. This Form 10-K will be available on our website on or about February 25, 2021. Our Proxy Statement will be available on our website on or about March 11, 2021.

Our 2020 Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) report, which provides enhanced ESG disclosures, will be available on our website on or about March 11, 2021. Information in our ESG Report is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.

We may use our website as a means of disclosing material information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation Fair Disclosure promulgated by the SEC. These disclosures are included on our website in the “Investors” or “News” sections. Accordingly, investors should monitor these portions of our website, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings, public conference calls and webcasts, as well as our social media channels (our Facebook, YouTube and LinkedIn pages and Twitter accounts (@Pfizer and @Pfizer_News)). The information contained on our website, our Facebook, YouTube and LinkedIn pages or our Twitter accounts, or any third-party website, is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.

Information relating to corporate governance at Pfizer, including our Corporate Governance Principles; Director Qualification Standards; Pfizer Policies on Business Conduct (for all of our employees, including our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer); Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Members of the Board of Directors; information concerning our Directors; ways to communicate by e-mail with our Directors; Board Committees; Committee Charters; Charter of the Lead Independent Director; and transactions in Pfizer securities by Directors and Officers are available on our website. We will provide any of the foregoing information without charge upon written request to our Corporate Secretary, Pfizer Inc., 235 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. We will disclose any future amendments to, or waivers from, provisions of the Pfizer Policies on Business Conduct affecting our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Controller on our website as promptly as practicable, as may be required under applicable SEC and NYSE rules. Information relating to shareholder services, including the Computershare Investment Program, book-entry share ownership and direct deposit of dividends, is also available on our website.
ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS

This section describes the material risks to our business, which should be considered carefully in addition to the other information in this report and our other filings with the SEC. Investors should be aware that it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors and that the following is not meant to be a complete discussion of all potential risks or uncertainties. If known or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, our business operations, financial condition, operating results (including components of our financial results), cash flows, prospects, reputation or credit ratings could be adversely affected now and in the future, potentially in a material way. The following discussion of risk factors contains forward-looking statements, as discussed in the Forward-Looking Information and Factors that May Affect Future Results section in this Form 10-K.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K11


RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS, INDUSTRY AND OPERATIONS:

MANAGED CARE TRENDS

Private payers, such as health plans, and other managed care entities, such as PBMs, continue to take action to manage the utilization and costs of drugs. Negotiating power of MCOs and other private third-party payers has increased due to consolidation, and they, along with governments, increasingly employ formularies to control costs and encourage utilization of certain drugs, including through the use of formulary inclusion or favorable formulary placement. These initiatives have increased consumers’ interest and input in medication choices, as they pay for a larger portion of their prescription costs and may cause them to favor lower-cost generic alternatives. We may fail to obtain or maintain timely or adequate pricing or formulary placement of our products, or fail to obtain such formulary placement at favorable pricing.

The growing availability and use of innovative specialty pharmaceutical medicines that treat rare or life-threatening conditions, which typically have smaller patient populations, combined with their relative higher cost as compared to other types of pharmaceutical products, also has generated increased payer interest in developing cost-containment strategies targeted to this sector.

Third-party payers also use additional measures such as new-to-market blocks, exclusion lists, indication-based pricing, and value-based pricing/contracting to improve their cost containment efforts, and are also increasingly imposing utilization management tools, such as clinical protocols, requiring prior authorization for a branded product if a generic product is available or requiring the patient to first fail on one or more generic products before permitting access to a branded medicine. As the U.S. private third-party payer market consolidates further and as more drugs become available in generic form, we may face greater pricing pressure from private third-party payers as they continue to drive more of their patients to use lower cost generic alternatives.

Business arrangements in this area are subject to a high degree of government scrutiny, and available safe harbors under applicable federal and state fraud and abuse laws are subject to change through legislative and regulatory action, as well as evolving judicial interpretations. Our approach to these arrangements may also be informed by such government and industry guidance.

COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS

Competitive product launches may erode future sales of our products, including our existing products and those currently under development, or result in unanticipated product obsolescence. Such launches have recently occurred, and potentially competitive products are in various stages of development. We cannot predict with accuracy the timing or impact of the introduction of competitive products that treat diseases and conditions like those treated by our in-line drugs and drug candidates.

In addition, competition from manufacturers of generic drugs, including from generic versions of competitors’ branded products that lose their market exclusivity, is a major challenge for our branded products. Certain of our products have experienced significant generic competition over the last few years. For example, the basic product patent for Chantix in the U.S. expired in November 2020. While multi-source generic competition for Chantix has not yet begun, it could commence at anytime. Also, the basic product patent for Sutent in the U.S. will expire in August 2021. In China, we expect to continue to face intense competition by certain generic manufacturers, which may result in price cuts and volume loss of some of our products.

In addition, our patented products may face generic competition before patent exclusivity expires, including upon the “at-risk” launch (despite pending patent infringement litigation against the generic product) by a manufacturer of a generic version of one of our patented products. Generic manufacturers have filed applications with the FDA seeking approval of product candidates that they claim do not infringe our patents or claim that our patents are not valid; these include candidates that would compete with, among other products, Eliquis, Ibrance and Xeljanz. Our licensing and collaboration partners also face challenges by generic drug manufacturers to patents covering products for which we have licenses or co-promotion rights.

We may become subject to competition from biosimilars referencing our biologic products if competitors are able to obtain marketing approval for such biosimilars.

We also commercialize biosimilar products that compete with products of others, including other biosimilar products. Uptake of our biosimilars may be lower due to various factors, such as anti-competitive practices, access challenges where our product may not receive appropriate coverage/reimbursement access or remains in a disadvantaged position relative to an innovator product, physician reluctance to prescribe biosimilars for existing patients taking the innovative product, or misaligned financial incentives. For example, Inflectra has experienced access challenges among commercial payers. In September 2017, Pfizer filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania against J&J alleging that J&J’s exclusionary contracts and other anticompetitive practices concerning Remicade® (infliximab) violate federal antitrust laws.

For additional information on competition our products face, see the Item 1. BusinessCompetition section in this Form 10-K.

CONCENTRATION

We recorded direct product and/or alliance revenues of more than $1 billion for each of seven products that collectively accounted for 53% of our total revenues in 2020. For additional information, see Notes 1 and 17. If these products or any of our other major products were to experience loss of patent protection (if applicable), changes in prescription growth rates, material product liability litigation, unexpected side effects or safety concerns, regulatory proceedings, negative publicity affecting doctor or patient confidence, pressure from existing competitive products, changes in labeling, pricing and access pressures or supply shortages or if a new, more effective treatment should be introduced, the adverse impact on our revenues could be significant. In particular, certain of our products have experienced patent-based expirations or loss of regulatory exclusivity in certain markets in the last few years, and patents covering a number of our best-selling products are, or have been, the subject of pending legal challenges. For additional information on our patents, see the Item 1. BusinessPatents and other Intellectual Property Rights section in this Form 10-K.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K12


In addition, we sell our prescription pharmaceutical products principally through wholesalers in the U.S. For additional information, see Note 17B. If one of our significant biopharmaceutical wholesalers should encounter financial or other difficulties, it might decrease the amount of business the wholesaler does with us and/or we might be unable to timely collect all the amounts that the wholesaler owes us or at all, which could negatively impact our results of operations. In addition, we expect that consolidation and integration of pharmacy chains and wholesalers will increase competitive and pricing pressures on pharmaceutical manufacturers, including us.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

The discovery and development of new products, as well as the development of additional uses for existing products, are necessary for the continued strength of our business. Our product lines must be replenished over time to offset revenue losses when products lose exclusivity or market share, as well as to provide for earnings growth, either through internal R&D or through collaborations, acquisitions, JVs, licensing or other arrangements. Growth depends in large part on our ability to identify and develop new products or new indications for existing products that address unmet medical needs and receive reimbursement from payers. However, balancing current growth, investment for future growth and the delivery of shareholder return remains a major challenge. The costs of product development continue to be high, as are regulatory requirements in many therapeutic areas, which may affect the number of candidates we are able to fund as well as the sustainability of the R&D portfolio.
Decisions made early in the development process of a drug or vaccine candidate can have a substantial impact on the marketing strategy and payer reimbursement possibilities if the candidate receives regulatory approval. We try to plan clinical trials prudently and to reasonably anticipate and address challenges, but there is no assurance that an optimal balance between trial conduct, speed and desired outcome will be achieved.

Additionally, our product candidates can fail at any stage of the R&D process, and may not receive regulatory approval even after many years of R&D. We may fail to correctly identify indications for which our science is promising or allocate R&D investment resources efficiently, and failure to invest in the right technology platforms, therapeutic areas, product classes, geographic markets and/or licensing opportunities could adversely impact the productivity of our pipeline. Further, even if we identify areas with the greatest commercial potential, the scientific approach may not succeed despite the significant investment required for R&D, and the product may not be as competitive as expected because of the highly dynamic market environment and the hurdles in terms of access and reimbursement.

GLOBAL OPERATIONS

We operate on a global scale and could be affected by currency fluctuations, capital and exchange controls, global economic conditions, expropriation and other restrictive government actions, changes in intellectual property legal protections and remedies, trade regulations and procedures and actions affecting approval, production, pricing, and marketing of, reimbursement for and access to our products, as well as by political or civil unrest, terrorist activity, unstable governments and legal systems and inter-governmental disputes.

Some emerging market countries may be particularly vulnerable to periods of financial or political instability or significant currency fluctuations or may have limited resources for healthcare spending. As a result of these and other factors, our strategy to grow in emerging markets may not be successful, and growth rates in these markets may not be sustainable.

In addition, since a significant portion of our business is conducted in the EU, as well as the U.K., the changes resulting from Brexit may pose certain implications for our research, commercial and general business operations in the U.K. and the EU.

Government financing and economic pressures can lead to negative pricing pressure in various markets where governments take an active role in setting prices, access criteria (e.g., through health technology assessments) or other means of cost control. For additional information on government pricing pressures, see the Item 1. BusinessGovernment Regulation and Price Constraints section in this Form 10-K.

We continue to monitor the global trade environment and potential trade conflicts and impediments that could impact our business. If trade restrictions or tariffs reduce global economic activity, potential impacts could include declining sales; increased costs; volatility in foreign exchange rates; a decline in the value of our financial assets and pension plan investments; required increases of our pension funding obligations; increased government cost control efforts; delays or failures in the performance of customers, suppliers and other third parties on whom we may depend for the performance of our business; and the risk that our allowance for doubtful accounts may not be adequate.

We operate in many countries and transact in over 100 different currencies. Changes in the value of those currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, or high inflation in these countries, can impact our revenues, costs and expenses and our financial guidance. Significant portions of our revenues, costs and expenses, as well as our substantial international net assets, are exposed to exchange rate changes. 48% of our total 2020 revenues were derived from international operations, including 23% from Europe and 17% from China, Japan and the rest of Asia. Future changes in exchange rates or economic conditions and the impact they may have on our results of operations, financial condition or business are difficult to predict. For additional information about our exposure to foreign currency risk, see the Analysis of Financial Condition, Liquidity, Capital Resources and Market Risk—Selected Measures of Liquidity and Capital Resources section within MD&A.

In addition, our borrowing, pension benefit and postretirement benefit obligations and interest-bearing investments, are subject to risk from changes in interest and exchange rates. The risks related to interest-bearing investments and borrowings and the measures we have taken to help contain them are discussed in the Analysis of Financial Condition, Liquidity, Capital Resources and Market Risk—Selected Measures of Liquidity and Capital Resources section within MD&A. For additional details on critical accounting estimates and assumptions for our benefit plans, see the Significant Accounting Policies and Application of Critical Accounting Estimates and Assumptions—Benefit Plans section within MD&A and Notes 7E and 11.

From time to time, we issue variable rate debt based on LIBOR, or undertake interest rate swaps that contain a variable element based on LIBOR. The U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced in 2017 that it will no longer compel banks to submit rates that are currently used to calculate LIBOR after 2021. This deadline was extended until June 2023 for a number of key U.S. dollar benchmark maturities (including the 1-month and 3-month LIBOR rates). The U.S. Federal Reserve has selected the Secured Overnight Funding Rate (SOFR) as the preferred alternate rate and the transition away from LIBOR will continue despite the extended timeline. We are planning for this transition and will amend

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K13


any contracts to accommodate the SOFR rate where required. While our exposure to LIBOR is very low, market volatility related to the transition may adversely affect the trading market for securities linked to such benchmarks.

PRODUCT MANUFACTURING, SALES AND MARKETING RISKS

We could encounter difficulties or delays in product manufacturing, sales or marketing due to regulatory actions, shut-downs, work stoppages or strikes, approval delays, withdrawals, recalls, penalties, supply disruptions, shortages or stock-outs, reputational harm, damage to our facilities due to natural or man-made disasters, product liability or unanticipated costs. Examples of such difficulties or delays include the inability to increase production capacity commensurate with demand; challenges related to component materials to maintain appropriate quality standards throughout our supply network and/or comply with applicable regulations; and supply chain disruptions at our facilities or at a supplier or vendor.

Regulatory agencies periodically inspect our manufacturing facilities to evaluate compliance with cGMP or other applicable requirements. Failure to comply with these requirements may subject us to possible legal or regulatory actions, such as warning letters, suspension of manufacturing, seizure of product, injunctions, debarment, product recalls, delays or denials of product approvals, import bans or denials of import certifications. For example, in September 2017, our subsidiary, Meridian, received a warning letter from the FDA asserting the FDA’s view that certain violations of cGMP and Quality System Regulations exist at Meridian’s manufacturing sites in St. Louis, Missouri and classifying the site as Official Action Indicated (OAI). Meridian responded to the warning letter and committed to making improvements across the sites. We have made considerable progress addressing the concerns raised by the FDA, and communication with the FDA is ongoing. Future FDA inspections and regulatory activities will further assess the adequacy and sustainability of these corrections implemented at the site. As a result of the OAI classification, the FDA may refuse to grant premarket approval of applications and/or the FDA may refuse to grant export certificates related to products manufactured at our St. Louis sites.

COLLABORATIONS AND OTHER RELATIONSHIPS WITH THIRD PARTIES

We depend on third-party collaborators, service providers, and others in the research, development, manufacturing and commercialization of our products and product candidates and also enter into JVs and other business development transactions. To achieve expected longer-term benefits, we may make substantial upfront payments as part of these transactions, which may negatively impact our reported earnings or cash flows. We rely heavily on these parties for multiple aspects of our drug development, manufacturing and commercialization activities, but we do not control many aspects of those activities. We also outsource certain services, including activities related to transaction processing, accounting, information technology, manufacturing, clinical trial recruitment and execution, clinical lab services, non-clinical research, safety services, integrated facilities management and other areas. Failure by one or more of the third-party collaborators, service providers and others to complete activities on schedule or in accordance with our expectations or to meet their contractual or other obligations to us; failure of one or more of these parties to comply with applicable laws or regulations; or any disruption in the relationships between us and these parties, could delay or prevent the development, approval, manufacturing or commercialization of our products and product candidates, expose us to suboptimal quality of service delivery or deliverables, result in repercussions such as missed deadlines or other timeliness issues, erroneous data and supply disruptions, and could also result in non-compliance with legal or regulatory requirements or industry standards or subject us to reputational harm, all with potential negative implications for our product pipeline and business. Further, our Alliance revenues will be adversely affected by the termination or expiration of collaboration and co-promotion agreements that we have entered into and that we may enter into from time to time.

COUNTERFEIT PRODUCTS

Our reputation and promising pipeline render our medicines prime targets for counterfeiters. Counterfeit medicines pose a significant risk to patient health and safety because of the conditions under which they are manufacturedoften in unregulated, unlicensed, uninspected and unsanitary sitesas well as the lack of regulation of their contents. Failure to mitigate this threat could adversely impact our business, by, among other things, causing patient harm, the loss of patient confidence in the Pfizer name and in the integrity of our medicines, potentially resulting in lost sales, product recalls, and an increased threat of litigation.

The prevalence of counterfeit medicines is an industry-wide issue due to a variety of factors, including the adoption of e-commerce, which increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, greatly enhancing consumers’ ability to obtain prescriptions and other medical treatments via the Internet in lieu of traditional brick and mortar pharmacies. The internet exposes patients to greater risk as it is a preferred vehicle for dangerous counterfeit offers and scams because of the anonymity it affords counterfeiters.

We consistently invest in an enterprise-wide strategy to aggressively combat counterfeit threats by educating patients and health care providers about the risks, proactively monitoring and interdicting supply with the help of law enforcement; and advising legislators and regulators. However, our efforts and those of others may not be entirely successful, and the presence of counterfeit medicines may continue to increase.

RISKS RELATED TO GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND LEGAL PROCEEDINGS:

PRICING AND REIMBURSEMENT

U.S. and international governmental regulations that mandate price controls or limitations on patient access to our products or establish prices paid by government entities or programs for our products impact our business, and our future results could be adversely affected by changes in such regulations or policies. The adoption of restrictive price controls in new jurisdictions, more restrictive controls in existing jurisdictions or the failure to obtain or maintain timely or adequate pricing could also adversely impact revenue. We expect pricing pressures will continue globally.

In the U.S., pharmaceutical product pricing is subject to government and public scrutiny and calls for reform, and many of our products are subject to increasing pricing pressures as a result. Some states have implemented, and others are considering, price controls or patient access constraints under the Medicaid program, and some are considering measures that would apply to broader segments of their populations that are not Medicaid-eligible. State legislatures also have recently focused on addressing drug costs, generally by increasing price transparency or limiting drug price increases. Measures to regulate prices or payment for pharmaceutical products, including legislation on drug importation,

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K14


could adversely affect our business. For additional information on U.S. pricing and reimbursement, see the Item 1. BusinessGovernment Regulation and Price Constraints section in this Form 10-K.

We encounter similar regulatory and legislative issues in most other countries in which we operate. In certain markets, such as in EU member states, the U.K., China, Japan, Canada and South Korea, governments have significant power as large single payers to regulate prices, access criteria, or impose other means of cost control, particularly as a result of recent global financing pressures. For example, the QCE and VBP tender process in China has resulted in dramatic price cuts for off-patent medicines. For additional information regarding these government initiatives, see the Item 1. BusinessGovernment Regulation and Price Constraints section in this Form 10-K. We anticipate that these and similar initiatives will continue to increase pricing pressures in China and elsewhere in the future. In addition, in many countries, with respect to our vaccines, we participate in a tender process for selection in national immunization programs. Failure to secure participation in national immunization programs or to obtain acceptable pricing in the tender process could adversely affect our business. We also anticipate pricing pressures will be amplified by COVID-19 induced budget deficits and focus on pricing for new COVID-19 therapies and vaccines.

U.S. HEALTHCARE REFORM

The U.S. healthcare industry is highly regulated and subject to frequent and substantial changes. Any significant efforts at the U.S. federal or state levels to reform the healthcare system by changing the way healthcare is provided or funded could have a material impact on us. For additional information on U.S. healthcare reform, see the Item 1. Business––Government Regulation and Price Constraints section in this Form 10-K.

Other U.S. federal or state legislative or regulatory action and/or policy efforts could adversely affect our business, including, among others, general budget control actions, changes in patent laws, the importation of prescription drugs to the U.S. at prices that are regulated by foreign governments, revisions to reimbursement of biopharmaceuticals under government programs that could reference international prices or require new discounts, restrictions on U.S. direct-to-consumer advertising, limitations on interactions with healthcare professionals and other industry stakeholders, or the use of comparative effectiveness methodologies that could be implemented in a manner that focuses primarily on cost differences and minimizes the therapeutic differences among pharmaceutical products and restricts access to innovative medicines.

A reduction of U.S. federal spending on entitlement programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, may affect payment for our products or services provided using our products. The Congressional Budget Office routinely releases options for reducing federal spending that could affect pharmaceutical utilization and pricing as does the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. These and any other significant spending reductions or cost controls affecting Medicare, Medicaid or other publicly funded or subsidized health programs that may be implemented could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

DEVELOPMENT, REGULATORY APPROVAL AND MARKETING OF PRODUCTS

The discovery and development of drugs and biological products are time consuming, costly and unpredictable. The outcome is inherently uncertain and involves a high degree of risk due to the following factors, among others:
The process from early discovery to design and adequate implementation of clinical trials to regulatory approval can take many years.
Product candidates can and do fail at any stage of the process, including as the result of unfavorable pre-clinical and clinical trial results, or unfavorable new pre-clinical or clinical data and further analyses of existing pre-clinical or clinical data, including results that may not support further clinical development of the product candidate or indication.
We may not be able to meet anticipated pre-clinical or clinical endpoints, commencement and/or completion dates for our pre-clinical or clinical trials, regulatory submission dates, regulatory approval dates and/or launch dates.
We may not be able to successfully address all the comments received from regulatory authorities such as the FDA and the EMA, or be able to obtain approval from regulators.

Regulatory approvals of our products depend on myriad factors, including a regulator making a determination as to whether a product is safe and efficacious. In the context of public health emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic, regulators evaluate various factors and criteria to potentially allow for marketing authorization on an emergency basis. Additionally, clinical trial and other product data are subject to differing interpretations and assessments by regulatory authorities. As a result of regulatory interpretations and assessments or other developments that occur during the review process, and even after a product is authorized or approved for marketing, a product’s commercial potential could be adversely affected by potential emerging concerns or regulatory decisions regarding or impacting labeling or marketing, manufacturing processes, safety and/or other matters.

We may not be able to receive or maintain favorable recommendations by technical or advisory committees, such as the ACIP, that may impact the use of our products. Further, claims and concerns that may arise regarding the safety and efficacy of in-line products and product candidates can negatively impact product sales, and potentially lead to product recalls or withdrawals, and/or consumer fraud, product liability and other litigation and claims. Further regulatory agency requirements may result in a more challenging, expensive and lengthy regulatory approval process than anticipated due to requests for, among other things, additional or more extensive clinical trials prior to granting approval, or increased post-approval requirements. For these and other reasons discussed in this Risk Factors section, we may not obtain the approvals we expect within the timeframe we anticipate, or at all.

POST-APPROVAL DATA

As a condition to granting marketing authorization or approval of a product, the FDA may require additional clinical trials or other studies. The results generated in these trials could result in the loss of marketing approval, changes in labeling, and/or new or increased concerns about the side effects, efficacy or safety. Regulatory agencies in countries outside the U.S. often have similar regulations and may impose comparable requirements. Post-marketing studies, whether conducted by us or by others, whether mandated by regulatory agencies or conducted voluntarily, and other emerging data about products, such as adverse event reports, may also adversely affect the availability or commercial potential of our products. Further, if safety or efficacy concerns are raised about a product in the same class as one of our products, those concerns could implicate the entire class; and this, in turn, could have an adverse impact on the availability or commercial viability of our product(s) as well as

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K15


other products in the class. The potential regulatory and commercial implications of post-marketing study results, for approved indications and potential new indications of an in-line product, typically cannot immediately be determined. For example, the potential impact of the co-primary endpoint results from a recently completed post-marketing required safety study of Xeljanz, ORAL Surveillance (A3921133), announced in January 2021, and related results, analyses and discussions with and reviews by regulators, remain uncertain. We are working with the FDA and other regulatory agencies to review the full results and analyses as they become available.

The terms of our EUA for the BNT162b2 vaccine require that we conduct post-authorization observational studies. In addition, the FDA expects EUA holders to work towards submission of full application, such as a BLA, as soon as possible.

LEGAL MATTERS

We are and may be involved in various legal proceedings, including patent litigation, product liability and other product-related litigation, including personal injury, consumer, off-label promotion, securities, antitrust and breach of contract claims, commercial, environmental, government investigations, employment, tax litigation and other legal proceedings that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of our business. Litigation is inherently unpredictable, and excessive verdicts do occur. Although we believe that our claims and defenses in matters in which we are a defendant are substantial, we could in the future incur judgments, enter into settlements or revise our expectations regarding the outcome of certain matters, and such developments could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Claims against our patents include challenges to the coverage and/or validity of our patents on various products or processes. There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these matters, and a loss in any of these cases could result in a loss of patent protection for the product at issue, which could lead to a significant loss of sales of that product and could materially affect future results of operations.

Government investigations and actions could result in substantial fines and/or criminal charges and civil penalties, limitations on our ability to conduct business in applicable jurisdictions, corporate integrity or deferred prosecution agreements and other disciplinary actions, as well as reputational harm, including as a result of increased public interest in the matter. In addition, in a qui tam lawsuit in which the government declines to intervene, the relator may still pursue a suit for the recovery of civil damages and penalties on behalf of the government.

Our sales and marketing activities and the pricing of our products are subject to extensive regulation under the FFDCA, the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, the FCPA and other federal and state statutes, including those discussed elsewhere in this Form 10-K, as well as the Anti-Kickback Statute, anti-bribery laws, the False Claims Act, and similar laws in international jurisdictions. In addition to the potential for changes to relevant laws, the compliance and enforcement landscape is informed by government litigation, settlement precedent, advisory opinions, and special fraud alerts. Our approach to certain practices may evolve over time in light of these types of developments. Requirements or industry standards in the U.S. and certain jurisdictions abroad require pharmaceutical manufacturers to track and disclose financial interactions with healthcare professionals and healthcare providers and can increase government and public scrutiny of such financial interactions. If an interaction is found to be improper, government enforcement actions and penalties could result. Like many companies in our industry, we have from time-to-time received, and may receive in the future, inquiries and subpoenas and other types of information demands from government authorities. In addition, we have been subject to claims and other actions related to our business activities, brought by governmental authorities, as well as consumers and private payers. In some instances, we have incurred significant expense, civil payments, fines and other adverse consequences as a result of these claims, actions and inquiries. Such claims, actions and inquiries may relate to alleged non-compliance with laws and regulations associated with the dissemination of product (approved and unapproved) information, potentially resulting in government enforcement action and reputational damage. This risk may be heightened by digital marketing, including social media, mobile applications and blogger outreach.

In connection with the resolution of a U.S. government investigation concerning independent copay assistance organizations that provide financial assistance to Medicare patients, in 2018, we entered into a Corporate Integrity Agreement (CIA) with the Office of the Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which is effective for a period of five years. In the CIA, we agreed to implement and/or maintain certain compliance program elements to promote compliance with federal healthcare program requirements. Breaches of the CIA could result in severe sanctions against us.

We and certain of our subsidiaries are also subject to numerous contingencies arising in the ordinary course of business relating to legal claims and proceedings, including environmental contingencies. Amounts recorded for legal and environmental contingencies can result from a complex series of judgments about future events and uncertainties and can rely heavily on estimates and assumptions. While we have accrued for worldwide legal liabilities, there is no guarantee that additional costs will not be incurred beyond the amounts accrued.

For additional information, including information regarding certain legal proceedings in which we are involved in, see Note 16A.

RISKS RELATED TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, TECHNOLOGY AND SECURITY:

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION

Our success largely depends on our ability to market technologically competitive products. We rely and expect to continue to rely on a combination of intellectual property, including patent, trademark, trade dress, copyright, trade secret and domain name protection laws, as well as confidentiality and license agreements, to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights. If we fail to obtain and maintain adequate intellectual property protection, we may not be able to prevent third parties from launching generic or biosimilar versions of our branded products, from using our proprietary technologies or from marketing products that are very similar or identical to ours. Our currently pending or future patent applications may not result in issued patents, or be granted on a timely basis. Similarly, any term extensions that we seek may not be granted on a timely basis, if at all. In addition, our issued patents may not contain claims sufficiently broad to protect us against claims regarding validity, enforceability, scope and effective term made by parties with similar technologies or products or provide us with any competitive advantage, including exclusivity in a particular product area.

The scope of our patent claims also may vary between countries, as individual countries have distinct patent laws, and our ability to enforce our patents depends on the laws of each country, its enforcement practices, and the extent to which certain countries engage in policies or practices

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K16


that weaken a country’s intellectual property framework (e.g., laws or regulations that promote or provide broad discretion to issue a compulsory license). In countries that provide some form of regulatory exclusivity, mechanisms exist permitting some form of challenge to our patents by competitors or generic drug marketers prior to or immediately following the expiration of such regulatory exclusivity, and generic companies are employing aggressive strategies, such as “at risk” launches that challenge our patent rights. Most of the suits involve claims by generic drug manufacturers that patents covering our products, uses, processes or dosage forms are invalid and/or do not cover the product of the generic or biosimilar drug manufacturer. Independent actions have been filed alleging that our assertions of, or attempts to enforce, patent rights with respect to certain products constitute unfair competition and/or violations of antitrust laws. Such claims may also be brought as counterclaims to actions we bring to enforce our patents. We are also party to other patent damages suits in various jurisdictions pursuant to which generic drug manufacturers, payers, governments or other parties are seeking damages from us for alleged delay of generic entry. We also are often involved in other proceedings, such as inter partes review, post-grant review, re-examination or opposition proceedings, before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, the European Patent Office, or other foreign counterparts relating to our intellectual property or the intellectual property rights of others. Also, if one of our patents or a competitors’ patents is found to be invalid in such proceedings, generic or biosimilar products could be introduced into the market resulting in the erosion of sales of our existing products. For additional information, including information regarding certain legal proceedings in which we are involved, see Note 16A1. Further, if we are unable to maintain our existing license agreements or other agreements pursuant to which third parties grant us rights to intellectual property, our operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We currently hold trademark registrations and have trademark applications pending in many jurisdictions, any of which may be the subject of a governmental or third-party objection, which could prevent the maintenance or issuance of the trademark. As our products mature, our reliance on our trademarks and trade dress to differentiate us from our competitors increases and, as a result, our business could be adversely affected if we are unable to prevent third parties from adopting, registering or using trademarks and trade dress that infringe, dilute or otherwise violate our rights. We seek to protect our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and proprietary know-how, by requiring our employees, consultants, other advisors and other third parties to execute proprietary information and confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of their relationship with us. Despite these efforts and precautions, we may be unable to prevent a third party from copying or otherwise obtaining and using our trade secrets or our other intellectual property without authorization, and legal remedies may not adequately compensate us for the damages caused by such unauthorized use. Further, others may independently and lawfully develop substantially similar or identical products that circumvent our intellectual property by means of alternative designs or processes or otherwise.

THIRD PARTY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY CLAIMS

A properly functioning intellectual property regime is essential to our business model. We are committed to respecting the valid intellectual property rights of other companies, but the patent granting process is imperfect. Accordingly, the pursuit of valid business opportunities may require us to challenge intellectual property rights held by others that we believe were improperly granted, including challenges through negotiation and litigation, and such challenges may not always be successful.

Part of our business depends upon identifying biosimilar opportunities and launching products to take advantage of those opportunities, which may involve litigation, associated costs and time delays, and may ultimately not be successful. These opportunities may arise in situations where patent protection of equivalent branded products has expired or been declared invalid, or where products do not infringe the patents of others. In some circumstances we may take action, such as litigation, asserting that our products do not infringe patents of existing products or that those patents are invalid or unenforceable in order to achieve a “first-to-market” or early market position for our products.

Third parties may claim that our products infringe one or more patents owned or controlled by them. Claims of intellectual property infringement can be costly and time-consuming to resolve, may delay or prevent product launches, and may result in significant damages. We are involved in patent-related disputes with third parties over our attempts to market generic pharmaceutical products and biosimilars. Once we have final regulatory approval of the related generic products or biosimilars, we may decide to commercially market these products even though associated legal proceedings (including any appeals) have not been resolved (i.e., “at-risk” launch). If one of our marketed products is found to infringe valid patent rights of a third party, such third party may be awarded significant damages, or we may be prevented from further sales of that product. Such damages may be enhanced as much as three-fold if we or one of our subsidiaries is found to have willfully infringed valid patent rights of a third party.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND SECURITY

Significant disruptions of information technology systems or breaches of information security could adversely affect our business. We extensively rely upon sophisticated information technology systems to operate our business. We collect, store and transmit large amounts of confidential information (including personal information and intellectual property), and we deploy and operate an array of technical and procedural controls to maintain the confidentiality and integrity of such confidential information. We have outsourced significant elements of our operations, including significant elements of our information technology infrastructure and, as a result, we manage relationships with many third-party vendors who may or could have access to our confidential information. The size and complexity of our information technology and information security systems, and those of our third-party vendors (and the large amounts of confidential information that is present on them), make such systems potentially vulnerable to service interruptions or to security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees or vendors, or malicious attackers. Cyber-attacks are of ever-increasing levels of sophistication and are made by groups and individuals with a wide range of motives (including, but not limited to, industrial espionage) and expertise, including organized criminal groups, “hacktivists,” nation states and others. As a global pharmaceutical company, our systems are subject to frequent cyber-attacks. Due to the nature of some of these attacks, there is a risk that they may remain undetected for a period of time. While we have invested in the protection of data and information technology, our efforts may not prevent service interruptions or security breaches. Any such interruption or breach of our systems could adversely affect our business operations and/or result in the loss of critical or sensitive confidential information or intellectual property, and could result in financial, legal, business and reputational harm to us. We maintain cyber liability insurance; however, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover the financial, legal, business or reputational losses that may result from an interruption or breach of our systems.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K17



RISKS RELATED TO BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT:

BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

We expect to enhance our in-line products and product pipeline through various forms of business development, which can include alliances, licenses, JVs, collaborations, equity- or debt-based investments, dispositions, divestments, mergers and acquisitions. The success of these activities is dependent on the availability and accurate cost/benefit evaluation of appropriate opportunities, competition from others that are seeking similar opportunities and our ability to successfully identify, structure and execute transactions, including the ability to satisfy closing conditions in the anticipated timeframes or at all, and successfully integrate acquisitions. Pursuing these opportunities may require us to obtain additional equity or debt financing, which could result in increased leverage and/or a downgrade of our credit ratings. Where we acquire debt or equity securities as all or part of the consideration for business development activities, the value of those securities will fluctuate, and may depreciate. We may not control a company in which we invest, and, as a result, we will have limited ability to determine its management, operational decisions and policies. Further, while we seek to mitigate risks and liabilities of such transactions through, among other things, due diligence, there may be risks and liabilities that such efforts fail to discover, that are not disclosed to us, or that we inadequately assess. The success of any of our acquisitions will depend, when applicable, on our ability to realize anticipated benefits from integrating these businesses with us. We, for example, may fail to achieve cost savings anticipated with certain of these acquisitions, or such cost savings within the expected time frame. Similarly, the accretive impact anticipated from certain of these acquisitions may not be realized or may be delayed. Integration of these businesses may result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of ongoing business, including third-party relationships, or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies. We also may fail to generate the expected revenue growth for the acquired business. Expected revenue from acquired products and product candidates also may be constrained by developments outside of our control. Unsuccessful clinical trials, regulatory hurdles and commercialization challenges may adversely impact revenue and income contribution from products and product candidates, including those acquired in these acquisitions.

SPIN-OFF AND COMBINATION OF UPJOHN WITH MYLAN

We may not realize some or all of the expected benefits of the spin-off and combination (the Transactions) of the Upjohn Business with Mylan, which resulted in the creation of Viatris, due to many factors, including, among others, strategic adjustments required to reflect the nature of our business following the Transactions, increased risks resulting from us becoming a company that is a more focused, innovative science-based biopharmaceutical products business and the possibility that we may not achieve our strategic objectives. In addition, we have agreed to provide certain transition services to Viatris, generally for an initial period of 24 months following the completion of the Transactions (with certain possibilities for extension). These obligations under the transition services agreements may result in additional expenses and may divert our focus and resources that would otherwise be invested into maintaining or growing our business.

CONSUMER HEALTHCARE JV WITH GSK

In 2019, we and GSK combined our respective consumer healthcare businesses into a JV that operates globally under the GSK Consumer Healthcare name. Although we have certain consent, board representation and other governance rights, we are a minority owner of the JV and do not control the JV, its management or its policies. As a result, our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the transaction depend upon GSK’s operation and management of the JV. In addition, the JV is subject to risks that are different than the risks associated with our business. Many of these risks are outside GSK’s or the JV’s control and could materially impact the business, financial condition and results of operations of the JV.

GSK has indicated that it intends to separate the JV as an independent company listed on the U.K. equity market. Until July 31, 2024, GSK has the exclusive right to initiate a separation and listing transaction. We have the option to participate in a separation and listing transaction initiated by GSK. However, the separation and public listing transaction may not be initiated or completed within expected time periods or at all, and both the timing and success of any separation and public listing transaction, as well as the value generated for us or our shareholders in any such transaction, will be subject to prevailing market conditions and other factors at the time of such transaction. Any future distribution or sale of our stake in the JV will similarly be subject to prevailing market conditions and other factors at the time of such transaction. Our ability to complete any such future distribution or sale may also be impacted by the size of our retained stake at the time. The uncertainty relating to the separation and public listing transactions, their implementation, their timing and their yet to be determined effects on the JV’s business may subject us and the JV to risks and uncertainties that may adversely affect our business and financial results.

GENERAL RISKS:

COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Our business, operations and financial condition and results have been and may continue to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic to varying degrees. The pandemic has presented a number of risks and challenges for our business, including, among others, impacts due to travel limitations and mobility restrictions; manufacturing disruptions and delays; supply chain interruptions, including challenges related to reliance on third-party suppliers; disruptions to pipeline development and clinical trials, including difficulties or delays in enrollment of certain clinical trials and in access to needed supplies; decreased product demand, due to reduced numbers of in-person meetings with prescribers, patient visits with physicians, vaccinations and elective surgeries, resulting in fewer new prescriptions or refills of existing prescriptions and reduced demand for products used in procedures; further reduced product demand as a result of increased unemployment; challenges presented by reallocating personnel and R&D, manufacturing and other resources to assist in responding to the pandemic; costs associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including practices intended to reduce the risk of transmission, increased supply chain costs and additional R&D costs incurred in our efforts to develop a vaccine to help prevent COVID-19 and potential treatments for COVID-19; challenges related to our business development initiatives, including potential delays or disruptions related to regulatory approvals; interruptions or delays in the operations of regulatory authorities, which may delay potential approval of new products we are developing, potential label expansions for existing products and the launch of newly-approved products; challenges operating in a virtual work environment; potential increased cyber incidents such as phishing, social engineering and malware attacks; challenges related to our intellectual property, both domestically and internationally, including in response to any pressure or legal or regulatory action that could potentially result in us not seeking intellectual property protection for, licensing, or agreeing not to enforce,

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K18


intellectual property rights related to our products, including our vaccine to help prevent COVID-19 and potential treatments for COVID-19; challenges related to conducting oversight and monitoring of regulated activities in a remote or virtual environment; and other challenges presented by disruptions to our normal operations in response to the pandemic, as well as uncertainties regarding the duration and severity of the pandemic and its impacts, and government or regulatory actions to contain the virus or control the supply of medicines.

We also face risks and uncertainties related to our efforts to develop and commercialize a vaccine to help prevent COVID-19 and potential treatments for COVID-19, as well as challenges related to their manufacturing, supply and distribution, including, among others, uncertainties inherent in R&D, including the ability to meet anticipated clinical endpoints, commencement and/or completion dates for clinical trials, regulatory submission dates, regulatory approval dates and/or launch dates, as well as risks associated with pre-clinical or clinical data (including the in vitro and Phase 3 data for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2)), including the possibility of unfavorable new pre-clinical, clinical or safety data and further analyses of existing pre-clinical, clinical or safety data; the ability to produce comparable clinical or other results, including the rate of vaccine effectiveness and safety and tolerability profile observed to date, in additional analyses of the Phase 3 trial and additional studies or in larger, more diverse populations upon commercialization; the ability of BNT162b2 to prevent COVID-19 caused by emerging virus variants; the risk that more widespread use of the vaccine will lead to new information about efficacy, safety or other developments, including the risk of additional adverse reactions, some of which may be serious; the risk that pre-clinical and clinical trial data are subject to differing interpretations and assessments, including during the peer review/publication process, in the scientific community generally, and by regulatory authorities; whether and when additional data from the BNT162 mRNA vaccine program or other programs will be published in scientific publications and, if so, when and with what modifications and interpretations; whether regulatory authorities will be satisfied with the design of and results from these and any future pre-clinical and clinical studies; when other biologics license and/or EUA applications may be filed in particular jurisdictions for BNT162b2 or any other potential vaccines that may arise from the BNT162 program, and if obtained, whether or when such EUA or licenses will expire or terminate; whether and when any applications that may be pending or filed for BNT162b2 or other vaccines that may result from the BNT162 program may be approved by particular regulatory authorities, which will depend on myriad factors, including making a determination as to whether the vaccine’s benefits outweigh its known risks and determination of the vaccine’s efficacy and, if approved, whether it will be commercially successful; regulatory decisions impacting labeling or marketing, manufacturing processes, safety and/or other matters that could affect the availability or commercial potential of a vaccine, including development of products or therapies by other companies; disruptions in the relationships between us and our collaboration partners, clinical trial sites or third-party suppliers, including our relationship with BioNTech; the risk that other companies may produce superior or competitive products; the risk that demand for any products may be reduced or no longer exist; risks related to the availability of raw materials to manufacture or test any such products; challenges related to our vaccine’s ultra-low temperature formulation, two-dose schedule and attendant storage, distribution and administration requirements, including risks related to storage and handling after delivery by us; the risk that we may not be able to successfully develop other vaccine formulations; the risk that we may not be able to recoup costs associated with our R&D and manufacturing efforts; risks associated with any changes in the way we approach or provide research funding for the BNT162 program or potential treatment for COVID-19; challenges and risks associated with the pace of our development programs; the risk that we may not be able to maintain or scale up manufacturing capacity on a timely basis or maintain access to logistics or supply channels commensurate with global demand for our vaccine or any potential approved treatment, which would negatively impact our ability to supply the estimated numbers of doses of our vaccine within the projected time periods as previously indicated; whether and when additional supply agreements will be reached; uncertainties regarding the ability to obtain recommendations from vaccine advisory or technical committees and other public health authorities and uncertainties regarding the commercial impact of any such recommendations; pricing and access challenges for such products; challenges related to public vaccine confidence or awareness; trade restrictions; and competitive developments.

Further, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the volatile global economic conditions stemming from the pandemic, could precipitate or amplify the other risks that we identify in this Risk Factors section, which could adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition and results.

We are continuing to monitor the latest developments regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on our business, operations and financial condition and results, and have made certain assumptions regarding the COVID-19 pandemic for purposes of our operational planning and financial projections, including assumptions regarding the duration, severity and the global macroeconomic impact of the pandemic, as well as COVID-19 vaccine supply and contracts, which remain dynamic. Despite careful tracking and planning, we are unable to accurately predict the extent of the impact of the pandemic on our business, operations and financial condition and results due to the uncertainty of future developments. In particular, we believe the ultimate impact on our business, operations and financial condition and results will be affected by the speed and extent of the continued spread of the coronavirus globally, the emergence of additional virus variants, the duration of the pandemic, new information regarding the severity and incidence of COVID-19, the safety, efficacy and availability of vaccines and treatments for COVID-19, the rate at which the population becomes vaccinated against COVID-19, the global macroeconomic impact of the pandemic and governmental or regulatory actions to contain the virus or control supply of medicines. The pandemic may also affect our business, operations or financial condition and results in a manner that is not presently known to us or that we currently do not consider as presenting significant risks.

MARKET FLUCTUATIONS IN OUR EQUITY AND OTHER INVESTMENTS

Changes in fair value of certain equity investments need to be recognized in net income that may result in increased volatility of our income. For additional information, see Note 4 and the Analysis of Financial Condition, Liquidity, Capital Resources and Market Risk—Selected Measures of Liquidity and Capital Resources section within MD&A.

Our pension benefit obligations and postretirement benefit obligations are subject to volatility from changes in fair value of equity investments and other investment risk in the assets funding these plans. For additional information, see the Significant Accounting Policies and Application of Critical Accounting Estimates and AssumptionsBenefit Plans section within MD&A and Note 11.

COST AND EXPENSE CONTROL AND NONORDINARY EVENTS

Growth in costs and expenses, changes in product and geographic mix and the impact of acquisitions, divestitures, restructurings, internal reorganizations, product withdrawals, recalls and other unusual events that could result from evolving business strategies, evaluation of asset realization and organizational restructuring could adversely affect future results. Such risks and uncertainties include, in particular, our ability to realize the projected benefits of our cost-reduction and productivity initiatives, other corporate strategic initiatives and any acquisitions, divestitures or other initiatives, as well as potential disruption of ongoing business.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K19



INTANGIBLE ASSETS, GOODWILL AND EQUITY-METHOD INVESTMENTS

Our consolidated balance sheet contains significant amounts of intangible assets, including IPR&D and goodwill. For IPR&D assets, the risk of failure is significant, and there can be no certainty that these assets ultimately will yield successful products. Our ability to realize value on these significant investments is often contingent upon, among other things, regulatory approvals and market acceptance. As such, we expect that many of these IPR&D assets will become impaired and/or be written off at some time in the future if the associated R&D effort is abandoned or is curtailed. For goodwill, all reporting units can confront events and circumstances that can lead to a goodwill impairment charge such as, among other things, unanticipated competition, an adverse action or assessment by a regulator, a significant adverse change in legal matters or in the business climate and/or a failure to replace the contributions of products that lose exclusivity. Our other intangible assets, including developed technology rights and brands, face similar risks for impairment. Our equity-method investments may also be subject to impairment charges that may result from the occurrence of unexpected adverse events or management decisions that impact our estimates of expected cash flows to be generated from these investments. We may recognize impairment charges as a result of a weak economic environment, events related to particular customers or asset types, challenging market conditions or decisions by management. Any such impairment charge of our intangible assets, goodwill and equity-method investments may be significant. For additional details, see the Significant Accounting Policies and Application of Critical Accounting Estimates and Assumptions section within MD&A.

CHANGES IN LAWS AND ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

Our future results could be adversely affected by changes in laws and regulations or their interpretation, including, among others, changes in accounting standards, taxation requirements, competition laws, privacy laws and environmental laws in the U.S. and other countries. For additional information on changes in tax laws or rates or accounting standards, see the Provision/(Benefit) for Taxes on Income and New Accounting Standards sections within MD&A and Note 1B.
ITEM 2.PROPERTIES

We own and lease space around the world for sales and marketing, customer service, regulatory compliance, R&D, manufacturing and distribution and corporate enabling functions. In many locations, our business and operations are co-located to achieve synergy and operational efficiencies. Our global headquarters are located in New York City. We continue to advance our global workplace strategy to provide workplaces that enable collaboration and foster innovation. As of December 31, 2020, we had 363 owned and leased properties, amounting to approximately 43 million square feet.

In 2020, we reduced the number of properties in our portfolio by 90 sites and 4 million square feet, primarily due to the spin-off and combination of the Upjohn Business with Mylan to form Viatris.

We expect to relocate our global headquarters to the Spiral, an office building in the Hudson Yards neighborhood of New York City, with occupancy expected beginning in 2022. In April 2018, we entered into an agreement to lease space at this property. In July 2018, we completed the sale of our current headquarters in New York City. We remain in a lease-back arrangement with the buyer while we complete our relocation.

Our PGS platform function is headquartered in various locations, with leadership teams primarily in New York City and in Peapack, New Jersey. As of December 31, 2020, PGS had responsibility for 43 plants around the world, including in Belgium, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Singapore and the U.S., which manufacture products for our business. PGS expects to exit five of these sites over the next several years. PGS also operates multiple distribution facilities around the world.

In general, we believe that our properties, including the principal properties described above, are well-maintained, adequate and suitable for their current requirements and for our operations in the foreseeable future. See Note 9 for amounts invested in land, buildings and equipment.
ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Certain legal proceedings in which we are involved are discussed in Note 16A.
INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

The executive officers of the Company are set forth in this table. Each holds the office or offices indicated until his or her successor is chosen and qualified at the regular meeting of the BOD to be held on the date of the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, or until his or her earlier death, resignation or removal. Each of the executive officers is a member of the Pfizer Executive Leadership Team.
NameAgePosition
Albert Bourla59Chairman of the Board since January 2020 and Chief Executive Officer since January 2019. Chief Operating Officer from January 2018 until December 2018. Group President, Pfizer Innovative Health from June 2016 until December 2017. Group President, Global Innovative Pharma Business (responsible for Vaccines, Oncology and Consumer Healthcare since 2014) from February 2016 until June 2016. President and General Manager of Established Products Business Unit from December 2010 until December 2013. Our Director since February 2018. Board member of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA). Board member of The Pfizer Foundation, which promotes access to quality healthcare. Director of the Partnership for New York City and Catalyst, a global non-profit organization accelerating progress for the advancement of women into leadership.
William Carapezzi63Executive Vice President, Global Business Services and Transformation since June 2020. Senior Vice President of Global Business Operations from June 2013 until June 2020. Senior Vice President of Global Tax from 2008 until June 2013.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K20


NameAgePosition
Frank A. D’Amelio63Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President, Global Supply since June 2020. Chief Financial Officer, Executive Vice President, Business Operations and Global Supply from November 2018 until June 2020. Executive Vice President, Business Operations and Chief Financial Officer from December 2010 until October 2018. Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from September 2007 until December 2010. Director of Zoetis Inc. and Humana Inc. and Chair of the Humana Inc. Board of Directors’ Audit Committee. Director of the Independent College Fund of New Jersey.
Mikael Dolsten62Chief Scientific Officer, President, Worldwide Research, Development and Medical since January 2019. President of Worldwide Research and Development from December 2010 until December 2018. Senior Vice President; President of Worldwide Research and Development from May 2010 until December 2010. Senior Vice President; President of Pfizer BioTherapeutics Research & Development Group from October 2009 until May 2010. He was Senior Vice President of Wyeth and President, Wyeth Research from June 2008 until October 2009. Director of Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc. Director of PhRMA Foundation and Governor of New York Academy of Science (NYAS).
Lidia Fonseca52Chief Digital and Technology Officer, Executive Vice President since January 2019. Chief Information Officer and Senior Vice President of Quest Diagnostics Incorporated from 2014 to 2018. Senior Vice President of Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings from 2008 until March 2013. Director of Tegna, Inc.
Angela Hwang55Group President, Pfizer Biopharmaceuticals Group since January 2019. Group President, Pfizer Essential Health from January 2018 until December 2018. Global President, Pfizer Inflammation and Immunology from January 2016 until December 2017. Regional Head, U.S. Vaccines from January 2014 until December 2015. Vice President, Emerging Markets for the Primary Care therapeutic area from September 2011 until December 2013. Vice President, U.S. Brands commercial organization within Essential Health from October 2009 until August 2011. Director of United Parcel Service, Inc.
Rady A. Johnson59Chief Compliance, Quality and Risk Officer, Executive Vice President since January 2019. Executive Vice President, Chief Compliance and Risk Officer from December 2013 until December 2018. Senior Vice President and Associate General Counsel from October 2006 until December 2013.
Douglas M. Lankler55General Counsel, Executive Vice President since December 2013. Corporate Secretary from January 2014 until February 2014. Executive Vice President, Chief Compliance and Risk Officer from February 2011 until December 2013. Executive Vice President, Chief Compliance Officer from December 2010 until February 2011. Senior Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer from January 2010 until December 2010. Senior Vice President, Deputy General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer from August 2009 until January 2010.
A. Rod MacKenzie61Chief Development Officer, Executive Vice President since June 2016. Senior Vice President, Chief Development Officer from March 2016 until June 2016. Group Senior Vice President and Head, Pharma Therapeutics Research and Development from 2010 until March 2016. Dr. MacKenzie represents Pfizer as a member of the Board of Directors of ViiV Healthcare Limited, TransCelerate Biopharma Inc. and the National Health Council.
Payal Sahni46Chief Human Resources Officer, Executive Vice President since June 2020. From May 2016 until June 2020 served as Senior Vice President of Human Resources for multiple operating units. Vice President of Human Resources, Vaccines, Oncology & Consumer from 2015 until 2016. Ms. Sahni has served in a number of positions in the Human Resources organization with increasing responsibility since joining Pfizer in 1997.
Sally Susman59Chief Corporate Affairs Officer, Executive Vice President since January 2019. Executive Vice President, Corporate Affairs (formerly Policy, External Affairs and Communications) from December 2010 until December 2018. Senior Vice President, Policy, External Affairs and Communications from December 2009 until December 2010. Director of WPP plc.
John D. Young56Chief Business Officer, Group President since January 2019. Group President, Pfizer Innovative Health from January 2018 until December 2018. Group President, Pfizer Essential Health from June 2016 until December 2017. Group President, Global Established Pharma Business from January 2014 until June 2016. President and General Manager, Pfizer Primary Care from June 2012 until December 2013. Primary Care Business Unit’s Regional President for Europe and Canada from 2009 until June 2012. Director of Johnson Controls International plc. Mr. Young represents Pfizer as a member of the Board of Directors of the Consumer Healthcare JV. Director of Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO).
PART II
ITEM 5.MARKET FOR THE COMPANY’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The principal market for our common stock is the NYSE. Our common stock currently trades on the NYSE under the symbol “PFE”. As of February 23, 2021, there were 139,582 holders of record of our common stock.

The following summarizes purchases of our common stock during the fourth quarter of 2020(a):
Period
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased(b)
Average Price
Paid per
    Share(b)
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
    Announced Plan
Approximate Value of Shares
that May Yet Be Purchased
    Under the Plan(a)
September 28 through October 25, 202026,921$36.99 — $5,292,881,709 
October 26 through November 30, 202084,279$37.48 — $5,292,881,709 
December 1 through December 31, 202069,317$37.39 — $5,292,881,709 
Total180,517 $37.37 — 

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K21


(a)See Note 12.
(b)Represents (i) 174,555 shares of common stock surrendered to the Company to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of awards under our long-term incentive programs and (ii) the open market purchase by the trustee of 5,962 shares of common stock in connection with the reinvestment of dividends paid on common stock held in trust for employees who deferred receipt of performance share awards.
PEER GROUP PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The following graph assumes a $100 investment on December 31, 2015, and reinvestment of all dividends, in each of the Company’s Common Stock, the S&P 500 Index, and a composite peer group of the major U.S. and European-based pharmaceutical companies, which are: AbbVie Inc., Amgen Inc., AstraZeneca PLC, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis AG, Roche and Sanofi.

pfe-20201231_g4.jpg
Five Year Performance
 
201520162017201820192020
PFIZER        $100.0$104.5$120.9$151.0$140.5$145.4
PEER GROUP$100.0$100.8$118.1$127.8$155.3$161.7
S&P 500      $100.0$112.0$136.4$130.4$171.4$203.0
 

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K22


ITEM 6.SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Year Ended/As of December 31,(a)
(MILLIONS, EXCEPT PER COMMON SHARE DATA)20202019201820172016
Revenues$41,908 $41,172 $40,825 $38,757 $38,664 
Income/(loss) from continuing operations7,021 10,867 3,861 13,558 (67)
Total assets154,229 167,594 159,588 172,064 171,912 
Long-term obligations(b)
64,835 66,844 63,972 69,981 80,957 
Earnings/(loss) per common share—basic(c)
Income/(loss) from continuing operations attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders$1.26 $1.95 $0.65 $2.26 $(0.02)
Income from discontinued operations––net of tax(a)
0.47 0.98 1.25 1.31 1.20 
Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders$1.73 $2.92 $1.90 $3.57 $1.18 
Earnings/(loss) per common share—diluted(c)
Income/(loss) from continuing operations attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders$1.24 $1.91 $0.64 $2.23 $(0.02)
Income from discontinued operations––net of tax(a)
0.47 0.96 1.23 1.29 1.19 
Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders$1.71 $2.87 $1.87 $3.52 $1.17 
Cash dividends declared per common share$1.53 $1.46 $1.38 $1.30 $1.22 
(a)Amounts reflect the Upjohn Business and the Mylan-Japan collaboration as discontinued operations in all periods presented following the November 16, 2020 spin-off and combination of the Upjohn Business with Mylan and the December 21, 2020 termination of the Mylan-Japan collaboration. Income from discontinued operations––net of tax, including per common basic and diluted share amounts, for the year ended December 31, 2020 include the operating results of the Upjohn Business through November 16, 2020, the date of the spin-off and combination with Mylan. See Notes 1A and 2B. In addition, other acquisitions and business development activities completed in 2020, 2019 and 2018, including the acquisitions of Array and Therachon, and the contribution of our Consumer Healthcare business to the Consumer Healthcare JV, impacted financial results in the periods presented. See Note 1A. 2017 reflects the acquisition of AstraZeneca’s small molecule anti-infectives business and the sale of Hospira Infusion Systems net assets. 2016 reflects the acquisitions of Medivation and Anacor.
(b)Defined as Long-term debt, Pension benefit obligations, Postretirement benefit obligations, Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities, Other taxes payable and Other noncurrent liabilities.
(c)All years presented, except for 2016, reflect the impact of the TCJA on the Provision/(benefit) for taxes on income. For additional information see Note 5A.
ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
OVERVIEW OF OUR PERFORMANCE, OPERATING ENVIRONMENT, STRATEGY AND OUTLOOK

Financial Highlights

The following is a summary of certain financial performance metrics (in billions, except per share data):
2020 Total Revenues––$41.9 billion2020 Net Cash Flow from Operations––$14.4 billion
An increase of 2% compared to 2019An increase of 14% compared to 2019
pfe-20201231_g5.jpgpfe-20201231_g6.jpg
2020 Reported Diluted EPS––$1.712020 Adjusted Diluted EPS (Non-GAAP)––$2.22*
A decrease of 40% compared to 2019An increase of 16% compared to 2019
pfe-20201231_g7.jpgpfe-20201231_g8.jpg
*For additional information regarding Adjusted diluted EPS (which is a non-GAAP financial measure), including reconciliations of certain GAAP reported to non-GAAP adjusted information, see the Non-GAAP Financial Measure: Adjusted Income section within MD&A.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K23


References to operational variances pertain to period-over-period changes that exclude the impact of foreign exchange rates. Although foreign exchange rate changes are part of our business, they are not within our control and since they can mask positive or negative trends in the business, we believe presenting operational variances excluding these foreign exchange changes provides useful information to evaluate our results.
Our Business and Strategy
Most of our revenues come from the manufacture and sale of biopharmaceutical products. With the formation of the Consumer Healthcare JV in 2019 and the completion of the spin-off and combination of our Upjohn Business with Mylan in November 2020, Pfizer has transformed into a more focused, global leader in science-based innovative medicines and vaccines. We now operate as a single operating segment engaged in the discovery, development, manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution of biopharmaceutical products worldwide. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020, the financial results of the Upjohn Business and the Mylan-Japan collaboration are reflected as discontinued operations for all periods presented. Prior-period information has been restated to reflect our current organizational structure following the separation of the Upjohn Business. See Note 1A and Item 1. Business––Commercial Operations of this Form 10-K for additional information. We expect to incur costs of approximately $700 million in connection with separating Upjohn, of which, approximately 70% has been incurred since inception and through December 31, 2020. These charges include costs and expenses related to separation of legal entities and transaction costs.
Transforming to a More Focused Company: We have undertaken efforts to ensure our cost base aligns appropriately with our revenue base. While certain direct costs transferred to the Consumer Healthcare JV and to the Upjohn Business in connection with the spin-off, there are indirect costs which did not transfer. In addition, we are taking steps to restructure our corporate enabling functions to appropriately support and drive the purpose of our focused innovative biopharmaceutical products business and R&D and PGS platform functions. See the Costs and Expenses––Restructuring Charges and Other Costs Associated with Acquisitions and Cost-Reduction/Productivity Initiatives section of this MD&A.
R&D: We believe we have a strong pipeline and are well-positioned for future growth. R&D is at the heart of fulfilling our purpose to deliver breakthroughs that change patients’ lives as we work to translate advanced science and technologies into the therapies that may be the most impactful for patients. Innovation, drug discovery and development are critical to our success. In addition to discovering and developing new products, our R&D efforts seek to add value to our existing products by improving their effectiveness and ease of dosing and by discovering potential new indications. See the Item 1. BusinessResearch and Development section of this Form 10-K for our R&D priorities and strategy.

We seek to leverage a strong pipeline, organize around expected operational growth drivers and capitalize on trends creating long-term growth opportunities, including:
an aging global population that is generating increased demand for innovative medicines and vaccines that address patients’ unmet needs;
advances in both biological science and digital technology that are enhancing the delivery of breakthrough new medicines and vaccines; and
the increasingly significant role of hospitals in healthcare systems.

We are committed to strategically capitalizing on growth opportunities by advancing our own product pipeline and maximizing the value of our existing products, as well as through various business development activities. We view our business development activity as an enabler of our strategies and seek to generate growth by pursuing opportunities and transactions that have the potential to strengthen our business and our capabilities. We assess our business, assets and scientific capabilities/portfolio as part of our regular, ongoing portfolio review process and also continue to consider business development activities that will advance our business. For additional information, including discussion of recent significant business development activities, see Note 2.
Our 2020 Performance

Revenues

Revenues increased $736 million, or 2%, to $41.9 billion in 2020 from $41.2 billion in 2019, reflecting an operational increase of $1.1 billion, or 3%, and an unfavorable impact of foreign exchange of $331 million, or 1%.
Excluding the impact of the Consumer Healthcare transaction, revenues increased 8% operationally, reflecting strong growth in Vyndaqel/Vyndamax, Eliquis, Ibrance outside developed Europe, Inlyta, Xeljanz, Xtandi, Prevenar 13 outside the U.S., oncology biosimilars and certain products in the Hospital therapeutic area in the U.S., partially offset by Enbrel internationally and Prevnar 13 and Chantix in the U.S. Revenues for 2020 included an estimated unfavorable impact of approximately $700 million, or 2%, due to COVID-19, primarily reflecting lower demand for certain products in China and unfavorable disruptions to wellness visits for patients in the U.S., which negatively impacted prescribing patterns for certain products, partially offset by increased U.S. demand for certain sterile injectable products and increased adult uptake for Prevenar 13 in certain international markets, resulting from greater vaccine awareness for respiratory illnesses, and U.S. revenues for BNT162b2.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K24


The following outlines the components of the net change in revenues:
pfe-20201231_g9.jpg
For worldwide revenues, including a discussion of key drivers of our revenue performance and revenues by geography, see the discussion in the Analysis of the Consolidated Statements of Income––Revenues––Selected Product Discussion and ––Revenues by Geography sections within MD&A. For additional information regarding the primary indications or class of certain products, see Note 17B.

Income from Continuing Operations Before Provision/(Benefit) for Taxes on Income
The following provides an analysis of the change in Income from continuing operations before provision/(benefit) for taxes on income for 2020:
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
Income from continuing operations before provision/(benefit) for taxes on income for the year ended December 31, 2019
$11,485 
Favorable change in revenues736 
Favorable/(Unfavorable) changes:
Non-recurrence of (Gain) on completion of Consumer Healthcare JV transaction
(8,080)
Higher Cost of sales(a)
(441)
Lower Selling, information and administrative expenses(a)
1,136 
Higher Research and development expenses(a)
(1,010)
Lower Amortization of intangible assets(a)
1,026 
Lower asset impairment charges(b)
1,152 
Higher net periodic benefit credits other than service costs(b)
308 
Lower business and legal entity alignment costs(b)
300 
Higher Consumer Healthcare JV equity method income(b)
281 
Lower charges for certain legal matters(b)
264 
Higher income from collaborations, out-licensing arrangements and sales of compound/product rights(b)
158 
Lower charges to separate our Consumer Healthcare business into a separate legal entity(b)
152 
Lower interest expense(b)
125 
Higher royalty-related income(b)
124 
Lower net losses on early retirement of debt(b)
101 
Higher net gains recognized during the period on equity securities(b)
86 
Higher ViiV dividend income(b)
58 
Higher net losses on asset disposals(b)
(268)
Lower interest income(b)
(153)
All other items, net(44)
Income from continuing operations before provision/(benefit) for taxes on income for the year ended December 31, 2020
$7,497 
(a)See the Costs and Expenses section within MD&A.
(b)See Note 4.
For information on our tax provision and effective tax rate, see the Provision/(Benefit) for Taxes on Income section within MD&A and Note 5A.
Our Operating Environment
We, like other businesses in our industry, are subject to certain industry-specific challenges. These include, among others, the topics listed below. See also the Item 1. Business––Government Regulation and Price Constraints section of this Form 10-K.
Regulatory Environment––Pipeline Productivity

Our product lines must be replenished to offset revenue losses when products lose their market exclusivity, respond to healthcare and innovation trends and provide for earnings growth. As a result, we devote considerable resources to our R&D activities which, while essential to our growth, incorporate a high degree of risk and cost, including whether a particular product candidate or new indication for an in-line product will achieve the desired clinical endpoint or safety profile, will be approved by regulators or will be successful commercially. We conduct clinical trials to

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K25


provide data on safety and efficacy to support the evaluation of a drug’s overall benefit-risk profile for a particular patient population. In addition, after a product has been approved and launched, we continue to monitor its safety as long as it is available to patients. This includes postmarketing trials that may be conducted voluntarily or pursuant to a regulatory request to gain additional medical knowledge. For the entire life of the product, we collect safety data and report safety information to the FDA and other regulatory authorities. Regulatory authorities may evaluate potential safety concerns and take regulatory actions in response, such as updating a product’s labeling, restricting its use, communicating new safety information to the public, or, in rare cases, requiring us to suspend or remove a product from the market. The commercial potential of in-line products may be negatively impacted by post-marketing developments.
Intellectual Property Rights and Collaboration/Licensing Rights

The loss, expiration or invalidation of intellectual property rights, patent litigation settlements with manufacturers and the expiration of co-promotion and licensing rights can have a material adverse effect on our revenues. Certain of our products have experienced patent-based expirations or loss of regulatory exclusivity in certain markets in the last few years, and we expect certain products to face significantly increased generic competition over the next few years. For example, the basic product patent for Chantix in the U.S. expired in November 2020. Also, the basic product patent for Sutent in the U.S. will expire in August 2021. While additional patent expiries will continue, we expect a moderate impact of reduced revenues due to patent expiries from 2021 through 2025. We continue to vigorously defend our patent rights against infringement, and we will continue to support efforts that strengthen worldwide recognition of patent rights while taking necessary steps to ensure appropriate patient access.

For additional information on patent rights we consider most significant to our business as a whole, see the Item 1. Business––Patents and Other Intellectual Property Rights section in this Form 10-K.
For a discussion of recent developments with respect to patent litigation, see Note 16A1.
Regulatory Environment/Pricing and Access––U.S. Healthcare Legislation
In March 2010, the ACA was enacted in the U.S. We recorded the following amounts to reflect the impact of the ACA legislation:
Year Ended December 31,
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)202020192018
Reduction to Revenues, related to the Medicare “coverage gap” discount provision
$1,175 $761 $418 
Selling, informational and administrative expenses, related to the fee payable to the federal government
195 210 134 
Regulatory Environment/Pricing and Access––Government and Other Payer Group Pressures

The pricing of medicines by pharmaceutical manufacturers and the cost of healthcare, which includes medicines, medical services and hospital services, continues to be important to payers, governments, patients, and other stakeholders. Federal and state governments and private third-party payers in the U.S. continue to take action to manage the utilization of drugs and cost of drugs, including increasingly employing formularies to control costs by taking into account discounts in connection with decisions about formulary inclusion or favorable formulary placement. We consider a number of factors impacting the pricing of our medicines. Within the U.S., we often engage with patients, doctors and healthcare plans. We also often provide significant discounts from the list price to insurers, including PBMs and MCOs. The price that patients pay in the U.S. for prescribed medicines is ultimately set by healthcare providers and insurers. On average, insurers impose a higher out-of-pocket burden on patients for prescription medicines than for comparably priced medical services. Certain governments outside the U.S. provide healthcare at low-to-zero direct cost to consumers at the point of care and have significant power as large single payers to effectively regulate prices or patient reimbursement levels to control costs for the government-sponsored healthcare system. Governments may use a variety of measures, including proposing pricing reform or legislation, cross country collaboration and procurement, price cuts, mandatory rebates, health technology assessments, forced localization as a condition of market access, “international reference pricing” (i.e., the practice of a country linking its regulated medicine prices to those of other countries), QCE processes and VBP. For additional information, see the Item 1. Business––Government Regulation and Price Constraints section in this Form 10-K.
The Global Economic Environment

In addition to the industry-specific factors discussed above, we, like other businesses of our size and global extent of activities, are exposed to the economic cycle. Certain factors in the global economic environment that may impact our global operations include, among other things, currency fluctuations, capital and exchange controls, global economic conditions, restrictive government actions, changes in intellectual property, legal protections and remedies, trade regulations and procedures and actions affecting approval, production, pricing, and marketing of, reimbursement for and access to our products, as well as impacts of political or civil unrest, terrorist activity, unstable governments and legal systems, inter-governmental disputes and public health outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics. Government pressures can lead to negative pricing pressure in various markets where governments take an active role in setting prices, access criteria or other means of cost control.

COVID-19 Pandemic

The continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our business, operations and financial condition and results. For additional information on the impact of COVID-19 on our revenues, please see the Overview of Our Performance, Operating Environment, Strategy and Outlook–Our 2020 Performance section of this MD&A.

Our Response to COVID-19
We are committed to confronting the public health challenge posed by the pandemic by collaborating with industry partners and academic institutions to develop potential approaches to prevent and treat COVID-19. In March 2020, we issued a five-point plan calling on the biopharmaceutical industry to join us in committing to unprecedented collaboration to combat COVID-19. Subsequently, we have made some important advances, including, among others:
Entry into a global agreement (except for China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) with BioNTech for the development, manufacture and commercialization of an mRNA-based coronavirus vaccine, BNT162, to help prevent COVID-19. In November 2020, the companies announced that after conducting the final efficacy analysis in the Phase 3 study, BNT162b2 met both of the study’s primary efficacy endpoints.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K26


Analysis of the data indicated a vaccine efficacy rate against COVID-19 of 95% in participants without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (first primary objective) and also in participants with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (second primary objective), in each case measured from seven days after the second dose. The FDA authorized the distribution and use of BNT162b2 in the U.S. to help prevent COVID-19 for individuals 16 years of age and older under an EUA issued in December 2020. BNT162b2 has not been approved or licensed by the FDA. The EUA authorizes distribution and use of this product subject to the conditions set forth in the EUA, and only for the duration of the declaration by the Department of Health & Human Services that circumstances exist justifying authorization of emergency use of drugs and biological products (such as BNT162b2) during the COVID-19 pandemic under Section 564 of the FFDCA (the Declaration), or until revocation of the EUA by the FDA. The FDA has issued EUAs to certain other companies for products intended for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 and may continue to do so during the duration of the Declaration. The FDA expects EUA holders to work towards submission of a BLA as soon as possible. BNT162b2 has now been granted a CMA, EUA or temporary authorization in more than 50 countries worldwide. The companies continue to study BNT162b2, including studies evaluating it in additional populations, booster doses and emerging variants. Based on the updated 6-dose labeling and subject to continuous process improvements, expansion at current facilities and adding new suppliers and contract manufacturers, the companies believe that they can potentially manufacture at least 2 billion doses in total by the end of 2021. The companies have entered into agreements to supply pre-specified doses of BNT162b2 with multiple developed and emerging nations around the world and are continuing to deliver doses of BNT162b2 to governments under such agreements. As of February 2, 2021, based on the doses to be delivered in 2021 primarily under agreements entered into as of February 2, 2021 (including, among others, agreements with the U.S. government to supply 200 million doses, the European Commission to supply 300 million doses, the Japanese government to supply 144 million doses and COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) for up to 40 million doses in 2021, subject to the negotiation and execution of additional agreements under the COVAX Facility structure), we forecasted approximately $15 billion in revenues in 2021 from BNT162b2, with gross margin to be split evenly with BioNTech. This forecast was based on doses mostly covered under agreements entered into as of February 2, 2021 and did not include all of the doses we can potentially deliver by the end of 2021. The companies continue to enter into agreements with governments for additional doses, including, among others, the exercise by the U.S. government of an option for an additional 100 million doses and an agreement with the European Commission for an additional 200 million doses to be delivered in 2021. Accordingly, this forecast may change based, in part, on these and future additional agreements that may be signed and as circumstances warrant. For additional information on our COVID-19 vaccine development program, see Note 2 and the Item 1A. Risk Factors—COVID-19 Pandemic section in this Form 10-K.
Initiation, in September 2020, of a Phase 1b clinical trial in hospitalized participants with COVID-19 to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of a novel investigational protease inhibitor for COVID-19, PF-07304814, which is a phosphate prodrug of a 3C-like (3CL) protease inhibitor, PF-00835231.

Despite our significant investments and efforts, any of our ongoing development programs related to COVID-19 may not be successful as the risk of failure is significant, and there can be no certainty these efforts will yield a successful product or that costs will ultimately be recouped.

Impact of COVID-19 on Our Business and Operations

The following discussion summarizes our current views of key business and operational areas impacted by the pandemic and its effects on our business, operations, and financial condition and results. As part of our on-going monitoring and assessment, we have made certain assumptions regarding the COVID-19 pandemic for purposes of our operational planning and financial projections, including assumptions regarding the duration, severity and the global macroeconomic impact of the pandemic, as well as COVID-19 vaccine supply and contracts, which remain dynamic. Despite careful tracking and planning, we are unable to accurately predict the extent of the impact of the pandemic on our business, operations and financial condition and results due to the uncertainty of future developments. In particular, we believe the ultimate impact on our business, operations and financial condition and results will be affected by the speed and extent of the continued spread of the coronavirus globally; the emergence of additional virus variants; the duration of the pandemic; new information regarding the severity and incidence of COVID-19; the safety, efficacy and availability of vaccines and treatments for COVID-19; the rate at which the population becomes vaccinated against COVID-19; the global macroeconomic impact of the pandemic and governmental or regulatory actions to contain the virus or control supply of medicines. We are focused on all aspects of our business and are implementing measures aimed at mitigating issues where possible, including by using digital technology to assist in operations for our commercial, manufacturing, R&D and enabling functions globally.

Our business and operations have been impacted by the pandemic in various ways. For example:
At this time, most of our colleagues who are able to perform their job functions outside of our facilities continue to work remotely, while certain colleagues in the PGS and WRDM organizations continue to work onsite and are subject to strict protocols intended to reduce the risk of transmission.
While engagement with healthcare professionals has started to return to pre-pandemic levels due to our virtual engagement capabilities, our sales force colleagues continue to encounter mixed access as a result of ongoing restrictions on in-person meetings. We are actively reviewing and assessing epidemiological data and our colleagues remain ready to resume in-person engagements with healthcare professionals on a location-by-location basis as soon as it is safe to do so. During the pandemic, we have adapted our promotional platform by amplifying our existing digital capabilities to reach healthcare professionals and customers to provide critical education and information, including increasing the scale of our remote engagement.
We have not seen a significant disruption to our supply chain to date, and all of our manufacturing sites globally have continued to operate at or near normal levels.
After a brief pause to the recruitment portion of certain ongoing clinical studies and a delay to most new study starts, we restarted recruitment across the development portfolio (including new study starts) in late-April 2020.
Our portfolio of products experienced varying impacts from the pandemic. Some of our products are medically necessary but also more reliant on maintenance therapy with continuing patients in addition to new patients, some of our products are more reliant on new patient starts and typically require doctor visits, including wellness visits, and some of our products are identified as medically necessary for treatment in the pandemic. A large proportion of our portfolio comprises oral or self-injected medicines that do not require a visit to an infusion center or a physician’s office for administration, but vaccines and physician-administered medicines, which do require office visits, were impacted in 2020 by COVID-19-related mobility restrictions or limitations and decline in patient visits to doctors. In addition, certain of our vaccines such as Prevnar 13/Prevenar 13 may be impacted by recommendations by certain health officials to not co-administer such vaccines alongside the COVID-19 vaccines. For additional detail on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our products, see the Analysis of the Consolidated Statements of Income—Revenues—Selected Product Discussion section within MD&A.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K27


Notwithstanding the foregoing impact of the pandemic, given our significant operating cash flows, as well as our financial assets, access to capital markets and revolving credit agreements, we believe we have, and expect to maintain, the ability to meet liquidity needs for the foreseeable future. We will continue to pursue efforts to maintain the continuity of our operations while monitoring for new developments related to the pandemic. Future developments could result in additional favorable or unfavorable impacts on our business, operations or financial condition and results. If we experience significant disruption in our manufacturing or supply chains or significant disruptions in clinical trials or other operations, or if demand for our products is significantly reduced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we could experience a material adverse impact on our business, operations and financial condition and results. See the Item 1A. Risk Factors—COVID-19 Pandemic section of this Form 10-K.
SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND APPLICATION OF CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS

Following is a discussion about the critical accounting estimates and assumptions impacting our consolidated financial statements. Also, see Note 1C.

For a description of our significant accounting policies, see Note 1. Of these policies, the following are considered critical to an understanding of our consolidated financial statements as they require the application of the most subjective and the most complex judgments: Acquisitions (Note 1D); Fair Value (Note 1E); Revenues (Note 1G); Asset Impairments (Note 1L); Tax Assets and Liabilities and Income Tax Contingencies (Note 1P); Pension and Postretirement Benefit Plans (Note 1Q); and Legal and Environmental Contingencies (Note 1R).
Acquisitions and Fair Value

For discussions about the application of fair value, see the following: recent acquisitions (Note 2A); investments (Note 7A); benefit plan assets (Note 11D); and Asset Impairments below.
Revenues

Our gross product revenues are subject to a variety of deductions, which generally are estimated and recorded in the same period that the revenues are recognized. Such variable consideration represents chargebacks, rebates, sales allowances and sales returns. These deductions represent estimates of the related obligations and, as such, knowledge and judgment are required when estimating the impact of these revenue deductions on gross sales for a reporting period.
Historically, adjustments to these estimates to reflect actual results or updated expectations, have not been material to our overall business and generally have been less than 1% of revenues. Product-specific rebates, however, can have a significant impact on year-over-year individual product revenue growth trends. If any of our ratios, factors, assessments, experiences or judgments are not indicative or accurate estimates of our future experience, our results could be materially affected. The potential of our estimates to vary (sensitivity) differs by program, product, type of customer and geographic location. However, estimates associated with U.S. Medicare, Medicaid and performance-based contract rebates are most at risk for material adjustment because of the extensive time delay between the recording of the accrual and its ultimate settlement, an interval that can generally range up to one year. Because of this lag, our recording of adjustments to reflect actual amounts can incorporate revisions of several prior quarters.

Asset Impairments

We review all of our long-lived assets for impairment indicators throughout the year. We perform impairment testing for indefinite-lived intangible assets and goodwill at least annually and for all other long-lived assets whenever impairment indicators are present. When necessary, we record charges for impairments of long-lived assets for the amount by which the fair value is less than the carrying value of these assets. Our impairment review processes are described in Note 1L.
Examples of events or circumstances that may be indicative of impairment include:
A significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate that could affect the value of the asset. For example, a successful challenge of our patent rights would likely result in generic competition earlier than expected.
A significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which an asset is used such as a restriction imposed by the FDA or other regulatory authorities that could affect our ability to manufacture or sell a product.
An expectation of losses or reduced profits associated with an asset. This could result, for example, from a change in a government reimbursement program that results in an inability to sustain projected product revenues and profitability. This also could result from the introduction of a competitor’s product that impacts projected revenue growth, as well as the lack of acceptance of a product by patients, physicians and payers. For IPR&D projects, this could result from, among other things, a change in outlook based on clinical trial data, a delay in the projected launch date or additional expenditures to commercialize the product.

Identifiable Intangible Assets
We use an income approach, specifically the discounted cash flow method to determine the fair value of intangible assets, other than goodwill. We start with a forecast of all the expected net cash flows associated with the asset, which incorporates the consideration of a terminal value for indefinite-lived assets, and then we apply an asset-specific discount rate to arrive at a net present value amount. Some of the more significant estimates and assumptions that impact our fair value estimates include: the amount and timing of the projected net cash flows, which includes the expected impact of competitive, legal and/or regulatory forces on the projections and the impact of technological advancements and risk associated with IPR&D assets, as well as the selection of a long-term growth rate; the discount rate, which seeks to reflect the various risks inherent in the projected cash flows; and the tax rate, which seeks to incorporate the geographic origin of the projected cash flows.

While all intangible assets other than goodwill can face events and circumstances that can lead to impairment, those that are most at risk of impairment include IPR&D assets (approximately $3.2 billion as of December 31, 2020) and newly acquired or recently impaired indefinite-lived brand assets. IPR&D assets are high-risk assets, given the uncertain nature of R&D. Newly acquired and recently impaired indefinite-lived assets are more vulnerable to impairment as the assets are recorded at fair value and are then subsequently measured at the lower of fair value or

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K28


carrying value at the end of each reporting period. As such, immediately after acquisition or impairment, even small declines in the outlook for these assets can negatively impact our ability to recover the carrying value and can result in an impairment charge.

Goodwill

Our goodwill impairment review work as of December 31, 2020 concluded that none of our goodwill was impaired and we do not believe the risk of impairment is significant at this time.

In our review, we first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. Qualitative factors that we consider include, for example, macroeconomic and industry conditions, overall financial performance and other relevant entity-specific events. If we conclude that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we then perform a quantitative fair value test.

When we are required to determine the fair value of a reporting unit, we mainly use the income approach but may also use the market approach, or a weighted-average combination of both approaches.
The income approach is a forward-looking approach to estimating fair value and relies primarily on internal forecasts. Within the income approach, we use the discounted cash flow method. We start with a forecast of all the expected net cash flows for the reporting unit, which includes the application of a terminal value, and then we apply a reporting unit-specific discount rate to arrive at a net present value amount. Some of the more significant estimates and assumptions inherent in this approach include: the amount and timing of the projected net cash flows, which includes the expected impact of technological risk and competitive, legal and/or regulatory forces on the projections, as well as the selection of a long-term growth rate; the discount rate, which seeks to reflect the various risks inherent in the projected cash flows; and the tax rate, which seeks to incorporate the geographic diversity of the projected cash flows.
The market approach is a historical approach to estimating fair value and relies primarily on external information. We may use two alternative methods within the market approach:
Guideline public company method—this method employs market multiples derived from market prices of stocks of companies that are engaged in the same or similar lines of business and that are actively traded on a free and open market and the application of the identified multiples to the corresponding measure of our reporting unit’s financial performance.
Guideline transaction method—this method relies on pricing multiples derived from transactions of significant interests in companies engaged in the same or similar lines of business and the application of the identified multiples to the corresponding measure of our reporting unit’s financial performance.
The market approach is only appropriate when the available external information is robust and deemed to be a reliable proxy for the specific reporting unit being valued; however, these assessments may prove to be incomplete or inaccurate. Some of the more significant estimates and assumptions inherent in this approach include: the selection of appropriate guideline companies and transactions and the determination of applicable premiums and discounts based on any differences in ownership percentages, ownership rights, business ownership forms or marketability between the reporting unit and the guideline companies and transactions.
For all of our reporting units, there are a number of future events and factors that may impact future results and that could potentially have an impact on the outcome of subsequent goodwill impairment testing. For a list of these factors, see the Forward-Looking Information and Factors That May Affect Future Results and the Item 1A. Risk Factors sections in this Form 10-K.
Benefit Plans

For a description of our different benefit plans, see Note 11.

Effective January 1, 2018, accruals for future benefits under the PCPP (our largest U.S. defined benefit plan) and the defined benefit section of the Pfizer Group Pension Scheme (our largest pension plan in the U.K.) were frozen and resulted in elimination of future service costs for the plans. The Pfizer defined contribution savings plan provides additional annual contributions to those previously accruing benefits under the PCPP and active members of the Pfizer Group Pension Scheme started accruing benefits under the defined contribution section of that plan.

Our assumptions reflect our historical experiences and our judgment regarding future expectations that have been deemed reasonable by management. The judgments made in determining the costs of our benefit plans can materially impact our results of operations.
The following provides (i) at the end of each year, the expected annual rate of return on plan assets for the following year, (ii) the actual annual rate of return on plan assets achieved in each year, and (iii) the weighted-average discount rate used to measure the benefit obligations at the end of each year for our U.S. qualified pension plans and our international pension plans(a):
202020192018
U.S. Qualified Pension Plans
Expected annual rate of return on plan assets6.8 %7.0 %7.2 %
Actual annual rate of return on plan assets14.1 22.6 (5.3)
Discount rate used to measure the plan obligations2.6 3.3 4.4 
International Pension Plans
Expected annual rate of return on plan assets3.4 3.6 3.9 
Actual annual rate of return on plan assets9.7 10.7 (0.9)
Discount rate used to measure the plan obligations1.5 1.7 2.5 
(a)For detailed assumptions associated with our benefit plans, see Note 11B.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K29


Expected Annual Rate of Return on Plan Assets

The assumptions for the expected annual rate of return on all of our plan assets reflect our actual historical return experience and our long-term assessment of forward-looking return expectations by asset classes, which is used to develop a weighted-average expected return based on the implementation of our targeted asset allocation in our respective plans.

The expected annual rate of return on plan assets for our U.S. plans and the majority of our international plans is applied to the fair value of plan assets at each year-end and the resulting amount is reflected in our net periodic benefit costs in the following year.
The following illustrates the sensitivity of net periodic benefit costs to a 50 basis point decline in our assumption for the expected annual rate of return on plan assets, holding all other assumptions constant (in millions, pre-tax):
AssumptionChangeIncrease in 2021 Net Periodic Benefit Costs
Expected annual rate of return on plan assets50 basis point decline$116

The actual return on plan assets was approximately $2.9 billion during 2020.
Discount Rate Used to Measure Plan Obligations

The weighted-average discount rate used to measure the plan obligations for our U.S. defined benefit plans is determined at least annually and evaluated and modified, as required, to reflect the prevailing market rate of a portfolio of high-quality fixed income investments, rated AA/Aa or better, that reflect the rates at which the pension benefits could be effectively settled. The discount rate used to measure the plan obligations for our international plans is determined at least annually by reference to investment grade corporate bonds, rated AA/Aa or better, including, when there is sufficient data, a yield-curve approach. These discount rate determinations are made in consideration of local requirements.
The measurement of the plan obligations at the end of the year will affect the amount of service cost, interest cost and amortization expense reflected in our net periodic benefit costs in the following year.
The following illustrates the sensitivity of net periodic benefit costs and benefit obligations to a 10 basis point decline in our assumption for the discount rate, holding all other assumptions constant (in millions, pre-tax):
AssumptionChangeIncrease in 2021 Net Periodic Benefit Costs2020 Benefit Obligations
IncreaseIncrease
Discount rate10 basis point decline$2$483

The change in the discount rates used in measuring our plan obligations as of December 31, 2020 resulted in an increase in the measurement of our aggregate plan obligations by approximately $1.9 billion.

Anticipated Change in Accounting Policy
We anticipate making a change in our pension accounting policy under which we would begin recognizing actuarial gains and losses immediately in the income statement compared to our current accounting policy that recognizes such gains and losses in stockholders’ equity and amortizes them as a component of net periodic benefit cost/(credit) over future periods. This anticipated change is expected to go into effect in the first quarter of 2021 and if adopted, will require recasting prior period amounts to conform to the new accounting policy.
Income Tax Assets and Liabilities
Income tax assets and liabilities include income tax valuation allowances and accruals for uncertain tax positions. For additional information, see Notes 1P and 5, as well as the Analysis of Financial Condition, Liquidity, Capital Resources and Market Risk––Selected Measures of Liquidity and Capital Resources section within MD&A.
Contingencies

We and certain of our subsidiaries are subject to numerous contingencies arising in the ordinary course of business, including tax, legal contingencies and guarantees and indemnifications. For additional information, see Notes 1P, 1R, 5D and 16.



Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K30


ANALYSIS OF THE CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
Revenues by Geography
The following presents worldwide revenues by geography:
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
 WorldwideU.S.InternationalWorldwideU.S.International
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)20202019201820202019201820202019201820/1919/1820/1919/1820/1919/18
Total revenues$41,908 $41,172 $40,825 $21,712 $20,593 $20,119 $20,196 $20,579 $20,705 2 5 (2)(1)

2020 v. 2019
The following provides an analysis of the change in worldwide revenues by geographic areas in 2020:
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)WorldwideU.S.International
Operational growth/(decline):
Growth from Prevnar 13/Prevenar 13, Ibrance, Eliquis, Xeljanz, Vyndaqel/Vyndamax, Xtandi, Inlyta, Biosimilars and the Hospital therapeutic area, partially offset by Chantix/Champix. See the Analysis of the Consolidated Statements of Income––Revenues––Selected Product Discussion within MD&A for additional analysis
$3,479 $1,902 $1,577 
Impact of completion of the Consumer Healthcare JV transaction. Revenues in 2019 reflect seven months of Consumer Healthcare business domestic operations and eight months of international operations, and none in 2020(2,082)(988)(1,094)
Lower revenues for Enbrel internationally, primarily reflecting continued biosimilar competition in most developed Europe markets, as well as in Japan and Brazil, all of which is expected to continue(320) (320)
Other operational factors, net(10)205 (214)
Operational growth/(decline), net1,068 1,119 (50)
Unfavorable impact of foreign exchange(331) (331)
Revenues increase/(decrease)
$736 $1,119 $(383)

Revenues for 2020 included an estimated unfavorable impact of approximately $700 million, or 2%, due to COVID-19, primarily reflecting lower demand for certain products in China and unfavorable disruptions to wellness visits for patients in the U.S., which negatively impacted prescribing patterns for certain products, partially offset by increased U.S. demand for certain sterile injectable products and increased adult uptake for Prevenar 13 in certain international markets, resulting from greater vaccine awareness for respiratory illnesses, and U.S. revenues for BNT162b2.
Emerging markets revenues decreased $456 million, or 5%, in 2020 to $8.4 billion from $8.8 billion in 2019, and were relatively flat operationally, reflecting an unfavorable impact of foreign exchange of 5% on emerging markets revenues. The relatively flat operational performance was primarily driven by growth from Eliquis, Prevenar 13, Ibrance and Zavicefta, offset by lower revenues for Consumer Healthcare, reflecting the July 31, 2019 completion of the Consumer Healthcare JV transaction.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K31


2019 v. 2018
The following provides an analysis of the change in worldwide revenues by geographic areas in 2019:
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)WorldwideU.S.International
Operational growth/(decline):
Growth from Ibrance, Eliquis, Xeljanz and Prevnar/Prevenar 13$2,495 $914 $1,581 
Higher revenues for certain Hospital products as a result of:
continued growth of anti-infective products in China, driven by increased demand for Sulperazon and new launches;
the 2018 U.S. launches of our immune globulin IV products (Panzyga and Octagam); and
the launches of certain anti-infectives products (Zavicefta, Zinforo and Cresemba) in international developed and emerging markets
472 174 298 
Higher revenues for Inlyta, primarily in the U.S. driven by increased demand resulting from the second quarter of 2019 U.S. FDA approvals for the combinations of certain immune checkpoint inhibitors plus Inlyta for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced RCC190 175 14 
Higher revenues for Biosimilars, primarily in the U.S.168 185 (17)
Higher revenues for rare disease products driven by:
the U.S. launches in May 2019 of Vyndaqel and in September 2019 of Vyndamax for the treatment of ATTR-CM;
continued uptake for the transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy indication, primarily in developed Europe; and
the March 2019 launch of the ATTR-CM indication in Japan,
partially offset by:
lower revenues for certain rare disease products, including the hemophilia franchises (Refacto AF/Xyntha and BeneFIX), primarily due to competitive pressures, and Genotropin in developed markets, mainly due to unfavorable channel mix in the U.S.
159 108 51 
Impact of completion of the Consumer Healthcare JV transaction. Revenues in 2019 only reflect seven months of Consumer Healthcare business domestic operations and eight months of international operations(1,436)(889)(547)
Lower revenues from other Hospital products, primarily reflecting declines in developed markets, mostly due to the continued expected negative impact from generic competition for products that have previously lost marketing exclusivity(447)(200)(247)
Lower revenues for Enbrel, primarily in most developed Europe markets due to continued biosimilar competition(292)— (292)
Other operational factors, net141 136 
Operational growth, net1,450 473 976 
Unfavorable impact of foreign exchange(1,103)— (1,103)
Revenues increase/(decrease)$347 $473 $(127)
Emerging markets revenues increased $210 million, or 2%, in 2019 to $8.8 billion, from $8.6 billion in 2018, reflecting an operational increase of $820 million, or 10%. Foreign exchange had an unfavorable impact of 7% on emerging markets revenues. The operational increase in emerging markets was primarily driven by Prevenar 13, Ibrance and Eliquis.
Revenue Deductions

Our gross product revenues are subject to a variety of deductions, which generally are estimated and recorded in the same period that the revenues are recognized. These deductions represent estimates of related obligations and, as such, knowledge and judgment are required when estimating the impact of these revenue deductions on gross sales for a reporting period.
Historically, adjustments to these estimates to reflect actual results or updated expectations, have not been material to our overall business and generally have been less than 1% of revenues. Product-specific rebates, however, can have a significant impact on year-over-year individual product revenue growth trends.
The following presents information about revenue deductions:
  Year Ended December 31,
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)202020192018
Medicare rebates$647 $628 $495 
Medicaid and related state program rebates1,136 1,259 984 
Performance-based contract rebates2,660 2,332 1,758 
Chargebacks4,531 3,411 2,954 
Sales allowances3,841 3,782 3,536 
Sales returns and cash discounts924 878 1,128 
Total$13,739 $12,290 $10,854 
Revenue deductions are primarily a function of product sales volume, mix of products sold, contractual or legislative discounts and rebates.
For information on our accruals for revenue deductions, including the balance sheet classification of these accruals, see Note 1G.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K32


Revenues—Selected Product Discussion
Revenue
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)Year Ended Dec. 31,% Change
ProductGlobal
Revenues
Region20202019TotalOper.Operational Results Commentary
Prevnar 13/
Prevenar 13
$5,850

Up 1%

(operationally)
U.S.$2,930 $3,209 (9)Operational growth internationally primarily reflects increased adult uptake in certain international markets resulting from greater vaccine awareness for respiratory illnesses, including specifically pneumococcal disease, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as continued strong pediatric uptake in China, partially offset by a decline in the U.S., primarily driven by the expected unfavorable impact of disruptions to wellness visits for pediatric and adult patients due to COVID-19-related mobility restrictions or limitations as well as the continued impact of a lower remaining eligible adult population and the impact of the revised ACIP recommendation for the adult indication to shared clinical decision making, which means the decision to vaccinate should be made at the individual level between health care providers and their patients.
Int’l.2,920 2,638 11 13 
Worldwide$5,850 $5,847 
Ibrance
$5,392

Up 9%
 
(operationally)
U.S.$3,634 $3,250 12 Primarily driven by continued strong volume growth in most markets, partially offset by pricing pressures in certain developed Europe markets.
Int’l.1,758 1,710 
Worldwide$5,392 $4,961 
Eliquis
$4,949

Up 18%

(operationally)
U.S.$2,688 $2,343 15 Primarily driven by continued increased adoption in non-valvular atrial fibrillation as well as oral anti-coagulant market share gains, partially offset by a lower net price due to an increased impact from the Medicare “coverage gap” and unfavorable channel mix in the U.S.
Int’l.2,260 1,877 20 22 
Worldwide$4,949 $4,220 17 18 
Xeljanz
$2,437

Up 9%

(operationally)
U.S.$1,706 $1,636 Higher volumes in the U.S. within the RA, PsA and UC indications driven by reaching additional patients through improvements in formulary access, partially offset by increased discounts from recently-signed contracts which were entered into in order to unlock access to additional patient lives. Also reflects operational growth internationally mainly driven by continued uptake in the RA indication and, to a lesser extent, from the recent launch of the UC indication in certain developed markets.
Int’l.731 606 21 23 
Worldwide$2,437 $2,242 
Vyndaqel/
Vyndamax
$1,288

*

U.S.$613 $191 *Driven by the U.S. launches of Vyndaqel in May 2019 and Vyndamax in September 2019 for the treatment of ATTR-CM and by the March 2019 launch of the ATTR-CM indication in Japan and the February 2020 approval of the ATTR-CM indication in the EU.
Int’l.675 282 **
Worldwide$1,288 $473 **
Xtandi
$1,024

Up 22%

(operationally)
U.S.$1,024 $838 22 Primarily driven by continued strong demand for Xtandi in the mCRPC and nmCRPC indications, as well as the mCSPC indication, which was approved in the U.S. in December 2019.
Int’l. — 
Worldwide$1,024 $838 22 22 
Chantix/
Champix
$919

Down 17%

(operationally)
U.S.$716 $899 (20)Driven by the U.S. and primarily reflects expected lower demand resulting from reduced doctor visits, including wellness visits when Chantix is typically prescribed, due to COVID-19-related mobility restrictions or limitations as well as the loss of patent protection in the U.S. in November 2020, partially offset by increased demand in Spain as a result of government reimbursement starting in January 2020.
Int’l.203 208 (2)(1)
Worldwide$919 $1,107 (17)(17)
Inlyta
$787

Up 66%

(operationally)
U.S.$523 $295 78 Primarily due to increased demand in the U.S. and certain developed international markets, following the approvals in 2019 for combinations of certain immune checkpoint inhibitors plus Inlyta for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced RCC.
Int’l.264 182 45 47 
Worldwide$787 $477 65 66 
Biosimilars
$1,527

Up 68%

(operationally)
U.S.$899 $451 99 Primarily driven by recent oncology biosimilar launches in the U.S. and other global markets and continued growth from Retacrit, primarily in the U.S.
Int’l.628 460 36 37 
Worldwide$1,527 $911 68 68 
Hospital
$7,961

Up 3%

(operationally)
U.S.$3,362 $3,081 Higher revenues in the U.S., primarily driven by increased demand for certain sterile injectable products utilized in the intubation and ongoing treatment of mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 patients, continued growth from Panzyga and recent anti-infective launches, as well as Pfizer CentreOne business in international markets, partially offset by lower demand for certain anti-infective products in China due to lower infection rates driven by fewer elective surgical procedures, shorter in-patient hospital stays and improved infection control.
Int’l.4,599 4,691 (2)
Worldwide$7,961 $7,772 
* Calculation is not meaningful or results are equal to or greater than 100%.

See the Item 1. BusinessPatents and Other Intellectual Property Rights section in this Form 10-K for information regarding the expiration of various patent rights.
See Note 16 for a discussion of recent developments concerning patent and product litigation relating to certain of the products discussed above.
See Note 17B for additional information regarding the primary indications or class of the selected products discussed above.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K33


Product Developments
A comprehensive update of Pfizer’s development pipeline was published as of February 2, 2021 and is available at www.pfizer.com/science/drug-product-pipeline. It includes an overview of our research and a list of compounds in development with targeted indication and phase of development, as well as mechanism of action for some candidates in Phase 1 and all candidates from Phase 2 through registration.
The following provides information about significant marketing application-related regulatory actions by, and filings pending with, the FDA and regulatory authorities in the EU and Japan. The table below includes only approvals for products that have occurred in the last twelve months and does not include approvals that may have occurred prior to that time. The table includes filings with regulatory decisions pending (even if the filing occurred outside of the last twelve-month period).
PRODUCTDISEASE AREAAPPROVED/FILED*
U.S.EUJAPAN
PF-07302048 (COVID-19 Vaccine)(a)
Immunization to prevent COVID-19 (16 years of age and older)
EUA
Dec.
2020
CMA
Dec.
2020
Approved Feb.
2021
Bavencio
(avelumab)(b)
First-line maintenance urothelial cancer
Approved
June
2020
Approved
Jan.
2021
Filed
May
2020
First-line RCC (combination with Inlyta (axitinib))
Approved
Dec.
2019
Nyvepria (pegfilgrastim-apgf)Neutropenia in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy (biosimilar)
Approved
June
2020
Approved
Nov.
2020
Braftovi (encorafenib)(c)
Second or third-line BRAFv600E-mutant mCRC (combination with Erbitux® (cetuximab))
Approved
April
2020
Approved
June
2020
Approved
Nov.
2020
Braftovi (encorafenib) and Mektovi (binimetinib)(c)
Second or third-line BRAFV600E-mutant mCRC (combination with Erbitux® (cetuximab))
Approved
Nov.
2020
Xtandi
(enzalutamide)(d)
mCSPC
Approved
Dec.
2019
Filed
July
2019
Abrilada (U.S.); Amsparity (EU)
(adalimumab-afzb)(e)
RA (biosimilar)
Approved
Nov.
2019
Approved Feb.
2020
abrocitinib (PF-04965842)Atopic dermatitis
Filed
Oct.
2020
Filed
Oct.
2020
Filed
Dec.
2020
Infliximab Pfizer (infliximab)Ankylosing spondylitis (biosimilar)
Approved
Oct.
2020
Bevacizumab Pfizer (bevacizumab)Non-small cell lung cancer (biosimilar)
Approved
Sept.
 2020
Rituximab Pfizer (rituximab)Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (biosimilar)
Approved
Aug.
2020
tanezumab(f)
Chronic pain due to moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis
Filed
March
 2020
Filed
March
 2020
Filed
Aug.
2020
Bosulif
(bosutinib)
First-line chronic myelogenous leukemia
Approved
June
2020
Daurismo
(glasdegib)
Combination with low-dose cytarabine for AML
Approved
June
2020
Ruxience
(rituximab)
Follicular lymphoma (biosimilar)
Approved
April
2020
Staquis
(crisaborole)
Atopic dermatitis
Approved
March
2020
Vyndaqel
(tafamidis free acid)
ATTR-CM
Approved
Feb.
2020
Xeljanz
(tofacitinib)
Modified release 11 mg tablet for RA (combination with methotrexate)
Approved
Dec.
2019
Ankylosing spondylitis
Filed
Aug.
2020
Relugolix(g)
Uterine fibroids (combination with estradiol and norethindrone acetate)
Filed
Aug.
2020
Lorbrena
(lorlatinib)
First- line ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer
Filed
Dec.
2020
somatrogon (PF-06836922)(h)
Pediatric growth hormone deficiency
Filed
Jan.
2021
PF-06482077 (Vaccine)Invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal infections (adults)
Filed
Dec.
2020

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K34


*For the U.S., the filing date is the date on which the FDA accepted our submission. For the EU, the filing date is the date on which the EMA validated our submission.
(a)PF-07302048 or BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine) received EUA from the FDA and CMA from the EMA.
(b)Being developed in collaboration with Merck KGaA, Germany.
(c)Erbitux® is a registered trademark of ImClone LLC. In the EU, we are developing in collaboration with the Pierre Fabre Group. In Japan, we are developing in collaboration with Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
(d)Being developed in collaboration with Astellas.
(e)We are working to make Abrilada available to U.S. patients as soon as feasible based on the terms of our agreement with AbbVie. Current plans are to launch Abrilada in 2023. We do not currently plan to commercialize Amsparity in the EU due to unfavorable market conditions.
(f)Being developed in collaboration with Lilly.
(g)Being developed in collaboration with Myovant.
(h)Being developed in collaboration with OPKO Health, Inc.

In China, the following products received regulatory approvals in the last twelve months: Eucrisa for atopic dermatitis in July 2020 and Vyndaqel for cardiac amyloidosis in September 2020.
The following provides information about additional indications and new drug candidates in late-stage development:
PRODUCT/CANDIDATEPROPOSED DISEASE AREA
LATE-STAGE CLINICAL PROGRAMS FOR ADDITIONAL USES AND DOSAGE FORMS
FOR IN-LINE AND IN-REGISTRATION PRODUCTS
Bavencio (avelumab)(a)
First-line non-small cell lung cancer
Ibrance (palbociclib)(b)
ER+/HER2+ metastatic breast cancer
Xtandi (enzalutamide)(c)
Non-metastatic high-risk castration sensitive prostate cancer
Talzenna (talazoparib)Combination with Xtandi (enzalutamide) for first-line mCRPC
PF-06482077 (Vaccine)Invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal infections (pediatric)
somatrogon (PF-06836922)(d)
Adult growth hormone deficiency
tanezumab(e)
Cancer pain
Braftovi (encorafenib) and Erbitux® (cetuximab)(f)
First-line BRAFv600E-mutant mCRC
Relugolix(g)
Combination with estradiol and norethindrone acetate for endometriosis
NEW DRUG CANDIDATES IN LATE-STAGE DEVELOPMENTaztreonam-avibactam
(PF-06947387)
Treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria for which there are limited or no treatment options
fidanacogene elaparvovec (PF-06838435)Hemophilia B
Giroctocogene
 fitelparvovec
(SB-525 or PF-07055480)
Hemophilia A
PF-06425090 (Vaccine)Primary clostridioides difficile infection
PF-06886992 (Vaccine)Serogroups meningococcal (adolescent and young adults)
PF-06928316 (Vaccine)Respiratory syncytial virus infection (maternal)
PF-07265803Dilated cardiomyopathy due to Lamin A/C gene mutation
ritlecitinib (PF-06651600)Alopecia areata
sasanlimab (PF-06801591)Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
PF-06939926Duchenne muscular dystrophy
marstacimab (PF-06741086)Hemophilia
(a)Being developed in collaboration with Merck KGaA, Germany.
(b)Being developed in collaboration with the Alliance Foundation Trial.
(c)Being developed in collaboration with Astellas.
(d)Being developed in collaboration with OPKO Health, Inc.
(e)Being developed in collaboration with Lilly.
(f)Erbitux® is a registered trademark of ImClone LLC. In the EU, we are developing in collaboration with the Pierre Fabre Group. In Japan, we are developing in collaboration with Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
(g)Being developed in collaboration with Myovant.
For additional information about our R&D organization, see the Item 1. BusinessResearch and Development section of this Form 10-K.
COSTS AND EXPENSES
The changes in costs and expenses below reflect, among other things, a decline in expenses resulting from the July 31, 2019 completion of the Consumer Healthcare JV transaction (see Note 2C). In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic impacted certain operating expenses in 2020.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K35


Costs and expenses follow:
Year Ended December 31,% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)20202019201820/1919/18
Cost of sales$8,692 $8,251 $8,987 5 (8)
Percentage of Revenues
20.7 %20.0 %22.0 %
Selling, informational and administrative expenses11,615 12,750 12,612 (9)
Percentage of Revenues
27.7 %31.0 %30.9 %
Research and development expenses9,405 8,394 7,760 12 
Percentage of Revenues
22.4 %20.4 %19.0 %
Amortization of intangible assets3,436 4,462 4,736 (23)(6)
Percentage of Revenues
8.2 %10.8 %11.6 %
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related
costs
600 601 1,058 (43)
Percentage of Revenues
1.4 %1.5 %2.6 %
Other (income)/deductions—net669 3,314 2,077 (80)60 
Cost of Sales
2020 v. 2019
Cost of sales increased $441 million, primarily due to:
increased sales volumes;
the increase in royalty expenses, due to an increase in sales of related products;
the unfavorable impact of incremental costs incurred in response to the COVID-19 pandemic; and
the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange and hedging activity on intercompany inventory,
partially offset by:
the favorable impact of the July 31, 2019 completion of the Consumer Healthcare JV transaction.
The increase in Cost of sales as a percentage of revenues in 2020, compared to 2019, was primarily due to all of the factors discussed above, partially offset by an increase in alliance revenues, which have no associated cost of sales.
2019 v. 2018
Cost of sales decreased $736 million, primarily due to:
the favorable impact of the July 31, 2019 completion of the Consumer Healthcare JV transaction;
the favorable impact of foreign exchange; and
the favorable impact of hedging activity of intercompany inventory,
partially offset by:
the unfavorable change in product mix; and
the increase in royalty expenses, due to an increase in sales of related products.
The decrease in Cost of sales as a percentage of revenues in 2019, compared to 2018, was primarily due to all of the factors discussed above, as well an increase in alliance revenues, which have no associated cost of sales.
Selling, Informational and Administrative (SI&A) Expenses
2020 v. 2019
SI&A expenses decreased $1.1 billion, mostly due to:
the favorable impact of the July 31, 2019 completion of the Consumer Healthcare JV transaction;
lower spending for corporate enabling functions;
lower spending on sales and marketing activities due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; and
lower investments across the Internal Medicine and Inflammation & Immunology portfolios,
partially offset by:
the increase in external, incremental costs directly related to implementing our cost-reduction/productivity initiatives; and
the increase in business and legal entity alignment costs.
2019 v. 2018
SI&A expenses increased $138 million, primarily due to:
additional investment in emerging markets;
additional investment in the Oncology portfolio in developed markets;
increased employee deferred compensation as a result of savings plan gains;
the increase due to the timing of expenses (i.e., insurance recoveries and product donations);
marketing and promotional expenses for the U.S. launches of Vyndaqel in May 2019 and Vyndamax in September 2019;

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K36


increased business and legal entity alignment costs;
costs to separate Consumer Healthcare; and
increased healthcare reform expenses,
partially offset by:
the favorable impact of the July 31, 2019 completion of the Consumer Healthcare JV; and
the favorable impact of foreign exchange.
Research and Development (R&D) Expenses
2020 v. 2019
R&D expenses increased $1.0 billion, mainly due to:
costs related to our collaboration agreement with BioNTech to co-develop a COVID-19 vaccine, including an upfront payment to BioNTech;
a net increase in upfront payments, mainly related to Myovant and Valneva; and
increased investments towards building new capabilities and driving automation,
partially offset by:
the net reduction of upfront and milestone payments associated with the acquisition of Therachon in July 2019 and Akcea in October 2019.
2019 v. 2018
R&D expenses increased $635 million, mainly due to:
upfront payments to Therachon and Akcea;
increased investments towards building new capabilities and driving automation;
increased spending on our Inflammation & Immunology and Rare Disease portfolios due to several Phase 3 programs and
investment in gene therapy;
increased spending related to assets acquired from our acquisition of Array; and
increased medical spend for new and growing products,
partially offset by:
decreased spending across the Oncology, Vaccines and Internal Medicine portfolios, as select programs have reached completion;
the decrease in the value of the portfolio performance share grants reflecting changes in the price of Pfizer’s common stock, as well as management’s assessment of the probability that the specified performance criteria will be achieved;
the discontinuation of the Staphylococcus aureus vaccine trial;
the favorable impact of the July 31, 2019 completion of the Consumer Healthcare JV; and
the favorable impact of foreign exchange.

Amortization of Intangible Assets
2020 v. 2019
Amortization of intangible assets decreased $1.0 billion, primarily due to:
the non-recurrence of amortization of fully amortized assets and the impairment of Eucrisa in the fourth quarter of 2019,
partially offset by:
the increase in amortization of intangible assets from our acquisition of Array.
2019 v. 2018
Amortization of intangible assets decreased $274 million, mainly due to:
the non-recurrence of amortization as a result of the impairment of sterile injectable products in the fourth quarter of 2018;
fully amortized assets; and
the contribution of our Consumer Healthcare business to the Consumer Healthcare JV,
partially offset by:
the increase in amortization related to assets recorded as a result of the approval of Xtandi in the U.S. for the treatment of nmCRPC in July of 2018; and
amortization of intangible assets from our acquisition of Array.

For additional information, see Notes 2A, 2C, and 10A.

Restructuring Charges and Other Costs Associated with Acquisitions and Cost-Reduction/Productivity Initiatives
Transforming to a More Focused Company Program
For a description of our program, as well as the anticipated and actual costs, see Note 3. The program savings discussed below may be rounded and represent approximations. In connection with the costs primarily related to the corporate enabling functions initiatives, we expect gross cost savings of $1.0 billion, or net cost savings, excluding merit and inflation growth and certain real estate cost increases, of $700 million, to be achieved primarily over the two-year period 2021-2022. In connection with manufacturing network optimization, including legacy cost reduction initiatives, we expect targeted net cost savings of $300 million to be achieved primarily from 2020 through 2022.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K37


Certain qualifying costs for this program were recorded in 2020, and in the fourth quarter of 2019, and are reflected as Certain Significant Items and excluded from our non-GAAP measure of Adjusted Income. See the Non-GAAP Financial Measure: Adjusted Income section of this MD&A.

In addition to this program, we continuously monitor our operations for cost reduction and/or productivity opportunities, especially in light of the losses of exclusivity and the expiration of collaborative arrangements for various products.

Other (Income)/Deductions––Net
2020 v. 2019
Other deductions—net decreased $2.6 billion, mainly due to:
lower asset impairment charges;
higher net periodic benefit credits other than service costs;
lower business and legal entity alignment costs;
higher Consumer Healthcare JV equity method income; and
lower charges for certain legal matters,
partially offset by:
higher net losses on asset disposals.
2019 v. 2018
Other deductions—net increased $1.2 billion, mainly due to:
higher net periodic benefits costs other than service costs;
lower income from collaborations, out-licensing arrangements and sales of compound/product rights;
higher interest expense mainly as a result of an increased commercial paper balance due to the acquisition of Array, as well as the retirement of lower-coupon debt and the issuance of new debt with a higher coupon than the debt outstanding for the comparative prior year period; and
higher business and legal entity alignment costs,
partially offset by:
lower asset impairment charges.

See Note 4 for additional information.
PROVISION/(BENEFIT) FOR TAXES ON INCOME
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)20202019201820/1919/18
Provision/(benefit) for taxes on income$477 $618 $(266)(23)*
Effective tax rate on continuing operations6.4 %5.4 %(7.4)%
*Indicates calculation not meaningful or result is equal to or greater than 100%.

For information about our effective tax rate and the events and circumstances contributing to the changes between periods, as well as details about discrete elements that impacted our tax provisions, see Note 5.
DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS
For information about our discontinued operations, see Note 2B.
NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURE: ADJUSTED INCOME

Adjusted income is an alternative measure of performance used by management to evaluate our overall performance in conjunction with other performance measures. As such, we believe that investors’ understanding of our performance is enhanced by disclosing this measure. We use Adjusted income, certain components of Adjusted income and Adjusted diluted EPS to present the results of our major operations––the discovery, development, manufacture, marketing, sales and distribution of biopharmaceutical products worldwide––prior to considering certain income statement elements as follows:
MeasureDefinitionIllustrative Use
Adjusted income
Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders(a)
before the impact of purchase accounting for acquisitions, acquisition-related costs, discontinued operations and certain significant items
Monthly managerial analysis of our operating results and our annual budgets are prepared using these non-GAAP measures
Senior management’s compensation is determined, in part, using these non-GAAP measures(b)
Adjusted cost of sales, Adjusted selling, informational and administrative expenses, Adjusted research and development expenses, Adjusted other (income)/deductions––net
Cost of sales, Selling, informational and administrative expenses, Research and development expenses, Amortization of intangible assets and Other (income)/deductions––net (a), each before the impact of purchase accounting for acquisitions, acquisition-related costs, discontinued operations and certain significant items, which are components of the Adjusted income measure
Adjusted diluted EPS
EPS attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders––diluted (a) before the impact of purchase accounting for acquisitions, acquisition-related costs, discontinued operations and certain significant items

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K38


(a)Most directly comparable GAAP measure.
(b)The short-term incentive plans for substantially all non-sales-force employees worldwide are funded from a pool based on our performance, measured in significant part by three metrics, one of which is Adjusted diluted EPS, which is derived from Adjusted income and accounts for 40% of the bonus pool funding. Additionally, the payout for Performance Share Awards is determined in part by Adjusted net income, which is derived from Adjusted income. Effective for the 2020 performance year and consistent with shareholder feedback received in 2019, the Compensation Committee of the BOD approved adding an R&D pipeline achievement factor to the existing short-term incentive financial metrics.
Adjusted income, and its components and Adjusted diluted EPS, are non-GAAP financial measures that have no standardized meaning prescribed by GAAP and, therefore, are limited in their usefulness to investors. Because of their non-standardized definitions, they may not be comparable to the calculation of similar measures of other companies and are presented solely to permit investors to more fully understand how management assesses performance. A limitation of these measures is that they provide a view of our operations without including all events during a period, and do not provide a comparable view of our performance to peers. These measures are not, and should not be viewed as, substitutes for their directly comparable GAAP measures of Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders, components of Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders and EPS attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders—diluted, respectively. See the accompanying reconciliations of certain GAAP reported to non-GAAP adjusted information for 2020, 2019 and 2018 below.
We also recognize that, as internal measures of performance, these measures have limitations, and we do not restrict our performance-management process solely to these measures. We also use other tools designed to achieve the highest levels of performance. For example, our R&D organization has productivity targets, upon which its effectiveness is measured. In addition, total shareholder return, both on an absolute basis and relative to a publicly traded pharmaceutical index, plays a significant role in determining payouts under certain of our incentive compensation plans.
Purchase Accounting Adjustments

Adjusted income excludes certain significant purchase accounting impacts resulting from business combinations and net asset acquisitions. These impacts can include the incremental charge to cost of sales from the sale of acquired inventory that was written up to fair value, amortization related to the increase in fair value of the acquired finite-lived intangible assets, and to a much lesser extent, depreciation related to the increase/decrease in fair value of the acquired fixed assets, amortization related to the increase in fair value of acquired debt, and the fair value changes for contingent consideration. Therefore, the Adjusted income measure includes the revenues earned upon the sale of the acquired products without considering the acquisition cost of those products.

The exclusion of amortization attributable to acquired intangible assets provides management and investors an alternative view of our results by providing a degree of parity to internally developed intangible assets for which R&D costs have been expensed. However, we have not factored in the impacts of any other differences that might have occurred if we had discovered and developed those intangible assets on our own, such as different R&D costs, timelines or resulting sales; accordingly, this approach does not intend to be representative of the results that would have occurred if we had discovered and developed the acquired intangible assets internally.
Acquisition-Related Costs
Adjusted income excludes acquisition-related costs, which are comprised of transaction, integration, restructuring charges and additional depreciation costs for business combinations because these costs are unique to each transaction and represent costs that were incurred to restructure and integrate businesses as a result of an acquisition. We have made no adjustments for resulting synergies.
The significant costs incurred in connection with a business combination result primarily from the need to eliminate duplicate assets, activities or employees––a natural result of acquiring a fully integrated set of activities. For this reason, we believe that such costs incurred can be viewed differently in the context of an acquisition from those costs incurred in other, more normal, business contexts. The integration and restructuring costs for a business combination may occur over several years, with the more significant impacts typically ending within three years of the relevant transaction. Because of the need for certain external approvals for some actions, the span of time needed to achieve certain restructuring and integration activities can be lengthy.
Discontinued Operations
Adjusted income excludes the results of discontinued operations, as well as any related gains or losses on the disposal of such operations. We believe that this presentation is meaningful to investors because, while we review our therapeutic areas and product lines for strategic fit with our operations, we do not build or run our business with the intent to discontinue parts of our business. Restatements due to discontinued operations do not impact compensation or change the Adjusted income measure for the compensation in respect of the restated periods, but are presented for consistency across all periods.

Certain Significant Items

Adjusted income excludes certain significant items representing substantive and/or unusual items that are evaluated individually on a quantitative and qualitative basis. Certain significant items may be highly variable and difficult to predict. Furthermore, in some cases it is reasonably possible that they could reoccur in future periods. For example, although major non-acquisition-related cost-reduction programs are specific to an event or goal with a defined term, we may have subsequent programs based on reorganizations of the business, cost productivity or in response to LOE or economic conditions. Legal charges to resolve litigation are also related to specific cases, which are facts and circumstances specific and, in some cases, may also be the result of litigation matters at acquired companies that were inestimable, not probable or unresolved at the date of acquisition. Unusual items represent items that are not part of our ongoing business; items that, either as a result of their nature or size, we would not expect to occur as part of our normal business on a regular basis; items that would be non-recurring; or items that relate to products we no longer sell. For a non-inclusive list of certain significant items see Details of Income Statement Items Included in GAAP Reported but Excluded from Non-GAAP Adjusted Income below.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K39


Reconciliation of GAAP Reported to Non-GAAP Adjusted Information––Certain Line Items
 2020
IN MILLIONS, EXCEPT PER COMMON SHARE DATAGAAP Reported
Purchase Accounting Adjustments(a)
Acquisition-Related Costs(a)
Discontinued Operations(a)
Certain Significant Items(a)
Non-GAAP Adjusted
Revenues$41,908 $— $— $— $— $41,908 
Cost of sales8,692 18 — — (118)8,592 
Selling, informational and administrative expenses11,615 (2)— — (489)11,124 
Research and development expenses9,405 — — (526)8,884 
Amortization of intangible assets3,436 (3,152)— — — 284 
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs600 — (44)— (556)— 
(Gain) on completion of Consumer Healthcare JV transaction(6)— — — — 
Other (income)/deductions––net669 (75)— — (2,068)(1,474)
Income from continuing operations before provision/(benefit) for taxes on income7,497 3,206 44 — 3,752 14,499 
Provision/(benefit) for taxes on income(b)
477 668 — 803 1,957 
Income from continuing operations7,021 2,537 35 — 2,948 12,541 
Income from discontinued operations––net of tax2,631 — — (2,631)— — 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests36 — — — — 36 
Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders9,616 2,537 35 (2,631)2,948 12,506 
Earnings per common share attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders––diluted1.71 0.45 0.01 (0.47)0.52 2.22 
 2019
IN MILLIONS, EXCEPT PER COMMON SHARE DATAGAAP Reported
Purchase Accounting Adjustments(a)
Acquisition-Related Costs(a)
Discontinued Operations(a)
Certain Significant Items(a)
Non-GAAP Adjusted
Revenues$41,172 $— $— $— $— $41,172 
Cost of sales8,251 19 — — (208)8,062 
Selling, informational and administrative expenses12,750 (2)— (263)12,488 
Research and development expenses8,394 — — (663)7,736 
Amortization of intangible assets4,462 (4,191)— — — 271 
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs601 — (183)— (418)— 
(Gain) on completion of Consumer Healthcare JV transaction(8,086)— — — 8,086 — 
Other (income)/deductions––net3,314 (21)— — (3,563)(270)
Income from continuing operations before provision/(benefit) for taxes on income11,485 4,186 185 — (2,971)12,885 
Provision/(benefit) for taxes on income(b)
618 823 59 — 539 2,039 
Income from continuing operations10,867 3,363 126 — (3,510)10,846 
Income from discontinued operations––net of tax5,435 — — (5,435)— — 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests29 — — — — 29 
Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders16,273 3,363 126 (5,435)(3,510)10,817 
Earnings per common share attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders––diluted2.87 0.59 0.02 (0.96)(0.62)1.91 

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K40


2018
IN MILLIONS, EXCEPT PER COMMON SHARE DATAGAAP Reported
Purchase Accounting Adjustments(a)
Acquisition-Related Costs(a)
Discontinued Operations(a)
Certain Significant Items(a)
Non-GAAP Adjusted
Revenues$40,825 $— $— $— $— $40,825 
Cost of sales8,987 (10)— (105)8,874 
Selling, informational and administrative expenses12,612 (2)— (191)12,420 
Research and development expenses7,760 — — (47)7,716 
Amortization of intangible assets4,736 (4,456)— — — 280 
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs1,058 — (299)— (759)— 
(Gain) on completion of Consumer Healthcare JV transaction — — — — — 
Other (income)/deductions––net2,077 (182)(7)— (2,520)(631)
Income from continuing operations before provision/(benefit) for taxes on income3,594 4,630 318 — 3,622 12,164 
Provision/(benefit) for taxes on income(b)
(266)888 54 — 1,509 2,185 
Income from continuing operations3,861 3,741 264 — 2,113 9,979 
Income from discontinued operations––net of tax7,328 — — (7,328)— — 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests36 — — — — 36 
Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders11,153 3,741 264 (7,328)2,113 9,944 
Earnings per common share attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders––diluted1.87 0.63 0.04 (1.23)0.35 1.66 
(a)For details of adjustments, see Details of Income Statement Items Included in GAAP Reported but Excluded from Non-GAAP Adjusted Income.
(b)The effective tax rate on Non-GAAP Adjusted income was 13.5% in 2020, 15.8% in 2019 and 18.0% in 2018. The decrease in 2020, compared with 2019, was primarily due to a favorable change in the jurisdictional mix of earnings as a result of operating fluctuations in the normal course of business. The decrease in 2019, compared with 2018, was primarily due to a favorable change in the jurisdictional mix of earnings as a result of operating fluctuations in the normal course of business, partially offset by a decrease in tax benefits for the resolution of certain tax positions, principally non-U.S., pertaining to prior years.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K41


Details of Income Statement Items Included in GAAP Reported but Excluded from Non-GAAP Adjusted Income
 Year Ended December 31,
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)202020192018
Purchase accounting adjustments
Amortization, depreciation and other(a)
$3,224 $4,205 $4,633 
Cost of sales(18)(19)(3)
Total purchase accounting adjustments—pre-tax3,206 4,186 4,630 
Income taxes(b)
(668)(823)(888)
Total purchase accounting adjustments—net of tax2,537 3,363 3,741 
Acquisition-related items
Restructuring charges/(credits)(c)
 (192)37 
Transaction costs(c)
10 63 
Integration costs and other(c)
34 311 260 
Net periodic benefit costs/(credits) other than service costs(d)
 — 
Additional depreciation—asset restructuring(e)
 12 
Total acquisition-related items—pre-tax44 185 318 
Income taxes(f)
(9)(59)(54)
Total acquisition-related items—net of tax35 126 264 
Discontinued operations
Income from discontinued operations—net of tax(g)
(2,631)(5,435)(7,328)
Certain significant items
Restructuring charges/(credits)––cost reduction initiatives(h)
556 418 759 
Implementation costs and additional depreciation—asset restructuring(i)
257 192 212 
Net (gains)/losses on asset disposals(d)
238 — — 
Net (gains)/losses recognized during the period on equity securities(d)
(557)(415)(586)
Certain legal matters, net(d)
24 291 84 
Certain asset impairments(d)
1,691 2,798 3,101 
Business and legal entity alignment costs(j)
270 412 63 
(Gain) on completion of Consumer Healthcare JV transaction(k)
(6)(8,086)— 
Other(l)
1,278 1,418 (10)
Total certain significant items—pre-tax3,752 (2,971)3,622 
Income taxes(m)
(803)(539)(1,509)
Total certain significant items—net of tax2,948 (3,510)2,113 
Total purchase accounting adjustments, acquisition-related items, discontinued operations and certain significant items—net of tax, attributable to Pfizer Inc.$2,890 $(5,455)$(1,209)
(a)Included primarily in Amortization of intangible assets.
(b)Included in Provision/(benefit) for taxes on income. Includes the tax effect of the associated pre-tax amounts, calculated by determining the jurisdictional location of the pre-tax amounts and applying that applicable tax rate.
(c)Included in Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs. See Note 3.
(d)Included in Other (income)/deductions—net. See Note 4.
(e)In 2019, primarily included in Selling, informational and administrative expenses. In 2018, primarily included in Cost of sales. Represents the impact of changes in the estimated useful lives of assets involved in restructuring actions related to acquisitions.
(f)Included in Provision/(benefit) for taxes on income. Income taxes includes the tax effect of the associated pre-tax amounts, calculated by determining the jurisdictional location of the pre-tax amounts and applying the applicable tax rate. 2019 includes the impact of the non-taxable reversal of certain accruals related to our acquisition of Wyeth upon the effective favorable settlement of a U.S. IRS audit for multiple tax years.
(g)Included in Income from discontinued operations––net of tax and relates to the November 16, 2020 spin-off and combination of our Upjohn Business with Mylan. See Note 2B.
(h)Amounts relate to employee termination costs, asset impairments and other exit costs not associated with acquisitions, which are included in Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs (see Note 3).
(i)Amounts relate to our cost-reduction/productivity initiatives not related to acquisitions (see Note 3). For 2020, primarily included in Cost of sales ($62 million) and Selling, informational and administrative expenses ($197 million). For 2019, included in Cost of sales ($89 million), Selling, informational and administrative expenses ($73 million) and Research and development expenses ($30 million). For 2018, included in Cost of sales ($101 million), Selling, informational and administrative expenses ($71 million) and Research and development expenses ($39 million).
(j)In 2020, included in Cost of sales ($51 million), Selling, informational and administrative expenses ($206 million) and Research and development expenses ($13 million) and primarily represents costs for consulting, legal, tax and advisory services associated with internal reorganization of legal entities. In 2019, primarily included in Cost of sales ($15 million), Selling, informational and administrative expenses ($96 million) and Other (income)/deductions––net ($300 million) and in 2018, included in Other (income)/deductions––net and represents costs for consulting, legal, tax and other advisory services associated with the design, planning and implementation of our then new business structure, effective in the beginning of 2019.
(k)Included in (Gain) on completion of Consumer Healthcare JV transaction (see Note 2C).

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K42


(l)For 2020, primarily included in Selling, informational and administrative expenses ($86 million), Research and development expenses ($515 million) and Other (income)/deductions––net ($672 million). For 2019, included in Cost of sales ($104 million), Selling, informational and administrative expenses ($94 million), Research and development expenses ($632 million) and Other (income)/deductions––net ($589 million). For 2018, primarily included in Selling, informational and administrative expenses ($120 million) and Other (income)/deductions––net ($142 million income). 2020 includes the following charges recorded in Research and development expenses: (i) $151 million, representing the expense portion of our upfront payment to Myovant, (ii) an upfront payment of $130 million to Valneva, (iii) a $75 million milestone payment to Akcea, (iv) a $72 million upfront payment to BioNTech and (v) a $50 million milestone payment to Therachon. 2020 also includes, among other things, the following charges recorded in Other (income)/deductions––net: (i) charges of $367 million, primarily representing our pro rata share of restructuring and business combination accounting charges recorded by the Consumer Healthcare JV, partially offset by gains from the divestiture of certain of the JV’s brands recorded by the Consumer Healthcare JV, and our write-off and amortization of equity method basis differences primarily related to those brand divestitures and to inventory, and (ii) $198 million of settlement losses within the U.S. PCPP. 2019 included, among other things, (i) a $337 million charge in Research and development expenses related to our acquisition of Therachon, (ii) an upfront license fee payment of $250 million to Akcea, recorded in Research and development expenses, (iii) charges of $240 million, primarily in Selling, informational and administrative expenses ($87 million) and Other (income)/deductions––net ($152 million), for external incremental costs, such as transaction costs and costs to separate our Consumer Healthcare business into a separate legal entity associated with the formation of the Consumer Healthcare JV, (iv) net losses on early retirement of debt of $138 million in Other (income)/deductions––net, (v) charges of $112 million recorded in Other (income)/deductions––net representing our pro rata share of primarily restructuring and business combination accounting charges recorded by the Consumer Healthcare JV and (vi) a $99 million charge in Cost of sales related to rivipansel, primarily for inventory manufactured for expected future sale. For 2018, included, among other things, (i) a non-cash $343 million pre-tax gain in Other (income)/deductions––net associated with our transaction with Bain Capital to create a new biopharmaceutical company, Cerevel, to continue development of a portfolio of clinical and preclinical stage neuroscience assets primarily targeting disorders of the central nervous system, (ii) an $88 million charge, in the aggregate, in Selling, informational and administrative expenses for a special, one-time bonus paid to virtually all Pfizer colleagues, excluding executives, which was one of several actions taken by us after evaluating the expected positive net impact of the December 2017 enactment of the TCJA and (iii) a non-cash $50 million pre-tax gain in Other (income)/deductions––net as a result of the contribution of our allogeneic CAR T therapy development program assets in connection with our contribution agreement entered into with Allogene (see Note 2B).
(m)Included in Provision/(benefit) for taxes on income. Income taxes includes the tax effect of the associated pre-tax amounts, calculated by determining the jurisdictional location of the pre-tax amounts and applying the applicable tax rate. The amount in 2020 was favorably impacted by tax benefits associated with intangible asset impairment charges (see Note 4). The amount in 2019 was favorably impacted by a benefit of $1.4 billion, representing tax and interest, resulting from the favorable settlement of a U.S. IRS audit for multiple tax years, the benefits related to certain tax initiatives for the implementation of our then new business structure, as well as the tax benefit recorded as a result of additional guidance issued by the U.S. Department of Treasury related to the TCJA and unfavorably impacted by the tax expense of approximately $2.7 billion associated with the gain related to the completion of the Consumer Healthcare JV transaction. The amount in 2018 was favorably impacted primarily by tax benefits related to the TCJA, including certain 2018 tax initiatives as well as adjustments to the provisional estimate of the legislation, reported and disclosed within the applicable measurement period, in accordance with guidance issued by the SEC.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K43


ANALYSIS OF THE CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Cash Flows from Continuing Operations
 Year Ended December 31,
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)202020192018Drivers of change
Cash provided by/(used in):
Operating activities from continuing operations$10,586 $7,011 $8,875 
2020 v. 2019
The change is driven mainly by higher net income adjusted for non-cash items, advanced payments in 2020 for BNT162b2 recorded in deferred revenue, the upfront cash payment associated with our acquisition of Therachon in 2019, and the upfront cash payment associated with our licensing agreement with Akcea in 2019, partially offset by an increase in benefit plan contributions.
The change also reflects the impact of timing of receipts and payments in the ordinary course of business.
The change in Other adjustments, net is driven primarily by an increase in equity method dividends received, partially offset by an increase in equity income and increases in net unrealized gains on equity securities.
2019 v. 2018
The change is driven mostly by the upfront cash payments in 2019 associated with our acquisition of Therachon and our licensing agreement with Akcea, partially offset by a decrease in benefit plan contributions.
The change also reflects the impact of timing of receipts and payments in the ordinary course of business.
The change in Other adjustments, net is driven primarily by a non-cash gain in 2018 associated with our transaction with Bain Capital to create a new biopharmaceutical company, Cerevel, and a non-cash gain in 2018 on the contribution of Pfizer’s allogeneic CAR T developmental program assets, partially offset by net gains on foreign exchange hedging of our intercompany inventory sales.
Investing activities from continuing operations$(4,188)$(3,852)$4,584 
2020 v. 2019
The change is driven mostly by a $6.0 billion decrease in net proceeds from short-term investments with original maturities of three months or less and $2.7 billion in net purchases of short-term investments with original maturities of greater than three months in 2020 (compared to $2.3 billion net proceeds from short-term investments with original maturities of greater than three months in 2019), partially offset by the cash used to acquire Array, net of cash acquired, of $10.9 billion in 2019.
2019 v. 2018
The change is driven primarily by cash used for the acquisition of Array, net of cash acquired, of $10.9 billion in 2019, partially offset by an increase in net proceeds generated from the sale of investments of $2.9 billion for cash needs, including financing the acquisition of Array.
Financing activities from continuing operations$(21,640)$(8,485)$(20,441)
2020 v. 2019
The change is driven primarily by $14.0 billion net payments on short-term borrowings in 2020 (compared to $10.6 billion net proceeds raised from short-term borrowings in 2019) and an increase in cash dividends paid of $397 million, partially offset by a decrease in purchases of common stock of $8.9 billion, lower repayments on long-term debt of $2.8 billion, and an increase in issuances of long-term debt of $280 million.
2019 v. 2018
The change is driven mostly by $10.6 billion of net proceeds raised from short-term borrowings in 2019, primarily in connection with the acquisition of Array (compared to net payments on short-term borrowings of $2.3 billion in 2018) and lower purchases of common stock of $3.3 billion, partially offset by higher repayments on long-term debt of $3.2 billion and lower proceeds from the exercise of stock options of $864 million.
Cash Flows from Discontinued Operations

Cash flows from discontinued operations relate to the Upjohn Business (see Note 2B). In 2020, net cash provided by financing activities from discontinued operations primarily reflects issuances of long-term debt.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K44


ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, LIQUIDITY, CAPITAL RESOURCES AND MARKET RISK

We rely largely on operating cash flows, short-term investments or commercial paper borrowings and long-term debt to provide for our liquidity requirements. We continue our efforts to improve cash inflows through working capital efficiencies. We target specific areas of focus including accounts receivable, inventories, accounts payable, and other working capital, which allows us to optimize our operating cash flows.
Due to our significant operating cash flows as well as our financial assets, access to capital markets and available lines of credit and revolving credit agreements, we believe that we have, and will maintain, the ability to meet our liquidity needs for the foreseeable future, which can include, among others:
the working capital requirements of our operations, including our R&D activities;
investments in our business;
dividend payments and potential increases in the dividend rate;
share repurchases;
the cash requirements for our cost-reduction/productivity initiatives;
paying down outstanding debt;
contributions to our pension and postretirement plans; and
business development activities.
Our long-term debt is rated high-quality by both S&P and Moody’s. See the Credit Ratings section below. We have taken, and will continue to take, a conservative approach to our financial investments and monitoring of our liquidity position in response to market changes. Our debt investments consist primarily of high-quality, highly liquid, well-diversified available-for-sale debt securities.
Debt Capacity—Lines of Credit

We have available lines of credit and revolving credit agreements with a group of banks and other financial intermediaries. We typically maintain cash and cash equivalent balances and short-term investments which, together with our available revolving credit facilities, are in excess of our commercial paper and other short-term borrowings. See Note 7C.
Selected Measures of Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following presents certain relevant measures of our liquidity and capital resources:
As of December 31,
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS, EXCEPT RATIOS)20202019
Selected financial assets(a):
  
Cash and cash equivalents$1,784 $1,121 
Short-term investments10,437 8,525 
Long-term investments, excluding private equity securities at cost2,973 2,258 
 15,195 11,905 
Debt:  
Short-term borrowings, including current portion of long-term debt2,703 16,195 
Long-term debt37,133 35,955 
 39,835 52,150 
Selected net financial liabilities$(24,641)$(40,245)
Working capital(b)
$9,147 $(4,501)
Ratio of current assets to current liabilities1.35:10.88:1
(a)See Note 7 for a description of certain assets held and for a description of credit risk related to our financial instruments held.
(b)The increase in working capital was primarily driven by the use of Upjohn cash distribution proceeds to pay down short-term commercial paper borrowings. See Note 2B.

On November 16, 2020, we received $12.0 billion as partial consideration for the contribution of the Upjohn Business to Viatris (see Note 2B). In November 2020, we used the cash proceeds to pay down commercial paper and redeem, before the maturity date, the $1.15 billion aggregate principal amount outstanding of 1.95% senior unsecured notes that were due in June 2021 and $342 million aggregate principal amount of 5.80% senior unsecured notes that were due in August 2023.
In May 2020, we completed a public offering of $4.0 billion aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured notes.
In March 2020, we:
completed a public offering of $1.25 billion aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured sustainability notes. The proceeds were initially used to repay outstanding commercial paper and subsequently will be used to help manage our environmental impact and support increased patient access to our medicines and vaccines, especially among underserved populations, and strengthen healthcare systems; and
repurchased at par all $1.065 billion principal amount outstanding of senior unsecured notes that were due in 2047 before the maturity date.
For additional information about these issuances and retirements, see Note 7D.
For additional information about the sources and uses of our funds, see the Analysis of the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows within MD&A.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K45


Credit Ratings

Two major corporate debt-rating organizations, Moody’s and S&P, assign ratings to our short-term and long-term debt. A security rating is not
a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities and the rating is subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the rating organization. Each
rating should be evaluated independently of any other rating.
The current ratings assigned to our commercial paper and senior unsecured long-term debt:
NAME OF RATING AGENCYPfizer
Short-Term
Pfizer
Long-Term
Outlook/WatchDate of Last Rating Change
RatingRating
Moody’sP-1A2StableNovember 2020
S&PA-1+A+StableNovember 2020
Both Moody’s and S&P lowered Pfizer’s long-term debt rating one notch to ‘A2’ and ‘A+’, respectively, upon completion of the Upjohn separation in November 2020. Pfizer’s short-term rating remained unchanged. Additionally, both rating agencies removed Pfizer’s long-term debt rating from “under review” and assigned a stable outlook.
LIBOR

For information on interest rate risk and LIBOR, see the Item 1A. Risk Factors––Global Operations section in this Form 10-K. We do not expect the transition to an alternative rate to have a material impact on our liquidity or financial resources.

Global Economic Conditions

Our Venezuela and Argentina operations function in hyperinflationary economies. The impact to Pfizer is not considered material. For additional information on the global economic environment, see the Item 1A. Risk Factors––Global Operations section in this Form 10-K.

Market Risk

The objective of our financial risk management program is to minimize the impact of foreign exchange rate and interest rate movements on our earnings. We address these exposures through a combination of operational means and financial instruments. We adapt our practices periodically as economic conditions change. For more information, see Notes 1F and 7E, as well as the Item 1A. Risk Factors—Global Operations section in this Form 10-K for key currencies in which we operate.
Foreign Exchange Risk—We are subject to foreign exchange risk in our commercial operations, assets and liabilities that are denominated in foreign currencies and our net investments in foreign subsidiaries.
On the commercial side, a significant portion of our revenues and earnings is exposed to changes in exchange rates. Where foreign exchange risk is not offset by other exposures, we may use foreign currency forward-exchange contracts and/or foreign currency swaps to manage that risk.
With respect to our financial assets and liabilities, our primary foreign exchange exposure arises from intercompany receivables and payables, and, to a lesser extent, from investments and debt denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the business entity.
In addition, under certain market conditions, we may seek to protect against possible declines in the reported net investments of our foreign business entities. In these cases, we may use foreign exchange contracts and/or foreign currency debt.
The fair values of our financial instrument holdings are analyzed at year-end to determine their sensitivity to foreign exchange rate changes. In this analysis, holding all other assumptions constant and assuming that a change in one currency’s rate relative to the U.S. dollar would not have any effect on another currency’s rates relative to the U.S. dollar, if the dollar were to appreciate against all other currencies by 10%, as of December 31, 2020, the expected adverse impact on our net income would not be significant.

Interest Rate Risk—Our interest-bearing investments and borrowings are subject to interest rate risk which may have an impact on net income. Depending on market conditions, we may change the profile of our outstanding debt or investments by entering into derivative financial instruments like interest rate swaps, either to hedge or offset the exposure to changes in the fair value of hedged items with fixed interest rates, or to convert variable rate debt (or investments) to fixed rates.
The fair values of our financial instrument holdings are analyzed at year-end to determine their sensitivity to interest rate changes. In this analysis, holding all other assumptions constant and assuming a parallel shift in the interest rate curve for all maturities and for all instruments, if there were a one hundred basis point decrease in interest rates as of December 31, 2020, the expected adverse impact on our net income would not be significant.

Equity Price Risk––We hold equity securities with readily determinable fair values in life science companies as a result of certain business development transactions. While we are holding such securities, we are subject to equity price risk, and this may increase the volatility of our income in future periods due to changes in the fair value of equity investments. From time to time, we will sell such equity securities based on our business considerations, which may include limiting our price risk.
Our equity securities with readily determinable fair values are analyzed at year-end to determine their sensitivity to equity price rate changes. In this sensitivity analysis, the expected adverse impact on our net income would not be significant.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K46


Contractual Obligations

Payments due under contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020, mature as follows:
 Years
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)Total2021
2022-
2023
2024-
2025
There-after
Long-term debt, including current portion(a)
$39,135 $2,002 $4,346 $3,068 $29,719 Consists of senior unsecured notes (including fixed and floating rate, foreign currency denominated, and other notes). Commitments under financing leases are not significant.
Interest payments on long-term debt obligations(a)
21,122 1,390 2,746 2,455 14,530 Incorporates only current period assumptions for interest rates, foreign currency translation rates and hedging strategies, and assumes that interest is accrued through the maturity date or expiration of the related instrument.
Other long-term liabilities(b)
2,070 383 451 381 855 Includes expected payments relating to our unfunded U.S. supplemental (non-qualified) pension plans, postretirement plans and deferred compensation plans. Excludes amounts relating to our U.S. qualified pension plans and international pension plans, all of which have a substantial amount of plan assets, because the required funding obligations are not expected to be material and/or because such liabilities do not necessarily reflect future cash payments, as the impact of changes in economic conditions on the fair value of the pension plan assets and/or liabilities can be significant. Also, excludes $4.2 billion of liabilities related to the fair value of derivative financial instruments, legal matters and employee terminations, among other liabilities, most of which do not represent contractual obligations.
Operating leases(c)
3,312 357 638 460 1,856 Includes future minimum rental commitments under non-cancelable operating leases, including an agreement to lease space in an office building in New York City.
Purchase obligations and other(d)
3,793 847 1,470 933 543 Includes agreements to purchase goods and services that are enforceable and legally binding and includes amounts relating to advertising, information technology services, employee benefit administration services, and potential milestone payments deemed reasonably likely to occur.
Other taxes payable—deemed repatriated accumulated post-1986 earnings of foreign subsidiaries(e)
9,000 700 1,700 3,700 2,900 Represents estimated cash payments related to the TCJA repatriation tax liability.
Uncertain tax positions(e)
42 42 — — — Includes only income tax amounts currently payable. We are unable to predict the timing of tax settlements related to our noncurrent obligations for uncertain tax positions as tax audits can involve complex issues and the resolution of those issues may span multiple years, particularly if subject to negotiation or litigation.
(a)See Note 7.
(b)See Notes 3, 7A,11E and16.
(c)See Note 15.
(d)Also includes obligations to make guaranteed fixed annual payments over the next six years in connection with the U.S. and EU approvals for Besponsa ($401 million) and an obligation to make guaranteed fixed annual payments over the next seven years for Bosulif ($195 million), both associated with R&D arrangements.
(e)See Note 5.

The above table includes amounts for potential milestone payments under collaboration, licensing or other arrangements, if the payments are deemed reasonably likely to occur. Payments under these agreements generally become due and payable only upon the achievement of certain development, regulatory and/or commercialization milestones, which may span several years and which may never occur.

In 2021, we expect to spend approximately $3.0 billion on property, plant and equipment. We rely largely on operating cash flows to fund our capital investment needs.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
In the ordinary course of business and in connection with the sale of assets and businesses and other transactions, we often indemnify our counterparties against certain liabilities that may arise in connection with the transaction or that are related to events and activities. For more information on guarantees and indemnifications, see Note 16B.
Additionally, certain of our co-promotion or license agreements give our licensors or partners the rights to negotiate for, or in some cases to obtain under certain financial conditions, co-promotion or other rights in specified countries with respect to certain of our products.
Share-Purchase Plans and Accelerated Share Repurchase Agreements

See Note 12 for information on the shares of our common stock purchased and the cost of purchases under our publicly announced share-purchase plans, including our accelerated share repurchase agreements. At December 31, 2020, our remaining share-purchase authorization was approximately $5.3 billion.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K47


Dividends on Common Stock

In December 2020, our BOD declared a first-quarter dividend of $0.39 per share, payable on March 5, 2021, to shareholders of record at the close of business on January 29, 2021. The first-quarter 2021 cash dividend will be our 329th consecutive quarterly dividend.

Our current and projected dividends provide a return to shareholders while maintaining sufficient capital to invest in growing our business. Our dividends are not restricted by debt covenants. While the dividend level remains a decision of Pfizer’s BOD and will continue to be evaluated in the context of future business performance, we currently believe that we can support future annual dividend increases, barring significant unforeseen events. Viatris is expected to begin paying a quarterly dividend in the second quarter of 2021, at which time Pfizer’s quarterly dividend is expected to be reduced such that the combined dividend dollar amount received by Pfizer shareholders, based upon the combination of continued Pfizer ownership and approximately 0.124079 shares of Viatris common stock which were granted for each Pfizer share in the spin-off, will equate to Pfizer’s dividend amount in effect immediately prior to the initiation of the Viatris dividend.
NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
See Note 1B.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards, Not Adopted as of December 31, 2020
Standard/DescriptionEffective DateEffect on the Financial Statements
Accounting for income taxes eliminates certain exceptions to the guidance, related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. The new guidance also simplifies aspects of the accounting for franchise taxes and enacted changes in tax laws or rates and clarifies the accounting for transactions that result in a step-up in the tax basis of goodwill.
January 1, 2021.We do not expect this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Reference rate reform provides temporary optional expedients and exceptions to the guidance for contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued after 2021 because of reference rate reform.
The new guidance provides the following optional expedients:
1.Simplify accounting analyses under current U.S. GAAP for contract modifications.
2.Simplify the assessment of hedge effectiveness and allow hedging relationships affected by reference rate reform to continue.
3.Allow a one-time election to sell or transfer debt securities classified as held to maturity that reference a rate affected by reference rate reform.
Elections can be adopted prospectively at any time in the first quarter of 2020 through December 31, 2022.
We are assessing the impact of the provisions of this new guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
ITEM 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to the discussion in the Analysis of Financial Condition, Liquidity, Capital Resources and Market Risk—Selected Measures of Liquidity and Capital Resources section within MD&A.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K48


ITEM 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Pfizer Inc.:
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies (the Company) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated February 25, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Evaluation of the U.S. Medicare, Medicaid, and performance-based contract rebates accrual
As discussed in Note 1G to the consolidated financial statements, the Company records estimated deductions for Medicare, Medicaid, and performance-based contract rebates (collectively, U.S. rebates) as a reduction to gross product revenues. The accrual for U.S. rebates is recorded in the same period that the corresponding revenues are recognized. The length of time between when a sale is made and when the U.S. rebate is paid by the Company can be as long as one year, which increases the need for significant management judgment and knowledge of market conditions and practices in estimating the accrual.
We identified the evaluation of the U.S. rebates accrual as a critical audit matter because the evaluation of the product-specific experience ratio assumption involved especially challenging auditor judgment. The product-specific experience ratio assumption relates to estimating which of the Company’s revenue transactions will ultimately be subject to a related rebate.
The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls over the Company’s U.S. rebates accrual process related to the development of the product-specific experience ratio assumptions. We estimated the U.S. rebates accrual using internal information and historical data and compared the result to the Company’s estimated U.S. rebates accrual. We evaluated the Company’s ability to accurately estimate the accrual for U.S. rebates by comparing historically recorded accruals to the actual amount that was ultimately paid by the Company.
Evaluation of gross unrecognized tax benefits
As discussed in Notes 5D and 1P, the Company’s tax positions are subject to audit by local taxing authorities in each respective tax jurisdiction, and the resolution of such audits may span multiple years. Since tax law is complex and often subject to varied interpretations and judgments, it is uncertain whether some of the Company’s tax positions will be sustained upon audit. As of December 31, 2020, the Company has recorded gross unrecognized tax benefits, excluding associated interest, of $5.6 billion.
We identified the evaluation of the Company’s gross unrecognized tax benefits as a critical audit matter because a high degree of audit effort, including specialized skills and knowledge, and complex auditor judgment was required in evaluating the Company’s interpretation of tax law and its estimate of the ultimate resolution of its tax positions.
The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of an internal control over the Company’s liability for unrecognized tax position process related to (1) interpretation

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K49


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
of tax law, (2) evaluation of which of the Company’s tax positions may not be sustained upon audit, and (3) estimation and recording of the gross unrecognized tax benefits. We involved tax and valuation professionals with specialized skills and knowledge who assisted in evaluating the Company’s interpretation of tax laws, including the assessment of transfer pricing practices in accordance with applicable tax laws and regulations. We inspected settlements with applicable taxing authorities, including assessing the expiration of statutes of limitations. We tested the calculation of the liability for uncertain tax positions, including an evaluation of the Company’s assessment of the technical merits of tax positions and estimates of the amount of tax benefits expected to be sustained.
Evaluation of product and other product-related litigation
As discussed in Notes 1R and 16 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company is involved in product liability and other product-related litigation, which can include personal injury, consumer, off-label promotion, securities, antitrust and breach of contract claims, among others. Certain of these pending product and other product-related legal proceedings could result in losses that could be substantial. The accrued liability and/or disclosure for the pending product and other product-related legal proceedings requires a complex series of judgments by the Company about future events, which involves a number of uncertainties.
We identified the evaluation of product and other product-related litigation as a critical audit matter. Challenging auditor judgment was required to evaluate the Company’s judgments about future events and uncertainties.
The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls over the Company’s product liability and other product-related litigation processes, including controls related to (1) the evaluation of information from external and internal legal counsel, (2) forward-looking expectations, and (3) new legal proceedings, or other legal proceedings not currently reserved or disclosed. We read letters received directly from the Company’s external and internal legal counsel that described the Company’s probable or reasonably possible legal contingency to pending product and other product-related legal proceedings. We inspected the Company’s minutes from meetings of the Audit Committee, which included the status of key litigation matters. We evaluated the Company’s ability to estimate its monetary exposure to pending product and other product-related legal proceedings by comparing historically recorded liabilities to actual monetary amounts incurred upon resolution of prior legal matters. We analyzed relevant publicly available information about the Company, its competitors, and the industry.
 pfe-20201231_g10.jpg
KPMG LLP
We have not been able to determine the specific year that KPMG and our predecessor firms began serving as the Company’s auditor, however, we are aware that KPMG and our predecessor firms have served as the Company’s auditor since at least 1942.
New York, New York
February 25, 2021


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K50


Consolidated Statements of Income
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies

 Year Ended December 31,
(MILLIONS, EXCEPT PER COMMON SHARE DATA)202020192018
Revenues$41,908 $41,172 $40,825 
Costs and expenses:  
Cost of sales(a)
8,692 8,251 8,987 
Selling, informational and administrative expenses(a)
11,615 12,750 12,612 
Research and development expenses(a)
9,405 8,394 7,760 
Amortization of intangible assets3,436 4,462 4,736 
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs600 601 1,058 
(Gain) on completion of Consumer Healthcare JV transaction(6)(8,086)
Other (income)/deductions––net669 3,314 2,077 
Income from continuing operations before provision/(benefit) for taxes on income7,497 11,485 3,594 
Provision/(benefit) for taxes on income477 618 (266)
Income from continuing operations7,021 10,867 3,861 
Income from discontinued operations––net of tax2,631 5,435 7,328 
Net income before allocation to noncontrolling interests9,652 16,302 11,188 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests36 29 36 
Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders$9,616 $16,273 $11,153 
Earnings per common share––basic:
   
Income from continuing operations attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders$1.26 $1.95 $0.65 
Income from discontinued operations––net of tax0.47 0.98 1.25 
Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders$1.73 $2.92 $1.90 
Earnings per common share––diluted:
  
Income from continuing operations attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders$1.24 $1.91 $0.64 
Income from discontinued operations––net of tax0.47 0.96 1.23 
Net income attributable to Pfizer Inc. common shareholders$1.71 $2.87 $1.87 
Weighted-average shares––basic5,555 5,569 5,872 
Weighted-average shares––diluted5,632 5,675 5,977 
(a)Exclusive of amortization of intangible assets, except as disclosed in Note 1L.
See Accompanying Notes.


Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K51


Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies

Year Ended December 31,
(MILLIONS)202020192018
Net income before allocation to noncontrolling interests$9,652 $16,302 $11,188 
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net$957 $654 $(799)
Reclassification adjustments(17)(288)(22)
 940 366 (821)
Unrealized holding gains/(losses) on derivative financial instruments, net(582)476 220 
Reclassification adjustments for (gains)/losses included in net income(a)
21 (664)27 
 (561)(188)247 
Unrealized holding gains/(losses) on available-for-sale securities, net361 (1)(185)
Reclassification adjustments for (gains)/losses included in net income(b)
(188)39 124 
Reclassification adjustments for unrealized gains included in Retained earnings(c)
0 (462)
173 38 (522)
Benefit plans: actuarial gains/(losses), net(1,128)(826)(649)
Reclassification adjustments related to amortization276 241 242 
Reclassification adjustments related to settlements, net278 274 142 
Other(189)22 112 
 (763)(289)(153)
Benefit plans: prior service (costs)/credits and other, net52 (7)(9)
Reclassification adjustments related to amortization of prior service costs and other, net(176)(181)(181)
Reclassification adjustments related to curtailments of prior service costs and other, net0 (2)(19)
Other0 
 (124)(189)(207)
Other comprehensive income/(loss), before tax(335)(262)(1,457)
Tax provision/(benefit) on other comprehensive income/(loss)(d)
(349)115 518 
Other comprehensive income/(loss) before allocation to noncontrolling interests$14 $(376)$(1,975)
   
Comprehensive income before allocation to noncontrolling interests$9,666 $15,926 $9,214 
Less: Comprehensive income/(loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests27 18 16 
Comprehensive income attributable to Pfizer Inc.$9,639 $15,908 $9,198 
(a)Reclassified into Other (income)/deductions—net and Cost of sales. See Note 7E.
(b)Reclassified into Other (income)/deductions—net.
(c)See Note 1B in our 2018 Financial Report.
(d)See Note 5E.
See Accompanying Notes.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K52


Consolidated Balance Sheets
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies

As of December 31,
(MILLIONS, EXCEPT PREFERRED STOCK ISSUED AND PER COMMON SHARE DATA)20202019
Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$1,784 $1,121 
Short-term investments10,437 8,525 
Trade accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts: 2020—$508; 2019—$4937,930 6,772 
Inventories8,046 7,068 
Current tax assets3,264 2,736 
Other current assets3,438 2,357 
Current assets of discontinued operations and other assets held for sale167 4,224 
Total current assets35,067 32,803 
Equity-method investments16,856 17,133 
Long-term investments3,406 3,014 
Property, plant and equipment13,900 12,969 
Identifiable intangible assets28,471 33,936 
Goodwill49,577 48,202 
Noncurrent deferred tax assets and other noncurrent tax assets2,383 1,911 
Other noncurrent assets4,569 4,199 
Noncurrent assets of discontinued operations0 13,427 
Total assets$154,229 $167,594 
Liabilities and Equity  
Short-term borrowings, including current portion of long-term debt: 2020—$2,002; 2019—$1,462$2,703 $16,195 
Trade accounts payable4,309 3,887 
Dividends payable2,162 2,104 
Income taxes payable1,049 980 
Accrued compensation and related items3,058 2,390 
Other current liabilities12,640 9,334 
Current liabilities of discontinued operations0 2,413 
Total current liabilities25,920 37,304 
Long-term debt37,133 35,955 
Pension benefit obligations4,766 5,291 
Postretirement benefit obligations645 926 
Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities4,063 5,652 
Other taxes payable11,560 12,126 
Other noncurrent liabilities6,669 6,894 
Total liabilities90,756 104,148 
Commitments and Contingencies00
Preferred stock, no par value, at stated value; 27 shares authorized; issued: 2020—0; 2019—4310 17 
Common stock, $0.05 par value; 12,000 shares authorized; issued: 2020—9,407; 2019—9,369470 468 
Additional paid-in capital88,674 87,428 
Treasury stock, shares at cost: 2020—3,840; 2019—3,835(110,988)(110,801)
Retained earnings96,770 97,670 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(11,688)(11,640)
Total Pfizer Inc. shareholders’ equity63,238 63,143 
Equity attributable to noncontrolling interests235 303 
Total equity63,473 63,447 
Total liabilities and equity$154,229 $167,594 
See Accompanying Notes.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K53


Consolidated Statements of Equity
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies

 PFIZER INC. SHAREHOLDERS 
Preferred StockCommon Stock Treasury Stock   
(MILLIONS, EXCEPT PREFERRED SHARES AND PER SHARE AMOUNTS)SharesStated ValueSharesPar ValueAdd’l
Paid-In
Capital
SharesCostRetained EarningsAccum.
Other
Comp. Loss
Share -
holders’
Equity
Non-controlling InterestsTotal
Equity
Balance, January 1, 2018524 $21 9,275 $464 $84,278 (3,296)$(89,425)$85,291 $(9,321)$71,308 $348 $71,656 
Net income11,153 11,153 36 11,188 
Other comprehensive income/(loss), net of tax(1,955)(1,955)(20)(1,975)
Cash dividends declared, per share: $1.38
Common stock(8,060)(8,060)(8,060)
Preferred stock(1)(1)(1)
Noncontrolling interests— (12)(12)
Share-based payment transactions57 1,977 (12)13 1,993 1,993 
Purchases of common stock(307)(12,198)(12,198)(12,198)
Preferred stock conversions and redemptions(46)(2)(3) — (4)(4)
Other(a)
— — 1,172 1,172 — 1,172 
Balance, December 31, 2018478 19 9,332 467 86,253 (3,615)(101,610)89,554 (11,275)63,407 351 63,758 
Net income16,273 16,273 29 16,302 
Other comprehensive income/(loss), net of tax(365)(365)(11)(376)
Cash dividends declared, per share: $1.46
Common stock(8,174)(8,174)(8,174)
Preferred stock(1)(1)(1)
Noncontrolling interests— (6)(6)
Share-based payment transactions37 1,219 (8)(326)894 894 
Purchases of common stock(213)(8,865)(8,865)(8,865)
Preferred stock conversions and redemptions(47)(2)(3)— (4)(4)
Other(40)— — 19 (21)(60)(81)
Balance, December 31, 2019431 17 9,369 468 87,428 (3,835)(110,801)97,670 (11,640)63,143 303 63,447 
Net income9,616 9,616 36 9,652 
Other comprehensive income/(loss), net of tax23 23 (9)14 
Cash dividends declared, per share: $1.53
Common stock(8,571)(8,571)(8,571)
Preferred stock   
Noncontrolling interests (91)(91)
Share-based payment transactions37 2 1,261 (6)(218)1,044 1,044 
Preferred stock conversions and redemptions(b)
(431)(17)(15)1 31 (1)(1)
Distribution of Upjohn Business(c)
(1,944)(71)(2,015)(3)(2,018)
Other    (1)(1)
Balance, December 31, 20200 $0 9,407 $470 $88,674 (3,840)$(110,988)$96,770 $(11,688)$63,238 $235 $63,473 
(a)Primarily represents the cumulative effect of the adoption of new accounting standards in 2018 for revenues, financial assets and liabilities, income tax accounting, and the reclassification of certain tax effects. See Note 1B in our 2018 Financial Report.
(b)See Note 12.
(c)See Note 2B.
See Accompanying Notes.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K54


Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies

 Year Ended December 31,
(MILLIONS)202020192018
Operating Activities  
Net income before allocation to noncontrolling interests$9,652 $16,302 $11,188 
Income from discontinued operations—net of tax2,631 5,435 7,328 
Net income from continuing operations before allocation to noncontrolling interests7,021 10,867 3,861 
Adjustments to reconcile net income before allocation to noncontrolling interests to net cash provided by operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization4,777 5,795 6,150 
Asset write-offs and impairments2,049 2,941 3,398 
TCJA impact0 (323)(596)
Gain on completion of Consumer Healthcare JV transaction, net of cash conveyed(a)
(6)(8,233)
Deferred taxes from continuing operations(1,468)596 (2,204)
Share-based compensation expense756 688 923 
Benefit plan contributions in excess of expense/income(1,790)(288)(1,057)
Other adjustments, net(478)(1,080)(1,266)
Other changes in assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions and divestitures:
Trade accounts receivable(1,249)(1,140)(458)
Inventories(736)(1,080)(432)
Other assets(146)840 (52)
Trade accounts payable353 (340)404 
Other liabilities2,741 851 367 
Other tax accounts, net(1,238)(3,084)(163)
Net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations10,586 7,011 8,875 
Net cash provided by operating activities from discontinued operations3,817 5,576 6,952 
Net cash provided by operating activities14,403 12,588 15,827 
Investing Activities  
Purchases of property, plant and equipment(2,252)(2,072)(1,984)
Purchases of short-term investments(13,805)(6,835)(11,677)
Proceeds from redemptions/sales of short-term investments11,087 9,183 17,581 
Net (purchases of)/proceeds from redemptions/sales of short-term investments with original maturities of three months or less920 6,925 (3,917)
Purchases of long-term investments(597)(201)(1,797)
Proceeds from redemptions/sales of long-term investments723 232 6,244 
Acquisitions of businesses, net of cash acquired0 (10,861)
Acquisitions of intangible assets(539)(418)(152)
Other investing activities, net(a)
274 195 287 
Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities from continuing operations(4,188)(3,852)4,584 
Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities from discontinued operations(82)(94)(60)
Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities(4,271)(3,945)4,525 
Financing Activities  
Proceeds from short-term borrowings12,352 16,455 3,711 
Principal payments on short-term borrowings(22,197)(8,378)(4,437)
Net (payments on)/proceeds from short-term borrowings with original maturities of three months or less(4,129)2,551 (1,617)
Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt5,222 4,942 4,974 
Principal payments on long-term debt(4,003)(6,806)(3,566)
Purchases of common stock0 (8,865)(12,198)
Cash dividends paid(8,440)(8,043)(7,978)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options425 394 1,259 
Other financing activities, net(869)(736)(588)
Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities from continuing operations(21,640)(8,485)(20,441)
Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities from discontinued operations11,991 
Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities(9,649)(8,485)(20,441)
Effect of exchange-rate changes on cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents(8)(32)(116)
Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents475 125 (205)
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents, at beginning of period1,350 1,225 1,431 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents, at end of period$1,825 $1,350 $1,225 
- Continued -

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K55


Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies

Year Ended December 31,
202020192018
Supplemental Cash Flow Information  
Cash paid (received) during the period for:
Income taxes$3,153 $3,664 $3,655 
Interest paid1,641 1,587 1,311 
Interest rate hedges(20)(42)(38)
Non-cash transactions:
32% equity-method investment in the Consumer Healthcare JV received in exchange for contributing Pfizer’s Consumer Healthcare business(a)
$0 $15,711 $
Equity investment in Allogene received in exchange for Pfizer's allogeneic CAR T developmental program assets0 92 
Equity investment in Cerevel in exchange for Pfizer’s portfolio of clinical and preclinical neuroscience assets0 343 
(a)The $8.2 billion Gain on completion of Consumer Healthcare JV transaction, net of cash conveyed reflects the receipt of a 32% equity-method investment in the new company initially valued at $15.7 billion in exchange for net assets contributed of $7.6 billion and is presented in operating activities net of $146 million cash conveyed that is reflected in Other investing activities, net. See Note 2C.
See Accompanying Notes.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K56


Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies

Note 1. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

A. Basis of Presentation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of our parent company and all subsidiaries and are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The decision of whether or not to consolidate an entity for financial reporting purposes requires consideration of majority voting interests, as well as effective economic or other control over the entity. Typically, we do not seek control by means other than voting interests. For subsidiaries operating outside the U.S., the financial information is included as of and for the year ended November 30 for each year presented. Pfizer's fiscal year-end for U.S. subsidiaries is as of and for the year ended December 31 for each year presented. Substantially all unremitted earnings of international subsidiaries are free of legal and contractual restrictions. All significant transactions among our subsidiaries have been eliminated.

On November 16, 2020, we completed the spin-off and the combination of our Upjohn Business with Mylan. Prior to the separation of the Upjohn Business, beginning in 2020, the Upjohn Business, Meridian, which is the manufacturer of EpiPen and other auto-injector products, and a pre-existing strategic collaboration between Pfizer and Mylan for generic drugs in Japan (the Mylan-Japan collaboration) were managed as part of our former Upjohn operating segment. Revenues and expenses associated with Meridian and the Mylan-Japan collaboration were included in the Upjohn operating segment results along with the results of operations of the Upjohn Business in Pfizer’s historical consolidated financial statements. Meridian, which remains with Pfizer, supplies EpiPen Auto-Injectors to Viatris under a supply agreement expiring December 31, 2024, with an option for Viatris to extend for an additional one-year term. On December 21, 2020, which falls in Pfizer’s international 2021 fiscal year, Pfizer and Viatris completed the termination, under the previously disclosed agreement dated November 13, 2020, of the Mylan-Japan collaboration and we transferred related inventories and operations that were part of the Mylan-Japan collaboration to Viatris. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020, the financial results of the Upjohn Business and the Mylan-Japan collaboration are reflected as discontinued operations for all periods presented. The financial results of Meridian are now included in our Hospital therapeutic area for all periods presented. Upon completion of the spin-off of the Upjohn Business on November 16, 2020, the Upjohn assets and liabilities were derecognized from our consolidated balance sheet and are reflected in Retained EarningsDistribution of Upjohn Business in the consolidated statement of equity. The assets and liabilities associated with the Upjohn Business and the Mylan-Japan collaboration are classified as assets and liabilities of discontinued operations. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform with the current year presentation. In addition, other acquisitions and business development activities completed in 2020, 2019 and 2018, including the acquisitions of Array and Therachon, and the contribution of our Consumer Healthcare business to the Consumer Healthcare JV, impacted financial results in the periods presented. See Note 2.

Prior to the separation of the Upjohn Business, we managed our commercial operations through 3 distinct business segments: (i) our innovative science-based biopharmaceutical products business (Biopharma); (ii) our global, primarily off-patent branded and generics business (Upjohn); and (iii) through July 31, 2019, Pfizer’s consumer healthcare business. With the formation of the Consumer Healthcare JV in 2019 and the completion of the spin-off of our Upjohn Business in the fourth quarter of 2020, Pfizer has transformed into a more focused, global leader in science-based innovative medicines and vaccines. We now operate as a single operating segment engaged in the discovery, development, manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution of biopharmaceutical products worldwide. Regional commercial organizations market, distribute and sell our products. Our commercial organization is supported by global platform functions that are responsible for the research, development, manufacturing and supply of our products. The business is also supported by global corporate enabling functions. Our determination that we operate as a single segment is consistent with the financial information regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision maker for purposes of evaluating performance, allocating resources, setting incentive compensation targets, and planning and forecasting for future periods. Our chief operating decision maker allocates resources and assesses financial performance on a consolidated basis. Prior-period information has been restated to reflect our current organizational structure following the separation of the Upjohn Business. For information about product and geographic revenues, see Note 17.

Certain amounts in the consolidated financial statements and associated notes may not add due to rounding. All percentages have been calculated using unrounded amounts.
B. New Accounting Standards Adopted in 2020

On January 1, 2020, we adopted the following accounting standards:
Credit Losses on Financial Instruments––We adopted a new accounting standard for credit losses on financial instruments, which replaces the probable initial recognition threshold for incurred loss estimates under prior guidance with a methodology that reflects expected credit loss estimates. The standard generally impacts financial assets that have a contractual right to receive cash and are not accounted for at fair value through net income, such as accounts receivable and held-to-maturity debt securities. The new guidance requires us to identify, analyze, document and support new methodologies for quantifying expected credit loss estimates for certain financial instruments, using information such as historical experience, current economic conditions and information, and the use of reasonable and supportable forecasted information. The standard also amends existing impairment guidance for available-for-sale debt securities to incorporate a credit loss allowance and allows for reversals of credit impairments in the event the issuer’s credit improves.
We adopted the new accounting standard utilizing the modified retrospective method and, therefore, no adjustments were made to prior period financial statements. The cumulative effect of adopting the standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of Retained earnings was not material. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated statement of income or consolidated statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2020, nor on our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020. For additional information, see Note 1G.
Goodwill Impairment Testing––We prospectively adopted the new standard, which eliminates the requirement to perform a hypothetical purchase price allocation to measure goodwill impairment. Under the new guidance, the goodwill impairment test is performed by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, and recognizing an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K57


Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies
of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value. There was no impact to our consolidated financial statements from the adoption of this new standard.

Implementation Costs in a Cloud Computing Arrangement––We prospectively adopted the new standard related to customers’ accounting for implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is considered a service contract. The new guidance aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs in such arrangements with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Collaboration Agreements––We prospectively adopted the new standard, which provides guidance clarifying the interaction between the accounting for collaborative arrangements and revenue from contracts with customers. There was no impact to our consolidated financial statements from the adoption of this new standard.
C. Estimates and Assumptions

In preparing these financial statements, we use certain estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts and disclosures. These estimates and assumptions can impact all elements of our financial statements. For example, in the consolidated statements of income, estimates are used when accounting for deductions from revenues, determining the cost of inventory that is sold, allocating cost in the form of depreciation and amortization, and estimating restructuring charges and the impact of contingencies, as well as determining provisions for taxes on income. On the consolidated balance sheets, estimates are used in determining the valuation and recoverability of assets, and in determining the reported amounts of liabilities, all of which also impact the consolidated statements of income. Certain estimates of fair value and amounts recorded in connection with acquisitions, revenue deductions, impairment reviews, restructuring-associated charges, investments and financial instruments, valuation allowances, pension and postretirement benefit plans, contingencies, share-based compensation, and other calculations can result from a complex series of judgments about future events and uncertainties and can rely heavily on estimates and assumptions.

Our estimates are often based on complex judgments and assumptions that we believe to be reasonable, but that can be inherently uncertain and unpredictable. If our estimates and assumptions are not representative of actual outcomes, our results could be materially impacted. As future events and their effects cannot be determined with precision, our estimates and assumptions may prove to be incomplete or inaccurate, or unanticipated events and circumstances may occur that might cause us to change those estimates and assumptions. We are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ from estimated amounts, such as changes in the healthcare environment, competition, litigation, legislation and regulations. We regularly evaluate our estimates and assumptions using historical experience and expectations about the future. We adjust our estimates and assumptions when facts and circumstances indicate the need for change.
D. Acquisitions

Our consolidated financial statements include the operations of acquired businesses after the completion of the acquisitions. We account for acquired businesses using the acquisition method of accounting, which requires, among other things, that most assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recognized at their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date and that the fair value of acquired IPR&D be recorded on the balance sheet. Transaction costs are expensed as incurred. Any excess of the consideration transferred over the assigned values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. When we acquire net assets that do not constitute a business, as defined in U.S. GAAP, no goodwill is recognized and acquired IPR&D is expensed.

Contingent consideration in a business combination is included as part of the acquisition cost and is recognized at fair value as of the acquisition date. Fair value is generally estimated by using a probability-weighted discounted cash flow approach. See Note 16D. Any liability resulting from contingent consideration is remeasured to fair value at each reporting date until the contingency is resolved. These changes in fair value are recognized in earnings in Other (income)/deductions––net.

E. Fair Value

We measure certain assets and liabilities at fair value, either upon initial recognition or for subsequent accounting or reporting. We estimate fair value using an exit price approach, which requires, among other things, that we determine the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly market. The determination of an exit price is considered from the perspective of market participants, considering the highest and best use of non-financial assets and, for liabilities, assuming that the risk of non-performance will be the same before and after the transfer.

When estimating fair value, depending on the nature and complexity of the asset or liability, we may use one or all of the following techniques:
Income approach, which is based on the present value of a future stream of net cash flows.
Market approach, which is based on market prices and other information from market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities.
Cost approach, which is based on the cost to acquire or construct comparable assets, less an allowance for functional and/or economic obsolescence.

Our fair value methodologies depend on the following types of inputs:
Quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets (Level 1 inputs).
Quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, or quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, or inputs other than quoted prices that are directly or indirectly observable, or inputs that are derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data by correlation or other means (Level 2 inputs).
Unobservable inputs that reflect estimates and assumptions (Level 3 inputs).

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K58


Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies
The following inputs and valuation techniques are used to estimate the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities:
Available-for-sale debt securities—third-party matrix-pricing model that uses significant inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data and credit-adjusted yield curves.
Equity securities with readily determinable fair values—quoted market prices and observable NAV prices.
Derivative assets and liabilities—third-party matrix-pricing model that uses inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data. Where applicable, these models use market-based observable inputs, including interest rate yield curves to discount future cash flow amounts, and forward and spot prices for currencies. The credit risk impact to our derivative financial instruments was not significant.
Money market funds—observable NAV prices.
We periodically review the methodologies, inputs and outputs of third-party pricing services for reasonableness. Our procedures can include, for example, referencing other third-party pricing models, monitoring key observable inputs (like benchmark interest rates) and selectively performing test-comparisons of values with actual sales of financial instruments.
F. Foreign Currency Translation

For most of our international operations, local currencies have been determined to be the functional currencies. We translate functional currency assets and liabilities to their U.S. dollar equivalents at exchange rates in effect as of the balance sheet date and income and expense amounts at average exchange rates for the period. The U.S. dollar effects that arise from changing translation rates are recorded in Other comprehensive income/(loss). The effects of converting non-functional currency monetary assets and liabilities into the functional currency are recorded in Other (income)/deductions––net. For operations in highly inflationary economies, we translate monetary items at rates in effect as of the balance sheet date, with translation adjustments recorded in Other (income)/deductions––net, and we translate non-monetary items at historical rates.

G. Revenues and Trade Accounts Receivable

Revenue Recognition––We record revenues from product sales when there is a transfer of control of the product from us to the customer. We determine transfer of control based on when the product is shipped or delivered and title passes to the customer.
Our Sales Contracts––Sales on credit are typically under short-term contracts. Collections are based on market payment cycles common in various markets, with shorter cycles in the U.S. Sales are adjusted for sales allowances, chargebacks, rebates and sales returns and cash discounts. Sales returns occur due to LOE, product recalls or a changing competitive environment.
Deductions from Revenues––Our gross product revenues are subject to a variety of deductions, which generally are estimated and recorded in the same period that the revenues are recognized. Such variable consideration represents chargebacks, rebates, sales allowances and sales returns. These deductions represent estimates of the related obligations and, as such, knowledge and judgment is required when estimating the impact of these revenue deductions on gross sales for a reporting period.
Provisions for pharmaceutical sales returns––Provisions are based on a calculation for each market that incorporates the following, as appropriate: local returns policies and practices; historical returns as a percentage of sales; an understanding of the reasons for past returns; estimated shelf life by product; an estimate of the amount of time between shipment and return or lag time; and any other factors that could impact the estimate of future returns, such as LOE, product recalls or a changing competitive environment. Generally, returned products are destroyed, and customers are refunded the sales price in the form of a credit.
We record sales incentives as a reduction of revenues at the time the related revenues are recorded or when the incentive is offered, whichever is later. We estimate the cost of our sales incentives based on our historical experience with similar incentives programs to predict customer behavior.
The following outlines our common sales arrangements:
Customers––Our biopharmaceutical products are sold principally to wholesalers, but we also sell directly to retailers, hospitals, clinics, government agencies and pharmacies. In the U.S., we primarily sell our vaccines products directly to the federal government, CDC, wholesalers, individual provider offices, retail pharmacies, and integrated delivery networks. Outside the U.S., we primarily sell our vaccines to government and non-government institutions. Customers for our consumer healthcare business, which were part of the business that was combined with GSK’s Consumer Healthcare business included retailers and, to a lesser extent, wholesalers and distributors.
Biopharmaceutical products that ultimately are used by patients are generally covered under governmental programs, managed care programs and insurance programs, including those managed through PBMs, and are subject to sales allowances and/or rebates payable directly to those programs. Those sales allowances and rebates are generally negotiated, but government programs may have legislated amounts by type of product (e.g., patented or unpatented).
Specifically:
In the U.S., we sell our products principally to distributors and hospitals. We also have contracts with managed care programs or PBMs and legislatively mandated contracts with the federal and state governments under which we provide rebates based on medicines utilized by the lives they cover. We record provisions for Medicare, Medicaid, and performance-based contract pharmaceutical rebates based upon our experience ratio of rebates paid and actual prescriptions written during prior periods. We apply the experience ratio to the respective period’s sales to determine the rebate accrual and related expense. This experience ratio is evaluated regularly to ensure that the historical trends are as current as practicable. We estimate discounts on branded prescription drug sales to Medicare Part D participants in the Medicare “coverage gap,” also known as the “doughnut hole,” based on the historical experience of beneficiary prescriptions and consideration of the utilization that is expected to result from the discount in the coverage gap. We evaluate this estimate regularly to ensure that the historical trends and future expectations are as current as practicable. For performance-based contract rebates, we also consider current contract terms, such as changes in formulary status and rebate rates.
Outside the U.S., the majority of our pharmaceutical sales allowances are contractual or legislatively mandated and our estimates are based on actual invoiced sales within each period, which reduces the risk of variations in the estimation process. In certain European countries,

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K59


Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies
rebates are calculated on the government’s total unbudgeted pharmaceutical spending or on specific product sales thresholds and we apply an estimated allocation factor against our actual invoiced sales to project the expected level of reimbursement. We obtain third-party information that helps us to monitor the adequacy of these accruals.
Provisions for pharmaceutical chargebacks (primarily reimbursements to U.S. wholesalers for honoring contracted prices to third parties) closely approximate actual amounts incurred, as we settle these deductions generally within two to five weeks of incurring the liability.
We recorded direct product sales and/or alliance revenues of more than $1 billion for each of seven products in 2020, for each of six products in 2019 and for each of seven products in 2018. In the aggregate, these direct products sales and/or alliance product revenues represent 53% of our revenues in 2020, 49% of our revenues in 2019 and 47% of our revenues in 2018. See Note 17B for additional information. The loss or expiration of intellectual property rights can have a significant adverse effect on our revenues as our contracts with customers will generally be at lower selling prices due to added competition and we generally provide for higher sales returns during the period in which individual markets begin to near the loss or expiration of intellectual property rights.
Our accruals for Medicare, Medicaid and related state program and performance-based contract rebates, chargebacks, sales allowances and sales returns and cash discounts are as follows:
  As of December 31,
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)20202019
Reserve against Trade accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts
$861 $823 
Other current liabilities:
Accrued rebates3,017 2,512 
Other accruals436 379 
Other noncurrent liabilities399 384 
Total accrued rebates and other sales-related accruals$4,712 $4,098 
Taxes collected from customers relating to product sales and remitted to governmental authorities are excluded from Revenues.

Trade Accounts Receivable—Trade accounts receivable are stated at their net realizable value. The allowance for credit losses reflects our best estimate of expected credit losses of the receivables portfolio determined on the basis of historical experience, current information, and forecasts of future economic conditions. In developing the estimate for expected credit losses, trade accounts receivables are segmented into pools of assets depending on market (U.S. versus international), delinquency status, and customer type (high risk versus low risk and government versus non-government), and fixed reserve percentages are established for each pool of trade accounts receivables.

In determining the reserve percentages for each pool of trade accounts receivables, we considered our historical experience with certain customers and customer types, regulatory and legal environments, country and political risk, and other relevant current and future forecasted macroeconomic factors. These credit risk indicators are monitored on a quarterly basis to determine whether there have been any changes in the economic environment that would indicate the established reserve percentages should be adjusted, and are considered on a regional basis to reflect more geographic-specific metrics. Additionally, write-offs and recoveries of customer receivables are tracked against collections on a quarterly basis to determine whether the reserve percentages remain appropriate. When management becomes aware of certain customer-specific factors that impact credit risk, specific allowances for these known troubled accounts are recorded. Trade accounts receivable are written off after all reasonable means to collect the full amount (including litigation, where appropriate) have been exhausted.
During 2020, additions to the allowance for credit losses, write-offs and recoveries of customer receivables were not material to our consolidated financial statements.

H. Collaborative Arrangements

Payments to and from our collaboration partners are presented in our consolidated statements of income based on the nature of the arrangement (including its contractual terms), the nature of the payments and applicable accounting guidance. Under co-promotion agreements, we record the amounts received for our share of gross profits from our collaboration partners as alliance revenues, a component of Revenues, when our collaboration partners are the principal in the transaction and we receive a share of their net sales or profits. Alliance revenues are recorded as we perform co-promotion activities for the collaboration and the collaboration partners sell the products to their customers. The related expenses for selling and marketing these products including reimbursements to or from our collaboration partners for these costs are included in Selling, informational and administrative expenses. In collaborative arrangements where we manufacture a product for our collaboration partners, we record revenues when we transfer control of the product to our collaboration partners. In collaboration arrangements where we are the principal in the transaction, we record amounts paid to collaboration partners for their share of net sales or profits earned, and all royalty payments to collaboration partners as Cost of sales. Royalty payments received from collaboration partners are included in Other (income)/deductions—net.
Reimbursements to or from our collaboration partners for development costs are recorded in Research and development expenses. Upfront payments and pre-approval milestone payments due from us to our collaboration partners in development stage collaborations are recorded as Research and development expenses. Milestone payments due from us to our collaboration partners after regulatory approval has been attained for a medicine are recorded in Identifiable intangible assets—Developed technology rights. Upfront and pre-approval milestone payments earned from our collaboration partners by us are recognized in Other (income)/deductions—net over the development period for the products, when our performance obligations include providing R&D services to our collaboration partners. Upfront, pre-approval and post-approval milestone payments earned by us may be recognized in Other (income)/deductions—net immediately when earned or over other periods depending upon the nature of our performance obligations in the applicable collaboration. Where the milestone event is regulatory approval for a medicine, we generally recognize milestone payments due to us in the transaction price when regulatory approval in the applicable jurisdiction has been attained. We may recognize milestone payments due to us in the transaction price earlier than the milestone event in certain circumstances when recognition of the income would not be probable of a significant reversal.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K60


Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies
I. Cost of Sales and Inventories

Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. The cost of finished goods, work in process and raw materials is determined using average actual cost. We regularly review our inventories for impairment and reserves are established when necessary.

J. Selling, Informational and Administrative Expenses

Selling, informational and administrative costs are expensed as incurred. Among other things, these expenses include the internal and external costs of marketing, advertising, shipping and handling, information technology and legal defense. Advertising expenses totaled approximately $1.8 billion in 2020, $2.4 billion in 2019 and $2.7 billion in 2018. Production costs are expensed as incurred and the costs of TV, radio, and other electronic media and publications are expensed when the related advertising occurs.
K. Research and Development Expenses

R&D costs are expensed as incurred. These expenses include the costs of our proprietary R&D efforts, as well as costs incurred in connection with certain licensing arrangements. Before a compound receives regulatory approval, we record upfront and milestone payments we make to third parties under licensing arrangements as expense. Upfront payments are recorded when incurred, and milestone payments are recorded when the specific milestone has been achieved. Once a compound receives regulatory approval, we record any milestone payments in Identifiable intangible assets, less accumulated amortization and, unless the asset is determined to have an indefinite life, we amortize the payments on a straight-line basis over the remaining agreement term or the expected product life cycle, whichever is shorter.

L. Amortization of Intangible Assets, Depreciation and Certain Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets include:
Property, plant and equipment, less accumulated depreciation—These assets are recorded at cost, including any significant improvements after purchase, less accumulated depreciation. Property, plant and equipment assets, other than land and construction in progress, are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the individual assets. Depreciation begins when the asset is ready for its intended use. For tax purposes, accelerated depreciation methods are used as allowed by tax laws.
Identifiable intangible assets, less accumulated amortization—These assets are recorded at fair value at acquisition. Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized until a useful life can be determined.
Goodwill—Goodwill represents the excess of the consideration transferred for an acquired business over the assigned values of its net assets. Goodwill is not amortized.
Amortization of finite-lived acquired intangible assets that contribute to our ability to sell, manufacture, research, market and distribute products, compounds and intellectual property is included in Amortization of intangible assets as these intangible assets benefit multiple business functions. Amortization of intangible assets that are for a single function and depreciation of property, plant and equipment are included in Cost of sales, Selling, informational and administrative expenses and/or Research and development expenses, as appropriate.
We review our long-lived assets for impairment indicators throughout the year. We perform impairment testing for indefinite-lived intangible assets and goodwill at least annually and for all other long-lived assets whenever impairment indicators are present. When necessary, we record impairments of long-lived assets for the amount by which the fair value is less than the carrying value of these assets.

Specifically:
For finite-lived intangible assets, such as developed technology rights, and for other long-lived assets, such as property, plant and equipment, whenever impairment indicators are present, we calculate the undiscounted value of the projected cash flows for the asset, or asset group, and compare this estimated amount to the carrying amount. If the carrying amount is greater, we record an impairment loss for the excess of book value over fair value. In addition, in all cases of an impairment review, we reevaluate the remaining useful lives of the assets and modify them, as appropriate.
For indefinite-lived intangible assets, such as Brands and IPR&D assets, when necessary, we determine the fair value of the asset and record an impairment loss, if any, for the excess of book value over fair value. In addition, in all cases of an impairment review other than for IPR&D assets, we re-evaluate whether continuing to characterize the asset as indefinite-lived is appropriate.
For goodwill, when necessary, we determine the fair value of each reporting unit and record an impairment loss, if any, for the excess of the book value of the reporting unit over the implied fair value.

M. Restructuring Charges and Other Costs Associated with Acquisitions and Cost-Reduction/Productivity Initiatives

We may incur restructuring charges in connection with acquisitions when we implement plans to restructure and integrate the acquired operations or in connection with our cost-reduction and productivity initiatives.
In connection with acquisition activity, we typically incur costs associated with executing the transactions, integrating the acquired operations (which may include expenditures for consulting and the integration of systems and processes), and restructuring the combined company (which may include charges related to employees, assets and activities that will not continue in the combined company); and
In connection with our cost-reduction/productivity initiatives, we typically incur costs and charges for site closings and other facility rationalization actions, workforce reductions and the expansion of shared services, including the development of global systems.
Included in Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs are all restructuring charges, as well as certain other costs associated with acquiring and integrating an acquired business. If the restructuring action results in a change in the estimated useful life of an asset, that incremental impact is classified in Cost of sales, Selling, informational and administrative expenses and/or Research and development

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K61


Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies
expenses, as appropriate. Employee termination costs are generally recorded when the actions are probable and estimable and include accrued severance benefits, pension and postretirement benefits, many of which may be paid out during periods after termination. Transaction costs, such as banking, legal, accounting and other similar costs incurred in connection with a business acquisition are expensed as incurred.
Our business and platform functions may be impacted by these actions, including sales and marketing, manufacturing and R&D, as well as our corporate enabling functions (such as digital, global real estate operations, legal, finance, human resources, worldwide public affairs, compliance and worldwide procurement).

N. Cash Equivalents and Statement of Cash Flows
Cash equivalents include items almost as liquid as cash, such as certificates of deposit and time deposits with maturity periods of three months or less when purchased. If items meeting this definition are part of a larger investment pool, we classify them as Short-term investments.
Cash flows for financial instruments designated as fair value or cash flow hedges may be included in operating, investing or financing activities, depending on the classification of the items being hedged. Cash flows for financial instruments designated as net investment hedges are classified according to the nature of the hedge instrument. Cash flows for financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting treatment are classified according to their purpose and accounting nature.
O. Investments and Derivative Financial Instruments
The classification of an investment depends on the nature of the investment, our intent and ability to hold the investment, and the degree to which we may exercise influence. Our investments are primarily comprised of the following:
Public equity securities with readily determinable fair values, which are carried at fair value, with changes in fair value reported in Other (income)/deductions—net.
Available-for-sale debt securities, which are carried at fair value, with changes in fair value reported in Other comprehensive income/(loss) until realized.
Held-to-maturity debt securities, which are carried at amortized cost.
Private equity securities without readily determinable fair values and where we have no significant influence are measured at cost minus any impairment and plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer.
For equity investments in common stock or in-substance common stock where we have significant influence over the financial and operating policies of the investee, we use the equity-method of accounting. Under the equity-method, we record our share of the investee’s income and expenses in Other (income)/deductions—net. The excess of the cost of the investment over our share of the underlying equity in the net assets of the investee as of the acquisition date is allocated to the identifiable assets and liabilities of the investee, with any remaining excess amount allocated to goodwill. Such investments are initially recorded at cost, which is the fair value of consideration paid and typically does not include contingent consideration.

Realized gains or losses on sales of investments are determined by using the specific identification cost method.

We regularly evaluate all of our financial assets for impairment. For investments in debt and equity, when a decline in fair value, if any, is determined, an impairment charge is recorded and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

Derivative financial instruments are carried at fair value in various balance sheet categories (see Note 7A), with changes in fair value reported in Net income or, for derivative financial instruments in certain qualifying hedging relationships, in Other comprehensive income/(loss) (see Note 7E).

P. Tax Assets and Liabilities and Income Tax Contingencies

Tax Assets and Liabilities

Current tax assets primarily includes (i) tax effects for intercompany transfers of inventory within our combined group, which are recognized in the consolidated statements of income when the inventory is sold to a third party and (ii) income tax receivables that are expected to be recovered either via refunds from taxing authorities or reductions to future tax obligations.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates and laws. We provide a valuation allowance when we believe that our deferred tax assets are not recoverable based on an assessment of estimated future taxable income that incorporates ongoing, prudent and feasible tax-planning strategies, that would be implemented, if necessary, to realize the deferred tax assets. Amounts recorded for valuation allowances requires judgments about future income which can depend heavily on estimates and assumptions. All deferred tax assets and liabilities within the same tax jurisdiction are presented as a net amount in the noncurrent section of our consolidated balance sheet.

Other non-current tax assets primarily represent our estimate of the potential tax benefits in one tax jurisdiction that could result from the payment of income taxes in another tax jurisdiction. These potential benefits generally result from cooperative efforts among taxing authorities, as required by tax treaties to minimize double taxation, commonly referred to as the competent authority process. The recoverability of these assets, which we believe to be more likely than not, is dependent upon the actual payment of taxes in one tax jurisdiction and, in some cases, the successful petition for recovery in another tax jurisdiction.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K62


Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies
Other taxes payable as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 include liabilities for uncertain tax positions and the noncurrent portion of the repatriation tax liability for which we elected payment over eight years through 2026. For additional information, see Note 5D for uncertain tax positions and Note 5A for the repatriation tax liability and other estimates and assumptions in connection with the TCJA.

Income Tax Contingencies

We account for income tax contingencies using a benefit recognition model. If we consider that a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon audit, based solely on the technical merits of the position, we recognize all or a portion of the benefit. We measure the benefit by determining the amount that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement, presuming that the tax position is examined by the taxing authority with full knowledge of all relevant information.

We regularly monitor our position and subsequently recognize the unrecognized tax benefit: (i) if there are changes in tax law, analogous case law or there is new information that sufficiently raise the likelihood of prevailing on the technical merits of the position to “more likely than not”; (ii) if the statute of limitations expires; or (iii) if there is a completion of an audit resulting in a favorable settlement of that tax year with the appropriate agency. Liabilities for uncertain tax positions are classified as current only when we expect to pay cash within the next 12 months. Interest and penalties, if any, are recorded in Provision/(benefit) for taxes on income and are classified on our consolidated balance sheet with the related tax liability.

Our assessments are based on estimates and assumptions that have been deemed reasonable by management, but our estimates of unrecognized tax benefits and potential tax benefits may not be representative of actual outcomes, and variation from such estimates could materially affect our financial statements in the period of settlement or when the statutes of limitations expire, as we treat these events as discrete items in the period of resolution.

Q. Pension and Postretirement Benefit Plans

The majority of our employees worldwide are covered by defined benefit pension plans, defined contribution plans or both. In the U.S., we have both IRC-qualified and supplemental (non-qualified) defined benefit plans and defined contribution plans, as well as other postretirement benefit plans consisting primarily of medical insurance for retirees and their eligible dependents. We recognize the overfunded or underfunded status of each of our defined benefit plans as an asset or liability. The obligations are generally measured at the actuarial present value of all benefits attributable to employee service rendered, as provided by the applicable benefit formula. Our pension and other postretirement obligations may be determined using assumptions such as discount rate, expected annual rate of return on plan assets, expected employee turnover and participant mortality. For our pension plans, the obligation may also include assumptions as to future compensation levels. For our other postretirement benefit plans, the obligation may include assumptions as to the expected cost of providing medical insurance benefits, as well as the extent to which those costs are shared with the employee or others (such as governmental programs). Plan assets are measured at fair value. Net periodic pension and postretirement benefit costs other than the service costs are recognized in Other (income)/deductions—net.

R. Legal and Environmental Contingencies

We and certain of our subsidiaries are subject to numerous contingencies arising in the ordinary course of business, such as patent litigation, product liability and other product-related litigation, commercial litigation, environmental claims and proceedings, government investigations and guarantees and indemnifications. We record accruals for these contingencies to the extent that we conclude that a loss is both probable and reasonably estimable. If some amount within a range of loss appears to be a better estimate than any other amount within the range, we accrue that amount. Alternatively, when no amount within a range of loss appears to be a better estimate than any other amount, we accrue the lowest amount in the range. We record anticipated recoveries under existing insurance contracts when recovery is assured.

S. Share-Based Payments

Our compensation programs can include share-based payments. Generally, grants under share-based payment programs are accounted for at fair value and these fair values are generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the vesting terms with the related costs recorded in Cost of sales, Selling, informational and administrative expenses and/or Research and development expenses, as appropriate.
Note 2. Acquisitions, Divestitures, Equity-Method Investments, Licensing Arrangements and Collaborative Arrangements

A. Acquisitions
Array
On July 30, 2019, we acquired Array, a commercial stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of targeted small molecule medicines to treat cancer and other diseases of high unmet need, for $48 per share in cash. The total fair value of the consideration transferred was $11.2 billion ($10.9 billion, net of cash acquired). In addition, $157 million in payments to Array employees for the fair value of previously unvested stock options was recognized as post-closing compensation expense and recorded in Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs (see Note 3). We financed the majority of the transaction with debt and the balance with existing cash.
Array’s portfolio includes Braftovi (encorafenib) and Mektovi (binimetinib), a broad pipeline of targeted cancer medicines in different stages of R&D, as well as a portfolio of out-licensed medicines, which may generate milestones and royalties over time.
The final allocation of the consideration transferred to the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed was completed in 2020. In connection with this acquisition, we recorded: (i) $6.3 billion in Identifiable intangible assets, consisting of $2.0 billion of Developed technology rights with

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K63


Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies
a useful life of 16 years, $2.8 billion of IPR&D and $1.5 billion of Licensing agreements ($1.2 billion for technology in development––indefinite-lived licensing agreements and $360 million for developed technology––finite-lived licensing agreements with a useful life of 10 years), (ii) $6.1 billion of Goodwill, (iii) $1.1 billion of net deferred tax liabilities and (iv) $451 million of assumed long-term debt, which was paid in full in 2019.
In 2020, we recorded measurement period adjustments to the estimated fair values initially recorded in 2019, which resulted in a reduction in Identifiable intangible assets of approximately $900 million with a corresponding change to Goodwill and net deferred tax liabilities. The measurement period adjustments were recorded to better reflect market participant assumptions about facts and circumstances existing as of the acquisition date and did not have a material impact on our consolidated statement of income for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Therachon
On July 1, 2019, we acquired all the remaining shares of Therachon, a privately-held clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on rare diseases, with assets in development for the treatment of achondroplasia, a genetic condition and the most common form of short-limb dwarfism, for $340 million upfront, plus potential milestone payments of up to $470 million contingent on the achievement of key milestones in the development and commercialization of the lead asset. In 2018, we acquired approximately 3% of Therachon’s outstanding shares for
$5 million. We accounted for the transaction as an asset acquisition since the lead asset represented substantially all the fair value of the gross assets acquired. The total fair value of the consideration transferred for Therachon was $322 million, which consisted of $317 million of cash and our previous $5 million investment in Therachon. In connection with this asset acquisition, we recorded a charge of $337 million in
Research and development expenses.

B. Divestitures
Upjohn Separation and Combination with Mylan

On November 16, 2020, we completed the spin-off and the combination of the Upjohn Business with Mylan (the Transactions) to form Viatris. The Transactions were structured as an all-stock, Reverse Morris Trust transaction. Specifically, (i) we contributed the Upjohn Business to a wholly owned subsidiary, which was renamed Viatris, so that the Upjohn Business was separated from the remainder of our business (the Separation), (ii) following the Separation, we distributed, on a pro rata basis, all of the shares of Viatris common stock held by Pfizer to Pfizer stockholders as of the November 13, 2020 record date, such that each Pfizer stockholder as of the record date received approximately 0.124079 shares of Viatris common stock per share of Pfizer common stock (the Distribution); and (iii) immediately after the Distribution, the Upjohn Business combined with Mylan in a series of transactions in which Mylan shareholders received 1 share of Viatris common stock for each Mylan ordinary share held by such shareholder, subject to any applicable withholding taxes (the Combination). Prior to the Distribution, Viatris made a cash payment to Pfizer equal to $12.0 billion as partial consideration for the contribution of the Upjohn Business to Viatris. As of the closing of the Combination, Pfizer stockholders owned approximately 57% of the outstanding shares of Viatris common stock, and Mylan shareholders owned approximately 43% of the outstanding shares of Viatris common stock, in each case on a fully diluted, as-converted and as-exercised basis. The Transactions are generally expected to be tax free to Pfizer and Pfizer stockholders for U.S. tax purposes. Beginning November 16, 2020, Viatris operates both the Upjohn Business and Mylan as an independent publicly traded company, which is traded under the symbol “VTRS” on the NASDAQ.
In connection with the Transactions, in June 2020, Upjohn Inc. and Upjohn Finance B.V. completed privately placed debt offerings of $7.45 billion and €3.60 billion aggregate principal amounts, respectively, (approximately $11.4 billion) of senior unsecured notes and entered into other financing arrangements, including a $600 million delayed draw term loan agreement and a revolving credit facility agreement for up to $4.0 billion. Proceeds from the debt offerings and other financing arrangements were used to fund the $12.0 billion cash distribution Viatris made to Pfizer prior to the Distribution. We used the cash distribution proceeds to pay down commercial paper borrowings and redeem the $1.15 billion aggregate principal amount outstanding of our 1.95% senior unsecured notes that were due in June 2021 and $342 million aggregate principal amount outstanding of our 5.80% senior unsecured notes that were due in August 2023, before the maturity date. Interest expense for the $11.4 billion in debt securities incurred during 2020 is included in Income from discontinued operations––net of tax. Following the Separation and Combination of the Upjohn Business with Mylan, we are no longer the obligor or guarantor of any Upjohn debt or Upjohn financing arrangements.

As a result of the separation of Upjohn, we incurred separation-related costs of $434 million in 2020 and $83 million in 2019, which are included in Income from discontinued operations––net of tax. These costs primarily relate to professional fees for regulatory filings and separation activities within finance, tax, legal and information system functions as well as investment banking fees.

In connection with the Transactions, Pfizer and Viatris entered into various agreements to effect the Separation and Combination to provide a framework for our relationship after the Combination, including a separation and distribution agreement, manufacturing and supply agreements (MSAs), transition service agreements (TSAs), a tax matters agreement, and an employee matters agreement, among others. Under the MSAs, Pfizer or Viatris, as the case may be, manufactures, labels, and packages products for the other party. The terms of the MSAs range in initial duration from 4 to 7 years post-Separation. The TSAs primarily involve Pfizer providing services to Viatris related to finance, information technology and human resource infrastructure and are generally expected to be for terms of no more than 3 years post-Separation. In addition, we are also party to various commercial agreements with Viatris. The amounts billed for net manufacturing supply and transition services provided under the above agreements as well as sales to and purchases from Viatris are not material to our results of continuing operations in 2020.

Included in our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020 are net amounts due from Viatris primarily related to various interim agency operating models and transitional services, partially offset by net amounts due to Viatris for unsettled intercompany balances as of the closing date of the spin-off, transaction-related indemnifications and a contractual cash payment pursuant to terms of the separation and distribution agreement, totaling approximately $401 million. The interim agency operating model primarily includes billings, collections and remittance of rebates that we are performing on a transitional basis on behalf of Viatris.
The operating results of the Upjohn Business are reported as Income from discontinued operations––net of tax through November 16, 2020, the date of the spin-off and combination with Mylan. In addition, as of December 31, 2019, the assets and liabilities associated with this business are classified as assets and liabilities of discontinued operations. Prior-period financial information has been restated, as appropriate.

Pfizer Inc.2020 Form 10-K64


Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Pfizer Inc. and Subsidiary Companies
Components of Income from discontinued operations––net of tax:
Year Ended December 31,(a)
(MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)202020192018
Revenues$7,314 $10,578 $12,822 
Costs and expenses:
Cost of sales1,899 1,976 2,261 
Selling, informational and administrative expenses1,665 1,599 1,842 
Research and development expenses212 255 246 
Amortization of intangible assets136 148 157 
Restructuring charges and certain acquisition-related costs7 146 (14)
Other (income)/