Docoh
Loading...

FCNCA First Citizens Bancshares, Inc

Filed: 4 May 21, 5:11pm
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
____________________________________________________
Quarterly Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021
or
  Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission File Number: 001-16715
____________________________________________________
First Citizens BancShares, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________________________________
Delaware56-1528994
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
4300 Six Forks RoadRaleighNorth Carolina27609
(Address of principle executive offices)(Zip code)
(919)716-7000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
____________________________________________________
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, Par Value $1FCNCANasdaq Global Select Market
Depositary Shares, Each Representing a 1/40th Interest in a Share of 5.375% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series AFCNCPNasdaq Global Select Market
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Class B Common Stock, Par Value $1
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding twelve months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past ninety days.    Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files)    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “larger accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
Class A Common Stock—8,811,220 shares
Class B Common Stock—1,005,185 shares
(Number of shares outstanding, by class, as of April 30, 2021)


INDEX
 
2

PART I 
Item 1.Financial Statements
First Citizens BancShares, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Dollars in thousands, unaudited)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Assets
Cash and due from banks$410,495 $362,048 
Overnight investments7,588,757 4,347,336 
Investment in marketable equity securities (cost of $84,297 at March 31, 2021 and $84,837 at December 31, 2020)106,886 91,680 
Investment securities available for sale (cost of $7,270,552 at March 31, 2021 and $6,911,965 at December 31, 2020)7,307,122 7,014,243 
Investment securities held to maturity (fair value of $2,774,982 at March 31, 2021 and $2,838,499 at December 31, 2020)2,808,099 2,816,982 
Loans held for sale129,334 124,837 
Loans and leases33,180,851 32,791,975 
Allowance for credit losses(210,651)(224,314)
Net loans and leases32,970,200 32,567,661 
Premises and equipment1,238,874 1,251,283 
Other real estate owned48,512 50,890 
Income earned not collected148,022 145,694 
Goodwill350,298 350,298 
Other intangible assets51,547 50,775 
Other assets750,460 783,953 
Total assets$53,908,606 $49,957,680 
Liabilities
Deposits:
Noninterest-bearing$20,515,142 $18,014,029 
Interest-bearing26,815,855 25,417,580 
Total deposits47,330,997 43,431,609 
Securities sold under customer repurchase agreements680,705 641,487 
Federal Home Loan Bank borrowings648,671 655,175 
Subordinated debt497,153 504,518 
Other borrowings84,502 88,470 
FDIC shared-loss payable15,601 
Other liabilities345,178 391,552 
Total liabilities49,587,206 45,728,412 
Shareholders’ equity
Common stock:
Class A - $1 par value (16,000,000 shares authorized; 8,811,220 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020)8,811 8,811 
Class B - $1 par value (2,000,000 shares authorized; 1,005,185 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020)1,005 1,005 
Preferred stock - $0.01 par value (10,000,000 shares authorized; 345,000 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020; $1,000 per share liquidity preference)339,937 339,937 
Retained earnings4,005,318 3,867,252 
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income(33,671)12,263 
Total shareholders’ equity4,321,400 4,229,268 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$53,908,606 $49,957,680 
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
3

First Citizens BancShares, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Income
 Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data, unaudited)20212020
Interest income
Loans and leases$323,023 $325,548 
Investment securities interest and dividend income30,852 39,493 
Overnight investments1,448 4,518 
Total interest income355,323 369,559 
Interest expense
Deposits8,793 24,194 
Securities sold under customer repurchase agreements338 442 
Federal Home Loan Bank borrowings2,087 2,984 
Subordinated debt4,188 2,755 
Other borrowings265 784 
Total interest expense15,671 31,159 
Net interest income339,652 338,400 
Provision (credit) for credit losses(10,974)28,355 
Net interest income after provision for credit losses350,626 310,045 
Noninterest income
Wealth management services32,198 26,412 
Service charges on deposit accounts21,536 26,413 
Cardholder services, net19,960 18,160 
Mortgage income12,991 5,224 
Merchant services, net8,917 5,888 
Other service charges and fees8,489 7,792 
Insurance commissions3,998 3,688 
ATM income1,482 1,422 
Marketable equity securities gains (losses), net16,011 (51,408)
Realized gains on investment securities available for sale, net9,207 19,795 
Other1,860 625 
Total noninterest income136,649 64,011 
Noninterest expense
Salaries and wages147,830 145,255 
Employee benefits35,725 38,511 
Occupancy expense29,743 27,480 
Equipment expense29,803 27,850 
Processing fees paid to third parties13,673 10,372 
FDIC insurance expense3,218 3,466 
Collection and foreclosure-related expenses2,198 4,054 
Merger-related expenses6,819 4,232 
Other26,917 38,751 
Total noninterest expense295,926 299,971 
Income before income taxes191,349 74,085 
Income taxes44,033 16,916 
Net income$147,316 $57,169 
Preferred stock dividends4,636 
Net income available to common shareholders$142,680 $57,169 
Weighted average common shares outstanding9,816,405 10,473,119 
Earnings per common share$14.53 $5.46 
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
4

First Citizens BancShares, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
 Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands, unaudited)20212020
Net income$147,316 $57,169 
Other comprehensive income
Unrealized (losses) gains on securities available for sale:
Unrealized (losses) gains on securities available for sale arising during the period(56,501)144,843 
Tax effect12,995 (33,313)
Reclassification adjustment for realized gains on securities available for sale included in income before income taxes(9,207)(19,795)
Tax effect2,118 4,553 
Unrealized (losses) gains on securities available for sale arising during the period, net of tax(50,595)96,288 
Unrealized gains on securities available for sale transferred to held to maturity:
Reclassification adjustment for accretion of unrealized gains on securities available for sale transferred to held to maturity(475)
Tax effect109 
Total change in unrealized gains on securities available for sale transferred to held to maturity, net of tax(366)
Change in pension obligation:
Amortization of actuarial losses6,529 6,264 
Tax effect(1,502)(1,441)
Total change in pension obligation, net of tax5,027 4,823 
Other comprehensive (loss) income(45,934)101,111 
Total comprehensive income$101,382 $158,280 

See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.

5

First Citizens BancShares, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity
Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands, unaudited)Class A
Common Stock
Class B
Common Stock
Preferred
Stock
SurplusRetained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
(Loss) Income
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
Balance at December 31, 2019$9,624 $1,005 $$44,081 $3,658,197 $(126,723)$3,586,184 
Cumulative effect of adoption of ASC 326— — — — 36,943 — 36,943 
Net income— — — — 57,169 — 57,169 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax— — — — — 101,111 101,111 
Issuance of preferred stock— — 339,958 — — — 339,958 
Repurchase of 349,390 shares of Class A common stock(349)— — (44,081)(115,274)— (159,704)
Cash dividends declared ($0.40 per common share)
Class A common stock— — — — (3,739)— (3,739)
Class B common stock— — — — (402)— (402)
Balance at March 31, 2020$9,275 $1,005 $339,958 $$3,632,894 $(25,612)$3,957,520 
Balance at December 31, 2020$8,811 $1,005 $339,937 $$3,867,252 $12,263 $4,229,268 
Net income— — — — 147,316 — 147,316 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — — (45,934)(45,934)
Cash dividends declared ($0.47 per common share)
Class A common stock— — — — (4,142)— (4,142)
Class B common stock— — — — (472)— (472)
Preferred stock dividends declared— — — — (4,636)— (4,636)
Balance at March 31, 2021$8,811 $1,005 $339,937 $$4,005,318 $(33,671)$4,321,400 
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
6

First Citizens BancShares, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
 Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands, unaudited)20212020
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Net income$147,316 $57,169 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash provided by operating activities:
Provision (credit) for credit losses(10,974)28,355 
Deferred tax expense (benefit)8,555 (11,485)
Net increase in current tax receivable26,703 11,829 
Depreciation and amortization27,864 26,879 
Net decrease in accrued interest payable(4,264)(4,624)
Net increase in income earned not collected(2,328)(1,914)
Contribution to pension plans(100,000)
Realized gains on investment securities available for sale, net(9,207)(19,795)
Marketable equity securities (gains) losses, net(16,011)51,408 
Origination of loans held for sale(315,451)(205,986)
Proceeds from sale of loans held for sale279,180 201,886 
Gain on sale of loans(9,365)(5,682)
Net (gains) losses on other real estate owned(527)1,419 
Net accretion of premiums and discounts116 4,674 
Amortization of intangible assets5,795 6,160 
Origination of mortgage servicing rights, net of change in valuation allowance(6,567)1,384 
Net change in other assets17,535 4,067 
Net change in other liabilities(33,494)(28,135)
Net cash provided by operating activities104,876 17,609 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES
Net increase in loans outstanding(383,507)(202,667)
Purchases of investment securities available for sale(1,737,890)(4,305,818)
Purchases of investment securities held to maturity(207,313)(724,412)
Purchases of marketable equity securities(306)(287,014)
Proceeds from maturities, calls, and principal repayments of investment securities held to maturity206,282 14,166 
Proceeds from maturities, calls, and principal repayments of investment securities available for sale1,079,216 572,937 
Proceeds from sales of investment securities available for sale351,984 3,156,988 
Proceeds from sales of marketable equity securities1,111 2,438 
Net (increase) decrease in overnight investments(3,241,421)454,455 
Cash paid to FDIC for settlement of shared-loss agreement(16,103)(99,468)
Proceeds from sales of other real estate owned10,011 5,265 
Proceeds from sales of premises and equipment1,143 
Purchases of premises and equipment(23,544)(26,930)
Business acquisitions, net of cash acquired(1,235)
Other investing activities(8,009)
Net cash used in investing activities(3,968,346)(1,441,295)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Net decrease in time deposits(159,035)(310,224)
Net increase in demand and other interest-bearing deposits4,058,956 1,017,371 
Net increase (decrease) in short-term borrowings39,218 (92,871)
Repayment of long-term obligations(17,973)(38,583)
Origination of long-term obligations745,886 
Net proceeds from preferred stock issuance339,958 
Repurchase of common stock(156,094)
Cash dividends paid(9,249)(4,256)
Net cash provided by financing activities3,911,917 1,501,187 
Change in cash and due from banks48,447 77,501 
Cash and due from banks at beginning of period362,048 376,719 
Cash and due from banks at end of period$410,495 $454,220 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION
Cash paid (received) during the period for:
Interest$19,935 $35,783 
Income taxes11 (592)
Significant noncash investing and financing activities:
Transfers of loans to other real estate2,374 4,560 
Dividends declared but not paid4,614 4,141 
Unsettled call of investment securities3,000 
Loans held for sale exchanged for investment securities63,526 
Reclassification of portfolio loans to loans held for sale22,655 1,304 
Transfers of premises and equipment to other real estate4,732 1,427 
Premises and equipment acquired through finance leases and other financing arrangements1,191 
Unsettled common stock repurchases3,610 
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
7

First Citizens BancShares, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements
NOTE A - ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION
First Citizens BancShares, Inc. (“BancShares”) is a financial holding company organized under the laws of Delaware and conducts operations through its banking subsidiary, First-Citizens Bank & Trust Company (“FCB”), which is headquartered in Raleigh, North Carolina.
General
These consolidated financial statements and notes thereto are presented in accordance with instructions for Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X and, therefore, do not include all information and notes necessary for a complete presentation of financial position, results of operations and cash flow activity required in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). In the opinion of management, all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the consolidated financial position and consolidated results of operations have been made. The unaudited interim consolidated financial statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in BancShares’ Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Reclassifications
In certain instances, amounts reported in prior periods’ consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current financial statement presentation. Such reclassifications had no effect on previously reported cash flows, shareholders’ equity or net income.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions which affect the amounts reported. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The estimates BancShares considers significant are the allowance for credit losses, “ACL”, fair value measurements, and income taxes.
Share Repurchases
During the first quarter of 2021, BancShares did not repurchase shares of Class A common stock. During the first quarter of 2020, BancShares purchased a total of 349,390 shares of Class A common stock for $159.7 million at an average cost per share of $457.10.
During 2020, share repurchases included 45,000 shares of Class A common stock purchased from Ella Ann Holding, as trustee of her revocable trust. Mrs. Holding is the widow of BancShares’ former Executive Vice Chairman, Frank B. Holding, and the mother of Frank B. Holding, Jr. and Hope H. Bryant, BancShares’ Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and Vice Chairman, respectively.
Small Business Administration Paycheck Protection Program
The Small Business Administration Paycheck Protection Program (“SBA-PPP”) is one of the centerpieces of the Coronavirus Aid Relief and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), which was passed on March 27, 2020 in response to the outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus (“COVID-19”) and was supplemented with subsequent legislation. Overseen by the United States (“U.S.”) Treasury Department, the SBA-PPP offers cash-flow assistance to nonprofit and small business employers through guaranteed loans for expenses incurred between February 15, 2020, and August 8, 2020. Borrowers are eligible for forgiveness of principal and accrued interest on SBA-PPP loans to the extent that the proceeds were used to cover eligible payroll costs, interest costs, rent, and utility costs over a period of between eight and 24-weeks after the loan is made as long as the borrower retains its employees and their compensation levels. The CARES Act authorized the SBA to temporarily guarantee these loans. The SBA began processing forgiveness payments during the fourth quarter of 2020.
The Consolidated Appropriations Act 2021 was signed into law during the fourth quarter of 2020 and contained provisions for a second round of funding of SBA-PPP loans. During the first quarter of 2021, BancShares originated over 9,600 SBA-PPP loans totaling over $1.1 billion.
Due to the unique nature of these provisions, SBA-PPP loans have been disclosed as a separate loan class. Origination fees received from the SBA are capitalized into the carrying amount of the loans. The deferred fee income, net of origination costs, is recognized over the life of the loans as an adjustment to yield using the effective interest method. As of March 31, 2021, SBA-PPP loans outstanding were $2.8 billion.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
There were no Accounting Standards Updates (“ASUs”) issued during the first quarter of 2021 by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) that will have a material impact on BancShares’ consolidated financial statements.
8

NOTE B - BUSINESS COMBINATIONS
Recently Announced Business Combinations
CIT Group Inc.
On October 15, 2020, BancShares and CIT Group Inc., a Delaware corporation (“CIT”), entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) by and among BancShares, FCB, FC Merger Subsidiary IX, Inc., a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of FCB (“Merger Sub”), and CIT, the parent company of CIT Bank, N.A., a national banking association (“CIT Bank”). Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub will merge with and into CIT, with CIT as the surviving entity (the “First-Step Merger”), and as soon as reasonably practicable following the effective time of the First-Step Merger, CIT will merge with and into FCB, with FCB as the surviving entity (together with the First-Step Merger, the “Mergers”). The Merger Agreement further provides that immediately following the consummation of the Mergers, CIT Bank will merge with and into FCB, with FCB as the surviving bank (together with the Mergers, the “Transaction”).
The Merger Agreement was unanimously approved by the Board of Directors of each of BancShares and CIT. The Transaction was approved by the North Carolina Commissioner of Banks on February 5, 2021, as well as the shareholders of both companies on February 9, 2021. The parties are continuing to work with other regulators on remaining approvals and anticipate closing in mid-2021 subject to regulatory approval and the satisfaction of customary closing conditions.
Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, at the effective time of the First-Step Merger (the “Effective Time”), each share of CIT common stock, par value $0.01 per share, issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time (“CIT Common Stock”), except for certain shares of CIT Common Stock owned by CIT or BancShares, will be converted into the right to receive 0.06200 shares of BancShares Class A common stock, par value $1.00 per share. Holders of CIT Common Stock will receive cash in lieu of fractional shares.
In addition, at the Effective Time, each share of Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A, par value $0.01 per share, of CIT and 5.625% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series B, par value $0.01 per share, of CIT issued and outstanding will automatically be converted into the right to receive 1 share of a newly created series of preferred stock, Series B, of BancShares and 1 share of a newly created series of preferred stock, Series C, of BancShares, respectively.
The Merger Agreement requires that, effective as of the Effective Time, the Boards of Directors of the combined company and the combined bank will consist of 14 directors, (i) 11 of whom will be members of the current Board of Directors of BancShares, and (ii) 3 of whom will be selected from among the current Board of Directors of CIT and will include as 1 of those 3 Ellen R. Alemany, Chairwoman and Chief Executive Officer of CIT. BancShares intends to appoint Michael A. Carpenter and Vice Admiral John R. Ryan, USN (Ret.), as the two other members from CIT’s current Board of Directors who will join the Boards of Directors of the combined company and the combined bank .

9

NOTE C - INVESTMENTS
The amortized cost and fair value of investment securities at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, were as follows:
March 31, 2021
(Dollars in thousands)Amortized costGross
unrealized
gains
Gross unrealized
losses
Fair
value
Investment securities available for sale
Government agency$852,305 $784 $6,403 $846,686 
Residential mortgage-backed securities4,736,893 47,742 26,046 4,758,589 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities1,096,259 14,619 11,891 1,098,987 
Corporate bonds585,095 18,313 548 602,860 
Total investment securities available for sale$7,270,552 $81,458 $44,888 $7,307,122 
Investment in marketable equity securities84,297 22,872 283 106,886 
Investment securities held to maturity
Residential mortgage-backed securities1,740,314 5,191 20,510 1,724,995 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities1,065,778 13 17,811 1,047,980 
Other2,007 2,007 
Total investment securities held to maturity2,808,099 5,204 38,321 2,774,982 
Total investment securities$10,162,948 $109,534 $83,492 $10,188,990 
December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)Amortized costGross
unrealized
gains
Gross unrealized
losses
Fair
value
Investment securities available for sale
U.S. Treasury$499,832 $101 $$499,933 
Government agency706,241 723 5,573 701,391 
Residential mortgage-backed securities4,369,130 70,283 1,310 4,438,103 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities745,892 25,645 771,537 
Corporate bonds590,870 14,437 2,028 603,279 
Total investment securities available for sale$6,911,965 $111,189 $8,911 $7,014,243 
Investment in marketable equity securities84,837 8,654 1,811 91,680 
Investment securities held to maturity
Residential mortgage-backed securities1,877,692 17,689 1,895,381 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities937,034 3,884 56 940,862 
Other2,256 2,256 
Total investment securities held to maturity2,816,982 21,573 56 2,838,499 
Total investment securities$9,813,784 $141,416 $10,778 $9,944,422 
On November 1, 2020, mortgage-backed securities with an amortized cost of $1.46 billion were transferred from investment securities available for sale to the held to maturity portfolio. At the time of transfer, the mortgage-backed securities had a fair value of $1.47 billion and a weighted average contractual maturity of 18 years. The unrealized gain on these securities at the date of transfer was $5.9 million, or $4.5 million net of tax, and was reported as a component of AOCI. This unrealized gain is accreted over the remaining expected life of the securities as an adjustment of yield.
Investments in residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities represent securities issued by the Government National Mortgage Association, Federal National Mortgage Association and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation. Investments in government agency securities represent securities issued by the United States Small Business Administration. Investments in corporate bonds and marketable equity securities represent positions in securities of other financial institutions. Other held to maturity investments include certificates of deposit with other financial institutions.
BancShares also holds approximately 354,000 shares of Visa Class B common stock, which are not considered to have a readily determinable fair value and are recorded at $0. BancShares held FHLB stock of $40.6 million and $45.4 million and other non-marketable equity securities of $11.4 million and $11.6 million at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. These securities are recorded at cost within other assets.
10

As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, no ACL was required for available for sale and held to maturity debt securities. Accrued interest receivables for available for sale and held to maturity debt securities were excluded from the estimate for credit losses. At March 31, 2021, accrued interest receivables for available for sale and held to maturity debt securities were $21.3 million and $5.3 million, respectively. At December 31, 2020, accrued interest receivables for available for sale and held to maturity debt securities were $17.6 million and $5.4 million, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, 0 accrued interest was deemed uncollectible and written off against interest income.
The following table provides the amortized cost and fair value by contractual maturity for investment securities available for sale and held to maturity. Expected maturities will differ from contractual maturities on certain securities because issuers and borrowers of underlying collateral may have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without prepayment penalties. Residential and commercial mortgage-backed and government agency securities are stated separately as they are not due at a single maturity date.
 March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)Amortized costFair
value
Amortized costFair
value
Investment securities available for sale
Non-amortizing securities maturing in:
One year or less$1,020 $1,021 $500,846 $500,954 
One through five years72,340 74,536 72,565 73,881 
Five through 10 years502,757 517,922 508,320 519,570 
Over 10 years8,978 9,381 8,971 8,807 
Government agency852,305 846,686 706,241 701,391 
Residential mortgage-backed securities4,736,893 4,758,589 4,369,130 4,438,103 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities1,096,259 1,098,987 745,892 771,537 
Total investment securities available for sale$7,270,552 $7,307,122 $6,911,965 $7,014,243 
Investment securities held to maturity
Non-amortizing securities maturing in:
One year or less998 998 1,507 1,507 
One through five years1,009 1,009 749 749 
Residential mortgage-backed securities1,740,314 1,724,995 1,877,692 1,895,381 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities1,065,778 1,047,980 937,034 940,862 
Total investment securities held to maturity$2,808,099 $2,774,982 $2,816,982 $2,838,499 
The following table provides the gross realized gains and losses on the sales of investment securities available for sale for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands)20212020
Gross realized gains on sales of investment securities available for sale$9,207 $20,474 
Gross realized losses on sales of investment securities available for sale(679)
Net realized gains on sales of investment securities available for sale$9,207 $19,795 
The following table provides the realized and unrealized gains and losses on marketable equity securities for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands)20212020
Marketable equity securities gains (losses), net$16,011 $(51,408)
Less net gains recognized on marketable equity securities sold263 323 
Unrealized gains (losses) recognized on marketable equity securities held$15,748 $(51,731)
11

The following table provides information regarding securities with unrealized losses as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
March 31, 2021
 Less than 12 months12 months or moreTotal
(Dollars in thousands)Fair
value
Unrealized
losses
Fair
value
Unrealized
losses
Fair
value
Unrealized
losses
Investment securities available for sale
Government agency$331,034 $3,501 $415,379 $2,902 $746,413 $6,403 
Residential mortgage-backed securities2,345,301 26,001 12,495 45 2,357,796 26,046 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities685,575 11,891 685,575 11,891 
Corporate bonds8,394 14 26,183 534 34,577 548 
Total$3,370,304 $41,407 $454,057 $3,481 $3,824,361 $44,888 
December 31, 2020
Less than 12 months12 months or moreTotal
(Dollars in thousands)Fair
value
Unrealized
losses
Fair
value
Unrealized
losses
Fair
value
Unrealized
losses
Investment securities available for sale
Government agency$268,622 $3,197 $328,777 $2,376 $597,399 $5,573 
Residential mortgage-backed securities433,816 1,241 23,064 69 456,880 1,310 
Corporate bonds57,715 2,028 57,715 2,028 
Total$760,153 $6,466 $351,841 $2,445 $1,111,994 $8,911 
As of March 31, 2021, there were 60 investment securities available for sale with continuous losses for more than 12 months, of which 54 were government sponsored enterprise-issued mortgage-backed securities or government agency securities and 6 were corporate bonds.
NaN of the unrealized losses identified as of March 31, 2021, or December 31, 2020, relate to the issuer’s ability to honor redemption obligations. Rather, the unrealized losses relate to changes in interest rates relative to when the investment securities were purchased, and do not indicate credit-related impairment. BancShares considered other factors including changes in credit ratings, delinquencies, and other macroeconomic factors in this determination. As a result, NaN of the securities were deemed to require an allowance for credit losses. BancShares has the ability and intent to retain these securities for a period of time sufficient to recover all unrealized losses.
Investment securities having an aggregate carrying value of $4.8 billion at March 31, 2021, and $4.6 billion at December 31, 2020, were pledged as collateral to secure public funds on deposit and certain short-term borrowings, and for other purposes as required by law.
BancShares’ portfolio of held to maturity debt securities consists of mortgage-backed securities issued by government agencies and government sponsored entities. Given the consistently strong credit rating of the U.S. Treasury and the long history of no credit losses on debt securities issued by government agencies and government sponsored entities, no further credit monitoring is performed on these portfolios. Should there be downgrades to the credit rating of the U.S. Treasury or losses reported on securities issued by government agencies and government sponsored entities, BancShares will reevaluate its determination of zero expected credit losses on held to maturity debt securities.
There were 0 debt securities held to maturity on nonaccrual status as of March 31, 2021.
A security is considered past due once it is 30 days contractually past due under the terms of the agreement. There were 0 securities past due as of March 31, 2021.
12

NOTE D - LOANS AND LEASES
BancShares’ accounting methods for loans and leases depends on whether they are originated or purchased, and if purchased, whether or not the loans reflect more than insignificant credit deterioration since origination, which is determined as of the acquisition date. Non purchased credit deteriorated (“PCD”) loans consist of loans originated by BancShares and loans purchased from other institutions, that do not reflect more than insignificant credit deterioration at acquisition. Purchased loans which reflect more than insignificant credit deterioration are classified as PCD and reported as a single loan segment or class. At the date of acquisition, all acquired loans are recorded at fair value.
Loans and leases outstanding included the following at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Commercial:
Construction and land development$1,022,087 $985,424 
Owner occupied commercial mortgage11,340,966 11,165,012 
Non-owner occupied commercial mortgage3,017,898 2,987,689 
Commercial and industrial and leases4,946,445 5,013,644 
SBA-PPP2,769,906 2,406,291 
Total commercial loans23,097,302 22,558,060 
Consumer:
Residential mortgage5,566,026 5,561,686 
Revolving mortgage1,938,422 2,052,854 
Construction and land development336,065 348,123 
Consumer auto1,271,586 1,255,402 
Consumer other538,677 552,968 
Total consumer loans9,650,776 9,771,033 
PCD loans432,773 462,882 
Total loans and leases$33,180,851 $32,791,975 
At March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, accrued interest receivable on loans was $103.2 million and $107.7 million, respectively, and was excluded from the estimate of credit losses.
Certain residential real estate loans are originated to be sold to investors and are recorded in loans held for sale at fair value. In addition, BancShares may change its strategy for certain portfolio loans and decide to sell them in the secondary market. At that time, portfolio loans are transferred to loans held for sale at fair value. Loans held for sale totaled $129.3 million and $124.8 million at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
The following table presents selected components of the amortized cost of loans.
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Deferred fees, including unearned fees and unamortized costs on non-PCD loans
Net deferred fees related to SBA-PPP loans$66,717 $41,064 
Net deferred fees related to other portfolios11,9329,153
Total net deferred fees$78,649 $50,217 
Net unamortized discount on purchased loans
Non-PCD$17,009 $19,473 
PCD41,141 45,254 
Total$58,150 $64,727 

13

The aging of the outstanding loans and leases, by class, at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 is provided in the tables below. Loans and leases past due less than 30 days are considered current as various grace periods allow borrowers to make payments within a stated period after the due date and still remain in compliance with the loan agreement.
March 31, 2021
(Dollars in thousands)30-59 days
past due
60-89 days
past due
90 days or greaterTotal past
due
CurrentTotal loans
and leases
Commercial:
Construction and land development$277 $$1,595 $1,872 $1,020,215 $1,022,087 
Owner occupied commercial mortgage13,153 2,996 11,028 27,177 11,313,789 11,340,966 
Non-owner occupied commercial mortgage5,046 303 8,917 14,266 3,003,632 3,017,898 
Commercial and industrial and leases13,284 4,771 3,249 21,304 4,925,141 4,946,445 
SBA-PPP2,769,906 2,769,906 
Total commercial loans31,760 8,070 24,789 64,619 23,032,683 23,097,302 
Consumer:
Residential mortgage34,350 7,396 30,789 72,535 5,493,491 5,566,026 
Revolving mortgage6,222 1,603 8,531 16,356 1,922,066 1,938,422 
Construction and land development266 944 652 1,862 334,203 336,065 
Consumer auto4,432 1,014 860 6,306 1,265,280 1,271,586 
Consumer other2,246 1,213 1,516 4,975 533,702 538,677 
Total consumer loans47,516 12,170 42,348 102,034 9,548,742 9,650,776 
PCD loans11,250 4,322 33,694 49,266 383,507 432,773 
Total loans and leases$90,526 $24,562 $100,831 $215,919 $32,964,932 $33,180,851 
December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)30-59 days
past due
60-89 days
past due
90 days or greaterTotal past
due
CurrentTotal loans
and leases
Commercial:
Construction and land development$956 $527 $1,603 $3,086 $982,338 $985,424 
Owner occupied commercial mortgage8,757 2,232 14,082 25,071 11,139,941 11,165,012 
Non-owner occupied commercial mortgage12,370 5,973 18,343 2,969,346 2,987,689 
Commercial and industrial and leases14,532 2,842 3,243 20,617 4,993,027 5,013,644 
SBA-PPP2,406,291 2,406,291 
Total commercial loans36,615 5,601 24,901 67,117 22,490,943 22,558,060 
Consumer:
Residential mortgage43,218 8,364 31,690 83,272 5,478,414 5,561,686 
Revolving mortgage11,977 2,626 7,415 22,018 2,030,836 2,052,854 
Construction and land development932 77 330 1,339 346,784 348,123 
Consumer auto6,825 1,835 1,076 9,736 1,245,666 1,255,402 
Consumer other3,610 1,464 1,505 6,579 546,389 552,968 
Total consumer loans66,562 14,366 42,016 122,944 9,648,089 9,771,033 
PCD loans18,322 6,076 31,026 55,424 407,458 462,882 
Total loans and leases$121,499 $26,043 $97,943 $245,485 $32,546,490 $32,791,975 
14

The amortized cost, by class, of loans and leases on nonaccrual status, and loans and leases greater than 90 days past due and still accruing at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, were as follows:
 March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)Nonaccrual
loans and
leases
Loans and
leases > 90
days and
accruing
Nonaccrual
loans and
leases
Loans and
leases > 90
days and
accruing
Commercial:
Construction and land development$1,648 $$1,661 $
Owner occupied commercial mortgage22,796 1,400 23,103 3,625 
Non-owner occupied commercial mortgage10,939 2,211 7,932 147 
Commercial and industrial and leases15,718 607 10,626 540 
Total commercial loans51,101 4,218 43,322 4,312 
Consumer:
Residential mortgage61,907 29 66,345 
Revolving mortgage23,952 22,236 
Construction and land development566 543 652 
Consumer auto3,027 3,166 
Consumer other816 1,155 823 1,195 
Total consumer loans90,268 1,727 93,222 1,195 
PCD loans53,165 1,432 54,939 355 
Total loans and leases$194,534 $7,377 $191,483 $5,862 
Credit Quality
Loans and leases are monitored for credit quality on a recurring basis. Commercial and consumer loans and leases have different credit quality indicators as a result of the unique characteristics of the loan segments being evaluated. The credit quality indicators for commercial loans and leases are borrower risk classifications developed through a review of individual borrowers on an ongoing basis. Commercial loans are evaluated at least annually, with more frequent evaluations done on criticized loans. Commercial loans are also updated if there is evidence of potential credit deterioration, such as delinquency. Commercial credit cards are included in the Commercial and industrial and leases segment, but are evaluated based primarily upon delinquency status. The risk classifications as of the date presented are based on the most recent assessment performed and are defined below:
Pass – A pass rated asset is not adversely classified because it does not display any of the characteristics for adverse classification.
Special mention – A special mention asset has potential weaknesses that deserve management’s close attention. If left uncorrected, such potential weaknesses may result in deterioration of the repayment prospects or collateral position at some future date. Special mention assets are not adversely classified and do not warrant adverse classification.
Substandard – A substandard asset is inadequately protected by the current net worth and paying capacity of the borrower or of the collateral pledged, if any. Assets classified as substandard generally have a well-defined weakness, or weaknesses, that jeopardize the liquidation of the debt. These assets are characterized by the distinct possibility of loss if the deficiencies are not corrected.
Doubtful – An asset classified as doubtful has all the weaknesses inherent in an asset classified substandard with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make collection or liquidation in full highly questionable and improbable on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions and values.
Loss – Assets classified as loss are considered uncollectible and of such little value that it is inappropriate to be carried as an asset. This classification is not necessarily equivalent to any potential for recovery or salvage value, but rather that it is not appropriate to defer a full charge-off even though partial recovery may be affected in the future.
Ungraded – Ungraded loans represent loans that are not included in the individual credit grading process due to their relatively small balances or borrower type. The majority of ungraded loans at March 31, 2021 relate to business credit cards. Business credit card loans are subject to automatic charge-off when they become 120 days past due in the same manner as unsecured consumer lines of credit. The remaining balance is comprised of a small amount of commercial mortgage, lease financing and other commercial real estate loans.
The credit quality indicators for consumer and PCD loans are based on delinquency status of the borrower as of the date presented. As the borrower becomes more delinquent, the likelihood of loss increases.
15

The following tables represent current credit quality indicators by origination year as of March 31, 2021.
March 31, 2021
Commercial Loans Amortized Cost Basis by Origination Year
Classification:20212020201920182017PriorRevolvingRevolving converted to term loansTotal
(Dollars in thousands)
Construction and land development
Pass$46,039 $399,172 $310,753 $168,534 $48,089 $28,797 $12,548 $$1,013,932 
Special Mention232 181 85 145 643 
Substandard225 590 1,447 5,170 80 7,512 
Total46,039 399,629 311,343 170,162 53,344 28,877 12,693 1,022,087 
Owner occupied commercial mortgage
Pass632,239 3,202,842 2,166,465 1,521,886 1,206,771 2,249,426 106,579 101 11,086,309 
Special Mention687 10,398 29,975 39,868 12,074 37,441 2,974 72 133,489 
Substandard3,564 9,322 14,441 9,287 26,702 49,856 7,996 121,168 
Total636,490 3,222,562 2,210,881 1,571,041 1,245,547 2,336,723 117,549 173 11,340,966 
Non-owner occupied commercial mortgage
Pass158,815 809,647 603,274 332,010 319,514 638,882 35,835 2,897,977 
Special Mention794 676 880 10,778 1,440 2,918 500 17,986 
Substandard75 12,018 22,293 12,643 8,762 44,396 1,748 101,935 
Total159,684 822,341 626,447 355,431 329,716 686,196 38,083 3,017,898 
Commercial and industrial and leases
Pass424,035 1,423,941 884,987 442,129 251,356 445,265 874,664 5,150 4,751,527 
Special Mention102 10,601 22,183 8,335 6,160 7,764 11,376 194 66,715 
Substandard5,507 15,179 4,398 5,572 3,950 5,597 24,608 1,410 66,221 
Doubtful
Ungraded61,980 61,980 
Total429,644 1,449,721 911,568 456,036 261,466 458,626 972,630 6,754 4,946,445 
SBA-PPP
Pass936,012 1,833,894 2,769,906 
Total commercial$2,207,869 $7,728,147 $4,060,239 $2,552,670 $1,890,073 $3,510,422 $1,140,955 $6,927 $23,097,302 
Consumer and PCD Loans Amortized Cost Basis by Origination Year
Days Past Due:20212020201920182017PriorRevolvingRevolving converted to term loansTotal
(Dollars in thousands)
Residential mortgage
Current$521,849 $1,810,979 $889,902 $561,267 $518,205 $1,166,958 $24,331 $$5,493,491 
30-59 days2,367 2,193 236 9,619 4,113 15,567 255 34,350 
60-89 days256 1,012 1,040 558 4,530 7,396 
90 days or greater286 1,455 838 3,797 24,384 29 30,789 
Total524,216 1,813,714 892,605 572,764 526,673 1,211,439 24,615 5,566,026 
Revolving mortgage
Current1,772,173 149,893 1,922,066 
30-59 days3,877 2,345 6,222 
60-89 days699 904 1,603 
90 days or greater4,112 4,419 8,531 
Total1,780,861 157,561 1,938,422 
Construction and land development
Current40,360 209,701 52,406 16,883 8,037 5,241 1,575 334,203 
30-59 days108 15 61 30 52 266 
60-89 days240 138 59 366 141 944 
90 days or greater543 59 50 652 
Total40,360 210,592 52,559 17,003 8,492 5,484 1,575 336,065 
16

Consumer auto
Current155,101 484,026 302,622 191,055 87,139 45,337 1,265,280 
30-59 days1,327 962 1,054 703 386 4,432 
60-89 days433 197 253 117 14 1,014 
90 days or greater294 134 217 129 86 860 
Total155,101 486,080 303,915 192,579 88,088 45,823 1,271,586 
Consumer other
Current20,879 45,239 22,631 8,552 6,246 34,873 395,282 533,702 
30-59 days131 100 106 1,905 2,246 
60-89 days95 10 1,101 1,213 
90 days or greater14 114 1,382 1,516 
Total20,882 45,479 22,852 8,674 6,247 34,873 399,670 538,677 
Total consumer$740,559 $2,555,865 $1,271,931 $791,020 $629,500 $1,297,619 $2,206,721 $157,561 $9,650,776 
PCD loans
Current$$28,056 $24,347 $26,763 $24,879 $247,606 $11,788 $20,068 $383,507 
30-59 days344 390 407 300 9,423 19 367 11,250 
60-89 days51 88 165 3,896 122 4,322 
90 days or greater1,294 2,404 4,412 1,826 22,504 105 1,149 33,694 
Total PCD$$29,745 $27,229 $31,582 $27,170 $283,429 $11,912 $21,706 $432,773 
Total loans and leases$2,948,428 $10,313,757 $5,359,399 $3,375,272 $2,546,743 $5,091,470 $3,359,588 $186,194 $33,180,851 

The following tables represent current credit quality indicators by origination year as of December 31, 2020.
December 31, 2020
Commercial Loans Amortized Cost Basis by Origination Year
Classification:20202019201820172016PriorRevolvingRevolving converted to term loansTotal
(Dollars in thousands)
Construction and land development
Pass$342,183 $341,233 $190,429 $50,776 $23,969 $11,306 $10,969 $$970,865 
Special Mention246 6,421 5,342 153 12,162 
Substandard229 629 1,450 81 2,397 
Total342,658 341,862 198,300 56,118 23,977 11,387 11,122 985,424 
Owner occupied commercial mortgage
Pass3,183,467 2,201,165 1,625,141 1,301,412 1,049,858 1,454,020 101,556 133 10,916,752 
Special Mention6,274 20,702 36,739 12,387 17,699 25,693 5,115 72 124,681 
Substandard10,280 19,052 9,842 20,928 13,736 41,303 8,438 123,579 
Total3,200,021 2,240,919 1,671,722 1,334,727 1,081,293 1,521,016 115,109 205 11,165,012 
Non-owner occupied commercial mortgage
Pass865,514 609,975 378,136 331,800 282,810 391,517 32,149 2,891,901 
Special Mention569 905 10,794 1,808 5,121 3,279 483 22,959 
Substandard2,899 18,546 12,296 8,764 14,087 15,427 810 72,829 
Total868,982 629,426 401,226 342,372 302,018 410,223 33,442 2,987,689 
Commercial and industrial and leases
Pass1,620,622 983,852 504,463 310,468 234,735 286,996 899,978 5,520 4,846,634 
Special Mention3,146 17,065 7,265 5,393 3,307 4,912 9,152 189 50,429 
Substandard17,811 4,095 4,370 4,257 2,548 3,801 22,384 983 60,249 
Ungraded56,332 56,332 
Total1,641,579 1,005,012 516,098 320,118 240,590 295,709 987,846 6,692 5,013,644 
SBA-PPP
Pass2,406,291 2,406,291 
Total commercial$8,459,531 $4,217,219 $2,787,346 $2,053,335 $1,647,878 $2,238,335 $1,147,519 $6,897 $22,558,060 
17

Consumer and PCD Loans Amortized Cost Basis by Origination Year
Days Past Due:20202019201820172016PriorRevolvingRevolving converted to term loansTotal
(Dollars in thousands)
Residential mortgage
Current$1,882,683 $978,298 $655,798 $596,309 $461,719 $878,634 $24,973 $$5,478,414 
30-59 days2,278 4,573 11,463 3,772 8,613 12,299 220 43,218 
60-89 days30 100 1,246 1,449 834 4,705 8,364 
90 days or greater282 4,831 3,150 4,015 5,689 13,723 31,690 
Total1,885,273 987,802 671,657 605,545 476,855 909,361 25,193 5,561,686 
Revolving mortgage
Current1,879,968 150,868 2,030,836 
30-59 days8,241 3,736 11,977 
60-89 days527 2,099 2,626 
90 days or greater2,301 5,114 7,415 
Total1,891,037 161,817 2,052,854 
Construction and land development
Current215,112 85,707 24,860 10,269 6,093 2,218 2,525 346,784 
30-59 days420 121 370 21 932 
60-89 days68 77 
90 days or greater330 330 
Total215,112 86,127 24,981 10,648 6,093 2,637 2,525 348,123 
Consumer auto
Current521,719 340,594 219,597 104,280 49,872 9,604 1,245,666 
30-59 days2,175 1,873 1,257 842 544 134 6,825 
60-89 days329 689 312 351 109 45 1,835 
90 days or greater170 527 217 57 102 1,076 
Total524,393 343,683 221,383 105,530 50,627 9,786 1,255,402 
Consumer other
Current53,842 27,117 10,911 7,159 2,980 29,336 415,044 546,389 
30-59 days322 114 77 18 11 3,061 3,610 
60-89 days102 20 13 18 23 1,285 1,464 
90 days or greater53 84 1,360 1,505 
Total54,319 27,335 11,009 7,195 2,994 29,366 420,750 552,968 
Total consumer$2,679,097 $1,444,947 $929,030 $728,918 $536,569 $951,150 $2,339,505 $161,817 $9,771,033 
PCD loans
Current$31,475 $25,425 $27,183 $27,955 $28,995 $232,186 $13,212 $21,027 $407,458 
30-59 days999 925 801 718 1,341 12,637 156 745 18,322 
60-89 days447 81 312 695 97 4,098 337 6,076 
90 days or greater721 2,325 4,755 1,208 897 19,963 111 1,046 31,026 
Total PCD$33,642 $28,756 $33,051 $30,576 $31,330 $268,884 $13,488 $23,155 $462,882 
Total loans and leases$11,172,270 $5,690,922 $3,749,427 $2,812,829 $2,215,777 $3,458,369 $3,500,512 $191,869 $32,791,975 
The following table provides information regarding loans pledged as collateral for borrowing capacity through the FHLB of Atlanta and the Federal Reserve Bank (“FRB”) as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
FHLB of Atlanta
Lendable collateral value of pledged non-PCD loans$8,847,178 $8,637,844 
Less: Advances648,671 652,675 
Available borrowing capacity$8,198,507 $7,985,169 
Pledged non-PCD loans$12,327,626 $12,157,153 
FRB
Lendable collateral value of pledged non-PCD loans$3,367,466 $3,321,762 
Less: Advances
Available borrowing capacity$3,367,466 $3,321,762 
Pledged non-PCD loans$4,181,520 $4,104,866 
18

NOTE E - ALLOWANCE FOR CREDIT LOSSES
The ACL is calculated using a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, charge-off and recovery activity, loan growth, changes in macroeconomic factors, collateral type, estimated loan life and changes in credit quality. For the period ended March 31, 2021, the primary reason for the ACL change since December 31, 2020 was improvement in macroeconomic factors. Forecasted economic conditions are developed using third party macroeconomic scenarios adjusted based on management’s expectations over a forecast period of two years. For most pools, we use a 12-month straight-line reversion period to historical averages for model inputs; however for the consumer other, consumer card and commercial card pools, immediate reversion to historical net loss rates is utilized. Significant macroeconomic factors used in estimating the expected losses include unemployment, gross domestic product, home price index and commercial real estate index. Our ACL forecast considers a range of economic scenarios from an upside scenario to a severely adverse scenario, but the March 31, 2021 ACL forecast was calculated using the consensus baseline scenario. This scenario showed improvements in the most significant economic factors compared to what was used to generate the December 31, 2020 ACL. These loss estimates were also influenced by our strong credit quality, low net charge-offs and recent credit trends, which remained stable through the quarter ended March 31, 2021, despite potential impacts from COVID-19.
Activity in the ACL by portfolio segment is summarized as follows:
Three months ended March 31, 2021
(Dollars in thousands)CommercialConsumerPCDTotal
Balance at January 1$80,842 $119,485 $23,987 $224,314 
Provision (credit)(3,922)(5,504)(1,548)(10,974)
Charge-offs(3,331)(4,469)(763)(8,563)
Recoveries1,275 3,340 1,259 5,874 
Balance at March 31$74,864 $112,852 $22,935 $210,651 
Three months ended March 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)CommercialConsumerPCDTotal
Balance at December 31$142,369 $75,236 $7,536 $225,141 
Adoption of ASC 326(87,554)30,629 19,001 (37,924)
Balance at January 154,815 105,865 26,537 187,217 
Provision (credit)21,537 9,406 (2,588)28,355 
Initial allowance on PCD loans1,193 1,193 
Charge-offs(5,369)(7,769)(1,123)(14,261)
Recoveries1,427 2,431 2,897 6,755 
Balance at March 31$72,410 $109,933 $26,916 $209,259 
BancShares records an allowance for credit losses on unfunded commitments within other liabilities. Activity in the allowance for credit losses for unfunded commitments is summarized as follows:
Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands)20212020
Allowance for credit losses:
Beginning balance$12,814 $1,055 
Adoption of ASC 3268,885 
Adjusted beginning balance$12,814 $9,940 
Provision (credit)(1,243)572 
Ending balance11,571 10,512 
BancShares individually reviews loans greater than $500 thousand that are determined to be collateral-dependent. These collateral-dependent loans are evaluated based on the fair value of the underlying collateral as repayment of the loan is expected to be made through the operation or sale of the collateral. Commercial and industrial loans and leases are collateralized by business assets, while the remaining loan classes are collateralized by real property.
19

The following table presents information on collateral-dependent loans by class and includes the amortized cost of collateral-dependent loans and leases, the net realizable value of the collateral, the extent to which collateral secures collateral-dependent loans and the associated ACL as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were as follows:
March 31, 2021
(Dollars in thousands)Collateral-Dependant LoansNet Realizable Value of CollateralCollateral CoverageAllowance for Credit Losses
Commercial loans:
Construction and land development$1,424 $1,795 126.1 %$
Owner occupied commercial mortgage11,886 16,417 138.1 
Non-owner occupied commercial mortgage6,951 9,312 134.0 
Commercial and industrial and leases1,256 2,916 232.2 
Total commercial loans21,517 30,440 141.5 
Consumer:
Residential mortgage21,303 27,279 128.1 120 
Revolving mortgage1,385 1,724 124.5 
Total consumer loans22,688 29,003 127.8 120 
PCD loans20,361 35,016 172.0 
Total collateral-dependent loans$64,566 $94,459 146.3 %$120 
December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)Collateral-Dependant LoansNet Realizable Value of CollateralCollateral CoverageAllowance for Credit Losses
Commercial loans:
Construction and land development$1,424 $1,795 126.1 %$
Owner occupied commercial mortgage9,792 14,253 145.6 
Non-owner occupied commercial mortgage5,556 7,577 136.4 
Total commercial loans16,772 23,625 140.9 
Consumer:
Residential mortgage23,011 29,775 129.4 131 
PCD loans19,042 27,872 146.4 
Total collateral-dependent loans$58,825 $81,272 138.2 %$131 
Collateral-dependent nonaccrual loans with no recorded allowance totaled $61.7 million and $57.5 million as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. All other nonaccrual loans have a recorded allowance.
Troubled Debt Restructurings
BancShares accounts for certain loan modifications or restructurings as troubled debt restructurings (“TDRs”). In general, the modification or restructuring of a loan is considered a TDR if, for economic or legal reasons related to a borrower’s financial difficulties, a concession is granted to the borrower that creditors would not otherwise consider. Concessions may relate to the contractual interest rate, maturity date, payment structure or other actions. Within BancShares’ ACL loss models, TDRs are not individually evaluated unless determined to be collateral-dependent. Consumer TDRs are included in the definition of default which provides for a 100% probability of default applied within the models. As a result, subsequent changes in credit quality metrics do not impact the calculation of the ACL on consumer TDRs. For commercial TDRs, the TDR distinction does impact the calculation of ACL, as the standard definition of default is utilized.
The Interagency Statement on Loan Modifications and Reporting for Financial Institutions Working with Customers Affected by the Coronavirus was published by banking regulators in April 2020 to clarify expectations around loan modifications and the determination of TDRs for borrowers experiencing financial difficulty due to COVID-19. BancShares applied this regulatory guidance during its TDR identification process for short-term loan forbearance agreements as a result of COVID-19 and in most cases did not record these as TDRs.
20

The following tables provides a summary of total TDRs by accrual status:
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)AccruingNonaccruing Total AccruingNonaccruing Total
Commercial loans:
Construction and land development$529 $41 $570 $578 $54 $632 
Owner occupied commercial mortgage38,969 9,986 48,955 37,574 10,889 48,463 
Non-owner occupied commercial mortgage20,541 1,335 21,876 18,336 1,649 19,985 
Commercial and industrial and leases30,956 6,551 37,507 29,131 3,528 32,659 
Total commercial loans90,995 17,913 108,908 85,619 16,120 101,739 
Consumer:
Residential mortgage25,323 20,802 46,125 29,458 19,380 48,838 
Revolving mortgage18,729 7,331 26,060 20,124 7,128 27,252 
Construction and land development1,501 1,510 1,573 1,582 
Consumer auto2,173 668 2,841 2,018 696 2,714 
Consumer other910 163 1,073 955 137 1,092 
Total consumer loans48,636 28,973 77,609 54,128 27,350 81,478 
PCD loans20,920 9,509 30,429 17,617 7,346 24,963 
Total loans$160,551 $56,395 $216,946 $157,364 $50,816 $208,180 
The following table provides the types of modifications designated as TDRs during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, as well as a summary of loans modified as a TDR during the twelve-month periods ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020 that subsequently defaulted during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020. BancShares defines payment default as movement of the TDR to nonaccrual status, which is generally 90 days past due for TDRs, foreclosure or charge-off, whichever occurs first.
Three months ended March 31, 2021Three months ended March 31, 2020
All restructuringsRestructurings with payment defaultAll restructuringsRestructurings with payment default
(Dollars in thousands)Number of LoansRecorded investment at period endNumber of LoansRecorded investment at period endNumber of LoansRecorded investment at period endNumber of LoansRecorded investment at period end
Loans and leases
Interest only$6,947 $42 10 $3,986 $
Loan term extension25 3,863 12 1,749 794 263 
Below market interest rate53 8,122 20 1,428 88 8,165 29 1,421 
Discharged from bankruptcy45 4,100 12 2,365 68 5,032 28 1,767 
Total restructurings129 $23,032 46 $5,584 172 $17,977 60 $3,451 
For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, the pre-modification and post-modification outstanding amortized cost of loans modified as TDRs were not materially different.
21

NOTE F - OTHER REAL ESTATE OWNED
The following table explains changes in other real estate owned (“OREO”) during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
(Dollars in thousands)OREO
Balance at December 31, 2020$50,890 
Additions7,106 
Sales(8,102)
Write-downs/losses(1,382)
Balance at March 31, 2021$48,512 
Balance at December 31, 2019$46,591 
Additions5,987 
Acquired in business combinations9,813 
Sales(5,321)
Write-downs/losses(1,363)
Balance at March 31, 2020$55,707 
At March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, BancShares had $6.5 million and $5.8 million, respectively, of foreclosed residential real estate property in OREO. The recorded investment in consumer mortgage loans collateralized by residential real estate property in the process of foreclosure was $27.1 million and $29.4 million at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Net gains recorded on the sale of OREO properties were $1.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021. Net losses recorded on the sale of OREO properties were $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020.
NOTE G - MORTGAGE SERVICING RIGHTS
BancShares originates certain residential mortgages loans to sell in the secondary market. BancShares’ portfolio of residential mortgage loans serviced for third parties was $3.3 billion as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020. These loans are originated and sold to third parties on a non-recourse basis with servicing rights retained. The retained servicing rights are recorded as a servicing asset and are reported in other intangible assets. The associated amortization expense and any valuation allowance recognized were included as a reduction of mortgage income. Mortgage servicing rights are initially recorded at fair value and then carried at the lower of amortized cost or fair value.
Contractually specified mortgage servicing fees, late fees and ancillary fees earned were $2.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, and are reported in mortgage income.
The following table presents changes in the servicing asset during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands)20212020
Beginning balance$18,426 $22,963 
Servicing rights originated3,444 1,583 
Amortization(2,248)(1,823)
Valuation allowance decrease (increase)3,123 (2,967)
Ending balance$22,745 $19,756 
The following table presents the activity in the servicing asset valuation allowance for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands)20212020
Beginning balance$4,365 $222 
Valuation allowance (decrease) increase(3,123)2,967 
Ending balance$1,242 $3,189 
22

Mortgage servicing rights valuations are performed using a pooling methodology where loans with similar risk characteristics are grouped together and evaluated using discounted cash flows to estimate the present value of future earnings. Key economic assumptions used to value mortgage servicing rights were as follows:
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Discount rate - conventional fixed loans8.74 %7.92 %
Discount rate - all loans excluding conventional fixed loans9.74 %8.92 %
Weighted average constant prepayment rate16.54 %20.62 %
Weighted average cost to service a loan$87.58 $87.58 
The fair value of mortgage servicing rights is sensitive to changes in assumptions and is determined by estimating the present value of the asset’s future cash flows by utilizing discount rates, prepayment rates, and other inputs. The discount rate is based on the 10-year U.S. Treasury rate plus a risk premium of 700 basis points for conventional fixed loans and 800 basis points for all other loans. The prepayment rate is derived from the Public Securities Association Standard Prepayment model. Generally, as interest rates decline, mortgage loan prepayments accelerate due to increased refinance activity, which results in a decrease in the fair value and may result in the recognition of a valuation allowance. The average cost to service a loan is based on the number of loans serviced and the total cost to service the loans.
NOTE H - REPURCHASE AGREEMENTS
BancShares utilizes securities sold under agreements to repurchase to facilitate the needs of customers and secure wholesale funding needs. Repurchase agreements are transactions whereby BancShares offers to sell to a counterparty an undivided interest in an eligible security at an agreed upon price, and which obligates BancShares to repurchase the security at an agreed upon date, repurchase price, and interest rate. These agreements are recorded at the amount of cash received in connection with the transaction and are reflected as securities sold under customer repurchase agreements.
BancShares monitors collateral levels on a continuous basis and maintains records of each transaction specifically describing the applicable security and the counterparty’s interest in that security, and segregates the security from general assets in accordance with regulations governing custodial holdings of securities. The primary risk with repurchase agreements is market risk associated with the investments securing the transactions, as additional collateral may be required based on fair value changes of the underlying investments. Securities pledged as collateral under repurchase agreements are maintained with safekeeping agents. The carrying value of investment securities pledged as collateral under repurchase agreements was $685.6 million and $689.3 million at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
At March 31, 2021, BancShares held $680.7 million of securities sold under agreements to repurchase, with overnight and continuous remaining contractual maturities, made up of $485.8 million collateralized by government agency securities and $194.9 million collateralized by commercial mortgage-backed securities. At December 31, 2020, BancShares held securities sold under agreements to repurchase of $641.5 million, with overnight and continuous remaining contractual maturities, made up of $432.8 million collateralized by government agency securities and $208.7 million collateralized by commercial mortgage-backed securities.
NOTE I - FDIC SHARED-LOSS PAYABLE
For certain FDIC-assisted transactions, the shared-loss agreement included a provision related to a payment owed to the FDIC at the termination of the agreement. As of March 31, 2021, these agreements have been satisfied following a $16.1 million payment made to the FDIC related to the final active agreement.
The following table provides changes in the FDIC shared-loss payable since December 31, 2020:
(Dollars in thousands)Total
Balance at December 31, 2020$15,601 
Accretion502 
Payment made to the FDIC to settle shared-loss agreement(16,103)
Balance at March 31, 2021$
23

NOTE J - ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE (LOSS) INCOME
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income included the following as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
 March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
Deferred
tax
expense
(benefit)
Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss),
net of tax
Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
Deferred
tax
expense
(benefit)
Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss),
net of tax
Unrealized gains on securities available for sale$36,570 $8,411 $28,159 $102,278 $23,524 $78,754 
Unrealized gains on securities available for sale transferred from (to) held to maturity4,924 1,133 3,791 5,399 1,242 4,157 
Defined benefit pension items(85,222)(19,601)(65,621)(91,751)(21,103)(70,648)
Total$(43,728)$(10,057)$(33,671)$15,926 $3,663 $12,263 
The following table highlights changes in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income by component for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
Three months ended March 31, 2021
(Dollars in thousands, net of tax)Unrealized gains on securities available for saleUnrealized gains on securities available for sale transferred to held to maturityDefined benefit pension itemsTotal
Beginning balance$78,754 $4,157 $(70,648)$12,263 
Net unrealized losses arising during period(43,506)(43,506)
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income(7,089)(366)5,027 (2,428)
Net current period other comprehensive (loss) income(50,595)(366)5,027 (45,934)
Ending balance$28,159 $3,791 $(65,621)$(33,671)
Three months ended March 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands, net of tax)Unrealized gains on securities available for saleUnrealized gains on securities available for sale transferred to held to maturityDefined benefit pension itemsTotal
Beginning balance$5,792 $$(132,515)$(126,723)
Net unrealized gains arising during period111,530 111,530 
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss(15,242)4,823 (10,419)
Net current period other comprehensive income96,288 4,823 101,111 
Ending balance$102,080 $$(127,692)$(25,612)
24

The following table presents the amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income and the line item affected in the statement where net income is presented for the three and three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
(Dollars in thousands)Three months ended March 31, 2021
Details about accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)Affected line item in the statement where net income is presented
Unrealized gains on securities available for sale$9,207 Realized gains on investment securities available for sale, net
(2,118)Income taxes
$7,089 
Accretion of unrealized gains on securities available for sale transferred to held to maturity$475 Net interest income
(109)Income taxes
$366 
Amortization of defined benefit pension actuarial losses(6,529)Other noninterest expense
1,502 Income taxes
$(5,027)
Total reclassifications for the period$2,428 
(Dollars in thousands)Three months ended March 31, 2020
Details about accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)Affected line item in the statement where net income is presented
Unrealized gains on securities available for sale$19,795 Realized gains on investment securities available for sale, net
(4,553)Income taxes
$15,242 
Amortization of defined benefit pension actuarial losses(6,264)Other noninterest expense
1,441 Income taxes
$(4,823)
Total reclassifications for the period$10,419 
NOTE K - ESTIMATED FAIR VALUES
Fair value estimates are intended to represent the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants as of the measurement date. Where there is no active market for a financial instrument, BancShares has made estimates using discounted cash flows or other valuation techniques. Inputs used in these valuation techniques are subjective in nature, involve uncertainties and require significant judgment and therefore can only be derived within a range of precision. Accordingly, the derived fair value estimates presented below are not necessarily indicative of the amounts BancShares would realize in a current market exchange.
ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, indicates that assets and liabilities are recorded at fair value according to a fair value hierarchy comprised of three levels. The levels are based on the markets in which the assets and liabilities are traded and the reliability of the assumptions used to determine fair value. The level within the fair value hierarchy for an asset or liability is based on the highest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement (with Level 1 considered highest and Level 3 considered lowest). A brief description of each level follows:
Level 1 values are based on quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets.
Level 2 values are based on quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market.
Level 3 values are derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs or assumptions are not observable in the market. These unobservable inputs and assumptions reflect estimates that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. Valuation techniques include the use of discounted cash flow models and similar techniques.
BancShares’ management reviews any changes to its valuation methodologies to ensure they are appropriate and supportable, and refines valuation methodologies as more market-based data becomes available. Accuracy of the levels of the fair value hierarchy are validated and transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy are recognized at the end of the reporting period.
25

The methodologies used to estimate the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities are discussed below:
Investment securities available for sale and held to maturity. The fair value of U.S. Treasury, government agency and mortgage-backed securities, municipal securities, as well as a portion of corporate bonds, is generally estimated using a third party pricing service. The third party provider evaluates securities based on comparable investments with trades and market data and will utilize pricing models that use a variety of inputs, such as benchmark yields, reported trades, broker-dealer quotes, issuer spreads, benchmark securities, bids and offers as needed. These securities are generally classified as Level 2. The remaining corporate bonds held are generally measured at fair value based on indicative bids from broker-dealers which are unadjusted and are not directly observable. These securities are considered Level 3.
Investment in marketable equity securities. Equity securities are measured at fair value using observable closing prices and the market activity. Equity securities are classified as Level 1 if they are traded in an active market and as Level 2 if the observable closing price is from a less than active market.
Loans held for sale. Management elects the fair value option on certain residential real estate loans originated to be sold to investors. The loans are carried at fair value based on quoted market prices for similar types of loans. Accordingly, the inputs used to calculate fair value of originated residential real estate loans held for sale are classified as Level 2 inputs. Loans held for investment subsequently transferred to held for sale are carried at fair value when a firm commitment to purchase from a counterparty exists. The fair value of the transferred loans is based on the quoted prices and is considered a Level 1 input.
Net loans and leases. Fair value is estimated based on discounted future cash flows using the current interest rates at which loans with similar terms would be made to borrowers of similar credit quality. The inputs used in the fair value measurements for loans and leases are considered Level 3 inputs.
FHLB stock. The carrying amount of FHLB stock is a reasonable estimate of fair value as these securities are not readily marketable and are evaluated for impairment based on the ultimate recoverability of the par value. BancShares considers positive and negative evidence, including the profitability and asset quality of the issuer, dividend payment history and recent redemption experience, when determining the ultimate recoverability of the par value. BancShares believes its investment in FHLB stock is ultimately recoverable at par. The inputs used in the fair value measurement for the FHLB stock are considered Level 2 inputs.
Mortgage and other servicing rights. Mortgage and other servicing rights are carried at the lower of amortized cost or market value and are, therefore, carried at fair value only when fair value is less than the amortized cost. The fair value of mortgage and other servicing rights is performed using a pooling methodology. Similar loans are pooled together and a model that relies on discount rates, estimates of prepayment rates and the weighted average cost to service the loans is used to determine the fair value. The inputs used in the fair value measurement for mortgage and other servicing rights are considered Level 3 inputs.
Deposits. For non-time deposits, carrying value is a reasonable estimate of fair value. The fair value of time deposits is estimated by discounting future cash flows using the interest rates currently offered for deposits with similar remaining maturities. The inputs used in the fair value measurement for deposits are considered Level 2 inputs.    
Borrowings. For borrowings, the fair values are determined based on recent trades or sales of the actual security if available. Otherwise, fair values are estimated by discounting future cash flows using current interest rates for similar financial instruments. The inputs used in the fair value measurement for FHLB borrowings, subordinated debentures, and other borrowings are considered Level 2 inputs.
Payable to the FDIC for shared-loss agreements. The fair value of the payable to the FDIC for shared-loss agreements was determined based on payments to the FDIC in accordance with the shared-loss agreements. Cash flows were discounted using current discount rates to reflect the timing of the estimated amounts due to the FDIC. The inputs used in the fair value measurement for the payable to the FDIC were considered Level 3 inputs.
Off-balance-sheet commitments and contingencies. Carrying amounts are reasonable estimates of the fair values for such financial instruments. Carrying amounts include unamortized fee income and, in some cases, reserves for any credit losses from those financial instruments. These amounts are not material to BancShares’ financial position.
For all other financial assets and liabilities, the carrying value is a reasonable estimate of the fair value as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020. The carrying value and fair value for these assets and liabilities are equivalent because they are relatively short term in nature and there is no interest rate or credit risk that would cause the fair value to differ from the carrying value. Cash and due from banks is classified on the fair value hierarchy as Level 1. Overnight investments, income earned not collected, securities sold under customer repurchase agreements, and accrued interest payable are considered Level 2.
26

The table presents the carrying values and estimated fair values for financial instruments as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Carrying valueFair valueCarrying valueFair value
Assets
Cash and due from banks$410,495 $410,495 $362,048 $362,048 
Overnight investments7,588,757 7,588,757 4,347,336 4,347,336 
Investment in marketable equity securities106,886 106,886 91,680 91,680 
Investment securities available for sale7,307,122 7,307,122 7,014,243 7,014,243 
Investment securities held to maturity2,808,099 2,774,982 2,816,982 2,838,499 
Loans held for sale129,334 129,334 124,837 124,837 
Net loans and leases32,970,200 33,202,437 32,567,661 33,298,166 
Income earned not collected148,022 148,022 145,694 145,694 
Federal Home Loan Bank stock40,563 40,563 45,392 45,392 
Mortgage and other servicing rights23,728 24,322 19,628 20,283 
Liabilities
Deposits with no stated maturity44,601,552 44,601,552 40,542,596 40,542,596 
Time deposits2,729,445 2,738,244 2,889,013 2,905,577 
Securities sold under customer repurchase agreements680,705 680,705 641,487 641,487 
Federal Home Loan Bank borrowings648,671 664,996 655,175 677,579 
Subordinated debt497,153 517,091 504,518 525,610 
Other borrowings84,502 85,067 88,470 89,263 
FDIC shared-loss payable15,601 15,843 
Accrued interest payable5,149 5,149 9,414 9,414 
For assets and liabilities carried at fair value on a recurring basis, the following table provides fair value information as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
March 31, 2021
  Fair value measurements using:
(Dollars in thousands)Fair valueLevel 1 inputsLevel 2 inputsLevel 3 inputs
Assets measured at fair value
Investment securities available for sale
Government agency$846,686 $$846,686 $
Residential mortgage-backed securities4,758,589 4,758,589 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities1,098,987 1,098,987 
Corporate bonds602,860 284,744 318,116 
Total investment securities available for sale$7,307,122 $$6,989,006 $318,116 
Marketable equity securities$106,886 $43,677 $63,209 $
Loans held for sale$129,334 $$129,334 $
December 31, 2020
 Fair value measurements using:
Fair valueLevel 1 inputsLevel 2 inputsLevel 3 inputs
Assets measured at fair value
Investment securities available for sale
U.S. Treasury$499,933 $$499,933 $
Government agency701,391 701,391 
Residential mortgage-backed securities4,438,103 4,438,103 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities771,537 771,537 
Corporate bonds603,279 286,655 316,624 
Total investment securities available for sale$7,014,243 $$6,697,619 $316,624 
Marketable equity securities$91,680 $32,855 $58,825 $
Loans held for sale$124,837 $$124,837 $
27

The following tables summarize activity for Level 3 assets:
Corporate bonds
Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands)20212020
Beginning balance$316,624 $69,685 
Unrealized net losses (gains) included in other comprehensive income2,333 (4,366)
Amounts included in net income(91)(85)
Transfers in1,782 
Sales / Calls(750)
Ending balance$318,116 $67,016 
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, there were 0 transfers between levels. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, there were transfers from Level 2 to Level 3 of $1.8 million. The transfers were due to a lack of observable inputs and trade activity for those securities.
The following table presents quantitative information about Level 3 fair value measurements for fair value on a recurring basis at March 31, 2021:
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021
Level 3 assetsValuation techniqueSignificant unobservable inputFair Value
Corporate bondsIndicative bid provided by brokerMultiple factors, including but not limited to, current operations, financial condition, cash flows, and recently executed financing transactions related to the issuer$318,116 
Fair Value Option
BancShares has elected the fair value option for residential real estate loans originated to be sold. This election reduces certain timing differences in the Consolidated Statement of Income and better aligns with the management of the portfolio from a business perspective. The changes in fair value were recorded as a component of mortgage income and included a loss of $2.7 million and a gain of $1.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Interest earned on loans held for sale is recorded within interest income on loans and leases in the consolidated statements of income.
The following table summarizes the difference between the aggregate fair value and the aggregate unpaid principal balance for residential real estate originated for sale measured at fair value as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
March 31, 2021
(Dollars in thousands)Fair valueAggregate unpaid principal balanceDifference
Originated loans held for sale$129,334 $126,113 $3,221 
December 31, 2020
Fair valueAggregate unpaid principal balanceDifference
Originated loans held for sale$124,837 $118,902 $5,935 
NaN originated loans held for sale were 90 or more days past due or on nonaccrual status as of March 31, 2021 or December 31, 2020.
We may be required to measure certain financial assets at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. These adjustments to fair value usually result from the application of lower of amortized cost or fair value accounting or write-downs of individual assets due to impairment.
The population of loans measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis is limited to collateral-dependent loans evaluated individually. These collateral-dependent loans are deemed to be at fair value if there is an associated ACL or if a charge-off has been recorded in the previous 12 months. Collateral values are determined using appraisals or other third-party value estimates of the subject property discounted based on estimated selling costs, generally between 6% and 10%, and immaterial adjustments for other external factors that may impact the marketability of the collateral. The weighted average discount for estimated selling costs applied was 6.81%.
28

OREO acquired or written down within the previous 12 months is deemed to be at fair value. Asset valuations are determined by using appraisals or other third-party value estimates of the subject property with discounts generally between 6% and 15% applied for estimated selling costs and other external factors that may impact the marketability of the property. At March 31, 2021, the weighted average discount applied was 8.76%. Changes to the value of the assets between scheduled valuation dates are monitored through continued communication with brokers and monthly reviews by the asset manager assigned to each asset. If there are any significant changes in the market or the subject property, valuations are adjusted or new appraisals ordered to ensure the reported values reflect the most current information.
For financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value on a nonrecurring basis, the following table provides fair value information as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
March 31, 2021
  Fair value measurements using:
(Dollars in thousands)Fair valueLevel 1 inputsLevel 2 inputsLevel 3 inputs
Collateral-dependent loans$10,247 $$$10,247 
Other real estate owned36,642 36,642 
Mortgage servicing rights20,409 20,409 
December 31, 2020
 Fair value measurements using:
Fair valueLevel 1 inputsLevel 2 inputsLevel 3 inputs
Collateral-dependent loans$11,779 $$$11,779 
Other real estate owned40,115 40,115 
Mortgage servicing rights16,966 16,966 
NaN financial liabilities were carried at fair value on a nonrecurring basis as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
NOTE L - EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS
BancShares sponsors noncontributory defined benefit pension plans for its qualifying employees. The service cost component of net periodic benefit cost is included in salaries and wages while all other non-service cost components are included in other noninterest expense.
For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the components of net periodic benefit cost are as follows:
 Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands)20212020
Service cost$3,653 $3,457 
Interest cost7,404 8,531 
Expected return on assets(19,595)(16,409)
Amortization of net actuarial loss6,529 6,264 
Net periodic (benefit) cost$(2,009)$1,843 
NaN discretionary contribution was made to the pension plans during the three months ended March 31, 2021. The funding policy of the pension plans is to contribute an amount each year to meet all Employee Retirement Income Security Act minimum requirements, including amounts to meet quarterly funding requirements, avoid “at-risk” status and avoid any benefit restrictions. BancShares may also contribute additional voluntary amounts each year (up to the maximum tax-deductible amount) in order to achieve certain target funding levels in the plans, with consideration also given to current and future cash flow and tax positions. No contributions are currently expected for the year ending December 31, 2021.
29

NOTE M - LEASES
The following table presents right-of-use lease assets and liabilities as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
(Dollars in thousands)ClassificationMarch 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Assets:
OperatingOther assets$65,330 $68,048 
FinancePremises and equipment5,936 6,478 
Total leased assets$71,266 $74,526 
Liabilities:
OperatingOther liabilities$65,841 $68,343 
FinanceOther borrowings5,915 6,308 
Total lease liabilities$71,756 $74,651 
NOTE N - COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
To meet the financing needs of its customers, BancShares and its subsidiaries have financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk. These financial instruments involve elements of credit, interest rate or liquidity risk and include commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit.
Commitments to extend credit are legally binding agreements to lend to customers. These commitments generally have fixed expiration dates or other termination clauses and may require payment of fees. Since many of these commitments are expected to expire without being drawn upon, the total commitment amounts do not necessarily represent future liquidity requirements. Established credit standards control the credit risk exposure associated with these commitments. In some cases, BancShares requires collateral be pledged to secure the commitment, including cash deposits, securities and other assets.
Standby letters of credit are commitments guaranteeing performance of a customer to a third party. Those commitments are primarily issued to support public and private borrowing arrangements. To mitigate its risk, BancShares’ credit policies govern the issuance of standby letters of credit. The credit risk related to the issuance of these letters of credit is essentially the same as in extending loans to clients and, therefore, these letters of credit are collateralized when necessary.
The following table presents the commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Unused commitments to extend credit$12,126,186 $12,098,417 
Standby letters of credit139,572 129,819 
BancShares has investments in qualified affordable housing projects primarily for the purposes of fulfilling Community Reinvestment Act requirements and obtaining tax credits. Affordable housing project investments were $162.4 million and $163.9 million as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively, and were recorded in other assets. Unfunded commitments to fund future investments in affordable housing projects totaled $49.7 million and $53.7 million as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively, and were recorded in other liabilities.
BancShares and various subsidiaries have been named as defendants in legal actions arising from their normal business activities in which damages in various amounts were claimed. BancShares has also been exposed to litigation risk relating to the prior business activities of banks from which assets were acquired and liabilities assumed in the various merger transactions. Although the amount of any ultimate liability with respect to such matters cannot be determined, in the opinion of management, any such liability will not have a material effect on BancShares’ consolidated financial statements.
30

Item 2.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Management’s discussion and analysis (“MD&A”) of earnings and related financial data are presented to assist in understanding the financial condition and results of operations of First Citizens BancShares, Inc. and Subsidiaries (“BancShares”). This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes presented within this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q along with our financial statements and related MD&A of financial condition and results of operations included in our 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. Although certain amounts for prior years have been reclassified to conform to statement presentations for 2021, the reclassifications had no effect on shareholders’ equity or net income as previously reported. Unless otherwise noted, the terms “we,” “us” and “BancShares” refer to the consolidated financial position and consolidated results of operations for BancShares.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
BancShares conducts its banking operations through its wholly-owned subsidiary First-Citizens Bank & Trust Company (“FCB”), a state-chartered bank organized under the laws of the state of North Carolina.
BancShares’ earnings and cash flows are primarily derived from our commercial and retail banking activities. We gather deposits from retail and commercial customers and also secure funding through various non-deposit sources. We invest the liquidity generated from these funding sources in interest-earning assets, including loans and leases, investment securities and overnight investments. We also invest in bank premises, hardware, software, furniture and equipment used to conduct our commercial and retail banking business. We provide treasury services products, cardholder and merchant services, wealth management services and various other products and services typically offered by commercial banks. The fees and service charges generated from these products and services are primary sources of noninterest income which is an essential component of our total revenue.
We are focused on expanding our position in legacy and target markets through organic growth and strategic acquisitions. We believe our franchise is positioned for continued growth as a result of our client centric banking principles, disciplined lending standards, and our people.
Refer to our 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K for further discussion of our strategy.
RECENT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS
During the first quarter of 2020, a novel strain of coronavirus (“COVID-19”) spread throughout the world, causing significant disruptions to the domestic and global economies which continue to date. In response to the outbreak, governments imposed restrictions resulting in business shutdowns, regional quarantines, disruptions of supply chains, changes in consumer behavior and overall economic instability. This uncertainty led to volatility in the financial markets. This impact was coupled with spikes in unemployment as a result of business shutdowns that continue to impact financial institutions operationally and financially. Vaccine distribution and other factors have improved the economic outlook, but uncertainty remains.
During the first quarter of 2021, the Federal Reserve’s Federal Open Market Committee (“FOMC”) maintained the federal funds rate at a target range of 0.00% to 0.25%. The FOMC cited the effects of COVID-19 on economic activity and the risks posed to the economic outlook. The FOMC expects to maintain this target range until labor market conditions have reached levels consistent with the FOMC’s assessments of maximum employment and inflation has risen to 2% and is on track to moderately exceed 2% for some time.
On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid Relief and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was passed. The bill was designed to provide short-term economic relief to individuals and businesses most impacted by the fallout of the pandemic. Key provisions include: for individuals, economic impact payments and enhanced unemployment benefits; for small businesses, access to loans and support through the Small Business Administration Paycheck Protection Program (“SBA-PPP”), direct aid and loans to the medical industry and other affected sectors, and certain tax benefits that can be used in conjunction with the other aid mentioned. While direct aid to financial services entities is not a primary goal of the provisions, financial institutions will function to transmit funds from the Federal Reserve, SBA and United States (“U.S.”) Treasury to the public. This was supplemented by the Paycheck Protection Program Flexibility Act, which was signed into law on June 5, 2020, and amended provisions of the SBA-PPP including timing of the program and changes to forgiveness criteria. In addition, there were other regulatory actions taken that may impact our business including changes in credit reporting on customer forbearance, federally backed mortgage forbearance, potential legal lending limit relaxation and other economic stabilization efforts.
The Consolidated Apportions Act 2021 was signed into law during the fourth quarter of 2020 and contained provisions for a second round of funding of SBA-PPP loans.
31

BANCSHARES’ COVID-19 CONTINUED MONITORING AND RESPONSE
BancShares remains dedicated to serving our customers and communities through the COVID-19 crisis. Our branches have re-opened with enhanced safety protocols and our corporate locations remain at limited occupancy as we navigate the challenges of COVID-19.
During the first quarter of 2021 in the second round of SBA-PPP, BancShares originated approximately 9,600 SBA-PPP loans totaling $1.1 billion. We recorded $30.9 million of interest and fee income related to SBA-PPP loans for the quarter. As of March 31, 2021, remaining net deferred fees on SBA-PPP loans were $66.7 million.
With respect to the first round of SBA-PPP, we began accepting and processing applications for forgiveness during the third quarter of 2020. We have received approximately 12,000 forgiveness decisions from the SBA to date, representing over $1.4 billion in forgiveness payments. BancShares originated approximately 23,000 loans during round one totaling $3.2 billion.
Through March 31, 2021, approximately 98% of all COVID-19 related loan extensions have begun repayment. Delinquency trends among loans entering repayment are in line with the remainder of the portfolio, and we have not seen significant declines in overall credit quality.
During 2020, we recorded a $36.1 million reserve build due to uncertainty surrounding COVID-19 and its potential impact on our credit portfolio. Improved macroeconomic factors used as inputs into our ACL models and continued low net charge-offs during the first quarter of 2021 resulted in a provision credit of $11.0 million driven primarily by a $13.7 million reserve release during the quarter.
Table 1 provides a breakdown of the $2.8 billion of SBA-PPP loans outstanding by loan size as of March 31, 2021.
Table 1
SBA-PPP LOANS BY LOAN SIZE
(Dollars in thousands)
Loan Size$ of Loans% of Loans $
Less than $150,000$793,559 28.7 %
$150,000 to $2,000,0001,465,863 52.9 
Greater than $2,000,000510,484 18.4 
Total$2,769,906 100.0 %
We began accepting and processing applications for forgiveness during the third quarter of 2020. Table 2 represents the forgiveness status of SBA-PPP loans as of March 31, 2021.
Table 2
SBA-PPP LOAN FORGIVENESS STATUS
(Dollars in thousands)
Forgiveness Status$ of Loans% of Round 1 Total
Received by FCB$2,222,139 69.2 %
Submitted to SBA2,099,988 65.4 
Approved by SBA1,458,983 45.4 
Funds Received1,410,441 43.9 
SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN 2021
On October 15, 2020, BancShares and CIT Group Inc., a Delaware corporation (“CIT”), entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) by and among BancShares, FCB, FC Merger Subsidiary IX, Inc., a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of FCB (“Merger Sub”), and CIT, the parent company of CIT Bank, N.A., a national banking association (“CIT Bank”). Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub will merge with and into CIT, with CIT as the surviving entity (the “First-Step Merger”), and as soon as reasonably practicable following the effective time of the First-Step Merger, CIT will merge with and into FCB, with FCB as the surviving entity (together with the First-Step Merger, the “Mergers”). The Merger Agreement further provides that immediately following the consummation of the Mergers, CIT Bank will merge with and into FCB, with FCB as the surviving bank (together with the Mergers, the “Transaction”).
32

The Merger Agreement was unanimously approved by the Board of Directors of each of BancShares and CIT. The Transaction was approved by the North Carolina Commissioner of Banks on February 5, 2021, as well as the shareholders of both companies on February 9, 2021. We are continuing to work with other regulators on remaining approvals and anticipate closing in mid-2021 subject to the satisfaction of customary closing conditions.
Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, at the effective time of the First-Step Merger (the “Effective Time”), each share of CIT common stock, par value $0.01 per share, issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time (“CIT Common Stock”), except for certain shares of CIT Common Stock owned by CIT or BancShares, will be converted into the right to receive 0.06200 shares of BancShares Class A common stock, par value $1.00 per share. Holders of CIT Common Stock will receive cash in lieu of fractional shares.
In addition, at the Effective Time, each share of Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A, par value $0.01 per share, of CIT and 5.625% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series B, par value $0.01 per share, of CIT issued and outstanding will automatically be converted into the right to receive one share of a newly created series of preferred stock, Series B, of BancShares and one share of a newly created series of preferred stock, Series C, of BancShares, respectively.
The Merger Agreement requires that, effective as of the Effective Time, the Boards of Directors of the combined company and the combined bank will consist of 14 directors, (i) 11 of whom will be members of the current Board of Directors of BancShares, and (ii) three of whom will be selected from among the current Board of Directors of CIT and will include as one of those three Ellen R. Alemany, Chairwoman and Chief Executive Officer of CIT. We intend to appoint Michael A. Carpenter and Vice Admiral John R. Ryan, USN (Ret.), as the two other members from CIT’s current Board of Directors who will join the Boards of Directors of the combined company and the combined bank.
FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE SUMMARY
First Quarter Highlights
Net income for the first quarter of 2021 was $147.3 million, an increase of $90.1 million, or 157.7% compared to the same quarter in 2020. Net income available to common shareholders totaled $142.7 million for the first quarter of 2021. Net income per common share increased $9.07, or 166.1%, to $14.53 in the first quarter of 2021, from $5.46 per share during the same quarter in 2020.
Return on average assets for the first quarter of 2021 was 1.16%, up from 0.57% in the first quarter of 2020. Return on average equity for the first quarter of 2021 was 14.70%, up from 6.34% during the same quarter of 2020.
Net interest income was $339.7 million for the first quarter of 2021, an increase of $1.3 million, or 0.4% compared to the same quarter in 2020. This was primarily due to interest and fee income on SBA-PPP loans, organic loan growth and lower rates paid on interest-bearing deposits, partially offset by a decline in the yield on interest-earning assets. SBA-PPP loans contributed $30.9 million in interest and fee income during the quarter. The taxable-equivalent net interest margin (“NIM”) was 2.80% for the first quarter of 2021, a decrease of 75 basis points from 3.55% for the first quarter in 2020.
Noninterest income was $136.6 million for the first quarter of 2021 , an increase of $72.6 million, or 113.5%, compared to $64.0 million for the same quarter of 2020.
Noninterest expense was $295.9 million for the first quarter of 2021, a decrease of $4.0 million or by 1.3% compared to the same quarter of 2020,
Total loans grew to $33.2 billion, an increase of $388.9 million, or by 4.8% on an annualized basis, since December 31, 2020. Excluding loans originated under the SBA-PPP, total loans increased $25.3 million, or by 0.3% on an annualized basis, since December 31, 2020. The net charge-off ratio was 0.03% for the first quarter of 2021, down from 0.06% for the fourth quarter of 2020 and 0.10% for the first quarter of 2020.
Total deposits grew to $47.3 billion, an increase of $3.9 billion, or by 36.4% on an annualized basis, since December 31, 2020.
At March 31, 2021, BancShares remained well capitalized with a total risk-based capital ratio of 14.1%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital of 12.0%, a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 11.0% and a leverage ratio of 7.8%.
33

Table 3
SELECTED QUARTERLY DATA
20212020
FirstFourthThirdSecondFirst
(Dollars in thousands, except share data)QuarterQuarterQuarterQuarterQuarter
SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS
Interest income$355,323 $376,876 $374,334 $363,257 $369,559 
Interest expense15,671 18,160 20,675 25,863 31,159 
Net interest income339,652 358,716 353,659 337,394 338,400 
Provision (credit) for credit losses(10,974)5,403 4,042 20,552 28,355 
Net interest income after provision for credit losses350,626 353,313 349,617 316,842 310,045 
Noninterest income136,649 126,765 120,572 165,402 64,011 
Noninterest expense295,926 305,373 291,662 291,679 299,971 
Income before income taxes191,349 174,705 178,527 190,565 74,085 
Income taxes44,033 36,621 35,843 36,779 16,916 
Net income147,316 138,084 142,684 153,786 57,169 
Net income available to common shareholders$142,680 $133,448 $138,048 $148,996 $57,169 
Net interest income, taxable equivalent$340,271 $359,370 $354,256 $337,965 $339,174 
PER COMMON SHARE DATA
Net income$14.53 $13.59 $14.03 $14.74 $5.46 
Cash dividends on common shares0.47 0.47 0.40 0.40 0.40 
Market price at period end (Class A)835.77 574.27 318.78 405.02 332.87 
Book value at period-end405.59 396.21 380.43 367.57 351.90 
SELECTED QUARTERLY AVERAGE BALANCES
Total assets$51,409,634 $49,557,803 $48,262,155 $45,553,502 $40,648,806 
Investment securities9,757,650 9,889,124 9,930,197 8,928,467 7,453,159 
Loans and leases (1)
33,086,656 32,964,390 32,694,996 31,635,958 29,098,101 
Interest-earning assets48,715,279 46,922,823 45,617,376 42,795,781 38,004,341 
Deposits44,858,198 43,123,312 41,905,844 39,146,415 34,750,061 
Interest-bearing liabilities27,898,525 26,401,222 25,591,707 24,407,285 23,153,777 
Securities sold under customer repurchase agreements641,236 684,311 710,237 659,244 474,231 
Other short-term borrowings— — — 45,549 157,759 
Long-term borrowings1,235,576 1,250,682 1,256,331 1,275,928 961,132 
Common shareholders' equity3,935,267 3,786,158 3,679,138 3,648,284 3,625,975 
Shareholders’ equity$4,275,204 $4,126,095 $4,019,075 $3,988,225 $3,682,634 
Common shares outstanding9,816,405 9,816,405 9,836,629 10,105,520 10,473,119 
SELECTED QUARTER-END BALANCES
Total assets$53,908,606 $49,957,680 $48,666,873 $47,866,194 $41,594,453 
Investment securities10,222,107 9,922,905 9,860,594 9,508,476 8,845,197 
Loans and leases33,180,851 32,791,975 32,845,144 32,418,425 29,240,959 
Deposits47,330,997 43,431,609 42,250,606 41,479,245 35,346,711 
Securities sold under customer repurchase agreements680,705 641,487 693,889 740,276 540,362 
Other short-term borrowings— — — — 105,000 
Long-term borrowings1,230,326 1,248,163 1,252,016 1,258,719 1,297,132 
Shareholders’ equity$4,321,400 $4,229,268 $4,074,414 $3,991,444 $3,957,520 
Common shares outstanding9,816,405 9,816,405 9,816,405 9,934,105 10,280,105 
SELECTED RATIOS AND OTHER DATA
Return on average assets (annualized)1.16 %1.11 %1.18 %1.36 %0.57 %
Return on average common shareholders’ equity (annualized)14.70 14.02 14.93 16.43 6.34 
Net yield on interest-earning assets (taxable equivalent)2.80 3.02 3.06 3.14 3.55 
Net charge-offs to average loans and leases (annualized)0.03 0.06 0.03 0.09 0.10 
Allowance for credit losses to total loans and leases(2):
PCD5.30 5.18 5.07 5.07 4.80 
Non-PCD0.57 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.64 
Total0.63 0.68 0.68 0.69 0.72 
Ratio of total nonperforming assets to total loans, leases and other real estate owned0.73 0.74 0.73 0.77 0.79 
Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio14.14 13.81 13.70 13.63 13.65 
Common equity Tier 1 ratio12.02 11.63 11.48 11.38 11.43 
Total risk-based capital ratio11.00 10.61 10.43 10.32 10.36 
Tier 1 leverage capital ratio7.84 7.86 7.80 8.07 8.98 
Dividend payout ratio3.23 3.46 2.85 2.71 7.33 
Average loans and leases to average deposits73.76 76.44 78.02 80.81 83.74 
(1) Average loan and lease balances include PCD loans, non-PCD loans and leases, loans held for sale and nonaccrual loans and leases.
(2) Loans originated in relation to the SBA-PPP ($2.8 billion as of March 3, 2021) do not have a recorded ACL. As of March 31, 2021, the ratio of ACL to total Non-PCD loans excluding SBA-PPP loans is 0.63%, while the ratio of ACL to total loans excluding SBA-PPP loans is 0.69%.
34

BUSINESS COMBINATIONS
CIT Group Inc.
On October 15, 2020, BancShares and CIT, entered into the Merger Agreement by and among BancShares, FCB, the Merger Sub, and CIT, the parent company of CIT Bank. Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub and CIT will ultimately merge with and into FCB, with FCB as the surviving entity. The Merger Agreement further provides that immediately following the consummation of the Mergers, CIT Bank will merge with and into FCB, with FCB as the surviving bank.
The Merger Agreement was unanimously approved by the Board of Directors of each of BancShares and CIT. The Transaction was approved by the North Carolina Commissioner of Banks on February 5, 2021, as well as the shareholders of both companies on February 9, 2021. We are continuing to work with other regulators on remaining approvals and anticipate closing in mid-2021 subject to regulatory approval and the satisfaction of customary closing conditions.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Assisted Transactions
BancShares completed fourteen Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) assisted transactions between 2009 and 2017. Nine of the fourteen FDIC-assisted transactions included shared-loss agreements which, for their terms, protected us from a substantial portion of the credit and asset quality risk we would otherwise incur.
For certain FDIC-assisted transactions, the shared-loss agreement included a provision related to a payment owed to the FDIC at the termination of the agreement. As of March 31, 2021, these agreements have been satisfied following a $16.1 million payment made to the FDIC for the final active agreement.
35

Table 4
CONSOLIDATED YEAR-TO-DATE AVERAGE TAXABLE-EQUIVALENT BALANCE SHEETS
Three months ended March 31
20212020
InterestInterest
AverageIncome/ Yield/AverageIncome/Yield/
(Dollars in thousands)BalanceExpenseRateBalanceExpenseRate
Assets
Loans and leases$33,086,656 $323,602 3.92 %$29,098,101 $326,155 4.46 %
Investment securities:
U.S. Treasury383,300 171 0.18 299,777 1,677 2.25 
Government agency791,293 1,900 0.96 721,254 4,121 2.29 
Mortgage-backed securities7,882,679 20,607 1.05 6,060,434 30,707 2.03 
Corporate bonds602,883 7,742 5.14 205,504 2,477 4.82 
Other investments97,495 472 1.96 166,190 678 1.64 
Total investment securities9,757,650 30,892 1.27 7,453,159 39,660 2.13 
Overnight investments5,870,973 1,448 0.10 1,453,081 4,518 1.25 
Total interest-earning assets48,715,279 355,942 2.93 38,004,341 370,333 3.88 
Cash and due from banks333,069 300,433 
Premises and equipment1,251,542 1,251,970 
Allowance for credit losses(224,009)(187,269)
Other real estate owned48,590 53,356 
Other assets1,285,163 1,225,975 
Total assets$51,409,634 $40,648,806 
Liabilities
Interest-bearing deposits:
Checking with interest$10,746,225 $1,409 0.05 %$8,188,983 $1,701 0.08 %
Savings3,461,780 299 0.04 2,593,869 285 0.04 
Money market accounts9,008,391 2,508 0.11 7,016,587 9,109 0.52 
Time deposits2,805,317 4,577 0.66 3,761,216 13,099 1.40 
Total interest-bearing deposits26,021,713 8,793 0.14 21,560,655 24,194 0.45 
Securities sold under customer repurchase agreements641,236 338 0.21 474,231 442 0.38 
Other short-term borrowings— — — 157,759 804 2.02 
Long-term borrowings1,235,576 6,540 2.12 961,132 5,719 2.35 
Total interest-bearing liabilities27,898,525 15,671 0.23 23,153,777 31,159 0.54 
Noninterest-bearing deposits18,836,485 13,189,406 
Other liabilities399,420 622,989 
Shareholders’ equity4,275,204 3,682,634 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$51,409,634 $40,648,806 
Interest rate spread2.70 %3.34 %
Net interest income and net yield on interest-earning assets$340,271 2.80 %$339,174 3.55 %
Loans and leases include PCD loans, non-PCD loans, nonaccrual loans and loans held for sale. Yields related to loans, leases and securities exempt from both federal and state income taxes, federal income taxes only, or state income taxes only are stated on a taxable-equivalent basis assuming statutory federal income tax rate of 21.0%, as well as a blended state income tax rate of 3.3% and 3.4%, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, respectively. The taxable-equivalent adjustment was $619 thousand and $774 thousand for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, respectively.
36

Table 5
CHANGES IN CONSOLIDATED TAXABLE EQUIVALENT NET INTEREST INCOME
Three months ended March 31, 2021
Change from prior year period due to:
(Dollars in thousands)
Volume(1)
Yield/Rate(1)
Total Change
Assets
Loans and leases$47,241 $(49,794)$(2,553)
Investment securities:
U.S. Treasury451 (1,957)(1,506)
Government agency400 (2,621)(2,221)
Mortgage-backed securities9,353 (19,453)(10,100)
Corporate bonds4,789 476 5,265 
Other investments(278)72 (206)
Total investment securities14,715 (23,483)(8,768)
Overnight investments13,602 (16,672)(3,070)
Total interest-earning assets$75,558 $(89,949)$(14,391)
Liabilities
Interest-bearing deposits:
Checking with interest$529 $(821)$(292)
Savings95 (81)14 
Money market accounts2,517 (9,118)(6,601)
Time deposits(3,359)(5,163)(8,522)
Total interest-bearing deposits(218)(15,183)(15,401)
Securities sold under customer repurchase agreements155 (259)(104)
Other short-term borrowings(804)— (804)
Long-term borrowings1,608 (787)821 
Total interest-bearing liabilities741 (16,229)(15,488)
Change in net interest income$74,817 $(73,720)$1,097 
(1) The rate/volume variance is allocated proportionally between the changes in volume and rate.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Net Interest Income and Margin (Taxable-Equivalent Basis)
First Quarter 2021 compared to First Quarter 2020
Taxable-equivalent net interest income was $340.3 million for the first quarter of 2021, an increase of $1.1 million, or 0.3%, compared to the first quarter of 2020. The increase in net interest income was primarily due to interest and fee income on SBA-PPP loans, organic loan growth and lower rates paid on interest-bearing deposits, partially offset by a decline in yield on interest-earning assets. SBA-PPP loans contributed $30.9 million in interest and fee income during the first quarter of 2021.
The taxable-equivalent NIM was 2.80% in the first quarter of 2021, a decrease of 75 basis points from the same quarter in the prior year. The margin decline was primarily due to changes in earning asset mix, driven by a build up of excess liquidity held in lower yielding overnight investments. This was coupled with a decrease in the yield on interest-earning assets, partially offset by lower rates paid on interest-bearing deposits and the yield on SBA-PPP loans.
Average interest-earning assets increased by $10.7 billion to $48.7 billion, compared to the first quarter of 2020. The primary drivers for this change were the excess liquidity build up leading to higher average overnight investments of $4.4 billion, higher average loan balances, which increased $4.0 billion, due to contributions from loans originated under the SBA-PPP as well as organic loan growth and higher average investment securities of $2.3 billion.
The yield on interest-earning assets decreased by 95 basis points to 2.93% when compared to the first quarter of 2020. The yield on loans and leases decreased to 3.92%, or by 54 basis points, primarily due to lower yields on commercial and home equity loans as a result of downward rate resets on variable rate loans and lower rates on originations. The yield on overnight investments and investment securities decreased by 115 basis points and 86 basis points, respectively. The yield decrease on overnight investments was primarily due to a lower federal funds rate, while lower yield on investment securities was primarily due to yield declines on mortgage-backed and government agency securities.
Average interest-bearing liabilities increased by $4.7 billion to $27.9 billion, compared to the first quarter of 2020. This increase was primarily due to an increase in average interest-bearing deposit balances of $4.5 billion driven by organic deposit growth, SBA-PPP fundings and stimulus checks, as well as an increase in average long-term borrowings of $274.4 million.
37

Rates on interest-bearing liabilities decreased by 31 basis points to 0.23%, primarily due to decreased rates paid on interest-bearing deposits and borrowings.
Provision for Credit Losses
Provision for credit losses was an $11.0 million credit for the first quarter of 2021, compared to $28.4 million in provision expense for the same quarter in 2020. The change was driven primarily by a $13.7 million reserve release attributable to continued low net charge-offs, strong credit performance and improvements in macroeconomic factors. This compares to a $21.5 million reserve build related to COVID-19 recorded in the first quarter of 2020.
Noninterest Income
Table 6
NONINTEREST INCOME
Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands)20212020
Wealth management services$32,198 $26,412 
Service charges on deposit accounts21,536 26,413 
Cardholder services, net19,960 18,160 
Mortgage income12,991 5,224 
Merchant services, net8,917 5,888 
Other service charges and fees8,489 7,792 
Insurance commissions3,998 3,688 
ATM income1,482 1,422 
Marketable equity securities gains (losses), net16,011 (51,408)
Realized gains on investment securities available for sale, net9,207 19,795 
Other1,860 625 
Total noninterest income$136,649 $64,011 
Noninterest income is an essential component of our total revenue and is critical to our profitability level. The primary sources of noninterest income consist of wealth management services, fees and service charges generated from deposit accounts, cardholder and merchant services, and mortgage lending and servicing.
Noninterest income for the first quarter of 2021 was $136.6 million, compared to $64.0 million for the same period of 2020, an increase of $72.6 million, or 113.5%. The most significant components of the change were as follows:
Favorable change in the fair market value adjustments on the marketable equity securities portfolio of $67.4 million.
Mortgage income increased by $7.8 million primarily due to the partial recapture of mortgage servicing rights impairment recorded in the first quarter of 2020 totaling $3.1 million as mortgage interest rates increased. The remaining increase was due to higher production and sales volume.
Wealth management services increased by $5.8 million primarily due to increases in advisory and transactions fees, assets under management and annuity fees.
Realized gains on sales of investment securities decreased by $10.6 million.
Service charges on deposit accounts decreased by $4.9 million primarily due to elevated customer deposit balances.

38

Noninterest Expense
Table 7
NONINTEREST EXPENSE
Three months ended March 31
(Dollars in thousands)20212020
Salaries and wages$147,830 $145,255 
Employee benefits35,725 38,511 
Occupancy expense29,743 27,480 
Equipment expense29,803 27,850 
Processing fees paid to third parties13,673 10,372 
FDIC insurance expense3,218 3,466 
Collection and foreclosure-related expenses2,198 4,054 
Merger-related expenses6,819 4,232 
Telecommunications expense3,033 2,973 
Consultant expense2,065 3,260 
Advertising expense1,885 2,669 
Core deposit intangible amortization3,044 3,859 
Other16,890 25,990 
Total noninterest expense$295,926 $299,971 
The primary components of noninterest expense are salaries and related employee benefits, occupancy and equipment expense.
Noninterest expense was $295.9 million during the first quarter of 2021, a decrease of $4.0 million, or 1.3%, compared to the same quarter in 2020. The most significant components of the change were as follows:
Other noninterest expense decreased $9.1 million primarily due to lower pension expense, a decrease in the reserve for unfunded loan commitments and declining travel expenses due to COVID-19.
Processing fees paid to third parties increased $3.3 million as a result of continued investment in digital and technological capabilities.
Merger-related expenses increased $2.6 million driven by legal and consulting expenses related to the pending merger with CIT.
Income Taxes
Income tax expense was $44.0 million and $16.9 million for the first quarter of 2021 and 2020, respectively, representing effective tax rates of 23.0% and 22.8% during the periods.
We monitor and evaluate the potential impact of current events on the estimates used to establish income tax expenses and income tax liabilities. On a periodic basis, we evaluate our income tax positions based on current tax law, positions taken by various tax auditors within the jurisdictions where BancShares is required to file income tax returns, as well as potential or pending audits or assessments by tax auditors.
INTEREST-EARNING ASSETS
Interest-earning assets include overnight investments, investment securities and loans and leases, all of which reflect varying interest rates based on the risk level and repricing characteristics of the underlying asset. Riskier investments typically carry a higher interest rate but expose us to higher levels of market risk. We strive to maintain a high level of interest-earning assets relative to total assets, while keeping non-earning assets at a minimum.
Interest-earning assets totaled $51.1 billion and $47.2 billion at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. The $3.9 billion increase was primarily composed of a $3.2 billion increase in overnight investments, a $388.9 million increase in loans and leases and a $299.2 million increase in investment securities.
39

Investment Securities
The primary objective of the investment portfolio is to generate incremental income by deploying excess funds into securities with minimal liquidity and credit risk, and low to moderate interest rate risk. Other objectives include acting as a stable source of liquidity, serving as a tool for asset and liability management and maintaining an interest rate risk profile compatible with BancShares’ objectives. Additionally, purchases of equities and corporate bonds in other financial institutions have been made largely under a long-term earnings optimization strategy. Changes in the total balance of our investment portfolio result from trends in balance sheet funding and market performance. Generally, when inflows arising from deposit and treasury services products exceed loan and lease demand, we invest excess funds into the securities portfolio and into overnight investments. Conversely, when loan demand exceeds growth in deposits and short-term borrowings, we allow overnight investments to decline and use proceeds from maturing securities and prepayments to fund loan demand. See Note C - Investments for additional disclosures.
The carrying value of investment securities totaled $10.2 billion at March 31, 2021, an increase of $299.2 million compared to December 31, 2020. The increase in the portfolio was primarily attributable to deposit growth outpacing loan growth for the period, resulting in investment securities purchases of $2.0 billion, partially offset by sales of $356.1 million and maturities and paydowns of $1.3 billion.
Available for sale securities are reported at fair value and unrealized gains and losses are included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”), net of deferred taxes. As of March 31, 2021, investment securities available for sale had a net pre-tax unrealized gain of $36.6 million, compared to a net pre-tax unrealized gain of $102.3 million as of December 31, 2020. Management evaluated the available for sale securities in an unrealized loss position and concluded that the unrealized losses relate to changes in interest rates relative to when the securities were purchased, and therefore, no allowance for credit losses was needed at March 31, 2021.
BancShares’ portfolio of held to maturity debt securities consists of mortgage-backed securities issued by government agencies and government sponsored entities. Given the consistently strong credit rating of the U.S. Treasury and the long history of no credit losses on debt securities issued by government agencies and government sponsored entities, no allowance for credit losses was needed at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
Table 8
INVESTMENT SECURITIES
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)
Composition(1)
Amortized costFair
value
Composition(1)
Amortized costFair
value
Investment securities available for sale
U.S. Treasury— %$— $— 5.0 %$499,832 $499,933 
Government agency8.4 852,305 846,686 7.0 706,241 701,391 
Residential mortgage-backed securities46.6 4,736,893 4,758,589 44.5 4,369,130 4,438,103 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities10.8 1,096,259 1,098,987 7.9 745,892 771,537 
Corporate bonds5.9 585,095 602,860 6.1 590,870 603,279 
Total investment securities available for sale71.7 7,270,552 7,307,122 70.5 6,911,965 7,014,243 
Investment in marketable equity securities1.1 84,297 106,886 0.9 84,837 91,680 
Investment securities held to maturity
Residential mortgage-backed securities16.9 1,740,314 1,724,995 19.1 1,877,692 1,895,381 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities10.2 1,065,778 1,047,980 9.4 937,034 940,862 
Other0.1 2,007 2,007 0.1 2,256 2,256 
Total investment securities held to maturity27.2 2,808,099 2,774,982 28.6 2,816,982 2,838,499 
Total investment securities100.0 %$10,162,948 $10,188,990 100.0 %$9,813,784 $9,944,422 
(1) Calculated as a percent of the total fair value of investment securities.
40

Table 9 presents the weighted average taxable-equivalent yields for investment securities held to maturity at March 31, 2021 segregated by major category with ranges of contractual maturities. The weighted average yield on the portfolio is calculated using security-level annualized yields.
Table 9
WEIGHTED AVERAGE YIELD ON INVESTMENT SECURITIES
March 31, 2021
Within
One Year
One to Five
Years
Five to 10
Years
After 10 YearsTotal
Investment securities held to maturity
Residential mortgage-backed securities(1)
— %— %— %1.01 %1.01 %
Commercial mortgage-backed securities(1)
— — — 1.32 1.32 
Other investments1.09 1.25 — — 1.17 
Total investment securities held to maturity1.09 %1.25 %— %1.13 %1.13 %
(1)Residential mortgage-backed and commercial mortgage-backed securities, which are not due at a single maturity date, have been included in maturity groupings based on the contractual maturity. The expected life will differ from contractual maturities because borrowers have the right to prepay the underlying loans.
Loans and Leases
Loans held for sale were $129.3 million at March 31, 2021, a net increase of $4.5 million since December 31, 2020.
Loans and leases held for investment were $33.2 billion at March 31, 2021, a net increase of $388.9 million, representing annualized growth of 4.8% since December 31, 2020. This increase was driven by a $419.0 million net increase in the non-PCD portfolio offset by a $30.1 million net decrease in the PCD loan portfolio. The net increase in the non-PCD portfolio was due to a net increase of $363.6 million related to SBA-PPP loans, as well as organic growth primarily in commercial and business loans. The net decrease in PCD loans was primarily due to pay downs and pay-offs. Excluding SBA-PPP loans, total loans grew by 0.3% on an annualized basis.
BancShares reports non-PCD and PCD loan portfolios separately, and the non-PCD portfolio is further divided into commercial and consumer segments. Non-PCD loans and leases at March 31, 2021 were $32.7 billion compared to $32.3 billion at December 31, 2020, representing 98.7% and 98.6% of total loans, respectively. PCD loans at March 31, 2021 were $432.8 million, compared to $462.9 million at December 31, 2020, representing 1.3% and 1.4% of total loans, respectively.
The discount related to acquired non-PCD loans and leases was $17.0 million and $19.5 million at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. The discount related to PCD loans was $41.1 million and $45.3 million at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, accretion income on purchased non-PCD loans and leases was $2.5 million. During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, interest and accretion income on purchased PCD loans was $10.9 million and $18.5 million, respectively.

41

Table 10
LOANS AND LEASES
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Commercial:
Construction and land development$1,022,087 $985,424 
Owner occupied commercial mortgage11,340,966 11,165,012 
Non-owner occupied commercial mortgage3,017,898 2,987,689 
Commercial and industrial and leases4,946,445 5,013,644 
SBA-PPP2,769,906 2,406,291 
Total commercial loans23,097,302 22,558,060 
Consumer:
Residential mortgage5,566,026 5,561,686 
Revolving mortgage1,938,422 2,052,854 
Construction and land development336,065 348,123 
Consumer auto1,271,586 1,255,402 
Consumer other538,677 552,968 
Total consumer loans9,650,776 9,771,033 
Total non-PCD loans and leases32,748,078 32,329,093 
PCD loans432,773 462,882 
Total loans and leases33,180,851 32,791,975 
Less allowance for credit losses(210,651)(224,314)
Net loans and leases$32,970,200 $32,567,661 
ALLOWANCE FOR CREDIT LOSSES
The allowance for credit losses (“ACL”) was $210.7 million at March 31, 2021, representing a decrease of $13.7 million since December 31, 2020. The ACL as a percentage of total loans and leases was 0.63% at March 31, 2021, compared to 0.68% at December 31, 2020. The ACL as a percentage of loans and leases excluding SBA-PPP loans, which have no recorded ACL, was 0.69% at March 31, 2021, compared to 0.74% at December 31, 2020.
The ACL is calculated using a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, charge-off and recovery activity, loan growth, changes in macroeconomic factors, collateral type, estimated loan life and changes in credit quality. For the three months ended March 31, 2021, the primary reason for the ACL change was a reserve credit due to improvements in macroeconomic factors. Forecasted economic conditions are developed using third party macroeconomic scenarios adjusted based on management’s expectations over a forecast period of two years. For most pools, we use a 12-month straight-line reversion period to historical averages for model inputs; however for the consumer other, consumer card and commercial card pools, immediate reversion to historical net loss rates is utilized. Significant macroeconomic factors used in estimating the expected losses include unemployment, gross domestic product, home price index and commercial real estate index. Our ACL forecast considers a range of economic scenarios from an upside scenario to a severely adverse scenario, but the March 31, 2021 ACL forecast was calculated using the consensus baseline scenario. This scenario showed improvements in the most significant economic factors compared to what was used to generate the December 31, 2020 ACL. These loss estimates were also influenced by our strong credit quality, low net charge-offs and recent credit trends, which remained stable through the quarter ended March 31, 2021, despite potential impacts of COVID-19.
As of March 31, 2021, the consensus baseline forecast utilized the following significant inputs over the two-year reasonable and supportable forecast period:
Unemployment - Rates are projected to remain elevated, and will generally improve to below 5% by the end of 2022.
GDP Growth - Peak growth of approximately 6% in the second and third quarters of 2021, decreasing to under 3% in late 2022.
Home Pricing Index - Growth rates over 4% in 2021 which then fluctuate between 2% and 3% thereafter.
Commercial Real Estate Index - Forecasted downturn with a maximum 10% drop by the end of 2021, and then slowly improving towards positive year over year growth.
At March 31, 2021, the ACL allocated to non-PCD loans and leases was $187.7 million, or 0.57% of non-PCD loans and leases, compared to $200.3 million, or 0.62%, at December 31, 2020. The decrease of 5 basis points since December 31, 2020 was primarily due to improvement in the macroeconomic factors. The ACL as a percentage of non-PCD loans and leases excluding SBA-PPP loans was 0.63% at March 31, 2021 compared to 0.67% at December 31, 2020
42

At March 31, 2021, the ACL for PCD loans totaled $22.9 million compared to $24.0 million at December 31, 2020. The decrease was due to run off of the portfolio.
In the three months ended March 31, 2021, the ACL on commercial portfolios decreased $6.0 million, with the largest share of the decrease within commercial real estate. The ACL on consumer portfolios decreased $6.6 million, with the largest decrease within revolving mortgages. These portfolios were most impacted by the improvement in macroeconomic factors.
Net charge-offs for loans and leases were $2.7 million during the first quarter of 2021, compared to $7.5 million during the first quarter of 2020. On an annualized basis, total net charge-offs as a percentage of total average loans and leases was 0.03% and 0.10% for the first quarter of 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of March 31, 2021, excluding SBA-PPP loans, net charge-offs as a percentage of average loans and leases was 0.04%.
Table 11
ALLOWANCE FOR CREDIT LOSSES
Three months ended March 31, 2021
(Dollars in thousands)CommercialConsumerPCDTotal
Balance at January 1$80,842 $119,485 $23,987 $224,314 
Provision (credit)(3,922)(5,504)(1,548)(10,974)
Charge-offs(3,331)(4,469)(763)(8,563)
Recoveries1,275 3,340 1,259 5,874 
Balance at March 31$74,864 $112,852 $22,935 $210,651 
Annualized net charge-off ratio0.04 %0.05 %(0.44)%0.03 %
Net charge-offs2,056 1,129 (496)2,689 
Average loans22,831,292 9,684,501 454,521 32,970,314 
Percent of loans in each category to total loans69.61 %29.09 %1.30 %100.00 %
Three months ended March 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)CommercialConsumerPCDTotal
Balance at December 31$142,369 $75,236 $7,536 $225,141 
Adoption of ASC 326(87,554)30,629 19,001 (37,924)
Balance at January 154,815 105,865 26,537 187,217 
Provision (credit)21,537 9,406 (2,588)28,355 
Initial allowance on PCD loans— — 1,193 1,193 
Charge-offs(5,369)(7,769)(1,123)(14,261)
Recoveries1,427 2,431 2,897 6,755 
Balance at March 31$72,410 $109,933 $26,916 $209,259 
Annualized net charge-off ratio0.09 %0.22 %(1.36)%0.10 %
Net charge-offs3,942 5,338 (1,774)7,506 
Average loans18,731,471 9,770,760 530,087 29,032,318 
Percent of loans in each category to total loans64.59 %33.49 %1.92 %100.00 %
The reserve for unfunded loan commitments was $11.6 million and $12.8 million at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. The decrease was primarily due to improvements in macroeconomic factors.
Table 12
ALLOWANCE FOR CREDIT LOSSES RATIOS
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Allowance for credit losses to total loans and leases(1):
0.63 %0.68 %
Allowance for credit losses$210,651 $224,314 
Total loans and leases33,180,851 32,791,975 
Allowance for credit losses to non-PCD loans and leases(1):
0.57 %0.62 %
Allowance for credit losses on non-PCD loans and leases$187,716 $200,327 
Total non-PCD loans and leases32,748,078 32,329,093 
Allowance for credit losses to PCD loans:5.30 %5.18 %
Allowance for credit losses on PCD loans$22,935 $23,987 
Total PCD loans432,773 462,882 
(1) Loans originated in relation to the SBA-PPP ($2.8 billion as of March 31,2021) do not have a recorded ACL. As of March 31, 2021, the ratio of ACL to total Non-PCD loans excluding SBA-PPP loans was 0.63% while the ratio of ACL to total loans excluding SBA-PPP loans was 0.69%. As of December 31, 2020, the ratio of ACL to total Non-PCD loans excluding SBA-PPP loans was 0.67% while the ratio of ACL to total loans excluding SBA-PPP loans is 0.74%.

43

NONPERFORMING ASSETS
Nonperforming assets include nonaccrual loans and leases and other real estate owned (“OREO”). At March 31, 2021, BancShares’ nonperforming assets totaled $243.0 million, an increase of $0.7 million since December 31, 2020.
Nonaccrual loans and leases at March 31, 2021 were $194.5 million, reflecting an increase of $3.1 million since December 31, 2020. Nonaccrual loans and leases as a percentage of total loans and leases was 0.59% and 0.58% at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. At March 31, 2021, OREO totaled $48.5 million, representing a decrease of $2.4 million since December 31, 2020. Nonperforming assets as a percentage of total loans, leases and OREO was 0.73% as of March 31, 2021 compared to 0.74% as of December 31, 2020.
Table 13
NONPERFORMING ASSETS
20212020
FirstFourthThirdSecondFirst
(Dollars in thousands)QuarterQuarterQuarterQuarterQuarter
Nonaccrual loans and leases:
Non-PCD$141,369 $136,544 $130,927 $135,280 $121,337 
PCD53,165 54,939 55,527 62,511 53,234 
Total nonaccrual loans and leases194,534 191,483 186,454 197,791 174,571 
Other real estate owned48,512 50,890 52,789 53,850 55,707 
Total nonperforming assets$243,046 $242,373 $239,243 $251,641 $230,278 
Accruing loans and leases 90 days or more past due
Non-PCD$5,945 $5,507 $3,587 $3,644 $2,933 
PCD1,432 355 — 152 37 
Ratio of total nonperforming assets to total loans, leases and other real estate owned0.73 %0.74 %0.73 %0.77 %0.79 %
Ratio of nonaccrual loans and leases to total loans and leases0.59 0.58 0.57 0.61 0.60 
Ratio of allowance for credit losses to nonaccrual loans and leases108.3 117.1 120.1 112.5 119.9 
TROUBLED DEBT RESTRUCTURINGS
We selectively agree to modify existing loan terms to provide relief to customers who are experiencing financial difficulties or other circumstances that could affect their ability to meet debt obligations. Typical modifications include short-term deferral of interest or modification of payment terms. Troubled debt restructurings (“TDRs”) not accruing interest at the time of restructure are included as nonperforming loans. TDRs accruing at the time of restructure and continuing to perform based on the restructured terms are considered performing loans.
The Interagency Statement on Loan Modifications and Reporting for Financial Institutions Working with Customers Affected by the Coronavirus was published by banking regulators in April 2020 to clarify accounting and reporting expectations for loan modifications in determining TDR designation for borrowers experiencing COVID-19-related financial difficulty. BancShares applied this regulatory guidance during its TDR identification process for short-term loan forbearance agreements as a result of COVID-19, and in most cases, is not recording these as TDRs.

44

Table 14
TROUBLED DEBT RESTRUCTURINGS
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Accruing TDRs:
Non-PCD$139,631 $139,747 
PCD20,920 17,617 
Total accruing TDRs160,551 157,364 
Nonaccruing TDRs:
Non-PCD46,886 43,470 
PCD9,509 7,346 
Total nonaccruing TDRs56,395 50,816 
All TDRs:
Non-PCD186,517 183,217 
PCD30,429 24,963 
Total TDRs$216,946 $208,180 
INTEREST-BEARING LIABILITIES
Interest-bearing liabilities include interest-bearing deposits, securities sold under customer repurchase agreements, FHLB borrowings, subordinated debt, and other borrowings. Interest-bearing liabilities totaled $28.7 billion at March 31, 2021, compared to $27.3 billion at December 31, 2020. The increase was mostly due to an increase in interest-bearing deposits of $1.4 billion.
Deposits
Due to our focus on maintaining a strong liquidity position, core deposit retention remains a key business objective. We believe traditional bank deposit products remain an attractive option for many customers, as evidenced by the significant deposit growth the industry has experienced over the past 12 months. As economic conditions improve, we recognize that our liquidity position could be adversely affected as bank deposits are withdrawn. Our ability to fund future loan growth is significantly dependent on our success at retaining existing deposits and generating new deposits at a reasonable cost.
At March 31, 2021, total deposits were $47.3 billion, an increase of $3.9 billion, representing annualized growth of 36.4% since December 31, 2020, driven by organic growth, SBA-PPP loan fundings and stimulus checks.
Table 15
DEPOSITS
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Demand$20,515,142 $18,014,029 
Checking with interest10,819,900 10,591,687 
Money market9,590,372 8,632,713 
Savings3,676,138 3,304,167 
Time2,729,445 2,889,013 
Total deposits$47,330,997 $43,431,609 
45

Borrowings
Total borrowings were relatively unchanged, totaling $1.9 billion at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
Table 16
BORROWINGS
(Dollars in thousands)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Securities sold under customer repurchase agreements$680,705 $641,487 
Federal Home Loan Bank borrowings648,671 655,175 
Subordinated debt
SCB Capital Trust I9,788 9,779 
FCB/SC Capital Trust II17,697 17,664 
FCB/NC Capital Trust III88,145 88,145 
Capital Trust debentures assumed in acquisitions14,433 14,433 
3.375 % Fixed-to-Floating Rate Subordinated Notes due 2030346,748 346,541 
Other subordinated debt20,342 27,956 
Total subordinated debt497,153 504,518 
Other borrowings84,502 88,470 
Total borrowings$1,911,031 $1,889,650 
BancShares owns five special purpose entities – SCB Capital Trust I, FCB/SC Capital Trust II, FCB/NC Capital Trust III, CCBI Capital Trust I, and Macon Capital Trust I (the “Trusts”), which mature in 2036, 2034, 2034, 2036, and 2034, respectively. Subordinated debt included junior subordinated debentures representing obligations to the Trusts, which may be redeemed at par in whole or in part at any time. BancShares has guaranteed all obligations of the Trusts.
SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY AND CAPITAL ADEQUACY
The table below shows Class A common stock repurchase activity for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. All Class A common stock repurchases completed in 2020 were consummated under previously approved authorizations. There were no repurchases of Class B common stock or the preferred stock during the three months ended March 31, 2021 or 2020.
Table 17
CLASS A COMMON STOCK REPURCHASE ACTIVITY
Three months ended March 31
($ in thousands, expect per share data)20212020
Number of shares repurchased— 349,390 
Total cost$— $159,705 
Average price per share$— $457.10 
Upon expiration of the most recent authorization on July 31, 2020, share repurchase activity ended and will be reevaluated in subsequent periods.
We are committed to effectively managing our capital to protect our depositors, creditors and shareholders. We continually monitor the capital levels and ratios for BancShares and FCB to ensure they exceed the minimum requirements imposed by regulatory authorities and to ensure they are appropriate given growth projections, risk profile and potential changes in the regulatory or external environment. Failure to meet certain capital requirements may result in actions by regulatory agencies that could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”), the unrealized gains and losses on certain assets and liabilities, net of deferred taxes, are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss within shareholders’ equity. These amounts are excluded from shareholders’ equity in the calculation of our capital ratios under current regulatory guidelines.
46

Table 18
ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL ADEQUACY
Requirements to be well-capitalizedMarch 31, 2021December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)AmountRatioAmountRatio
BancShares
Risk-based capital ratios
Total risk-based capital10.00 %$4,701,118 14.14 %$4,577,212 13.81 %
Tier 1 risk-based capital8.00 3,997,179 12.02 3,856,086 11.63 
Common equity Tier 16.50 3,657,242 11.00 3,516,149 10.61 
Tier 1 leverage ratio5.00 3,997,179 7.84 3,856,086 7.86 
FCB
Risk-based capital ratios
Total risk-based capital10.00 %$4,646,422 13.99 %$4,543,496 13.72 %
Tier 1 risk-based capital8.00 4,396,983 13.24 4,276,870 12.92 
Common equity Tier 16.50 4,396,983 13.24 4,276,870 12.92 
Tier 1 leverage ratio5.00 4,396,983 8.64 4,276,870 8.72 
As of March 31, 2021, BancShares and FCB continued to exceed minimum capital standards and remained well-capitalized under Basel III guidelines. Trust preferred capital securities continue to be a component of total risk-based capital.
BancShares and FCB had capital conservation buffers of 6.02% and 5.99%, respectively, at March 31, 2021, which exceeded the 2.50% requirement and, therefore, result in no limit on distributions.
RISK MANAGEMENT
Risk is inherent in any business. BancShares has defined a moderate risk appetite, a conservative approach to risk taking, with a philosophy that does not preclude higher risk business activities balanced with acceptable returns while meeting regulatory objectives. Through the comprehensive Enterprise Risk Management Framework and Risk Appetite Framework, senior management has primary responsibility for day-to-day management of the risks we face with accountability of and support from all associates. Senior management applies various strategies to reduce the risks to which BancShares activities may be exposed, with effective challenge and oversight by management committees. In addition, the Board of Directors strives to ensure that the business culture is integrated with the enterprise risk management program and that policies, procedures and metrics for identifying, assessing, measuring, monitoring and managing risk are part of the decision-making process. The Board of Directors’ role in risk oversight is an integral part of our overall Enterprise Risk Management Framework and Risk Appetite Framework. The Board of Directors administers its risk oversight function primarily through the Board Risk Committee.
The Board Risk Committee structure is designed to allow for information flow, effective challenge and timely escalation of risk-related issues. The Board Risk Committee is directed to monitor and advise the Board of Directors regarding risk exposures, including credit, market, capital, liquidity, operational, compliance, strategic and reputational risks; review, approve, and monitor adherence to the risk appetite and supporting risk tolerance levels via a series of established metrics; and evaluate, monitor and oversee the adequacy and effectiveness of the Risk Management Framework and Risk Appetite Framework. The Board Risk Committee also reviews: reports of examination by and communications from regulatory agencies; the results of internal and third party testing and qualitative and quantitative assessments related to risk management; and any other matters within the scope of the Committee’s oversight responsibilities. The Board Risk Committee monitors management’s response to certain risk-related regulatory and audit issues. In addition, the Board Risk Committee may coordinate with the Audit Committee and the Compensation, Nominations and Governance Committee for the review of financial statements and related risks, information security and other areas of joint responsibility.
In combination with other risk management and monitoring practices, enterprise-wide stress testing activities are part of the Risk Management Framework and conducted within a defined framework. Stress tests are performed for various risks to ensure the financial institution can support continued operations during stressed periods.
47

Credit risk management
Credit risk is the risk of not collecting payments pursuant to the contractual terms of loans, leases and certain investment securities. Loans and leases we originate are underwritten in accordance with our credit policies and procedures and are subject to periodic ongoing reviews. Acquired loans, regardless of whether PCD or non-PCD, are recorded at fair value as of the acquisition date and are subject to periodic reviews to identify any further credit deterioration. Our independent credit review function conducts risk reviews and analyses of both originated and acquired loans to ensure compliance with credit policies and to monitor asset quality trends and borrower financial strength. These reviews include portfolio analysis by geographic location, industry, collateral type and product. We strive to identify potential problem loans as early as possible, to record charge-offs or write-downs as appropriate and to maintain an adequate ACL that accounts for expected credit losses in the loan and lease portfolio.
We continue to actively monitor our loan portfolio for areas of increased risk as a result of COVID-19 and to date have not seen any significant declines in credit quality. As of March 31, 2021, COVID-19 related loan extensions decreased to approximately $132.5 million in outstanding loan balances, representing approximately $4.2 million in payment deferrals. Through March 31, 2021, approximately 98% of all COVID-19 related loan extensions have begun repayment. Delinquency trends among loans entering repayment are in line with the remainder of the portfolio.
Additionally, we participated in both rounds of funding in the SBA-PPP program, which provided much needed funds to our existing small business customers. We continue to assess both the credit and operational risks this program presents and at March 31, 2021, BancShares had $2.8 billion in SBA-PPP loans outstanding.
Interest rate risk management
Interest rate risk (“IRR”) results principally from: assets and liabilities maturing or repricing at different points in time, assets and liabilities repricing at the same point in time but in different amounts, and short-term and long-term interest rates changing in different magnitudes.
We assess our short-term IRR by forecasting net interest income over 24 months under various interest rate scenarios and comparing those results to forecasted net interest income, assuming stable rates. IRR scenarios modeled include, but are not limited to, immediate, parallel rate shocks, interest rate ramps, changes in the shape of the yield curve and changes in the relationships of our rates to market rates. Market interest rates have increased from year-end driven by improving economic conditions. Net interest income deterioration in down rate shocks will remain muted due to the low absolute value of market interest rates. Assumptions that incorporate customer migration from low rate deposit instruments to intermediate term fixed rate instruments as rates rise have been adjusted based on actual deposit behavior over the last three years during a rising rate cycle.
Table 19 provides the impact on net interest income over 24 months resulting from various instantaneous interest rate shock scenarios as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
Table 19
NET INTEREST INCOME SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
Estimated percentage (decrease) increase in net interest income
Change in interest rate (basis points)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
-100(7.62)%(6.24)%
+1009.06 8.09 
+20016.83 14.57 
The increased asset sensitivity in net interest income sensitivity metrics as of March 31, 2021 compared to December 31, 2020 continues to be affected by the substantial influx of non-maturity deposits that began in the second quarter of 2020 and continued through the first quarter of 2021.
Long-term interest rate risk exposure is measured using the economic value of equity (“EVE”) sensitivity analysis to study the impact of long-term cash flows on earnings and capital. EVE represents the difference between the sum of the present value of all asset cash flows and the sum of the present value of the liability cash flows. EVE sensitivity analysis involves discounting cash flows of balance sheet items under different interest rate scenarios. Cash flows will vary by interest rate scenario, resulting in variations in EVE. The base-case measurement and its sensitivity to shifts in the yield curve allow management to measure longer-term repricing and option risk in the balance sheet.
48

Table 20 presents the EVE profile as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
Table 20
ECONOMIC VALUE OF EQUITY MODELING ANALYSIS
Estimated percentage (decrease) increase in EVE
Change in interest rate (basis points)March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
-100(15.18)%(21.20)%
+1008.47 12.18 
+2009.21 15.71 
The economic value of equity metrics at March 31, 2021 compared to December 31, 2020 were primarily affected by continued growth in non-maturity deposits of nearly $4.0 billion during the first quarter of 2021 coupled with higher market interest rates. We do not typically utilize interest rate swaps, floors, collars or other derivative financial instruments to hedge our overall balance sheet interest rate sensitivity and risk.
Liquidity risk management
Liquidity risk is the risk that an institution will be unable to generate or obtain sufficient cash or its equivalents on a cost-effective basis to meet commitments as they fall due. The most common sources of liquidity risk arise from mismatches in the timing and value of on-balance sheet and off-balance sheet cash inflows and outflows. In general, on-balance sheet mismatches generate liquidity risk when the effective maturity of assets exceeds the effective maturity of liabilities. A commonly cited example of a balance sheet liquidity mismatch is when long-term loans (assets) are funded with short-term borrowings (liabilities). Other forms of liquidity risk include market constraints on the ability to convert assets into cash at expected levels, an inability to access funding sources at sufficient levels at a reasonable cost, and changes in economic conditions or exposure to credit, market, operational, legal and reputation risks that can affect an institution’s liquidity risk profile.
We utilize various limit-based measures to monitor, measure and control three different categories of liquidity risk:
Tactical - Measures the risk of a negative cash flow position whereby cash outflows exceed cash inflows over a short-term horizon out to nine weeks;
Structural - Measures the amount by which illiquid assets are supported by long-term funding; and
Contingent - Measures the risk of having insufficient liquidity sources to support cash needs under potential future stressed market conditions or having an inability to access wholesale funding sources in a timely and cost effective manner.
We aim to maintain a diverse mix of liquidity sources to support the liquidity management function, while aiming to avoid funding concentrations by diversifying our external funding with respect to maturities, counterparties and nature. Our primary source of liquidity is our branch-generated retail deposit portfolio due to the generally stable balances and low cost. Additional sources include cash in excess of our reserve requirement at the Federal Reserve Bank, and various other corresponding bank accounts and unencumbered securities, which totaled $12.8 billion at March 31, 2021 compared to $9.6 billion at December 31, 2020. Another source of available funds was advances from the FHLB of Atlanta and Chicago. Outstanding FHLB advances were $648.7 million as of March 31, 2021, and we had sufficient collateral pledged to secure $8.2 billion of additional borrowings from the FHLB of Atlanta. Also, at March 31, 2021, $4.2 billion in non-PCD loans with a lendable collateral value of $3.4 billion were used to create additional borrowing capacity at the Federal Reserve Bank. We also maintain Federal Funds lines and other credit lines, which had $606.0 million of available capacity at March 31, 2021.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
In the normal course of business, we are a party to certain financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk, which we enter into in order to meet the financing needs of our customers. These off-balance sheet instruments include commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit. For more information on these commitments Note N - Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
There have been no significant changes in our Critical Accounting Estimates as described in our 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
49

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and Exhibits relating to plans, strategies, economic performance and trends, projections of results of specific activities or investments, expectations or beliefs about future events or results and other statements that are not descriptions of historical facts may be forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Forward-looking information is inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results could differ materially from those currently anticipated due to a number of factors which include, but are not limited to, factors discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other documents filed by us from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Forward-looking statements may be identified by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “expects,” “plans,” “intends,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “forecasts,” “projects,” “potential” or “continue,” or similar terms or the negative of these terms, or other statements concerning opinions or judgments of BancShares’ management about future events.
Factors that could influence the accuracy of those forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, risks, uncertainties and other factors relating to our announced merger with CIT through a series of merger transactions, including the ability to obtain regulatory approvals and meet other closing conditions to the Transaction, and delay in closing the Transaction, as well as risks, uncertainties and other factors relating to the impact of COVID-19 on our business and the economy, the financial success or changing strategies of our customers, customer acceptance of our services, products and fee structure, the competitive nature of the financial services industry, our ability to compete effectively against other financial institutions in our banking markets, actions of government regulators, the level of market interest rates and our ability to manage our interest rate risk, changes in general economic conditions that affect our loan and lease portfolio, the abilities of our borrowers to repay their loans and leases, the values of real estate and other collateral, the impact of our prior acquisitions, the risks discussed in Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors and other developments or changes in our business that we do not expect. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed in or implied by any forward-looking statements.
Except to the extent required by applicable law or regulation, BancShares undertakes no obligation to revise or update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason.
Item 3.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Market risk is the potential economic loss resulting from changes in market prices and interest rates. This risk can either result in diminished current fair values of financial instruments or reduced net interest income in future periods. See section Risk Management within Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for discussion of changes. Changes in fair value that result from movement in market rates cannot be predicted with any degree of certainty. Therefore, the impact that future changes in market rates will have on the fair values of financial instruments is uncertain.
Item 4.    Controls and Procedures
BancShares’ management, with the participation of its Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of BancShares’ disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report, in accordance with Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15 of the Exchange Act. Based upon that evaluation, as of the end of the period covered by this report, the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer concluded that BancShares’ disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that it is able to record, process, summarize and report in a timely manner the information required to be disclosed in the reports it files under the Exchange Act.
No changes in BancShares’ internal control over financial reporting occurred during the first quarter of 2021 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, BancShares’ internal control over financial reporting.
50

PART II
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
BancShares and various subsidiaries have been named as defendants in various legal actions arising from our normal business activities in which damages in various amounts were claimed. Although the amount of any ultimate liability with respect to those matters cannot be determined, in the opinion of management, no legal actions currently exist that are expected to have a material effect on BancShares’ consolidated financial statements. Additional information relating to legal proceedings is set forth in Note N - Commitments and Contingencies.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
There have been no material changes from risk factors described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020. The risks described may not be the only risks facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that are currently considered to not be material also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and/or operating results.
51

Item 6. Exhibits
10.1
31.1
31.2
32.1
32.2
101.INSInline XBRL Instance Document (filed herewith)
101.SCHInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema (filed herewith)
101.CALInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase (filed herewith)
101.DEFInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase (filed herewith)
101.LABInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase (filed herewith)
101.PREInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase (filed herewith)
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL document filed as Exhibit 101)
52

SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized. 
Date:May 4, 2021FIRST CITIZENS BANCSHARES, INC.
(Registrant)
By: /s/ CRAIG L. NIX
Craig L. Nix
Chief Financial Officer
53