SFDL Security Federal
Filed: 29 Mar 21, 5:15pm
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|[X]||ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020|
|[ ]||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|For the transition period _________ to _________|
|Commission File Number: 0-16120|
|SECURITY FEDERAL CORPORATION|
|(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)|
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
|238 Richland Avenue Northwest, Aiken, South Carolina||29801|
|(Address of principal executive offices)||(Zip Code)|
|Registrant's telephone number, including area code:||(803) 641-3000|
|Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:||Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:|
|None||Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share|
|(Title of Class)|
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES [ ] NO [X]
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. YES [ ] NO [ X ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YES [ X ] NO [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). YES [ X ] NO [ ]
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. X
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
|Large accelerated filer [ ]||Accelerated filer [ ]||Non-accelerated filer [ X ]||Smaller reporting company [ X ]||Emerging growth company [ ]|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13 (a) of the Exchange Act. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES [ ] NO [ X ]
As of March 29, 2021, there were issued and outstanding 3,252,884 shares of the registrant's Common Stock, which are traded on the over-the-counter market through the OTC "Electronic Bulletin Board" under the symbol "SFDL." The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the average of the bid and asked price of such stock as of June 30, 2020, was $44.8 million. (The exclusion from such amount of the market value of the shares owned by any person shall not be deemed an admission by the registrant that such person is an affiliate of the registrant.)
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
1.Portions of the Registrant's Annual Report to Stockholders for the Year Ended December 31, 2020. (Part II)
2.Portions of the Registrant's Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. (Part III)
This Form 10-K, including information included or incorporated by reference, contents, and future filings by Security Federal Corporation ("Company") on Form 10-Q, and Form 8-K, and future oral and written statements by the Company and its management may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements relate to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance or business. Forward-looking statements are not statements of historical fact, are based on certain assumptions and are generally identified by use of the words "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "forecasts," "intends," "plans," "targets," "potentially," "probably," "projects," "outlook" or similar expressions or future or conditional verbs such as "may," "will," "should," "would" and "could." Forward-looking statements include statements with respect to our beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, expectations, assumptions and statements about, among other things, expectations of the business environment in which we operate, projections of future performance and operations or financial condition, perceived opportunities in the market, potential future credit experience, and statements regarding our mission and vision. These forward-looking statements are based upon current management's expectations and may, therefore, involve risk and uncertainties. Our actual results, performance, or achievements may differ materially from those suggested, expressed, or implied by forward-looking statements as a result of a wide variety or range of factors, including, but not limited to:
•the effect of the novel coronavirus of 2019 (“COVID-19”) pandemic, including on the Company's credit quality and business operations, as well as its impact on general economic and financial market conditions and other uncertainties resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the extent and duration of the impact on public health, the U.S. and global economies, and consumer and corporate clients, including economic activity, employment levels and market liquidity;
•the credit risks of lending activities, including changes in the level and trend of loan delinquencies and write-offs and changes in our allowance for loan losses and provision for loan losses that may be affected by deterioration in the housing and commercial real estate markets which may lead to increased losses and non-performing assets in our loan portfolio, and may result in our allowance for loan losses not being adequate to cover actual losses, and require us to materially increase our reserves;
•changes in general economic conditions, either nationally or in our market areas;
•changes in the levels of general interest rates, and the relative differences between short and long term interest rates, deposit interest rates, our net interest margin and funding sources;
•fluctuations in the demand for loans, the number of unsold homes, land and other properties and fluctuations in real estate values in our market areas;
•secondary market conditions for loans and our ability to sell loans in the secondary market;
•results of examinations of the Company by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System ("Federal Reserve") and the Bank by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") and the South Carolina State Board of Financial Institutions ("State Board"), or other regulatory authorities, including the possibility that any such regulatory authority may, among other things, require us to increase our reserve for loan losses, write-down assets, change our regulatory capital position or affect our ability to borrow funds or maintain or increase deposits, or impose additional requirements or restrictions on us, any of which could adversely affect our liquidity and earnings;
•legislative or regulatory changes that adversely affect our business, including the effect of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act; changes in regulatory policies and principles, or the interpretation of regulatory capital requirements or other rules, including as a result of Basel III;
•our ability to attract and retain deposits;
•our ability to control operating costs and expenses;
•our ability to implement our business strategies;
•the use of estimates in determining the fair value of certain of our assets, which estimates may prove to be incorrect and result in significant declines in valuation;
•difficulties in reducing risk associated with the loans on our balance sheet;
•staffing fluctuations in response to product demand or the implementation of corporate strategies that affect our workforce and potential associated charges;
•disruptions, security breaches, or other adverse events, failures or interruptions in, or attacks on, our information technology systems or on the third-party vendors who perform several of our critical processing;
•our ability to retain key members of our senior management team;
•costs and effects of litigation, including settlements and judgments;
•our ability to manage loan delinquency rates;
•increased competitive pressures among financial services companies;
•changes in consumer spending, borrowing and savings habits;
•the availability of resources to address changes in laws, rules, or regulations or to respond to regulatory actions;
•our ability to pay dividends on our common stock;
•adverse changes in the securities markets;
•inability of key third-party providers to perform their obligations to us;
•changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the financial institution regulatory agencies or the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB"), including additional guidance and interpretation on accounting issues and details of the implementation of new accounting methods including as a result of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act of 2020 ("CARES Act") and the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (“CAA 2021”);
•other economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory, and technological factors affecting our operations, pricing, products and services, including as a result of the CARES Act and the CAA 2021 and recent Covid-19 vaccination efforts; and
•the other risks described elsewhere in this document.
These developments could have an adverse impact on our financial position and our results of operations.
Any of the forward-looking statements that we make may turn out to be wrong because of the inaccurate assumptions we might make because of the factors set forth above or because of other factors we cannot foresee. Because of these and other uncertainties, our actual future results may be materially different from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by or on our behalf. Therefore, these factors should be considered in evaluating the forward-looking statements, and undue reliance should not be placed on such statements. We undertake no responsibility to update or revise any of these forward-looking statements.
As used throughout this report, the terms "we," "our," or "us" refer to Security Federal Corporation and our consolidated subsidiary, Security Federal Bank.
The Company provides a link on its investor information page at www.securityfederalbank.com to the Securities and Exchange Commission's ("SEC") website (www.sec.gov) for purposes of providing copies of its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we have electronically filed such material with, or furnished such material to, the SEC. Other than an investor’s own internet access charges, these filings are available free of charge at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. The information contained on the Company’s website is not included as part of, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 1. Business
Security Federal Corporation
Security Federal Corporation (the "Company") was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in July 1987 for the purpose of becoming the savings and loan holding company for Security Federal Bank ("Security Federal" or the "Bank") upon the Bank's conversion from mutual to stock form (the "Conversion"). Effective August 17, 1998, the Company changed its state of incorporation from Delaware to South Carolina. On December 28, 2011, the Company reorganized into a bank holding company in connection with the Bank's conversion from a federally chartered stock savings bank to a South Carolina chartered commercial bank. As a result of the reorganization, the Federal Reserve became the Company's primary federal regulator.
As a South Carolina corporation, the Company is authorized to engage in any activity permitted by South Carolina General Corporation Law. The Company is a one bank holding company. Through the bank holding company structure, it is possible to expand the size and scope of the financial services offered beyond those currently offered by the Bank. The holding company structure also provides the Company with greater flexibility than the Bank would have to diversify its business activities, through existing or newly formed subsidiaries, or through acquisitions or mergers of financial institutions as well as other companies. There are no current arrangements, understandings or agreements regarding any such acquisition. Future activities of the Company will be funded through the continuing operations of Security Federal and through borrowings from third parties. Activities of the Company may also be funded through sales of additional securities or income generated by other activities of the Company. At this time, there are no plans regarding sales of additional securities or other activities.
At December 31, 2020, the Company had assets of $1.2 billion, deposits of $918.1 million and shareholders' equity of $111.9 million.
The executive office of the Company is located at 238 Richland Avenue Northwest, Aiken, South Carolina 29801, and its telephone number is (803) 641-3000.
Security Federal Bank
General. Security Federal is a South Carolina chartered commercial bank headquartered in Aiken, South Carolina. Security Federal, with 17 branch offices in Aiken, Lexington, Richland and Saluda counties in South Carolina and Columbia and Richmond counties in Georgia, was originally chartered under the name Aiken Building and Loan Association on March 27, 1922. It received its federal charter and changed its name to Security Federal Savings and Loan Association of Aiken on March 7, 1962, and later changed its name to Security Federal Savings Bank of South Carolina, on November 11, 1986. Effective April 8, 1996, the Bank changed its name to Security Federal Bank. The Bank converted from the mutual to the stock form of organization on October 30, 1987. As mentioned above, effective December 28, 2011, Security Federal converted from a federally chartered stock savings bank to a South Carolina chartered commercial bank. As a result of the conversion to a South Carolina commercial bank, the Bank is regulated by the State Board and the FDIC. The Bank will open its 18th branch office in Augusta, Georgia in 2021.
The principal business of Security Federal is accepting deposits from the general public and originating commercial real estate loans, commercial business loans, consumer loans, as well as mortgage loans to buy or refinance one-to-four family residential real estate. The Bank also originates construction loans on single-family residences, multi-family dwellings and projects, and commercial real estate, as well as loans for the acquisition, development and construction of residential subdivisions and commercial projects. In addition, the Bank operates Security Federal Trust and Investments, a division of the Bank that offers trust, financial planning and financial management services.
Security Federal has two active wholly owned subsidiaries, Security Federal Insurance, Inc. ("SFINS") and Security Federal Investments, Inc. ("SFINV"). SFINS is an insurance agency subsidiary that offers auto, business, health and home insurance. SFINS also has a wholly owned subsidiary, Collier Jennings Financial Corporation, which has three wholly owned subsidiaries: Security Federal Auto Insurance, The Auto Insurance Store Inc., and Security Federal Premium Pay Plans Inc. Security Federal Premium Pay Plans Inc. has one wholly owned insurance premium finance subsidiary and also has an ownership interest in four other insurance premium finance subsidiaries. SFINV was formed to hold investment securities and allow for better management of the securities portfolio. Security Federal also has one inactive subsidiary, Security Financial Services Corporation.
Security Federal's income is derived primarily from interest and fees earned in connection with its lending activities, and its principal expenses are interest paid on savings deposits and borrowings and operating expenses.
In March 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The spread of COVID-19 has created a global public health crisis that has resulted in unprecedented uncertainty, volatility and disruption in financial markets and in governmental, commercial and consumer activity in the United States and globally, including the markets that we serve. Governmental responses to the pandemic have included orders to close businesses not deemed essential and directing individuals to restrict their movements, observe social distancing and shelter in place. These actions, together with responses to the pandemic by businesses and individuals, have resulted in rapid decreases in commercial and consumer activity, temporary, and some permanent, closures of many businesses that have led to a loss of revenues and a rapid increase in unemployment, material decreases in business valuations, disrupted global supply chains, market downturns and volatility, changes in consumer behavior related to pandemic fears, related emergency response legislation and an expectation that the Federal Reserve will maintain a low interest rate environment for the foreseeable future. Although financial markets have rebounded from significant declines that occurred earlier in the pandemic and global economic conditions showed signs of improvement beginning during the second quarter of 2020, many of the effects that arose or became more pronounced after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic have persisted through the end of the year. These changes have had and are likely to continue to have a significant adverse effect on the markets in which we conduct our business and the demand for our products and services. See Item 1A- Risk Factors- "Risks Related to Macroeconomic Conditions".
During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Bank participated in the U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”) Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”), a guaranteed unsecured loan program enacted under the CARES Act, enacted March 27, 2020, to provide near-term relief to help small businesses impacted by COVID-19 sustain operations. The deadline for PPP loan applications to the SBA was initially August 8, 2020. Under this program we funded 1,474 applications totaling $75.3 million of loans in our market areas and began processing applications for loan forgiveness in the fourth quarter of 2020. As of December 31, 2020, we had received SBA forgiveness on 321 PPP loans totaling $28.2 million resulting in a remaining 1,153 PPP loans with an aggregate balance of $47.1 million. The CAA, 2021 enacted in December 2020 renewed and extended the PPP until March 31, 2021 by authorizing an additional $284.5 billion for the program for eligible small businesses and nonprofits. As a result, the Bank began originating PPP loans again in January 2021.
In addition, the Bank is continuing to offer payment and financial relief programs for borrowers impacted by COVID-19. These programs include short-term (e.g. less than six months) modifications such as payment deferrals, fee waivers, extensions of repayment terms, or other delays in payment that are insignificant. As of December 31, 2020, the amount of portfolio loans remaining under payment/relief agreements included five commercial real estate loans with an aggregate balance of $3.0 million and three consumer loans with an aggregate balance of $17,000. Since these loans were performing loans that were current on their payments prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, these modifications are not considered to be troubled debt restructurings through December 31, 2020 pursuant to applicable accounting and regulatory guidance. On December 27, 2020, the CAA, 2021 was signed into law. Among other purposes, this Act provides additional coronavirus emergency response and relief, including extending relief offered under the CARES Act related to troubled debt restructurings as a result of COVID-19 through January 1, 2022 or 60 days after the end of the national emergency declared by the President, whichever is earlier.
Selected Consolidated Financial Information. This information is incorporated by reference to pages 8 and 9 of the Company’s 2020 Annual Report to Shareholders (“Annual Report”).
Rate/Volume Analysis. This information is incorporated by reference to page 23 of the Annual Report.
Yields Earned and Rates Paid. This information is incorporated by reference to page 24 of the Annual Report.
General. Security Federal's principal lending activities are making loans on commercial real estate and one-to-four family residential real estate. The Bank originates fixed rate residential real estate loans for sale in the secondary market and adjustable rate mortgage loans ("ARMS") to be held in its portfolio. The Bank also originates construction loans on single family residences, multi-family dwellings and commercial real estate, and loans for the acquisition, development and construction of residential subdivisions and commercial projects. To a lesser extent, the Bank originates consumer loans and commercial business loans.
The loan-to-value ratio, maturity and other provisions of loans made by the Bank reflect its policy of making the maximum loan permissible consistent with applicable regulations, established lending policies and market conditions. The Bank requires title insurance (or acceptable legal opinions on smaller loans secured by real estate), fire insurance, and flood insurance where applicable, on loans secured by improved real estate.
Loan Portfolio Composition. The following table sets forth information concerning the composition of the Bank's loan portfolio, including loans held for sale, in dollar amounts and in percentages by type of loan, and presents a reconciliation of total loans receivable before net items.
|At December 31,|
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
|Real estate loans:|
|Residential real estate||$||61,227||12.1||%||$||67,287||14.2||%||$||72,501||16.2||%||$||71,867||17.7||%||$||72,366||19.5||%|
|Owner occupied residential construction||23,374||4.6||23,108||4.9||13,246||3.0||12,440||3.1||9,858||2.6|
|Total residential real estate loans||84,601||16.7||90,395||19.1||85,747||19.2||84,307||20.8||82,224||22.1|
|Commercial real estate||293,516||58.0||295,878||62.6||268,688||60.2||228,818||56.4||208,958||56.2|
|Total commercial loans||366,110||72.3||325,785||68.9||304,047||68.1||264,592||65.2||238,878||64.3|
|Home equity lines||27,076||5.4||28,531||6.0||27,732||6.2||28,690||7.1||24,615||6.6|
|Consumer first and second mortgages||3,345||0.7||3,625||0.8||3,954||0.9||4,827||1.2||5,527||1.5|
|Total consumer loans||55,335||11.0||56,331||11.9||56,908||12.7||56,762||14.0||50,668||13.6|
|Loans in process||12,198||9,957||7,225||6,805||3,526|
|Deferred fees and discount||1,839||469||252||142||165|
|Allowance for loan losses||12,843||9,226||9,171||8,221||8,356|
|Total loans receivable||$||479,166||$||452,859||$||430,054||$||390,493||$||359,723|
The following table sets forth information concerning the composition of the Bank's loan portfolio, including loans held for sale, in dollar amounts and in percentages by type of loan, and presents a reconciliation of total loans receivable before net items.
|At December 31,|
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
|Fixed rate loans|
|Residential real estate||$||19,720||3.9||%||$||19,277||4.1||%||$||17,473||3.9||%||$||17,746||4.3||%||$||17,336||4.7||%|
|Commercial business and commercial real estate||265,540||52.5||263,146||55.7||264,654||59.2||222,952||55.0||203,032||54.6|
|Total fixed rate loans||$||357,386||70.6||$||306,401||64.8||$||307,574||68.9||$||265,105||65.3||$||242,678||65.3|
|Adjustable rate loans|
|Residential real estate||$||64,881||12.8||$||71,118||15.1||$||68,274||15.3||$||66,561||16.4||$||64,888||17.5|
|Commercial business and commercial real estate||53,464||10.6||62,639||13.3||39,393||8.8||41,640||10.3||35,846||9.6|
|Total adjustable rate loans||148,660||29.4||166,110||35.2||139,128||31.1||140,556||34.7||129,092||34.7|
|Loans in process||12,198||9,957||7,225||6,805||3,526|
|Deferred fees and discounts||1,839||469||252||142||165|
|Allowance for loan losses||12,843||9,226||9,171||8,221||8,356|
|Total loans receivable||$||479,166||$||452,859||$||430,054||$||390,493||$||359,723|
As of December 31, 2020, the total amount of loans due after December 31, 2021, which have predetermined or fixed interest rates was $237.5 million, and the total amount of loans due after that date which have floating or adjustable interest rates was $120.3 million.
The following schedule illustrates the maturities of Security Federal's loan portfolio, including loans held for sale, at December 31, 2020. Mortgages which have adjustable or renegotiable interest rates are shown as maturing in the period when the contract is due. This schedule does not reflect the effects of possible prepayments or enforcement of due-on-sale clauses.
|Owner Occupied Residential|
Six months or less (1)
|Over six months to one year||22||4,899||845||20,161||18,703||—||44,630|
|Over one year to three years||961||151||7,710||13,862||76,470||44,101||99,154|
|Over three to five years||1,422||—||9,218||6,572||85,820||2,938||103,032|
|Over five to ten years||1,320||—||8,941||6,988||52,865||67||70,114|
|Over ten years||51,829||—||21,941||101||11,546||—||85,417|
(1)Includes demand loans, loans having no stated maturity, overdraft loans and personal line of credit loans.
The commercial construction and acquisition and development ("A&D") loans category includes all loans made to builders to finance the A&D of residential neighborhoods and also any construction loans made to builders to finance the construction of individual one- to four-family residences. Construction loans made to owners to finance the construction of a residence are included in the owner occupied residential real estate construction loan category.
Loan Originations/ Renewals, Purchases and Sales. The following table shows the loan origination including renewals of previously funded loans, purchase, sale and repayment activities of the Bank for the periods indicated.
|Years Ended December 31,|
|Adjustable rate - residential real estate||$||30,295||$||25,955||$||24,625||$||21,676||$||19,851|
|Fixed rate - residential real estate (1)||116,182||62,526||42,940||42,069||35,435|
|Commercial business and commercial real estate||328,611||257,132||204,940||168,474||190,914|
|Total loans originated/ renewed||505,169||369,032||294,773||253,685||264,641|
|Fixed rate - residential real estate||109,406||59,737||45,345||41,977||33,654|
|Fixed rate - commercial real estate||—||625||—||100||—|
|Transfers to OREO||369||833||436||581||1,026|
|Increase (decrease) in other items, net||7,226||3,004||1,480||3,121||807|
|Net increase (decrease)||$||26,309||$||22,169||$||39,560||$||30,770||$||29,150|
(1) Includes newly originated fixed rate loans held for sale and construction/permanent loans converted to fixed rate loans and sold.
In addition to interest earned on loans, the Bank receives loan origination fees or "points" for originating loans. Loan origination points are a percentage of the principal amount of the loan which are charged to the borrower for the creation of the loan. The Bank's loan origination fees are generally 1% on conventional residential mortgages, and 0.25% to 1% on commercial real estate loans and commercial business loans.
Total fee income (including amounts amortized to income as yield adjustments) received by the Bank from loan originations was $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Loan origination and commitment fees are volatile sources of income. These fees vary with the volume and type of loans and commitments made and purchased and with competitive conditions in mortgage markets, which in turn are governed by the demand for and availability of money.
The following table shows deferred mortgage loan origination fees recognized as income by the Bank expressed as a percentage of the dollar amount of total mortgage loans originated (and retained in the Bank's portfolio) and purchased during the periods indicated and the dollar amount of deferred loan origination fees at the end of each respective period.
|Years Ended December 31,|
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
Net deferred mortgage loan origination fees earned during the period (1)
|Mortgage loan origination fees earned as a percentage of total portfolio|
mortgage loans originated during the period
|Net deferred mortgage loan origination fees (costs) in loan portfolio at|
end of period
(1)Includes amounts amortized to interest income as yield adjustments; does not include fees earned on loans sold.
The Bank also receives other fees and charges related to existing loans, conversion fees, assumption fees, late charges and other fees collected in connection with a change in borrower or other loan modifications.
Security Federal currently sells substantially all conforming fixed rate loans with terms of 15 years or greater in the secondary mortgage market. These loans are sold in order to provide a source of funds and as one of the strategies available to close the gap between the maturities of the Bank's interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. Currently, most fixed rate, long-term mortgage loans are being originated based on Federal National Mortgage Association ("Fannie Mae") and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("Freddie Mac") underwriting standards.
Secondary market sales are made to other banks or institutional investors. Generally all loans sold to investors are without recourse. For the past several years, substantially all loans have been sold on a servicing released basis. During the year ended December 31, 2020, Security Federal sold $109.4 million in fixed rate residential loans on a servicing released basis in the secondary market. Loans closed but not yet settled with banks or other investors, are carried in the Bank's "loans held for sale" portfolio. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $5.7 million of loans held for sale. These loans are fixed rate residential loans that have been originated in the Bank's name and have closed. Virtually all of these loans have commitments to be purchased by investors and the majority of these loans were price locked with the investors on the same day or shortly after the loan was price locked with the Bank's customers. Therefore, these loans present very little market risk for the Bank. The Bank usually delivers loans to, and receives funding from, the investor within 30 days. Security Federal originates all of its loans held for sale on a "best efforts" basis which means that the Bank suffers no penalty if it is unable to deliver a loan to a potential investor.
Federal law restricts the Bank's permissible lending limits to one borrower to the greater of $500,000 or 15% of unimpaired capital and surplus. At December 31, 2020, the Bank's legal lending limit under this restriction was $18.4 million. At that date, the Bank's largest loan relationship to a single borrower was $12.6 million, comprised of one loan for a commercial property and an unused line of credit. These loans were performing in accordance with their repayment terms at December 31, 2020. South Carolina law restricts the Bank's permissible lending limits to one borrower to 10% of unimpaired capital, or $12.3 million at December 31, 2020, unless prior approval is granted by a two-thirds vote of the Board of Directors, in which case the limit is increased to 15% of unimpaired capital. During 2020, the Board approved one loan relationship to be over the state limit. That relationship is the $12.6 million largest lending relationship for the Bank at December 31, 2020.
Loan Solicitation and Processing. The Bank actively solicits mortgage loan applications from existing customers, real estate agents, builders, real estate developers and others. The Bank also receives mortgage loan applications as a result of customer referrals and from walk-in customers. Detailed loan applications are obtained to determine the borrower's creditworthiness and ability to repay. The more significant items on loan applications are verified through the use of credit reports, financial statements and confirmations. After analysis of the loan application and property or collateral involved, including an appraisal of the property (residential appraisals are obtained through independent fee appraisers), a lending decision is made in accordance with the underwriting guidelines of the Bank. These guidelines are generally consistent with Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae guidelines for residential real estate loans. With respect to commercial real estate loans, the Bank also reviews the capital adequacy of the business, the income potential of the property, the ability of the borrower to repay the loan and honor its other obligations, and general economic and industry conditions.
Upon receipt of a loan application and all required related information from a prospective borrower, the loan application is submitted for approval or rejection. The residential mortgage loan underwriters approve loans which meet Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae underwriting requirements. The Chairman of the Company, the Chief Executive Officer of the Company and the Bank, the President of the Bank, the President of the Company, the Chief Financial Officer, the Executive Vice President/Business Development, the Senior Vice President/Chief Lending Officer and Senior Vice President/Mortgage Lending individually have the authority to approve loans of $500,000 or less, except as set forth above for conforming conventionally underwritten, single family mortgage loans, which are approved by the underwriters. Loans in excess of $500,000 and up to $1.0 million require the approval of any three of the following: Chairman of the Company, the Chief Executive Officer of the Company and the Bank, the President of the Bank, the President of the Company, the Chief Financial Officer, the Executive Vice President/Financial Services, the Chief Lending Officer, or the Secretary of the Executive Committee. Any loan in excess of $1.0 million must be approved by the Bank's Executive Committee, which operates as the Bank's Loan Committee. The loan approval limits discussed above are the aggregate of all loans to any one borrower or entity, not including loans that are secured by the borrower's primary residence, and are conventionally underwritten.
The general policy of Security Federal is to issue loan commitments to qualified borrowers for a specified term, generally for a period of 45 days or less. With management approval, commitments may be extended for up to an additional 45 days. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $2.1 million in outstanding commitments on mortgage loans not yet closed compared to $282,000 at December 31, 2019. Security Federal had outstanding commitments available on all lines of credit (including letters of credit, commercial, undisbursed loans in process, home equity, credit cards and other consumer loans) totaling $141.9 million at December 31, 2020. See Note 19 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report.
Residential Real Estate Lending. At December 31, 2020 the Bank had $84.6 million or 16.7% of the Bank's total outstanding loan portfolio in residential real estate loans. These loans can have adjustable or fixed rates and include permanent one- to four-family residential mortgage loans as well as construction loans for single family dwellings to owner-occupants.
Security Federal offers a variety of ARMs which offer adjustable rates of interest, payments, loan balances or terms to maturity which vary according to specified indices. The Bank's ARMs generally have a loan term of 15 to 30 years with initial rate adjustments every one, three, five or seven years during the term of the loan. After the initial rate adjustment, the loan rate then adjusts annually. Most of the Bank's ARMs contain a 200 basis point limit as to the maximum amount of change in the interest rate at any adjustment period and a 500 or 600 basis point limit over the life of the loan. The Bank generally originates ARMs to retain in its portfolio. These loans are generally made consistent with Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae guidelines.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Bank originated $146.5 million in residential real estate loans, 20.7% of which had adjustable interest rates. At December 31, 2020, residential ARMs totaled $64.9 million or 12.8% of the Bank's loan portfolio. At December 31, 2020, the Bank also held approximately $19.7 million or 3.9% of the loan portfolio in longer term fixed rate residential mortgage loans. Currently, the Bank sells the majority of its longer term fixed rate mortgage loans at origination.
There are unquantifiable risks resulting from possible increased costs to the borrower as a result of periodic repricing. Despite the benefits of ARMs to the Bank's asset/liability management program, these loans also pose potential additional risks, primarily because as interest rates rise, the underlying payment by the borrower rises, increasing the potential for default. At the same time, marketability of the underlying property may be adversely affected by higher interest rates.
When making a one- to four-family residential mortgage loan, the Bank evaluates both the borrower's creditworthiness and his or her general ability to make principal and interest payments, and the value of the property that will secure the loan. The Bank generally makes loans on one- to four-family residential properties in amounts of 95% or less of the appraised value of the collateral. When loans are made for amounts which exceed 80% of the appraised value of the underlying real estate, the Bank's general policy is to require private mortgage insurance on the portion of the loan in excess of 80% of the appraised value. In general, the Bank restricts its residential lending to South Carolina and the nearby Evans and Augusta, Georgia market.
Many of the one- to four-family residential mortgage loans we retain in our portfolio consist of loans that do not satisfy acreage limits, income, credit, conforming loan limits (i.e., jumbo mortgages) or various other requirements imposed by Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. Some of these loans are also originated to meet the needs of borrowers who cannot otherwise satisfy Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae credit requirements because of personal and financial reasons (i.e., bankruptcy, length of time employed, etc.), and other aspects, which do not conform to their underwriting guidelines. Such borrowers may have higher debt-to-income ratios, or the loans are secured by unique properties in rural markets for which there are no sales of comparable properties to support the value according to secondary market requirements. We may require additional collateral or lower loan-to-value ratios to reduce the risk of these loans. We believe that these loans satisfy the needs of borrowers in our market area. As a result, subject to market conditions, we intend to continue to originate these types of loans. We also retain jumbo loans which exceed the conforming loan limits and therefore, are not eligible to be purchased by Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae.
Construction loans are generally made for periods of six months to one year with either adjustable or fixed rates. At December 31, 2020, residential construction loans on one- to four-family dwellings to owner-occupants totaled $23.4 million, or 4.6%, of the Bank's loan portfolio. On loans of this type, the Bank seeks to evaluate the financial condition and prior performance of the builder, as well as the borrower's creditworthiness and his or her general ability to make principal and interest payments, and the value of the property that will secure the loan. On construction loans offered to individuals (non-builders), the Bank offers a construction/permanent loan. The one year construction portion of the loan has a fixed rate ranging currently from 2.25% to 8.00% depending on which ARM program the borrower has chosen for the permanent portion of the loan after the construction period. The borrower pays interest on the loan during the construction phase. After construction, the loan then automatically converts, depending on the borrower's upfront selection, to a one year ARM, a three year/one year ARM, or a five year/one year ARM loan in which the borrower will pay principal and interest. The borrower also has the option, after the construction period only, to convert the loan to a fixed rate residential mortgage loan which the Bank immediately sells on the secondary market on a servicing released basis.
Commercial Real Estate, Commercial Business and Multi-Family Loans. The commercial business loans originated by the Bank are primarily secured by business equipment, furniture and fixtures, inventory and receivables, or are unsecured. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $19.7 million, or 3.9% of its total loan portfolio, in commercial business loans. A total of $784,000, or 4.0% of these loans were unsecured at December 31, 2020.
The commercial real estate loans originated by the Bank are primarily secured by non-residential commercial properties, churches, hotels, residential developments, single family speculative dwellings or pre-sold homes, land lots, income property developments, and undeveloped land. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $299.3 million, or 59.1% of its total loan portfolio, in commercial real estate loans and multi-family loans. Also included in commercial real estate loans at December 31, 2020 was $19.8 million in A&D loans with terms of typically two to three years.
Multi-family loans originated by the Bank are primarily secured by commercial residential properties including apartment complexes, condominiums or townhouses, and loans for acquisition and development of, or improvements to multi-family residential properties. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $5.8 million, or 1.1% of its total loan portfolio, in multi-family loans.
The following table summarizes the Bank's commercial real estate, multi-family, commercial business and PPP loans by geographic market area at December 31, 2020.
|Aiken County, SC||Midlands Area, SC||Metro Augusta, GA||Other||Total|
|Commercial real estate||$||91,660||$||95,702||$||70,150||$||36,004||$||293,516|
Loans secured by commercial real estate are typically written for amortization terms of 10 to 20 years. Commercial loans not secured by real estate are typically based on terms of three to 60 months. Both commercial real estate loans and commercial business loans not secured by real estate can be originated on adjustable or fixed rate terms. Adjustable rates are tied to the prime rate as quoted in The Wall Street Journal and typically adjust on a daily basis. Since 2009, the Bank has instituted floors of typically 4% to 6% on newly originated adjustable rate commercial business and commercial real estate
loans. If ceilings are used, the loan will typically require a balloon payment in 60 months or less. Fixed rate loans on commercial real estate usually require a balloon payment in 36 to 60 months. Fixed rate loans on non-real estate collateral are generally amortizing in five years or less.
Commercial real estate lending entails significant additional credit risk when compared to residential lending. Commercial real estate loans typically involve large loan balances to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. Because payments on loans secured by commercial properties often depend upon the successful operation and management of the properties, repayment of these loans may be affected by adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy. In order to minimize the risks associated with this type of loan, the Bank generally limits the maximum loan-to-value ratio for commercial real estate to a range of 65% to 80%, based on appraisals of the property at the time of the loan by appraisers designated by the Bank, and strictly scrutinizes the credit history, financial condition and cash flow of the borrower, the quality of the collateral and the expertise of management of the property securing the loan.
Although the creditworthiness of the business and its principals is of primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the security, if any, in relation to the proposed loan amount. A&D loans secured by improved lots generally involve greater risks than residential mortgage lending because these loans are more difficult to evaluate. If the estimate of value proves to be inaccurate, in the event of default and foreclosure, we may be confronted with a property, the value of which is insufficient to assure full payment.
Commercial business lending generally involves greater risk than residential mortgage lending and involves risks that are different from those associated with lending that is secured by real estate. Real estate lending is generally considered to be collateral based lending with loan amounts based on predetermined loan-to-collateral values, and liquidation of the underlying real estate collateral is viewed as the primary source of repayment in the event of borrower default. Although commercial business loans often have equipment, inventory, accounts receivable or other business assets as collateral, the liquidation of collateral in the event of a borrower default is often not a sufficient source of repayment because accounts receivable may be uncollectible and inventories and equipment may be obsolete or of limited use, among other conditions. Accordingly, the repayment of a commercial business loan depends primarily on the creditworthiness of the borrower (and any guarantors), while liquidation of collateral is a secondary and often insufficient source of repayment. The Bank seeks to minimize these risks by strictly scrutinizing the borrower's current financial condition, ability to pay, past earnings and payment history. In addition, the current financial condition and payment history of all principals are reviewed. Typically, the Bank requires the principal or owners of a business to guarantee all loans made to their business by the Bank. Although the creditworthiness of the business and its principals is of primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the security, if any, in relation to the proposed loan amount.
Beginning in the second quarter of 2020, the Bank began to offer PPP loans which are fully guaranteed by the SBA, to existing and new customers as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. These PPP loans are subject to the provisions of the CARES Act as well as complex and evolving rules and guidance issued by the SBA and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The entire principal amount of the borrower's PPP loan, including any accrued interest, is eligible to be forgiven and repaid by the SBA if the borrower meets the PPP conditions. Under this program, as of December 31, 2020, there were 1,153 PPP loans outstanding totaling $47.1 million. The CAA, 2021 renewed and extended the PPP until March 31, 2021 by authorizing an additional $284.5 billion for the program. As a result, in January 2021, the Bank began accepting and processing loan applications under this second PPP program. The Bank earns 1% interest on PPP loans as well as a fee from the SBA to cover processing costs, which is amortized over the life of the loan. The Bank expects that the great majority of its PPP borrowers will seek full or partial forgiveness of their loan obligations. For additional information regarding these loans, see Item 1A. Risk Factors- “Risks Related to Our Lending- Loans originated under the SBA Paycheck Protection Program subject us to credit, forgiveness and guarantee risk.”
Consumer Loans. The Bank originates consumer loans for any personal, family or household purpose, including the financing of home improvements, loans to individuals for residential lots for a future home, automobiles, boats, mobile homes, recreational vehicles and education. The Bank offers home equity lines of credit. Home equity loans are secured by mortgage liens on the borrower's principal or second residence. Home equity lines are open end lines of credit where the borrowers pay a minimum of interest only monthly on drawn lines. The terms are for a maximum period of 20 years and the rate is a variable rate tied to prime and floats monthly. Margins range from none to 2.5%.
In 2012, the Bank instituted interest rate floors, which currently range from 3.25% to 4.25%, on new home equity line originations and a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 80%. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $27.1 million of home equity lines of credit outstanding and $36.2 million of additional commitments of home equity lines of credit. The Bank also makes secured and unsecured lines of credit available. Although consumer loans involve a higher level of risk than one- to four-family residential mortgage loans, they generally provide higher yields and have shorter terms to maturity than one- to four-
family residential mortgage loans. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $55.3 million, or 11.0% of its loan portfolio, in consumer loans.
The Bank's underwriting standards for consumer loans include a determination of the applicant's payment history on other debts and an assessment of ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan. The stability of the applicant's monthly income is determined by verification of gross monthly income from primary employment, and from any verifiable secondary income. Although creditworthiness of the applicant is of primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the security, if any, in relation to the proposed loan amount.
The Bank also has a credit card program. As of December 31, 2020, the Bank had issued 3,074 Mastercard credit cards with total approved credit lines of $9.8 million, of which $2.7 million was outstanding on that date.
Loan Delinquencies and Defaults
General. The Bank's collection procedures provide that when a real estate loan is approximately 20 days past due, the borrower is contacted by mail and payment is requested. If the delinquency continues for another 10 days, subsequent efforts are made to contact the delinquent borrower and establish a program to bring the loan current. In certain instances, the Bank may modify the loan or grant a limited moratorium on loan payments to enable the borrower to reorganize his financial affairs. If the loan continues in a delinquent status for 60 days or more, the Bank generally initiates foreclosure proceedings after the customer has been notified by certified mail. The Bank institutes the same collection procedure for its commercial real estate loans.
Delinquent Loans. The following table sets forth information concerning delinquent loans at December 31, 2020.
|Real Estate||Non-Real Estate|
|Loans delinquent for:||(Dollars in Thousands)|
|30 - 59 days||—||$||—||10||$||735||36||$||293||3||$||50||49||$||1,078|
|60 - 89 days||2||153||1||347||2||30||—||—||5||530|
|90 days and over||3||160||3||550||9||92||2||7||17||809|
|Total delinquent loans||5||$||313||14||$||1,632||47||$||415||5||$||57||71||$||2,417|
Classified Assets. Federal regulations provide for the classification of loans and other assets such as debt and equity securities considered to be of lesser quality as "substandard," "doubtful" or "loss" assets. The regulations require commercial banks to classify their own assets and to establish prudent general allowances for loan losses for assets classified "substandard" or "doubtful." For the portion of assets classified as "loss," an institution is required to either establish specific allowances of 100% of the amount classified or charge off such amount. In addition, the State Board and/or FDIC may require the establishment of a general allowance for losses based on assets classified as "substandard" and "doubtful" or based on the general quality of the asset portfolio of a Bank. See "Regulation - Regulation of the Bank."
The Company uses a risk based approach based on the following credit quality measures consistent with regulatory guidelines when analyzing the loan portfolio: pass, caution, special mention, and substandard. These indicators are used to rate the credit quality of loans for the purposes of determining the Company’s allowance for loan losses. Pass loans are loans that are performing and are deemed adequately protected by the net worth of the borrower or the underlying collateral value. These loans are considered to have the least amount of risk in terms of determining the allowance for loan losses. Loans that are graded as substandard are considered to have the most risk. These loans typically have an identified weakness or weaknesses and are inadequately protected by the net worth of the borrower or collateral value. All loans 90 days or more past due are automatically classified in this category. The caution and special mention categories fall in between the pass and substandard grades and consist of loans that do not currently expose the Company to sufficient risk to warrant adverse classification but possess weaknesses.
At December 31, 2020, $8.8 million of the total loan balance was classified "substandard" compared to $8.5 million at December 31, 2019. At December 31, 2020, $18.3 million of the total loan balance was designated as "special mention" compared to $16.4 million at December 31, 2019. At December 31, 2020, $80.7 million of the total loan balance was designated as “caution” compared to $75.7 million at December 31, 2019. The Bank had no loans classified as "doubtful" or "loss" at December 31, 2020 and 2019. According to generally accepted accounting principles, the Bank is required to account for certain loan modifications or restructuring as a “troubled debt restructuring” ("TDRs"). In general, the modification or
restructuring of a debt is considered a TDR if the Bank, for economic or legal reasons related to the borrower’s financial difficulties, grants a concession to the borrower that would not otherwise be considered. As of December 31, 2020, there were $315,000 in TDRs compared to $825,000 at December 31, 2019. The Bank's classification of assets is consistent with FDIC regulatory classifications.
Non-performing Assets. Loans are placed on non-accrual status when the collection of principal and/or interest becomes doubtful. In addition, all loans are placed on non-accrual status when the loan becomes 90 days or more contractually delinquent. All consumer loans more than 90 days delinquent are charged against the consumer loan allowance for loan losses unless there is adequate collateral which is in the process of being repossessed or foreclosed on. Non-performing loans are reviewed monthly on a loan by loan basis. Charge-offs, whether partial or in full, associated with these loans will vary based on estimates of recovery for each loan.
The following table sets forth the amounts and categories of risk elements in the Bank's loan portfolio. Loans that were modified in accordance with the CARES Act and related regulatory guidance are not considered delinquent.
|At December 31,|
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
|Loans Delinquent 60 to 89 Days:|
|Residential Real Estate||$||153||$||355||$||332||$||—||$||—|
|Commercial Real Estate||347||—||424||365||256|
|Total as a percentage of total assets||0.05||%||0.07||%||0.12||%||0.06||%||0.05||%|
|Loans Delinquent 90 or more Days or Non-Accruing Loans:|
|Residential Real Estate||$||1,682||$||1,520||$||2,085||$||1,949||$||2,488|
|Commercial Real Estate||940||1,474||3,564||3,341||2,640|
|Total as a percentage of total assets||0.27||%||0.36||%||0.77||%||0.66||%||0.68||%|
|Allowance for loan losses||$||12,843||$||9,226||$||9,171||$||8,221||$||8,356|
(1) Includes three loans with a combined balance of $315,000 at December 31, 2020 that are also included in the Non-Accruing Loans section of this table.
Non-performing loans decreased $311,000 or 9.0% to $3.1 million at December 31, 2020 from $3.4 million at December 31, 2019. The largest decrease in non-performing loans was in the non-performing commercial real estate loans category, which decreased $534,000 or 36.2% to $940,000 at December 31, 2020 from $1.5 million at December 31, 2019. The balance in non-performing commercial real estate loans at December 31, 2020 consisted of eight loans to seven borrowers with an average loan balance of $118,000 compared to 14 loans to nine borrowers with an average loan balance of $105,000 at December 31, 2019.
Non-performing loans within the residential real estate loan category increased $162,000 or 10.6% to $1.7 million at December 31, 2020 from $1.5 million at December 31, 2019. Non-performing residential real estate loans at December 31, 2020 consisted of 14 loans to 14 borrowers with an average loan balance of $120,000, the largest of which was $301,000, compared to 12 loans to 12 borrowers with an average loan balance of $127,000 at December 31, 2019.
Non-performing consumer loans increased $84,000 or 26.2% to $403,000 at December 31, 2020 compared to $319,000 at December 31, 2019. Non-performing consumer loans at December 31, 2020 consisted of 16 loans to 16 borrowers with an average loan balance of $25,000, the largest of which was $74,000, compared to 10 loans to 10 borrowers with an average loan balance of $32,000, the largest of which was $68,000, at December 31, 2019.
At December 31, 2020, there were no accruing loans equal to or more than 90 days delinquent. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the interest income not recognized that would have been recognized with respect to non-accruing loans, had such loans been current in accordance with their original terms and with respect to TDRs, had such loans been current in accordance with their original terms, totaled $379,000 compared to $468,000 for the year ended December 31, 2019. For the year ended December 31, 2020 actual interest recorded on these loans was $83,000 compared to $54,000 for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Troubled Debt Restructurings. The Bank identifies and reviews all loans to be restructured based on an assessment of the borrower's credit status. This assessment is a continuous process that involves a review of the financial statements and prospects for repayment, payment delinquency, non-accrual status, and risk rating.
Not all loan modifications are TDRs. The Bank designates a loan modification as a TDR when the following two conditions are present: the borrower is experiencing financial difficulty, and because of this difficulty, the Bank grants a concession it would not otherwise consider. Typically these concessions involve a change in the interest rate, maturity date or payment amount or some combination of each. These concessions rarely result in the forgiveness of principal or interest. TDRs are considered impaired and are initially reported as non-performing loans on non-accrual status. Non-performing TDRs may be returned to accrual status when payment in full of all amounts due under the restructured terms is anticipated and the borrower has demonstrated a sustained payment history which is typically six months.
The Bank modified one loan that was considered to be a TDR during the year ended December 31, 2020. The Bank had three loans totaling $315,000 at December 31, 2020, two of which were TDRs modified in prior years, compared to five TDRs totaling $825,000 at December 31, 2019. The three TDRs consisted of two commercial real estate loans to two separate borrowers, the largest of which had a balance of $288,000, and one unsecured consumer loan with a balance of $2,000 at December 31, 2020. The commercial real estate loans were secured primarily by first mortgages on two single family residences. At December 31, 2020, there were no TDRs in default. The Bank considers any loan 30 days or more past due to be in default. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had no commitments to extend additional credit to borrowers whose loan terms have been modified in a TDR.
The CARES Act signed into law on March 27, 2020, amended GAAP with respect to the modification of loans to borrowers affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Among other criteria, this guidance provided that short-term loan modifications made on a good faith basis to borrowers who were current as defined under the CARES Act prior to any relief, are not TDRs. This includes short-term (e.g. six months) modifications such as payment deferrals, fee waivers, extensions of repayment terms, or other delays in payment that are insignificant. To qualify as an eligible loan under the CARES Act, a loan modification must be 1) related to COVID-19; 2) executed on a loan that was not more than 30 days past due as of December 31, 2019; and 3) executed between March 1, 2020, and the earlier of a) 60 days after the date of termination of the national emergency by the President or b) December 31, 2020.
On April 7, 2020, the federal banking regulators issued a revised interagency statement on loan modifications and the reporting for financial institutions working with customers affected by the COVID-19 pandemic ("Interagency Statement"). The Interagency Statement confirmed that COVID-19 related short-term loan modifications (e.g., payment deferrals of six months or less) provided to borrowers that were current (less than 30 days past due) at the time the relief was granted are not TDR loans. Borrowers that do not meet the criteria in the CARES Act or the Interagency Statement are assessed for TDR loan classification in accordance with the Company’s accounting policies. As of December 31, 2020, there were eight loans still on deferral with a combined balance of $3.0 million. All loans modified due to COVID-19 are separately monitored and any request for continuation of relief beyond the initial modification will be reassessed at that time to determine if a further modification should be granted and if a downgrade in risk rating is appropriate.
On December 27, 2020, the CAA, 2021 was signed into law. Among other purposes, this act provides additional coronavirus emergency response and relief, including extending relief offered under the CARES Act related to troubled debt restructurings as a result of COVID-19 through January 1, 2022 or 60 days after the end of the national emergency declared by the President, whichever is earlier. Loan modifications in accordance with the CARES Act and related banking agency regulatory guidance are still subject to an evaluation in regards to determining whether or not a loan is deemed to be impaired.
Potential Problem Loans. Potential problem loans include substandard loans that are not already included as non-accrual loans or TDRs and special mention loans where management has become aware of information regarding possible borrower credit issues that could potentially cause doubt about their ability to comply with current repayment terms. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Bank had identified $24.0 million and $21.4 million, respectively, of potential problem loans through its internal loan review procedures.
Repossessed Assets. OREO had a balance of $499,000 at December 31, 2020 and consisted of the following real estate properties: one residential lot, one single family residence and 5 acres of commercial land located in South Carolina.
Provision for Losses on Loans. Security Federal recognizes that it will experience credit losses during the course of making loans and that the risk of loss will vary with, among other things, the type of loan being made, the creditworthiness of the borrower over the term of the loan and, in the case of a secured loan, the quality of the underlying security for the loan. The Bank seeks to establish and maintain sufficient reserves for estimated losses on specifically identified loans and real estate where such losses can be estimated. Additionally, general reserves for estimated possible losses are established on specified portions of the Bank's portfolio such as consumer loans and higher risk residential construction mortgage loans based on management's estimate of the potential loss for loans which normally can be classified as higher risk. Specific and general reserves are based on, among other criteria: (1) the risk characteristics of the loan portfolio, (2) current economic conditions on a local as well as a statewide basis, (3) actual losses experienced historically and (4) the level of reserves for possible losses in the future.
When determining the appropriate allowance for loan losses during 2020, management took into consideration the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on such additional qualitative factors as the national and state unemployment rates and related trends, national and state unemployment benefit claim levels and related trends, the amount of and timing of financial assistance provided by the government, consumer spending levels and trends, industries significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, a review of the Bank's largest commercial loan relationships, and the Bank's COVID-19 loan modification program.
Management increased historical loss factors and qualitative factors for all loan categories at December 31, 2020 due to deterioration of economic conditions as a result of the COVD-19 pandemic. The increase in the factors resulted in a significant increase in the allowance for loan losses during the current year. Management will continue to closely monitor economic conditions and will work with borrowers as necessary to assist them through this challenging economic climate. If economic conditions worsen or do not improve in the near term, and if future government programs, if any, do not provide adequate relief to borrowers, it is possible the Bank's allowance for loan losses will need to increase in future periods. Uncertainties relating to our allowance for loan losses are heightened as a result of the risks surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic as described in further detail in Item 1A- Risk Factors- “Risks Related to Macroeconomic Conditions".
At December 31, 2020, the allowance for loan losses or reserve was $12.8 million, due primarily to the incurred but not yet reported probable loan losses reflecting credit deterioration due to the adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the increase in the loan portfolio due to organic growth. The $47.1 million balance of PPP loans was omitted from the calculation of the allowance for loan losses at December 31, 2020 as these loans are fully guaranteed by the SBA and management expects that the great majority of PPP borrowers will seek full or partial forgiveness of their loan obligations from the SBA within a short time frame, which will in turn reimburse the Bank for the amount forgiven.
In determining the adequacy of the reserve for loan losses, management reviews past experience of loan charge-offs, the level of past due and non-accrual loans, the size and mix of the portfolio, general economic conditions in the market area, and individual loans to identify potential credit problems. Commercial business, commercial real estate and consumer loans were $421.4 million, or 83.3% of the total loan portfolio, at December 31, 2020. Although these types of loans carry a higher level of credit risk than conventional residential mortgage loans, the level of reserves reflects management's continuing evaluation of this risk based on the Bank's past loss experience. At December 31, 2020, the Bank's ratio of loans delinquent more than 60 days to total assets was 0.11%. The reserve is management's best estimate for offsetting risk for our estimated possible losses. There can be no guarantee that the estimate is adequate or accurate.
Management believes that reserves for loan losses are at a level adequate to provide for inherent loan losses. Although management believes that it has considered all relevant factors in its estimation of future losses, future adjustments to reserves may be necessary if conditions change substantially from the assumptions used in making the original estimations. Regulators will from time to time evaluate the allowance for loan losses which is subject to adjustment based upon the information available to the regulators at the time of their examinations.
The Company recorded loan loss provisions of $3.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $375,000 during 2019 due primarily to the increased risk of charge-offs from loan defaults reflecting the ongoing negative impact of COVID-19 on the economy. In addition, the Company is continuing to offer payment and financial relief programs for borrowers impacted by COVID-19. According to the CARES Act and related bank agency guidance, banks are not required to designate as troubled debt restructurings (“TDRs”) the modification of loans as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, made on a good faith basis to borrowers who were current, as defined under the CARES Act and related bank agency guidance prior to any relief. This includes short-term (e.g. six months) modifications such as payment deferrals, fee waivers, extensions of repayment terms, or other delays in payment that are insignificant. Borrowers are considered current under the CARES Act and related bank agency guidance if they are not more than 30 days past due on their contractual payments prior to any relief.
From March 31, 2020 through December 31, 2020, the Bank approved modifications related to the COVID-19 pandemic on over 340 customer loans with a combined balance, net of deferred fees, of $100.3 million. The primary method of relief was to allow the borrower a three to six month payment deferral. The majority of these modifications ($96.5 million) were for commercial real estate loans. After the deferral period, normal loan payments will continue, however, payments will be applied first to interest until the deferred interest is repaid and thereafter applied to both principal and interest with any deficiency in amortized principal payments added to the balloon payment due at maturity. All loans modified due to COVID-19 are separately monitored and any request for continuation of relief beyond the initial modification is reassessed at that time to determine if a further modification should be granted and if a downgrade in risk rating is appropriate. Most of these deferrals have since resumed regular principal and interest payments. As of December 31, 2020, there were eight loans still on deferral with a combined balance of $3.0 million. We believe the steps we are taking are necessary to effectively manage our portfolio and assist our customers through the ongoing uncertainty surrounding the duration, impact and government response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The following table sets forth an analysis of the Bank's allowance for loan losses during the dates indicated.
|Years Ended December 31,|
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
|Balance at beginning of period||$||9,226||$||9,172||$||8,221||$||8,356||$||8,275|
|Provision for loan losses||3,600||375||925||300||500|
|Residential real estate||—||35||46||212||197|
|Commercial business and commercial real estate||54||518||385||435||524|
|Residential real estate||2||6||2||2||11|
|Commercial business and commercial real estate||233||543||570||319||446|
|Balance at end of period||$||12,843||$||9,226||$||9,172||$||8,221||$||8,356|
|Net charge-offs (recoveries) to average loans outstanding during the period||—||%||0.07||%||(0.01)||%||0.11||%||0.12||%|
The following table summarizes the distribution of the Bank's allowance for loan losses at the dates indicated. The entire allowance is available to absorb losses from all loan categories.
|Amount||% of Total||Amount||% of Total||Amount||% of Total||Amount||% of Total||Amount||% of Total|
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
|Residential Real Estate||$||1,529||11.9||%||$||1,391||15.1||%||$||1,191||13.0||%||$||1,233||15.0||%||$||1,360||16.3||%|
|Commercial Real Estate||8,850||68.9||6,079||65.9||5,853||63.8||4,832||58.8||5,116||61.2|
At December 31, 2020, Security Federal's net investment in its subsidiaries (including loans to subsidiaries) totaled $19.2 million. In addition to investments in subsidiaries, federal institutions are permitted to invest an unlimited amount in operating subsidiaries engaged solely in activities which a commercial bank may engage in directly.
Security Federal Insurance, Inc. SFINS, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank, is an insurance agency offering auto, business, health and home insurance, and premium finance. The operations of SFINS are included in the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report.
Collier Jennings Financial Corporation. Collier Jennings Financial Corporation is a subsidiary of SFINS, a subsidiary of the Bank, which is described above. The Company acquired the insurance and insurance premium finance businesses of Collier Jennings Financial Corporation and its subsidiaries, Security Federal Auto Insurance, Inc., The Auto Insurance Store, Inc., and Security Federal Premium Pay Plans, Inc. (the "Collier-Jennings Companies"), effective June 30, 2006.
Security Federal Investments, Inc. SFINV, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank, was formed to hold investment securities and allow for better management of the securities portfolio. The operations of SFINV are included in the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report.
Investment securities. The Bank has authority to invest in various types of liquid assets, including U.S. Treasury obligations and securities of various federal agencies, certificates of deposit at insured institutions, mutual funds, bankers' acceptances and federal funds. The Bank may also invest a portion of its assets in certain commercial paper and corporate debt securities. See "Regulation - Regulation of the Bank."
As a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB") System, Security Federal must maintain minimum levels of investments that are liquid assets as defined in Federal regulations. See "Regulation - Regulation of the Bank - Federal Home Loan Bank System." Liquidity may increase or decrease depending upon the availability of funds and comparative yields on investments in relation to the return on loans.
Historically, the Bank has maintained its liquid assets at a level believed adequate to meet requirements of normal daily activities, repayment of maturing debt and potential deposit outflows. Management regularly reviews and updates cash flow projections to assure that adequate liquidity is provided.
The following table sets forth the fair value of the Company's portfolio of securities and other investments, excluding mortgage-backed securities, at the dates indicated.
|Interest bearing deposit at FHLB||$||930||$||500||$||311||$||238||$||179|
|Certificates of deposits at financial institutions||350||950||1,200||1,950||2,445|
|Total other investments||$||1,280||$||1,450||$||1,511||$||2,188||$||2,624|
|Available for Sale:|
|Student Loan Pools||61,081||40,232||12,886||8,522||—|
|Small Business Administration ("SBA") bonds||153,305||111,893||125,447||124,248||101,906|
|Tax exempt municipal bonds||48,816||47,241||61,330||62,356||71,535|
|Taxable municipal bonds||48,348||14,840||1,978||1,997||1,991|
|Total securities available for sale||$||311,550||$||214,206||$||201,641||$||197,123||$||176,430|
|Held to Maturity:|
|Freddie Mac bonds||—||—||977||986||—|
|Total securities held to maturity||$||—||$||—||$||977||$||2,983||$||—|
|Total securities (1)||$||311,550||$||214,206||$||202,618||$||200,106||$||176,430|
|Total securities and FHLB stock (1)||$||313,904||$||216,743||$||204,822||$||203,038||$||179,207|
(1) Does not include mortgage-backed securities. Also excludes trust preferred equity securities previously included in securities available for sale, which are included within "Other Assets"
At December 31, 2020, the Company did not have any investment securities (exclusive of obligations of the U.S. Government and federal agencies) issued by any one entity with a total book value in excess of 10% of its shareholders' equity. SBA bonds are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government and carry a zero percent risk base when calculating risk based assets for regulatory capital purposes. Student Loan Pools are typically 97% guaranteed by the U.S. government. The FHLB, FFCB, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are government sponsored enterprises ("GSEs") and the securities and bonds issued by GSEs are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government.
The following table sets forth the maturities or repricing of investment securities and FHLB stock, not including mortgage-backed securities, at December 31, 2020, and the weighted average yields of such securities and FHLB stock (calculated on the basis of the cost and effective yields weighted for the scheduled maturity of each security). Tax equivalent yields on tax exempt municipal bonds are calculated using a 21% tax rate. Callable securities are shown at their likely call dates based on current interest rates. The table was prepared using amortized cost. SBA bonds are based on maturity dates without the effect of scheduled payments or anticipated prepayments.
|Maturing or Repricing||December 31, 2020|
|Within One Year||After One But Within Five Years||After Five But Within Ten Years||After Ten Years||Balance|
|(Dollars in thousands)|
|Student Loan pools||$||61,244||1.00||%||$||—||—||%||$||—||—||%||$||—||—||%||$||61,244||1.00||%|
|Tax exempt municipal bonds||—||—||3,070||3.88||31,970||2.90||7,753||3.93||42,793||3.16|
|Taxable municipal bonds||—||—||996||3.20||42,654||2.40||3,030||2.33||46,680||2.41|
|FHLB stock (1)||2,354||3.75||—||—||—||—||—||—||2,354||3.75|
(1) FHLB stock has no stated maturity date.
(2) Excludes mortgage-backed securities with a total amortized cost of $286.1 million and a yield of 2.10%.
For information regarding the market value of the Bank's securities portfolios, see Notes 2 and 3 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report.
Mortgage-backed Securities. Security Federal has a portfolio of available for sale and held to maturity mortgage-backed securities. Mortgage-backed securities can serve as collateral for borrowings and, through repayments, as a source of liquidity. Under the Bank's risk-based capital requirement, mortgage-backed securities have a risk weight of 20% (or 0% in the case of Government National Mortgage Association ("Ginnie Mae") securities) compared to the 50% risk weight carried by residential loans.
The following table sets forth the composition of the mortgage-backed securities available for sale portfolio at fair value and the held to maturity portfolio at amortized cost at the dates indicated.
|Available for sale, at fair value:|
|Held to maturity, at cost:|
At December 31, 2020, the Company did not have any mortgage-backed securities (exclusive of obligations of agencies of the U.S. Government) issued by any one entity with a total book value in excess of 10% of shareholders equity.
Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae mortgage-backed securities are GSE issued securities. GSE securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. The private label CMO securities are issued by non-governmental real estate mortgage investment conduits, which are also not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. Ginnie Mae mortgage-backed securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government.
For information regarding the market values of Security Federal's mortgage-backed securities portfolio, see Notes 2 and 3 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report.
The following table sets forth the final maturities or initial repricing, whichever occurs first, and the weighted average yields of the mortgage-backed securities at December 31, 2020. Not considered in the preparation of the table below is the effect of scheduled payments or anticipated prepayments. The table is prepared using amortized cost.
|The Earliest of Maturing or Repricing||December 31, 2020|
|1 to 5|
|5 to 10|
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
Sources of Funds
Deposit accounts have traditionally been a principal source of the Bank's funds for use in lending and for other general business purposes. In addition to deposits, the Bank derives funds from loan repayments, cash flows generated from operations (including interest credited to deposit accounts), FHLB of Atlanta advances, borrowings from the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, sales of investment securities, sales of securities under agreements to repurchase, and loan sales. See "Borrowings" below and Note 10 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report. Scheduled loan payments are a relatively stable source of funds while deposit inflows and outflows and the related cost of such funds have varied widely. FHLB of Atlanta advances, borrowings from the Federal Reserve Bank and the sale of securities under agreements to repurchase, referred to as retail repurchase agreements, may be used on a short-term basis to compensate for seasonal reductions in deposits or deposit inflows at less than projected levels and may be used on a longer term basis in support of expanded lending activities. The availability of funds from loan and investment sales is influenced by general interest rates. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" contained in the Annual Report.
Deposits. The Bank attracts both short-term and long-term deposits from the general public by offering a wide assortment of account types and rates. The Bank offers regular savings accounts, checking accounts, various money market accounts, fixed interest rate certificates with varying maturities, negotiated rate $100,000 or above jumbo certificates of deposit ("Jumbo CDs") and individual retirement accounts.
The following table sets forth the deposit balances at the dates indicated.
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
|Interest Rate Range for 2020:|
0% - 0.50%
0% - 1.49%
funds 0% - 0.20%
The Bank believes that, based on its experience over the past several years, its savings and transaction accounts are stable sources of deposits. The Bank relies upon locally obtained Jumbo CDs to maintain its deposit levels. At December 31, 2020, Jumbo CDs constituted $106.8 million or 11.6% of the Bank's total deposits. At December 31, 2020, the Bank held $59.4 million in public funds which consisted of $8.2 million in certificates of deposit and $51.2 million in demand deposit accounts. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $16.0 million in brokered deposits.
The following table shows rate and maturity information for the Bank's certificates of deposit as of December 31, 2020.
|Certificate accounts maturing in quarter ending:||(In Thousands)|
|March 31, 2021||$||45,014||$||2,069||$||47,083|
|June 30, 2021||32,702||2,533||35,235|
|September 30, 2021||28,837||643||29,480|
|December 31, 2021||15,990||970||16,960|
|March 31, 2022||9,598||285||9,883|
|June 30, 2022||5,551||670||6,221|
|September 30, 2022||8,651||113||8,764|
|December 31, 2022||2,337||345||2,682|
|March 31, 2023||1,136||102||1,238|
|June 30, 2023||1,209||288||1,497|
|September 30, 2023||6,745||190||6,935|
|December 31, 2023||682||204||886|
The following table summarizes the Bank's deposits of $100,000 or more by time remaining until maturity at December 31, 2020.
|Maturity Period||Certificates of Deposit||Savings, Checking and Money Market Accounts|
|Three months or less||$||27,999||$||497,368|
|Over three through six months||20,066||—|
|Over six through twelve months||27,395||—|
|Over twelve months||31,384||—|
As a member of the FHLB of Atlanta, the Bank is required to own capital stock in the FHLB of Atlanta and is authorized to apply for advances from the FHLB of Atlanta. Each FHLB credit program has its own interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, and range of maturities. The FHLB of Atlanta may prescribe the acceptable uses to which these advances may be utilized as well as limitations on the size of the advances and repayment provisions. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $35.0 million in outstanding advances from the FHLB of Atlanta. See Note 10 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report for information regarding the maturities and rate structure of the Bank's FHLB advances. Federal law contains certain collateral requirements for FHLB advances. See "Regulation - Regulation of the Bank - Federal Home Loan Bank System."
At December 31, 2020, the Bank also had $48.7 million in borrowings from the "discount window" of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. Depository institutions may borrow from the discount window for periods as long as 90 days, and borrowings are prepayable and renewable by the borrower on a daily basis. At December 31, 2020, the borrowing rate was 0.25%.
At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $13.1 million in retail repurchase agreements with an average rate of 0.15%. These repurchase agreements are included in "Other borrowings" in the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Annual Report and in the table below.
At December 31, 2020, the Company had $5.2 million in junior subordinated debentures. The debentures accrue and pay distributions quarterly at a floating rate of three-month LIBOR plus 170 points which was equal to 1.92% at December 31, 2020. The debentures were callable by the Company in September 2011, and quarterly thereafter, with a final maturity date of December 15, 2036. See Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report for more information.
On December 1, 2009, the Company issued $6.1 million in convertible senior debentures with a maturity date of December 1, 2029. The debentures were convertible into the Company’s common stock at a conversion price of $20 per share at the option of the holder at any time prior to maturity. On January 2, 2020, the Company announced its intention to redeem all of the convertible debentures on March 2, 2020. Subsequent to the announcement, $5.9 million was converted into 295,600 common shares by holders of the debt. The Company redeemed the remaining $132,000 for cash on March 2, 2020. See Note 13 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report for more information.
On October 31, 2016, the Company repurchased all 22,000 shares of its Fixed Rate Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series B (“Series B Preferred Stock”) from the United States Department of the Treasury (“U.S. Treasury”) for $21.3 million plus accrued but unpaid interest of $93,000 for a total payment of $21.4 million. In connection with this repurchase, the Company obtained a $14.0 million unsecured term loan from another financial institution. The loan was paid off prior to its maturity date of October 1, 2019. See Note 11 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report for more information.
On November 22, 2019, the Company sold and issued to certain institutional investors $17.5 million in aggregate principal amount of 5.25% fixed-to-floating rate subordinated notes due 2029 (the “10-Year Notes”) and $12.5 million in aggregate principal amount of 5.25% fixed-to-floating rate subordinated notes due 2034 (the “15-Year Notes”, and together with the 10-Year Notes, the “Notes”). The 10-Year Notes have a stated maturity of November 22, 2029, and bear interest at a fixed rate of 5.25% per year, from and including November 22, 2019 but excluding November 22, 2024. From and including November 22, 2024 to but excluding the maturity date or early redemption date, the interest rate shall reset semi-annually to an
interest rate equal to the then-current three-month LIBOR rate plus 369 basis points. The 15-Year Notes have a stated maturity of November 22, 2034, and bear interest at a fixed rate of 5.25% per year, from and including November 22, 2019 but excluding November 22, 2029. From and including November 22, 2029 to but excluding the maturity date or early redemption date, the interest rate for the 15-Year Notes shall reset semi-annually to an interest rate equal to the then-current three-month LIBOR rate plus 357 basis points. The Notes are payable semi-annually in arrears on June 1 and December 1 of each year commencing June 1, 2020.
The Company may redeem the 10-Year Notes and the 15-Year Notes at its option, in whole at any time, or in part from time to time, after November 22, 2024 and November 22, 2029, respectively. The Notes are unsecured, subordinated obligations of the Company and rank junior in right to payment to the Company’s current and future senior indebtedness, and each Note is equal in right to payment with respect to the other Notes. The Company expects to use the net proceeds from the sale of the Notes for general corporate purposes to support future growth. See Note 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report for more information.
The following table sets forth the maximum month-end balance and average balance of all borrowings for the periods indicated.
|Years Ended December 31,|
|Junior subordinated debentures||5,155||5,155||5,155||5,155||5,155|
|Senior convertible debentures||6,064||6,064||6,064||6,084||6,084|
|Junior subordinated debentures||5,155||5,155||5,155||5,155||5,155|
|Senior convertible debentures||1,123||6,045||6,064||6,075||6,084|
The following table sets forth information as to the Bank's borrowings and the weighted average interest rates thereon at the dates indicated.
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
|Balance at Year End:|
|Junior subordinated debentures||5,155||5,155||5,155||5,155||5,155|
|Senior convertible debentures||—||6,044||6,064||6,064||6,084|
|Weighted Average Interest Rate at Year End:|
|Junior subordinated debentures||1.92||3.59||4.49||2.66||2.21|
|Senior convertible debentures||—||8.00||8.00||8.00||8.00|
|During Fiscal Year:|
|Junior subordinated debentures||2.46||4.19||3.91||2.93||2.42|
|Senior convertible debentures||7.28||8.00||8.00||8.00||8.00|
The Bank serves the counties of Aiken, Lexington, Richland and Saluda, South Carolina, and the counties of Columbia and Richmond, Georgia through its 17 full service branch offices located in Aiken, Ballentine, Clearwater, Columbia, Graniteville, Langley, Lexington, North Augusta, Ridge Spring, Wagener, and West Columbia, South Carolina, and Augusta and Evans, Georgia.
Security Federal faces strong competition both in originating loans and in attracting deposits. Competition in originating loans comes primarily from other commercial banks, federal savings institutions, mortgage bankers and credit unions who also make loans in the Bank's market area, and more recently, financial technology (or “FinTech”) companies.
The Bank competes for loans principally on the basis of the interest rates and loan fees it charges, the types of loans it makes and the quality of services it provides to borrowers. The Bank faces substantial competition in attracting deposits from federal savings institutions, commercial banks, money market and mutual funds, credit unions and other investment vehicles. The ability of the Bank to attract and retain deposits depends on its ability to provide an investment opportunity that satisfies the requirements of investors as to rate of return, liquidity, risk and other factors. The Bank attracts a significant amount of deposits through its branch offices primarily from the communities in which those branch offices are located. Therefore, competition for those deposits is principally from federal savings institutions, credit unions and commercial banks located in the same communities. FinTech companies also compete for consumer deposit relationships. The Bank competes for these deposits by offering a variety of deposit accounts at competitive rates, convenient business hours, online/mobile services, and convenient branch locations with interbranch deposit and withdrawal privileges at each.
At December 31, 2020, the Company employed 229 full-time and 14 part-time employees. The Bank's employees are not represented by any collective bargaining agreement. Management of the Bank considers its relations with its employees to be good.
Executive Officers. The following table sets forth information regarding the executive officers of the Company and the Bank at December 31, 2020.
|J. Chris Verenes||64||Chief Executive Officer||Chief Executive Officer|
Chairman of the Board
|Roy G. Lindburg||60||President||—|
|Philip R. Wahl||57||—||President|
|Darrell Rains||64||Chief Financial Officer||Chief Financial Officer|
Biographical Information. The following is a description of the principal occupation and employment of the executive officers of the Corporation and the Bank during at least the past five years:
J. Chris Verenes is Chief Executive Officer of the Company and Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of the Bank, positions he has held since January 1, 2012 and January 1, 2011, respectively. Prior to that, he served as President of the Bank since 2004. Before joining the Bank he held a variety of management positions with Washington Group International, from 1996 to 2004. Prior to his employment by Washington Group International, Mr. Verenes served as Controller for Riegel Textile Corporation, as Director of Control Data and Business and Technology Center, and as Executive Director of the South Carolina Democratic Party.
Roy G. Lindburg was appointed President of the Company effective June 2014. Prior to that, he served as the Chief Financial Officer of the Company and the Bank since January 1995. He was named Executive Vice President and appointed to the Company's and the Bank's Boards of Directors in 2005. Prior to joining Security Federal, Mr. Lindburg was employed by Keokuk Bancshares/First Community Bank in Keokuk, Iowa from 1986 to 1994. Mr. Lindburg is a Certified Public Accountant.
Philip R. Wahl was appointed President of the Bank effective August 2019. Prior to that, he served as the Bank's Augusta Market President since 2017. Prior to joining the Bank, Mr. Wahl held a variety of management positions with local and national banks in the Augusta area during his 34 year banking career. Most recently, he was employed by First Community Bank from 2012 to 2016. He currently serves on the Georgia Health Sciences Foundation Board of Trustees and is Chairman of the Board of the Augusta Convention & Visitors Bureau.
Darrell Rains was appointed Chief Financial Officer of the Company and the Bank effective July 2020. Prior to that, he served as the Bank's Executive Vice President of Insurance, Mortgage and Trust Services since June 2019. Before joining the Bank, he was the Chief Financial Officer at Woodside Communities from 2017 to 2019 and the Chief Financial Officer of Southeastern Bank Financial Corporation and successors from 2005 to 2017. Mr. Rains has over 30 years of experience in the banking industry. He is a Certified Public Accountant.
Jessica T. Cummins was appointed Chief Financial Officer of the Company and the Bank effective June 2014. Prior to that, she served as the Treasurer of the Bank since 2007. She was appointed to the Company’s and the Bank’s respective Boards of Directors in 2018. Ms. Cummins retired as the Bank and Company's Chief Financial Officer effective June 2020 but continues to serve on the Company's and the Bank's Boards of Directors. Ms. Cummins is a Certified Public Accountant.
Richard T. Harmon was appointed President of the Bank effective June 2014. Prior to that, he served as the Bank's Chief Lending Officer since 2011. He was appointed to the Company’s and the Bank’s respective Boards of Directors in 2013. Mr. Harmon retired as the Bank's President in August 2019 but continues to serve on the Company's and the Bank's Boards of Directors.
The following is a brief description of certain laws and regulations which are applicable to the Company and the Bank. Descriptions of laws and regulations here and elsewhere in this Form 10-K do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the actual laws and regulations. Legislation is introduced from time to time in the United States Congress or in the South Carolina State Legislature that may affect the operations of the Company and the Bank. In addition, the regulations governing the Company and the Bank may be amended from time to time by the State Board, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve, the SEC and the Consumer Protection Financial Bureau (“CFPB”). Any such legislation or regulatory changes in the future could have an adverse effect on our operations and financial condition. We cannot predict whether any such changes may occur.
As a bank holding company, the Company is subject to examination and supervision by, and is required to file certain reports with, the Federal Reserve. The Company also is subject to the rules and regulations of the SEC under the federal securities laws. The Bank, as a state-chartered commercial bank, is subject to regulation and oversight by the State Board, the applicable provisions of South Carolina law and by the regulations of the State Board adopted thereunder. In some circumstances, the law and regulations of other states can apply. The Bank also is subject to regulation and examination by the FDIC, which insures its deposits to the maximum extent permitted by law.
Regulation of the Bank
The Bank is an FDIC-insured, state-chartered commercial bank and is subject to various statutory requirements and rules and regulations promulgated and enforced primarily by the FDIC and the State Board. These statutes, rules, and regulations relate to insurance of deposits, required reserves, allowable investments, loans, mergers, consolidations, issuance of securities, payment of dividends, establishment of branches and other aspects of the business of the Bank. The FDIC has broad authority to prohibit the Bank from engaging in what it determines to be unsafe or unsound banking practices. In addition, federal law imposes a number of restrictions on state-chartered, FDIC-insured banks, and their subsidiaries. These restrictions cover many matters, examples of which include prohibitions against engaging as a principal in certain activities and the requirement of prior notification of branch closings. The Bank is not a member of the Federal Reserve System.
The Bank is required to file periodic reports with the FDIC and the State Board and is subject to periodic examinations and evaluations by those regulatory authorities. Based on these evaluations, the regulators may revalue the assets of an institution and require that it establish specific reserves to compensate for the differences between the determined value and the book value of these assets. The FDIC and the State Board may each accept the results of an examination by the other in lieu of conducting an independent examination.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Deposit Insurance Fund ("DIF") of the FDIC insures deposits in the Bank up to $250,000 per separately insured deposit ownership right or category and such insurance is backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government. As insurer, the FDIC imposes deposit insurance premiums (assessments) and is authorized to conduct examinations of and to require reporting by FDIC-insured institutions. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Bank paid $135,000 in FDIC premiums. The assessment base for these premiums is the Bank’s total average consolidated assets less average tangible capital.
Currently, the FDIC’s base assessment rates are 3 to 30 basis points and are subject to certain adjustments. For institutions with less than $10 billion in assets, rates are determined based on supervisory ratings and certain financial ratios. No institution may pay a dividend if it is in default on its federal deposit insurance assessment.
The FDIC may terminate the deposit insurance of any insured depository institution if it determines after a hearing that the institution has engaged or is engaging in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, order or any condition imposed by an agreement with the FDIC. It also may suspend deposit insurance temporarily during the hearing process for the permanent termination of insurance if the institution has no tangible capital. If insurance of accounts is terminated, the accounts at the institution at the time of the termination, less subsequent withdrawals, shall continue to be insured for a period of six months to two years, as determined by the FDIC. Management is not aware of any existing circumstances which would result in termination of the Bank's deposit insurance.
A significant increase in insurance premiums would likely have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations of the Bank. There can be no prediction as to what changes in insurance assessment rates may be made in the future.
Prompt Corrective Action. Federal statutes establish a supervisory framework based on five capital categories: well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized. An institution's category depends upon where its capital levels are in relation to relevant capital measures, which include risk-based capital measures, a common equity Tier 1 ("CET1") measure, a leverage ratio measure and certain other factors. The well-capitalized category is described below in "Capital Requirements". An institution that is not well capitalized is subject to certain restrictions on brokered deposits, including restrictions on the rates it can offer on its deposits, generally. Any institution which is neither well capitalized nor adequately capitalized is considered undercapitalized.
Undercapitalized institutions are subject to certain prompt corrective action requirements, regulatory controls and restrictions that become more extensive as an institution becomes more severely undercapitalized. Failure by institutions to comply with applicable capital requirements would, if unremedied, result in progressively more severe restrictions on their activities and lead to enforcement actions, including, but not limited to, the issuance of a capital directive to ensure the maintenance of required capital levels and, ultimately, the appointment of the FDIC as receiver or conservator. Banking regulators will take prompt corrective action with respect to depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. Additionally, approval of any regulatory application filed for review by the banking agencies may be dependent on compliance with capital requirements.
At December 31, 2020, the Bank was categorized as "well capitalized" under the prompt corrective action regulations of the FDIC. For additional information, see "Capital Requirements" below and Note 16 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Annual Report.
Capital Requirements. In September 2019, the regulatory agencies, including the FDIC and Federal Reserve adopted a final rule, effective January 1, 2020, creating a community bank leverage ratio ("CBLR") for institutions with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, and that meet other qualifying criteria related to off-balance sheet exposures and trading assets and liabilities. The CBLR provides for a simple measure of capital adequacy for qualifying institutions. Management has elected to use the CBLR framework for the Bank. Consolidated regulatory capital requirements identical to those applicable to subsidiary banks generally apply to bank holding companies. However, the Federal Reserve Board has provided a “Small Bank Holding Company” exception to its consolidated capital requirements, and bank holding companies with less than $3.0 billion of consolidated assets are not subject to the consolidated holding company capital requirements unless otherwise directed by the Federal Reserve Board.
The CBLR is calculated as Tier 1 Capital to average consolidated assets as reported on an institution's regulatory reports. Tier 1 Capital, for the Company and the Bank, generally consists of common stock plus related surplus and retained earnings, adjusted for goodwill and other intangible assets. For some financial institutions it also includes accumulated and other comprehensive amounts (“AOCI”); however, the Company and the Bank made a one-time election to exclude AOCI as permitted by the regulators. Qualifying institutions that elect to use the CBLR framework and that maintain a leverage ratio of greater than 9% will be considered to have satisfied the generally applicable risk-based and leverage capital requirements in the regulatory agencies' capital rules, and to have met the well-capitalized ratio requirements. In April 2020, as directed by Section 4012 of the CARES Act, the regulatory agencies introduced temporary changes to the CBLR. These changes, which subsequently were adopted as a final rule, temporarily reduced the CBLR requirement to 8% through the end of 2020. Beginning in 2021, the CBLR requirement will increase to 8.5% for the calendar year before returning to 9% in 2022. A qualifying institution utilizing the CBLR framework whose leverage ratio does not fall more than one percent below the required percentage is allowed a two-quarter grace period in which to increase its leverage ratio back above the required percentage. During the grace period, a qualifying institution will still be considered well capitalized so long as its leverage ratio does not fall more than one percent below the required percentage. If an institution either fails to meet all the qualifying criteria within the grace period or has a leverage ratio that falls more than one percent below the required percentage, it becomes ineligible to use the CBLR framework and must instead comply with generally applicable capital rules, sometimes referred to as Basel III rules. A bank may also opt out of the framework at any time, without restriction, by reverting to the generally applicable capital rules.
At December 31, 2020, the Bank was categorized as well capitalized under the prompt corrective action regulations of the FDIC. For a complete description of the Bank’s required and actual capital levels on December 31, 2020, see Note 16 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Form 10 K.
Federal Home Loan Bank System. The Bank is a member of the FHLB of Atlanta, which is one of 11 regional FHLBs that administer the home financing credit function of financial institutions. The FHLBs are subject to the oversight of the Federal Housing Finance Agency and each FHLB serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region. The FHLBs are funded primarily from proceeds derived from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB System and make loans or advances to members in accordance with policies and procedures established by the Board of Directors of the FHLB, which are subject to the oversight of the Federal Housing Finance Board. All advances from the FHLB of Atlanta are
required to be fully secured by sufficient collateral as determined by the FHLB of Atlanta. In addition, all long-term advances are required to provide funds for residential home financing. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $35.0 million of outstanding advances from the FHLB of Atlanta under an available credit facility of $304.3 million, which is limited to available collateral. See "Business - Sources of Funds - Borrowings."
As a member, the Bank is required to purchase and maintain stock in the FHLB of Atlanta. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $2.4 million in FHLB of Atlanta stock, which was in compliance with this requirement. In past years, the Bank has received substantial dividends on its FHLB of Atlanta stock. These dividend yields have averaged 3.75% for the year ended December 31, 2020; 6.22% for the year ended December 31, 2019 and 6.16% for the year ended December 31, 2018.
The FHLBs continue to contribute to low- and moderately-priced housing programs through direct loans or interest subsidies on advances targeted for community investment and low- and moderate-income housing projects. These contributions have in the past affected adversely the level of FHLB dividends paid and could continue to do so in the future. These contributions could also have an adverse effect on the value of FHLB of Atlanta stock in the future. A reduction in value of the Bank's FHLB of Atlanta stock may result in a decrease in net income and possibly the Bank's capital.
Affiliate Transactions. The Company and the Bank are separate and distinct legal entities. Federal laws strictly limit the ability of banks to engage in certain transactions with their affiliates, including their bank holding companies. Transactions deemed to be "covered transactions" under Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act and between a subsidiary bank and its parent company or the nonbank subsidiaries of the bank holding company are limited to 10% of the bank subsidiary's capital and surplus and, with respect to the parent company and all such nonbank subsidiaries, to an aggregate of 20% of the bank subsidiary's capital and surplus. Further, covered transactions that are loans and extensions of credit generally are required to be secured by eligible collateral in specified amounts. Federal law also requires that covered transactions and certain other transactions listed in Section 23B of the Federal Reserve Act between a bank and its affiliates be on terms as favorable to the bank as transactions with non-affiliates.
Community Reinvestment Act. The Bank is also subject to the provisions of the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 ("CRA"), which requires the appropriate federal bank regulatory agency to assess a bank’s performance under the CRA in meeting the credit needs of the community serviced by the Bank, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. The regulatory agency's assessment of a bank's record is made available to the public. Further, a bank’s CRA performance rating must be considered in connection with a bank’s application to, among other things, establish a new branch office that will accept deposits, relocate an existing office or merge or consolidate with, or acquire the assets or assume the liabilities of, a federally regulated financial institution, and in connection with certain applications by a bank holding company, such as bank acquisitions. The Bank received an "outstanding" rating during its most recent CRA examination.
Dividends. Dividends from the Bank constitute the major source of funds for dividends which may be paid by the Company to shareholders. The amount of dividends payable by the Bank to the Company depends upon the Bank's earnings and capital position, and is limited by federal and state laws, regulations and policies, including the capital conservation buffer requirement discussed above. South Carolina banking regulations restrict the amount of dividends that the Bank can pay to the Company, and may require prior approval before declaration and payment of any excess dividend.
The amount of dividends actually paid during any one period will be strongly affected by the Bank's management policy of maintaining a strong capital position. Federal law further provides that no insured depository institution may pay a cash dividend if it would cause the institution to be "undercapitalized," as defined in the prompt corrective action regulations. Moreover, the federal bank regulatory agencies also have the general authority to limit the dividends paid by insured banks if such payments should be deemed to constitute an unsafe and unsound practice.
Activities and Investments of Insured State-Chartered Financial Institutions. Federal law generally limits the activities and equity investments of FDIC-insured, state-chartered banks to those that are permissible for national banks. An insured state bank is not prohibited from, among other things, (i) acquiring or retaining a majority interest in a subsidiary, (ii) investing as a limited partner in a partnership the sole purpose of which is direct or indirect investment in the acquisition, rehabilitation or new construction of a qualified housing project, provided that such limited partnership investments may not exceed 2% of the bank's total assets, (iii) acquiring up to 10% of the voting stock of a company that solely provides or reinsures directors', trustees' and officers' liability insurance coverage or bankers' blanket bond group insurance coverage for insured depository institutions, (iv) acting as agent for a customer in many capacities, and (v) acquiring or retaining the voting shares of a depository institution if certain requirements are met.
Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve requires that all depository institutions maintain reserves on transaction accounts or non-personal time deposits. These reserves may be in the form of cash or non-interest-bearing deposits with the regional Federal Reserve Bank. Negotiable order of withdrawal ("NOW") accounts and other types of accounts that permit payments or transfers to third parties fall within the definition of transaction accounts and are subject to the reserve
requirements, as are any non-personal time deposits at a savings bank. As of December 31, 2020, the Bank's deposit with the Federal Reserve Bank and vault cash exceeded its reserve requirements.
Standards for Safety and Soundness. The federal banking regulatory agencies have prescribed, by regulation, guidelines for all insured depository institutions relating to internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems; loan documentation; credit underwriting; interest rate risk exposure; asset growth; asset quality; earnings; and compensation, fees and benefits. The guidelines set forth the safety and soundness standards that the federal banking agencies use to identify and address problems at insured depository institutions before capital becomes impaired. Each insured depository institution must implement a comprehensive written information security program that includes administrative, technical, and physical safeguards appropriate to the institution’s size and complexity and the nature and scope of its activities. The information security program must be designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, protect against any unanticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information, protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer, and ensure the proper disposal of customer and consumer information. Each insured depository institution must also develop and implement a risk-based response program to address incidents of unauthorized access to customer information in customer information systems. If the FDIC determines that an institution fails to meet any of these guidelines, it may require an institution to submit to the FDIC an acceptable plan to achieve compliance.
Environmental Issues Associated with Real Estate Lending. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ("CERCLA"), a federal statute, generally imposes strict liability on all prior and present "owners and operators" of sites containing hazardous waste. However, Congress acted to protect secured creditors by providing that the term "owner and operator" excludes a person whose ownership is limited to protecting its security interest in the site. Since the enactment of the CERCLA, this "secured creditor exemption" has been the subject of judicial interpretations which have left open the possibility that lenders could be liable for cleanup costs on contaminated property that they hold as collateral for a loan. To the extent that legal uncertainty exists in this area, all creditors, including the Bank, that have made loans secured by properties with potential hazardous waste contamination (such as petroleum contamination) could be subject to liability for cleanup costs, which costs often substantially exceed the value of the collateral property.
Bank Secrecy Act / Anti-Money Laundering Laws. The Bank is subject to the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering laws and regulations, including the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001. These laws and regulations require the Bank to implement policies, procedures, and controls to detect, prevent, and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identity of their customers. Violations of these requirements can result in substantial civil and criminal sanctions. In addition, provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act require the federal financial institution regulatory agencies to consider the effectiveness of a financial institution’s anti-money laundering activities when reviewing mergers and acquisitions.
Other Consumer Protection Laws and Regulations. The Dodd-Frank Act established the CFPB and empowered it to exercise broad regulatory, supervisory and enforcement authority with respect to both new and existing consumer financial protection laws. The Bank is subject to consumer protection regulations issued by the CFPB, but as a financial institution with assets of less than $10 billion, the Bank is generally subject to supervision and enforcement by the FDIC and the State Board with respect to our compliance with federal and state consumer financial protection laws and regulations.
The Bank is subject to a broad array of federal and state consumer protection laws and regulations that govern almost every aspect of its business relationships with consumers. While the list set forth below is not exhaustive, these include the Truth-in-Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act, the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act, the Consumer Leasing Act, the Fair Credit Billing Act, the Homeowners Protection Act, the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act, laws governing flood insurance, laws governing consumer protections in connection with the sale of insurance, federal and state laws prohibiting unfair and deceptive business practices, and various regulations that implement some or all of the foregoing. These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits, making loans, collecting loans, and providing other services. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations can subject the Bank to various penalties, including but not limited to, enforcement actions, injunctions, fines, civil liability, criminal penalties, punitive damages, and the loss of certain contractual rights.
Regulation of the Company
General. The Company, as the sole shareholder of the Bank, is a registered bank holding company with the Federal Reserve. Bank holding companies are subject to comprehensive regulation by the Federal Reserve under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended ("BHCA"), and the regulations promulgated thereunder. This regulation and oversight is generally intended to ensure that the Company limits its activities to those allowed by law and that it operates in a safe and sound manner without endangering the financial health of the Bank.
As a bank holding company, the Company is required to file with the Federal Reserve semi-annual and periodic reports and such additional information as the Federal Reserve may require and is subject to regular examinations by the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve may examine the Company, and any of its subsidiaries, and charge the Company for the cost of the examination. The Federal Reserve also has extensive enforcement authority over bank holding companies, including, among other things, the ability to assess civil money penalties, to issue cease and desist or removal orders and to require that a holding company divest subsidiaries (including its bank subsidiaries). In general, enforcement actions may be initiated for violations of law and regulations and unsafe or unsound practices.
The Bank Holding Company Act. Under the BHCA, the Company is supervised by the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve has a policy that a bank holding company is required to serve as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary banks and may not conduct its operations in an unsafe or unsound manner. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act and earlier Federal Reserve policy provide that a bank holding company should serve as a source of strength to its subsidiary bank by having the ability to provide financial assistance to its subsidiary bank during periods of financial distress to the bank, and should maintain the financial flexibility and capital raising capacity to obtain additional resources for assisting its subsidiary bank. A bank holding company's failure to meet its obligation to serve as a source of strength to its subsidiary banks will generally be considered by the Federal Reserve to be an unsafe and unsound banking practice or a violation of the Federal Reserve's regulations or both. No regulations have yet been proposed by the Federal Reserve to implement the source of strength provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. The Company and any subsidiaries that it may control are considered "affiliates" within the meaning of the Federal Reserve Act, and transactions between the Bank and affiliates (except subsidiaries of the Bank) are subject to numerous restrictions. With some exceptions, the Company and its subsidiaries, are prohibited from tying the provision of various services, such as extensions of credit, to other services offered by the Company, or by its affiliates.
Acquisitions. The BHCA prohibits a bank holding company, with certain exceptions, from acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any company that is not a bank or bank holding company and from engaging directly or indirectly in activities other than those of banking, managing or controlling banks, or providing services for its subsidiaries. Under the BHCA, the Federal Reserve is authorized to approve the ownership of shares by a bank holding company in any company, the activities of which the Federal Reserve has determined to be so closely related to the business of banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto. The list of activities determined by regulation to be closely related to banking within the meaning of the BHCA includes, among other things: operating a savings institution, mortgage company, finance company, credit card company or factoring company; performing certain data processing operations; providing certain investment and financial advice; underwriting and acting as an insurance agent for certain types of credit-related insurance; leasing property on a full-payout, non-operating basis; selling money orders, travelers' checks and U.S. Savings Bonds; real estate and personal property appraising; providing tax planning and preparation services; and, subject to certain limitations, providing securities brokerage services for customers.
Capital Requirements. As discussed above, pursuant to the Act, effective August 30, 2018, bank holding companies with less than $3.0 billion in consolidated assets are generally no longer subject to the Federal Reserve’s capital regulations, which are essentially the same as the capital regulations applicable to the Bank described under the caption “Capital Requirements” above. If the Company were subject to regulatory guidelines for bank holding companies with $3.0 billion or more in assets at December 31, 2020, the Company would have exceeded all regulatory requirements. The Federal Reserve expects a holding company's subsidiary banks to be well capitalized under the prompt corrective action regulations. For additional information, see Note 16 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Annual Report.
Interstate Banking. The Federal Reserve may approve an application of a bank holding company to acquire control of, or acquire all or substantially all of the assets of, a bank located in a state other than such holding company's home state, without regard to whether the transaction is prohibited by the laws of any state except with respect to the acquisition of a bank that has not been in existence for the minimum time period, not exceeding five years, specified by the law of the host state. The Federal Reserve may not approve an application if the applicant controls or would control more than 10% of the insured deposits in the United States or 30% or more of the deposits in the target bank's home state or in any state in which the target bank maintains a branch. Federal law does not affect the authority of states to limit the percentage of total insured deposits in the state that may be held or controlled by a bank holding company to the extent such limitation does not discriminate against out-of-state banks or bank holding companies. Individual states may also waive the 30% state-wide concentration limit contained in the federal law.
The federal banking agencies are authorized to approve interstate merger transactions without regard to whether such transaction is prohibited by the law of any state, unless the home state of one of the banks adopted a law prior to June 1, 1997 which applies equally to all out-of-state banks and expressly prohibits merger transactions involving out-of-state banks. Interstate acquisitions of branches will be permitted only if the law of the state in which the branch is located permits such acquisitions. Interstate mergers and branch acquisitions are also subject to the nationwide and statewide insured deposit concentration amounts described above. De novo interstate branching banks are generally permissible, subject to application requirements.
Dividends. As a South Carolina corporation, the Company is subject to restrictions on the payment of dividends under South Carolina law. In addition, the Company is an entity separate and distinct from its principal subsidiary, Security Federal Bank, and derives substantially all of its revenue in the form of dividends from this subsidiary. Accordingly, the Company is, and will be, dependent upon dividends from the Bank to pay the principal of and interest on its indebtedness, to satisfy its other cash needs and to pay dividends on its common stock. The Company is also subject to certain federal regulatory considerations. The Federal Reserve has issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve's view that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that the company's net income for the past year is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the company's capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition, and that it is inappropriate for a company experiencing serious financial problems to borrow funds to pay dividends. Dividends are also subject to restriction if the capital conservation buffer requirement is not met.
Stock Repurchases. Bank holding companies, except for certain "well-capitalized" and highly rated bank holding companies, are required to give the Federal Reserve prior written notice of any purchase or redemption of its outstanding equity securities if the consideration for the purchase or redemption, when combined with the net consideration paid for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of their consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve may disapprove a purchase or redemption if it determines that the proposal would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice or would violate any law, regulation, Federal Reserve order, or any condition imposed by, or written agreement with, the Federal Reserve.
Federal Securities Laws. The Company’s common stock is registered with the SEC under Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). We are subject to information, proxy solicitation, insider trading restrictions and other requirements under the Exchange Act.
The Dodd-Frank Act. Among other requirements, the Dodd-Frank Act requires public companies, like the Company, to (i) provide their shareholders with a non-binding vote (a) at least once every three years on the compensation paid to executive officers and (b) at least once every six years on whether they should have a “say on pay” vote every one, two or three years; (ii) have a separate, non-binding shareholder vote regarding golden parachutes for named executive officers when a shareholder vote takes place on mergers, acquisitions, dispositions or other transactions that would trigger the parachute payments; (iii) provide disclosure in annual proxy materials concerning the relationship between the executive compensation paid and the financial performance of the issuer; and (iv) require companies to disclose the ratio of the Chief Executive Officer's annual total compensation to the median annual total compensation of all other employees. For certain of these changes, the implementing regulations have not been promulgated, so the full impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on public companies cannot be determined at this time.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. As a public company that files periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act, the Company is subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), which addresses, among other issues, corporate governance, auditing and accounting, executive compensation and enhanced and timely disclosure of corporate information. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act represents significant federal involvement in matters traditionally left to state regulatory systems, such as the regulation of the accounting profession, and to state corporate law, such as the relationship between a board of directors and management and between a board of directors and its committees. Our policies and procedures have been updated to comply with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
Jumpstart Our Business Startups ("JOBS") Act. The JOBS Act was signed into law on April 5, 2012 and allows banks and bank holding companies to terminate the registration of a class of securities under Section 12(g) and Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act if such class is held of record by less than 1,200 persons. The Company's Board continues to evaluate the costs and advantages and disadvantages of being an SEC registered company and the effects of deregistering its shares of common stock, including among other things, the resulting decrease in the liquidity of its shares.
Recent Regulatory Reform
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the United States Congress, through the enactment of the CARES Act and the CAA, 2021, and the federal banking agencies, though rulemaking, interpretive guidance and modifications to agency policies and procedures, have taken a series of actions to provide national emergency economic relief measures including, among others, the following:
•The CARES Act, as amended by the CAA, 2021, allows banks to elect to suspend requirements under GAAP for loan modifications related to the COVID-19 pandemic (for loans that were not more than 30 days past due as of December 31, 2019) that would otherwise be categorized as a TDR, including impairment for accounting purposes, until the earlier of 60 days after the termination date of the national emergency or, January 1, 2022. The suspension of GAAP is applicable for the entire term of the modification. The federal banking agencies also issued guidance to encourage banks to make loan modifications for borrowers affected by COVID-19 by providing that short-term modifications made in response to COVID-19, such as payment deferrals, fee waivers, extensions of repayment terms, or other delays in payment that are insignificant related to the loans in which the borrower is less than 30 days past due on its contractual payments at the time a modification is implemented is not a TDR. The Bank is applying this guidance to qualifying COVID-19 modifications. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – COVID-19 Related Information” for further information about the COVID-19 modifications completed by the Bank.
•The CARES Act amended the SBA’s loan program, in which the Bank participates, to create a guaranteed, unsecured loan program, the PPP, to fund payroll and operational costs of eligible businesses, organizations and self-employed persons during COVID-19. The loans are provided through participating financial institutions, such as the Bank, that process loan applications and service the loans and are eligible for SBA repayment and loan forgiveness if the borrower meets the PPP conditions. The application period for a PPP loan closed on August 8, 2020. The SBA began approving PPP forgiveness applications and remitting forgiveness payments to PPP lenders on October 2, 2020. The CAA, 2021 which was signed into law on December 27, 2020, renews and extends the PPP until March 31, 2021. As a result, as a participating lender, the Bank began originating PPP loans again in January 2021 and will continue to monitor legislative, regulatory, and supervisory developments related to the PPP.
•Pursuant to the CARES Act, the federal banking agencies authorities adopted in April 2020 an interim rule, effective until the earlier of the termination of the coronavirus emergency declaration by the President and December 31, 2020, to (i) reduce the minimum CBLR from 9% to 8% percent and (ii) give community banks two-quarter grace period to satisfy such ratio if such ratio falls out of compliance by no more than 1%. Effective October 1, 2020, the final rule adopted by the federal banking agencies authorities lowers the CBLR as set forth in the interim rule and provides a gradual transition back to the prior level. Under the final rule the CBLR was 8% for 2020, and will be 8.5% for 2021, and 9% beginning January 1, 2022. The final rule also retains the grace period. A community banking organization that falls below the CBRL will still be deemed to be well capitalized during a two-quarter grace period so long as the banking organization maintains a CBRL greater than 7.5% during 2021, and greater than 8% thereafter.
As the on-going COVID-19 pandemic evolves, federal regulatory authorities continue to issue additional guidance with respect to the implementation, lifecycle, and eligibility requirements for the various CARES Act programs as well as industry-specific recovery procedures for COVID-19. In addition, it is possible that the United States Congress will enact supplementary COVID-19 response legislation. The Company continues to assess the impact of the CARES Act and other statues, regulations and supervisory guidance related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
General. The Company and the Bank report their income on a calendar year basis using the accrual method of accounting and are subject to federal income taxation in the same manner as other corporations with some exceptions, including particularly the Bank's reserve for bad debts discussed below. The following discussion of tax matters is intended only to summarize certain pertinent federal income tax matters and is not a comprehensive description of the tax rules applicable to the Bank or the Company.
Distributions. To the extent that the Bank makes "nondividend distributions" to the Company, these distributions will be considered to result in distributions from the balance of its bad debt reserve as of December 31, 1987 (or a lesser amount if the Bank's loan portfolio decreased since December 31, 1987) and then from the supplemental reserve for losses on loans ("Excess Distributions"), and an amount based on the Excess Distributions will be included in the Bank's taxable income. Nondividend distributions include distributions in excess of the Bank's current and accumulated earnings and profits, distributions in redemption of stock and distributions in partial or complete liquidation. However, dividends paid out of the Bank's current or accumulated earnings and profits, as calculated for federal income tax purposes, will not be considered to result in a distribution from the Bank's bad debt reserve. The amount of additional taxable income created from an Excess Distribution is an amount that, when reduced by the tax attributable to the income, is equal to the amount of the distribution. Thus, if the Bank makes a "nondividend distribution," then approximately one and one-half times the Excess Distribution would be includable in gross income for federal income tax purposes, assuming a 21% corporate income tax rate (exclusive of state and local taxes). See "Regulation - Regulation of the Bank - Dividends” for limits on the payment of dividends by the Bank. The Bank does not intend to pay dividends that would result in a recapture of any portion of its tax bad debt reserve.
Net Operating Loss Carryovers. Under the Tax Act, a financial institution may carryforward net operating losses indefinitely. As of December 31, 2020, management determined it is more likely than not that the total deferred tax asset will be realized except for the deferred tax asset associated with state net operating loss carryforwards, and, accordingly, has established a valuation allowance only for this item. The change in the valuation allowance was $53,660.
Dividends-Received Deduction. The Company may exclude from its income dividends received from the Bank as a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company that files a consolidated return with the Bank. The corporate dividends-received deduction is 100%, or 80%, in the case of dividends received from corporations with which a corporate recipient does not file a consolidated tax return, depending on the level of stock ownership of the payer of the dividend. Corporations that own less than 20% of the stock of a corporation distributing a dividend may deduct 70% of dividends received or accrued on their behalf.
Audits. The Company, the Bank and its consolidated subsidiaries have been audited or their books closed without audit by the IRS with respect to consolidated federal income tax returns through December 31, 2020. See Note 15 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report for additional information regarding income taxes.
South Carolina has adopted the Internal Revenue Code as it relates to commercial banks, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986. The Bank is subject to South Carolina income tax at the rate of 4.5%. The Bank has not been audited by the State of South Carolina during the past five years. The Company's income tax returns have not been audited by federal or state authorities within the last five years. For additional information regarding income taxes, see Note 15 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
An investment in our common stock involves various risks which are particular to Security Federal Corporation, our industry, and our market area. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information included in this report and out filings with the SEC. In addition to the risks and uncertainties described below, other risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, capital levels, liquidity, cash flows, results of operations and prospects. The market price of our common stock could decline significantly due to any of these identified or other risks, and you could lose some or all of your investment.
Risks Related to Macroeconomic Conditions
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted our ability to conduct business and is expected to adversely impact our financial results and those of our customers. The ultimate impact will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the scope and duration of the pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities in response to the pandemic.
The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has caused major economic disruption and volatility in the financial markets both in the United States and globally and has negatively affected our operations and the banking and financial services we provide our customers. In our market areas, stay-at-home orders, social distancing and travel restrictions, and similar orders imposed across the United States to restrict the spread of COVID-19, resulted in significant business and operational disruptions, including business closures, supply chain disruptions, and significant layoffs and furloughs. While the stay-at-home orders have terminated or been phased-out along with reopening of businesses in certain markets, many localities in the western states in which we operate still apply capacity restrictions and health and safety recommendations that encourage continued social distancing and working remotely, limiting the ability of businesses to return to pre-pandemic levels of activity. As an essential business, we continue to provide banking and financial services to our customers at our branch locations. All of our branches are open and we continue to remain flexible as to branch operations based on the guidance provided for the communities in which we operate. In addition, we continue to provide access to banking and financial services through online banking, ATMs and by telephone. To further the well-being of staff and customers, we have implemented measures to allow employees to work from home to the extent practicable. Despite these efforts, if the COVID-19 pandemic worsens it could limit, or disrupt, our ability to provide banking and financial services to our customers.
Many of our employees continue to work remotely where feasible to enable us to continue to provide banking services to our customers. Heightened cybersecurity, information security and operational risks may result from these remote work-from-home arrangements. We also could be adversely affected if key personnel or a significant number of employees were to become unavailable due to the effects and restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also rely upon our third-party vendors to conduct business and to process, record and monitor transactions. If any of these vendors are unable to continue to provide us with these services, it could negatively impact our ability to serve our customers. Although we have business continuity plans and other safeguards in place, there is no assurance that such plans and safeguards will be effective.
To date, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in declines in loan demand and loan originations other than through government sponsored programs such as the PPP and has impacted both deposit availability and market interest rates and negatively impacted many of our business and consumer borrowers’ ability to make their loan payments. Because the length of the pandemic and the efficacy of the extraordinary measures being put in place to address the economic consequences are unknown, including a continued low targeted federal funds rate, until the pandemic subsides, we expect our net interest income and net interest margin will continue to be adversely affected.
The impact of the pandemic is expected to continue to adversely affect us during 2021 as the ability of many of our borrowers to make loan payments has been significantly affected. Many of our borrowers have become unemployed or may face unemployment, and certain businesses are at risk of insolvency as their revenues decline precipitously, especially in businesses related to travel, hospitality, leisure and physical personal services. Businesses may ultimately not reopen as there is a significant level of uncertainty regarding the level of economic activity that will return to our markets over time, the impact of governmental assistance, the speed of economic recovery, the resurgence of COVID-19 in subsequent seasons and changes to demographic and social norms that will take place. Consistent with guidance provided by banking regulators, we have modified loans by providing various loan payment deferral options to our borrowers affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Notwithstanding these modifications, these borrowers may not be able to resume making full payments on their loans once the COVID-19 pandemic is resolved.
In accordance with U.S. GAAP, we record assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their fair value with the excess of the purchase consideration over the net assets acquired resulting in the recognition of goodwill. If adverse economic conditions or the recent decrease in our stock price and market capitalization as a result of the pandemic were to be deemed sustained rather than temporary, it may significantly affect the fair value of our goodwill and may trigger impairment charges. Any impairment charge could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our regulatory capital and liquidity ratios, will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the scope and duration of the pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities in response to the pandemic, including recent vaccination efforts. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides, the U.S. economy may experience a recession, and we anticipate our business would be materially and adversely affected by a prolonged recession. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, financial condition, liquidity or results of operations it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risk factors described in this section.
Our business may be adversely affected by downturns in the national economy and in the economies in our market areas.
Our operations are significantly affected by the general economic conditions of the states of South Carolina and Georgia and the specific local markets in which we operate. Our entire real estate portfolio consists primarily of loans secured by properties located in Aiken, Richland, and Lexington Counties in South Carolina and Columbia and Richmond Counties in Georgia. Weakness in the global economy has adversely affected many businesses operating in our markets that are dependent upon international trade and it is not known how tariffs being imposed on international trade may also affect these businesses. Changes in agreements or relationships between the United States and other countries may also affect these businesses.
A deterioration in economic conditions in the market areas we serve could result in loan losses beyond that which is provided for in our allowance for loan losses and could result in the following consequences, any of which could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations:
•loan delinquencies, problem assets and foreclosures may increase;
•we may increase our allowance for loan losses;
•demand for our products and services may decline, possibly resulting in a decrease in our total loans or assets;
•collateral for our loans, especially real estate, may decline in value, exposing us to increased risk of loss on existing loans, reducing customers’ borrowing power, and reducing the value of assets and collateral associated with existing loans;
•the net worth and liquidity of loan guarantors may decline, impairing their ability to honor commitments to us; and
•the amount of our low-cost or noninterest-bearing deposits may decrease
A decline in local economic conditions may have a greater effect on our earnings and capital than on the earnings and capital of larger financial institutions whose real estate loan portfolios are geographically diverse. Many of the loans in our portfolio are secured by real estate. Deterioration in the real estate markets where collateral for a mortgage loan is located could negatively affect the borrower’s ability to repay the loan and the value of the collateral securing the loan. Real estate values are affected by various other factors, including changes in general or regional economic conditions, governmental rules or policies and natural disasters such as earthquakes. If we are required to liquidate a significant amount of collateral during a period of reduced real estate values, our financial condition and profitability could be adversely affected. Adverse changes in the regional and general economy could reduce our growth rate, impair our ability to collect loans and generally have a negative effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Lending Activities
Our allowance for loan losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses in our loan portfolio.
Lending money is a substantial part of our business and each loan carries a certain risk that it will not be repaid in accordance with its terms or that any underlying collateral will not be sufficient to assure repayment. This risk is affected by, among other things:
•cash flow of the borrower and/or the project being financed;
•the changes and uncertainties as to the future value of the collateral, in the case of a collateralized loan;
•the duration of the loan;
•the character and creditworthiness of a particular borrower; and
•changes in economic and industry conditions.
We maintain an allowance for loan losses, which is a reserve established through a provision for loan losses charged to expense, which we believe is appropriate to provide for probable losses in our loan portfolio. The amount of this allowance is determined by our management through periodic reviews and consideration of several factors, including, but not limited to:
•our general reserve, based on our historical default and loss experience and certain macroeconomic factors based on management's expectations of future events;
•our specific reserve, based on our evaluation of impaired loans and their underlying collateral; and
•an unallocated reserve to provide for other credit losses inherent in our portfolio that may not have been contemplated in the other loss factors.
The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and requires us to make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. If our estimates are incorrect, the allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to cover losses inherent in our loan portfolio, resulting in the need for additions to our allowance through an increase in the provision for loan losses. Deterioration in economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may increase our loan charge-offs and/or may otherwise require an increase in the allowance for loan losses. Our allowance for loan losses was 2.64% of total loans outstanding (excluding loans held for sale) and 354.4% of non-performing assets at December 31, 2020.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board has adopted a new accounting standard referred to as Current Expected Credit Loss ("CECL") which will require financial institutions to determine periodic estimates of lifetime expected credit losses on loans and recognize the expected credit losses as allowances for credit losses. This will change the current method of providing allowances for credit losses only when they have been incurred and are probable, which may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses, and may greatly increase the types of data we would need to collect and review to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for credit losses. This accounting pronouncement is applicable to us beginning January 1, 2023. We are evaluating the impact the CECL accounting model will have on our accounting, but expect to recognize a onetime cumulative-effect adjustment to the allowance for loan losses as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the new standard is effective. We cannot yet determine the magnitude of any such one-time cumulative adjustment or of the overall impact of the new standard on our financial condition or results of operations. The federal banking regulators, including the Federal Reserve and the FDIC, have adopted a rule that gives a banking organization the option to phase in over a three-year period the day-one adverse effects of CECL on its regulatory capital.
In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require us to increase our provision for loan losses or recognize additional loan charge-offs. Any increases in the provision for loan losses may result in a decrease in net income and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and capital.
If our non-performing assets increase, our earnings will be adversely affected.
At December 31, 2020, our non-performing assets (which consist of non-accruing loans and OREO) were $3.6 million, or 0.3% of total assets. Our non-performing assets adversely affect our net income in various ways:
•we record interest income only on a cash basis for nonaccrual loans and any non-performing investment securities;
•we do not record interest income for OREO;
•we provide for probable loan losses through a current period charge to the provision for loan losses;
•non-interest expense increases when we write down the value of properties in our OREO portfolio to reflect changing market values or recognize other-than-temporary impairment on non-performing investment securities;
•there are legal fees associated with the resolution of problem assets, as well as carrying costs, such as taxes, insurance, and maintenance fees related to our OREO; and
•the resolution of non-performing assets requires the active involvement of management, which can distract them from more profitable activity.
If additional borrowers become delinquent and do not pay their loans and we are unable to successfully manage our non-performing assets, our losses and troubled assets could increase significantly, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our level of commercial and multifamily real estate loans may expose us to increased lending risks.
At December 31, 2020, commercial and multifamily real estate loans were $299.3 million or 59.8% of our total loan portfolio. The credit risk related to these types of loans is considered to be greater than the risk related to one-to-four-family residential loans because the repayment of commercial and multi-family real estate loans typically is dependent on the successful operation and income stream of the property securing the loan and the value of the real estate securing the loan as
collateral, which can be significantly affected by changes in the economy or local market conditions. In addition, some of our commercial real estate loans are not fully amortizing and contain large balloon payments upon maturity. These balloon payments may require the borrower to either sell or refinance the underlying property in order to make the balloon payment, which may increase the risk of default or non-payment. These loans also generally have relatively large balances to single borrowers or related groups of borrowers. Accordingly, if we make any errors in judgment in the collectability of our commercial real estate loans, any resulting charge-offs may be larger on a per loan basis than those incurred with our residential or consumer loan portfolios. Consequently, this could materially adversely affect our future earnings. Finally, if foreclosure occurs on a commercial real estate loan, the holding period for the collateral, if any, typically is longer than for a one-to-four-family residence because the secondary market for most types of commercial and multi-family real estate is not readily liquid, so we have less opportunity to mitigate credit risk by selling part or all of our interest in these assets.
Our construction and land loans are based upon estimates of costs and the value of the completed project.
We originate construction loans on single-family residences, multi-family dwellings and projects, and commercial real estate, as well as loans for the acquisition and development and construction of residential subdivisions and commercial projects. We originate these loans whether or not the collateral property underlying the loan is under contract for sale. At December 31, 2020, commercial construction and A&D loans totaled $55.5 million or 11.0% of our total loan portfolio.
At that date, A&D loans were $19.8 million or 3.9% of our total loan portfolio. At December 31, 2020, included in our commercial real estate loan portfolio was $12.9 million, or 2.5% of our total loan portfolio, in loans for the speculative construction of single family dwellings to builders. At December 31, 2020, our residential loan portfolio included $23.4 million or 4.6% of our total loan portfolio of owner occupied residential construction loans.
Construction and A&D lending involves additional risks when compared with permanent residential lending because funds are advanced upon the collateral for the project based on an estimate of costs that will produce a future value at completion. Because of the uncertainties inherent in estimating construction costs, as well as the market value of the completed project and the effects of governmental regulation on real property, it is relatively difficult to evaluate accurately the total funds required to complete a project and the completed project loan-to-value ratio. Changes in the demand, such as for new housing and higher than anticipated building costs, may cause actual results to vary significantly from those estimated. For these reasons, this type of lending also typically involves higher loan principal amounts and is often concentrated with a small number of builders. A downturn in housing, or the real estate market, could increase loan delinquencies, defaults and foreclosures, and significantly impair the value of our collateral and our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure. Some of our builders have more than one loan outstanding with us and also have residential mortgage loans for rental properties with us. Consequently, an adverse development with respect to one loan or one credit relationship can expose us to a significantly greater risk of loss.
These loans often involve the disbursement of funds with repayment substantially dependent on the success of the ultimate project and the ability of the borrower to sell or lease the property or obtain permanent take-out financing, rather than the ability of the borrower or guarantor to repay principal and interest. If our appraisal of the value of a completed project proves to be overstated, we may have inadequate security for the repayment of the loan upon completion of construction of the project and may incur a loss. Because construction loans require active monitoring of the building process, including cost comparisons and on-site inspections, these loans are more difficult and costly to monitor. Increases in market rates of interest may have a more pronounced effect on construction loans by rapidly increasing the end-purchasers’ borrowing costs, thereby reducing the overall demand for the project. Properties under construction are often difficult to sell and typically must be completed in order to be successfully sold which also complicates the process of working out problem construction loans. This may require us to advance additional funds and/or contract with another builder to complete construction. Furthermore, in the case of speculative construction loans, there is the added risk associated with identifying an end-purchaser for the finished project. Land loans also pose additional risk because of the lack of income being produced by the property and the potential illiquid nature of the collateral. These risks can also be significantly impacted by supply and demand conditions.
A&D loans pose additional risk because of the lack of income being produced by the property and the potential illiquid nature of the collateral. These risks can be significantly impacted by supply and demand conditions. As a result, this type of lending often involves the disbursement of substantial funds with repayment dependent on the success of the ultimate project and the ability of the borrower to develop, sell or lease the property, rather than the ability of the borrower or guarantor to independently repay principal and interest. There were no non-performing A&D loans at December 31, 2020. A material increase in our non-performing construction and development loans could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operation.
Repayment of our commercial business loans is often dependent on the cash flows of the borrower, which may be unpredictable, and the collateral securing these loans may fluctuate in value.
At December 31, 2020, $19.7 million or 3.9% of our total loans were commercial business loans. Commercial business lending involves risks that are different from those associated with residential and commercial real estate lending. Real estate lending is generally considered to be collateral based lending with loan amounts based on predetermined loan to collateral values and liquidation of the underlying real estate collateral being viewed as the primary source of repayment in the event of borrower default. Our commercial business loans are primarily made based on the cash flow of the borrower and secondarily on the underlying collateral provided by the borrower. The borrowers' cash flow may be unpredictable, and collateral securing these loans may fluctuate in value. Although commercial business loans are often collateralized by equipment, inventory, accounts receivable, or other business assets, the liquidation of collateral in the event of default is often an insufficient source of repayment because accounts receivable may be uncollectible and inventories may be obsolete or of limited use, among other things. Accordingly, the repayment of commercial business loans depends primarily on the cash flow and credit worthiness of the borrower and secondarily on the underlying collateral provided by the borrower.
The level of our commercial real estate loan portfolio may subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny.
The FDIC, the Federal Reserve and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, have promulgated joint guidance on sound risk management practices for financial institutions with concentrations in commercial real estate lending. Under the guidance, a financial institution that, like us, is actively involved in commercial real estate lending should perform a risk assessment to identify concentrations. A financial institution may have a concentration in commercial real estate lending if, among other factors, (i) total reported loans for construction, land acquisition and development, and other land represent 100% or more of total capital or (ii) total reported loans secured by multi-family and non-farm residential properties, loans for construction, land acquisition and development and other land, and loans otherwise sensitive to the general commercial real estate market, including loans to commercial real estate related entities, represent 300% or more of total capital.
The particular focus of the guidance is on exposure to commercial real estate loans that are dependent on the cash flow from the real estate held as collateral and that are likely to be at greater risk to conditions in the commercial real estate market (as opposed to real estate collateral held as a secondary source of repayment or as an abundance of caution). The purpose of the guidance is to guide banks in developing risk management practices and capital levels commensurate with the level and nature of real estate concentrations. The guidance states that management should employ heightened risk management practices including board and management oversight and strategic planning, development of underwriting standards, risk assessment and monitoring through market analysis and stress testing. Regulatory scrutiny of commercial real estate is generally at a ratio of 300% or more. At December 31, 2020, total commercial real estate loans represented 244% of risk based capital plus the excess allowance for loan losses. While we believe we have implemented policies and procedures with respect to our commercial real estate loan portfolio consistent with this guidance, bank regulators could require us to implement additional policies and procedures consistent with their interpretation of the guidance that may result in additional costs to us.
Declines in property values have increased loan-to-value ratios on a significant portion of our one- to four-family loans and home equity lines of credit, which exposes us to greater risk of loss.
Many of our one- to four-family loans and home equity lines of credit are secured by liens on mortgage properties in which the borrowers may have little or no equity because of the declines in home values. Residential loans with high combined loan-to-value ratios will be more sensitive to declining property values than those with lower combined loan-to-value ratios and therefore may experience a higher incidence of default and severity of losses. In addition, if the borrowers sell their homes, they may be unable to repay their loans in full from the sale proceeds. Further, the majority of our home equity lines of credit consist of second mortgage loans. For those home equity lines secured by a second mortgage, it is unlikely that we will be successful in recovering all or a portion of our loan proceeds in the event of default unless we are prepared to repay the first mortgage loan and such repayment and the costs associated with a foreclosure are justified by the value of the property. For these reasons, these loans may experience higher rates of delinquencies, defaults and losses.
Loans originated under the SBA Paycheck Protection Program subject us to credit, forgiveness and guarantee risk.
As of December 31, 2020, we hold and service a portfolio of 1,153 loans originated under the PPP with a balance of $47.1 million. The PPP loans are subject to the provisions of the CARES Act and CAA, 2021 and to complex and evolving rules and guidance issued by the SBA and other government agencies. We expect that the great majority of our PPP borrowers will seek full or partial forgiveness of their loan obligations. We have credit risk on PPP loans if the SBA determines that there is a deficiency in the manner in which we originated, funded or serviced loans, including any issue with the eligibility of a borrower to receive a PPP loan. We could face additional risks in our administrative capabilities to service our PPP loans, and
risk with respect to the determination of loan forgiveness, depending on the final procedures for determining loan forgiveness. In the event of a loss resulting from a default on a PPP loan and a determination by the SBA that there was a deficiency in the manner in which we originated, funded or serviced a PPP loan, the SBA may deny its liability under the guaranty, reduce the amount of the guaranty or, if the SBA has already paid under the guaranty, seek recovery of any loss related to the deficiency from us.
Our real estate lending also exposes us to the risk of environmental liabilities.
In the course of our business, we may foreclose and take title to real estate, and we could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third persons for property damage, personal injury, investigation, and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination, or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances, or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, as the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. If we ever become subject to significant environmental liabilities, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
If our investments in real estate are not properly valued or sufficiently reserved to cover actual losses, or if we are required to increase our valuation reserves, our earnings could be reduced.
We obtain updated valuations in the form of appraisals and broker price opinions when a loan has been foreclosed upon and the property taken in as OREO, and at certain other times during the assets holding period. Our net book value in the loan at the time of foreclosure and thereafter is compared to the updated market value of the foreclosed property less estimated selling costs (fair value). A charge-off is recorded for any excess in the asset's net book value over its fair value. If our valuation process is incorrect, or if the property declines in value after foreclosure, the fair value of our investments in OREO may not be sufficient to recover our net book value in such assets, resulting in the need for additional charge-offs. Additional material charge-offs to our investments in OREO could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, bank regulators periodically review our OREO and may require us to recognize further charge-offs. Significant charge-offs, as required by such regulators, may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We may incur losses on our securities portfolio as a result of changes in interest rates.
Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions in respect of the securities, defaults by, or other adverse events affecting, the issuer or with respect to the underlying securities, and changes in market interest rates and continued instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, could cause other-than-temporary impairments and realized and/or unrealized losses in future periods and declines in other comprehensive income, which could have a material effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The process for determining whether impairment of a security is other-than-temporary usually requires complex, subjective judgments about the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. There can be no assurance that the declines in market value will not result in other-than-temporary impairments of these assets, and would lead to accounting charges that could have a material adverse effect on our net income and capital levels. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we did not incur any other-than-temporary impairments on our securities portfolio.
Risk Related to Changes in Market Interest Rates
Changes in interest rates may reduce our net interest income, and may result in higher defaults in a rising rate environment.
As with most financial institutions, our earnings and cash flows are largely dependent upon our net interest income. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, and in particular, the Federal Reserve Board. In March 2020, the Federal Reserve Board lowered the targeted federal funds rate to a range of 0% to 0.25% in response to the evolving risks the coronavirus outbreak posed to the economy. If the Federal Reserve decreases the targeted federal funds rates further, overall interest rates will likely decline, which may negatively impact our net interest income. If the Federal Reserve increases the targeted federal funds rate, overall interest rates will likely rise, which may negatively impact both the housing markets by reducing refinancing activity and new home purchases and the U.S. economic recovery. In addition, deflationary pressures, while possibly lowering our operating costs, could have a significant negative effect on our borrowers, especially our business borrowers, and the values of collateral securing loans, which could negatively affect our financial performance.
We principally manage interest rate risk by managing our volume and mix of our earning assets and funding liabilities. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and investments and the amount of interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, but these changes could also affect (i) our ability to originate and/or sell loans and obtain deposits, (ii) the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities, which could negatively impact shareholders’ equity, and our ability to realize gains from the sale of such assets, (iii) our ability to obtain and retain deposits in competition with other available investment alternatives, (iv) the ability of our borrowers to repay adjustable or variable rate loans, and (v) the average duration of our mortgage-backed securities portfolio and other interest-earning assets. In a changing interest rate environment, we may not be able to manage this risk effectively. If we are unable to manage interest rate risk effectively, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially affected.
Changes in interest rates could also have a negative impact on our results of operations by reducing the ability of borrowers to repay their current loan obligations or by reducing our margins and profitability. Our net interest margin is the difference between the yield we earn on our assets and the interest rate we pay for deposits and our other sources of funding. Changes in interest rates-up or down-could adversely affect our net interest margin and, as a result, our net interest income. Although the yield we earn on our assets and our funding costs tend to move in the same direction in response to changes in interest rates, one can rise or fall faster than the other, causing our net interest margin to expand or contract. Our liabilities tend to be shorter in duration than our assets, so they may adjust faster in response to changes in interest rates. As a result, when interest rates rise, our funding costs may rise faster than the yield we earn on our assets, causing our net interest margin to contract until the yields on interest-earning assets catch up.
Changes in the slope of the “yield curve”, or the spread between short-term and long-term interest rates-could also reduce our net interest margin. Normally, the yield curve is upward sloping, meaning short-term rates are lower than long-term rates. Because our liabilities tend to be shorter in duration than our assets, when the yield curve flattens or even inverts, we could experience pressure on our net interest margin as our cost of funds increases relative to the yield we can earn on our assets. Also, interest rate decreases can lead to increased prepayments of loans and mortgage-backed securities as borrowers refinance their loans to reduce borrowing costs. Under these circumstances, we are subject to reinvestment risk as we may have to redeploy such repayment proceeds into lower yielding investments, which would likely hurt our income.
A sustained increase in market interest rates could adversely affect our earnings. As is the case with many banks and savings institutions, our emphasis on increasing the development of core deposits, those deposits bearing no or a relatively low rate of interest with no stated maturity date, has resulted in an increasing percentage of our deposits being comprised of deposits bearing no or a relatively low rate of interest and having a shorter duration than our assets. We would incur a higher cost of funds to retain these deposits in a rising interest rate environment. If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans and other investments, our net interest income, and therefore earnings, could be adversely affected.
In addition, a substantial amount of our loans have adjustable interest rates. As a result, these loans may experience a higher rate of default in a rising interest rate environment. Further, a significant portion of our adjustable rate loans have interest rate floors below which the loan's contractual interest rate may not adjust. Approximately $148.7 million or 29.4% of our loan portfolio was comprised of adjustable or floating-rate loans at December 31, 2020, and approximately $102.8 million, or 69.1%, of those loans contained interest rate floors, below which the loans' contractual interest rate may not adjust. At December 31, 2020, the weighted average floor interest rate of these loans was 4.52%. At that date, approximately $89.0 million, or 81.9%, of these loans were at their floor interest rate. The inability of our loans to adjust downward can contribute to increased income in periods of declining interest rates, although this result is subject to the risks that borrowers may refinance these loans during periods of declining interest rates. Also, when loans are at their floors, there is a further risk that our interest income may not increase as rapidly as our cost of funds during periods of increasing interest rates which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Changes in interest rates also affect the value of our interest-earning assets, including our securities portfolio. Generally, the fair value of fixed-rate securities fluctuates inversely with changes in interest rates. Unrealized gains and losses on securities available for sale are reported as a separate component of equity, net of tax. Decreases in the fair value of securities available for sale resulting from increases in interest rates could have an adverse effect on stockholders’ equity.
Although management believes it has implemented effective asset and liability management strategies to reduce the potential effects of changes in interest rates on our results of operations, any substantial, unexpected or prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Also, our interest rate risk modeling techniques and assumptions likely may not fully predict or capture the impact of actual interest rate changes on our balance sheet. See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Asset and Liability Management and Market Risk” included in the Annual Report.
An increase in interest rates, change in the programs offered by governmental sponsored entities ("GSE"), or our ability to qualify for such programs may reduce our mortgage revenues, which would negatively impact our non-interest income.
Our mortgage banking operations provide a portion of our non-interest income. We generate mortgage revenues primarily from gains on the sale of single-family mortgage loans underwritten pursuant to programs currently offered by Freddie Mac and other non-GSE investors. These entities account for a substantial portion of the secondary market in residential mortgage loans. Any future changes in these programs, our eligibility to participate in such programs, the criteria for loans to be accepted or laws that significantly affect the activity of such entities could, in turn, materially adversely affect the success of our mortgage banking program and, consequently, our results of operations.
Mortgage loan production levels are sensitive to changes in economic conditions and can suffer from decreased economic activity, a slowdown in the housing market or higher interest rates. Generally, any sustained period of decreased economic activity or higher interest rates could adversely affect mortgage originations and, consequently, adversely affect income from mortgage lending activities.
Our results of operations will also be affected by the amount of non-interest expense associated with mortgage banking activities, such as salaries and employee benefits, occupancy, equipment and data processing expense and other operating costs. If we cannot generate a sufficient volume of loans for sale, our results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, during periods of reduced loan demand, our results of operations may be adversely affected to the extent that we are unable to reduce expenses commensurate with the decline in loan originations. Finally, deteriorating economic conditions may also increase the potential for home buyers to default on their mortgages. In certain of these cases where we have originated loans and sold them to investors, we may be required to repurchase loans or provide a financial settlement to investors if it is proven that the borrower failed to provide full and accurate information on or related to their loan application or for which appraisals have not been acceptable or when the loan was not underwritten in accordance with the loan program specified by the loan investor. If repurchase and indemnity demands increase on loans that we sell from our portfolios, our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Risk Related to Regulatory and Compliance Matters
New or changing tax, accounting, and regulatory rules and interpretations could significantly impact strategic initiatives, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
The financial services industry is extensively regulated. Federal and state banking regulations are designed primarily to protect the deposit insurance funds and consumers, not to benefit our shareholders. These regulations may sometimes impose significant limitations on operations. Regulatory authorities have extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities, including the imposition of restrictions on an institution's operations, the classification of assets by the institution and the adequacy of an institution's allowance for loan losses. These bank regulators also have the ability to impose conditions in the approval of merger and acquisition transactions.
The significant federal and state banking regulations that affect us are described in this report under “Business - Regulation” in Item 1 of this Form 10-K. These regulations, along with the currently existing tax, accounting, securities, insurance, and monetary laws, regulations, rules, standards, policies, and interpretations control the methods by which financial institutions conduct business, implement strategic initiatives and tax compliance, and govern financial reporting and disclosures. These laws, regulations, rules, standards, policies, and interpretations are constantly evolving and may change significantly over time. Any new regulations or legislation, change in existing regulations or oversight, whether a change in regulatory policy or a change in a regulator’s interpretation of a law or regulation, could have a material impact on our operations, increase our costs of regulatory compliance and of doing business and/or otherwise adversely affect us and our profitability. Additionally, actions by regulatory agencies or significant litigation against us and may lead to penalties that materially affect us. Further, changes in accounting standards can be both difficult to predict and involve judgment and discretion in their interpretation by us and our independent registered public accounting firm. These changes could materially impact, potentially even retroactively, how we report our financial condition and results of our operations as could our interpretation of those changes. We cannot predict what restrictions may be imposed upon us with future legislation.
Non-compliance with the USA PATRIOT Act, Bank Secrecy Act, or other laws and regulations could result in fines or sanctions.
The USA PATRIOT Act and Bank Secrecy Acts and related regulations require financial institutions to develop programs to prevent financial institutions from being used for money laundering and terrorist activities. If such activities are detected, financial institutions are obligated to file suspicious activity reports with the U.S. Treasury’s Office of Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. These rules require financial institutions to establish procedures for identifying and verifying the identity of customers seeking to open new financial accounts and beneficial owners of accounts. Failure to comply with these regulations could result in fines or sanctions. During the last few years, several banking institutions have received large fines for non-compliance with these laws and regulations. While we have developed policies and procedures designed to assist in compliance with these laws and regulations, no assurance can be given that these policies and procedures will be effective in preventing violations of these laws and regulations. If our policies and procedures are deemed deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions, which may include restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the denial of regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, including acquisitions.
Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us. Any of these results could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our growth or future losses may require us to raise additional capital in the future, but that capital may not be available when it is needed, or the cost of that capital may be very high.
We are required by federal regulatory authorities to maintain adequate levels of capital to support our operations. We anticipate that our capital resources will satisfy our capital requirements for the foreseeable future. Nonetheless, we may at some point need to raise additional capital to support continued growth or be required by our regulators to increase our capital resources. Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on conditions in the capital markets at that time, which are outside our control, and on our financial condition and performance. Accordingly, we may not be able to raise additional capital, if needed, on terms that are acceptable to us. If we cannot raise additional capital when needed, our operations could be materially impaired and our financial condition and liquidity could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, if we are unable to raise additional capital when required by our banking regulators, we may be subject to additional adverse regulatory action.
Risks Related to Cybersecurity, Third Parties and Technology
We are subject to certain risks in connection with our use of technology.
Our security measures may not be sufficient to mitigate the risk of a cyber attack. Communications and information systems are essential to the conduct of our business, as we use such systems to manage our customer relationships, our general ledger and virtually all other aspects of our business. Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage, and transmission of confidential and other information in our computer systems and networks. Although we take protective measures and endeavor to modify them as circumstances warrant, the security of our computer systems, software, and networks may be vulnerable to breaches, unauthorized access, misuse, computer viruses, or other malicious code and cyber attacks that could have a security impact. If one or more of these events occur, this could jeopardize our or our customers' confidential and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our computer systems and networks, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations or the operations of our customers or counterparties. We may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures, and we may be subject to litigation and financial losses that are either not insured against or not fully covered through any insurance maintained by us. We could also suffer significant reputational damage.
Security breaches in our internet banking activities could further expose us to possible liability and damage our reputation. Increases in criminal activity levels and sophistication, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries, vulnerabilities in third party technologies (including browsers and operating systems) or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the technology, processes and controls that we use to prevent fraudulent transactions and to protect data about us, our customers and underlying transactions. Any compromise of our security could deter customers from using our internet banking services that involve the transmission of confidential information. We rely on standard internet security systems to provide the security and authentication necessary to effect secure transmission of data. Although we have developed and continue to invest in systems and processes that are designed to detect and prevent security breaches and cyber-attacks and periodically test our security, these precautions may not protect our systems from compromises or breaches of our security measures, and could result in losses to us or our customers, our loss of business and/or customers, damage to our reputation, the incurrence of additional expenses, disruption to our business, our inability to grow our online services or other businesses, additional regulatory scrutiny or penalties, or our exposure to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our security measures may not protect us from system failures or interruptions. While we have established policies and procedures to prevent or limit the impact of systems failures and interruptions, there can be no assurance that such events will not occur or that they will be adequately addressed if they do. In addition, we outsource certain aspects of our data processing and other operational functions to certain third-party providers. While we select third-party vendors carefully, we do not control their actions. If our third-party providers encounter difficulties including those resulting from breakdowns or other disruptions in communication services provided by a vendor, failure of a vendor to handle current or higher transaction volumes, cyber-attacks and security breaches or if we otherwise have difficulty in communicating with them, our ability to adequately process and account for transactions could be affected, and our ability to deliver products and services to our customers and otherwise conduct business operations could be adversely impacted. Replacing these third-party vendors could also entail significant delay and expense. Threats to information security also exist in the processing of customer information through various other vendors and their personnel.
We cannot assure you that such breaches, failures or interruptions will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed by us or the third parties on which we rely. We may not be insured against all types of losses as a result of third party failures and insurance coverage may be inadequate to cover all losses resulting from breaches, system failures or other disruptions. If any of our third-party service providers experience financial, operational or technological difficulties, or if there is any other disruption in our relationships with them, we may be required to identify alternative sources of such services, and we cannot assure you that we could negotiate terms that are as favorable to us, or could obtain services with similar functionality as found in our existing systems without the need to expend substantial resources, if at all. Further, the occurrence of any systems failure or interruption could damage our reputation and result in a loss of customers and business, could subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, or could expose us to legal liability. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. The board of directors oversees the risk management process, including the risk of cybersecurity, and engages with management on cybersecurity issues.
Our business may be adversely affected by an increasing prevalence of fraud and other financial crimes.
As a bank, we are susceptible to fraudulent activity that may be committed against us or our customers which may result in financial losses or increased costs to us or our customers, disclosure or misuse of our information or our customer’s information, misappropriation of assets, privacy breaches against our customers, litigation or damage to our reputation. Such fraudulent activity may take many forms, including check fraud, electronic fraud, wire fraud, phishing, social engineering and other dishonest acts. Nationally, reported incidents of fraud and other financial crimes have increased. We have also experienced losses due to apparent fraud and other financial crimes. While we have policies and procedures designed to prevent such losses, there can be no assurance that such losses will not occur.
We are subject to certain risks in connection with our data management or aggregation.
We are reliant on our ability to manage data and our ability to aggregate data in an accurate and timely manner to ensure effective risk reporting and management. Our ability to manage data and aggregate data may be limited by the effectiveness of our policies, programs, processes and practices that govern how data is acquired, validated, stored, protected and processed. While we continuously update our policies, programs, processes and practices, many of our data management and aggregation processes are manual and subject to human error or system failure. Failure to manage data effectively and to aggregate data in an accurate and timely manner may limit our ability to manage current and emerging risks, as well as to manage changing business needs.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry Generally
We are dependent on key personnel and the loss of one or more of those key personnel may materially and adversely affect our prospects.
Competition for qualified employees and personnel in the banking industry is intense and there are a limited number of qualified persons with knowledge of, and experience in, the community banking industry where Security Federal Bank conducts its business. The process of recruiting personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to carry out our strategies is often lengthy. Our success depends to a significant degree upon our ability to attract and retain qualified management, loan origination, finance, administrative, marketing and technical personnel and upon the continued contributions of our management and personnel. In particular, our success has been and continues to be highly dependent upon the abilities of key executives, including our Chief Executive Officer, J. Chris Verenes, and certain other employees. In addition, our success has been and continues to be highly dependent upon the services of our directors, many of whom are at or nearing retirement age, and we may not be able to identify and attract suitable candidates to replace such directors.
Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and jeopardize our financial condition, growth and prospects.
Liquidity is essential to our business. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of loans and investments or other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our primary sources of liquidity are increases in deposits, advances, as needed, from the FHLB, borrowings, as needed, from the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond ("FRB") and other borrowings to fund our operations. Although we have historically been able to replace maturing deposits and advances if desired, we may not be able to replace such funds in the future if, among other things, our financial condition, the financial condition of the FHLB or FRB, or market conditions change. Factors that could detrimentally impact our access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of our business activity as a result of a downturn in the South Carolina or Georgia markets where our loans are concentrated, negative operating results, or adverse regulatory action against us. Our ability to borrow could also be impaired by factors that are not specific to us, such as a disruption in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry in light of the recent turmoil faced by banking organizations or deterioration in credit markets. Deposit flows, calls of investment securities and wholesale borrowings, and the prepayment of loans and mortgage-related securities are also strongly influenced by such external factors as the direction of interest rates, whether actual or perceived, and competition for deposits and loans in the markets we serve. Furthermore, changes to the FHLB's underwriting guidelines for wholesale borrowings or lending policies may limit or restrict our ability to borrow, and could therefore have a significant adverse impact on our liquidity. In addition, the need to replace funds in the event of large-scale withdrawals of brokered deposits could require us to pay significantly higher interest rates on retail deposits or other wholesale funding sources, which would have an adverse impact on our net interest income and net income. A decline in available funding could adversely impact our ability to originate loans, invest in securities, meet our expenses, or to fulfill such obligations as repaying our borrowings or meeting deposit withdrawal demands.
Our financial flexibility will be severely constrained if we are unable to maintain our access to funding or if adequate financing is not available to accommodate future growth at acceptable interest rates. Although we consider our sources of funds adequate for our liquidity needs, we may seek additional debt in the future to achieve our long-term business objectives. Additional borrowings, if sought, may not be available to us or, if available, may not be available on reasonable terms. If additional financing sources are unavailable, or are not available on reasonable terms, our financial condition, results of operations, growth and future prospects could be materially adversely affected. Finally, if we are required to rely more heavily on more expensive funding sources to support future growth, our revenues may not increase proportionately to cover our costs. Additionally, collateralized public funds are bank deposits of state and local municipalities. These deposits are required to be secured by certain investment grade securities to ensure repayment, which on the one hand, tends to reduce our contingent liquidity risk by making these funds somewhat less credit sensitive, but on the other hand, reduces standby liquidity by restricting the potential liquidity of the pledged collateral. Although these have historically been a relatively stable source of funds for us, availability depends on the individual municipality's fiscal policies and cash flow needs. At December 31, 2020, $59.4 million of our deposits were public funds.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
At December 31, 2020, Security Federal owned the buildings and land for 12 of its branch offices and the operations center; leased the land and owned the improvements thereon for one of its offices; and leased five of the remaining six offices, including its main office. The remaining branch, located in Ridge Spring, is owned by the Town of Ridge Spring; however, Security Federal has made some capital improvements to the building, which had a net book value of $27,000 at December 31, 2020. The property related to the offices owned by Security Federal had a depreciated cost (including land) of approximately $18.7 million at December 31, 2020. At December 31, 2020, the aggregate net book value of leasehold improvements (excluding furniture and equipment) associated with leased premises was $1.4 million. In addition to the properties related to current Company offices, Security Federal owned five other properties at December 31, 2020. The five properties consist of (i) two lots owned for potential future branch sites located in Aiken County, South Carolina and Richland County, South Carolina, which had a combined book value of $1.3 million at December 31, 2020, (ii) another lot in Aiken County, South Carolina that will possibly be used for a new Operations Center, which had a book value of $236,000 at December 31, 2020, (iii) a property consisting of land and a building that is located adjacent to our 1705 Whiskey Road office, is currently leased and had a book value of $231,000 at December 31, 2020, and (iv) a property consisting of land and a building located in Augusta, Georgia, which will be a future branch opening in 2021. The building is currently being renovated. The land had a book value of $170,000 at December 31, 2020. The Company also rents the building located at 234 Richland Avenue, which is adjacent to our main office, and then subleases it to another business. See Note 5 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Annual Report for additional information.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The Company is involved as plaintiff or defendant in various legal actions arising in the course of its business. It is the opinion of management, after consultation with counsel, that the resolution of these legal actions will not have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
General. The Company’s stock is traded on the Over-The-Counter-Bulletin Board under the symbol “SFDL.OB.” As of December 31, 2020, the Company had approximately 281 shareholders of record, not including shares held in street name, and 3,252,884 outstanding shares of common stock.
Our cash dividend payout policy is reviewed regularly by management and the Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors has declared quarterly cash dividends on our common stock for 121 consecutive quarters. Any dividends declared and paid in the future would depend upon a number of factors, including capital requirements, our financial condition and results of operations, tax considerations, statutory and regulatory limitations, and general economic conditions. No assurances can be given that any dividends will be paid or that, if paid, will not be reduced or eliminated in future periods. Our future payment of dividends may depend, in part, upon receipt of dividends from the Bank, which are restricted by federal regulations.
Stock Repurchases. The Company had no stock repurchases of its outstanding common stock during the year ended December 31, 2020.
Equity Compensation Plan Information. The equity compensation plan information presented under subparagraph (d) in Part III, Item 12 of this report is incorporated herein by reference.
Performance Graph. The following graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return on the Company's Common Stock with the cumulative total return on the NASDAQ Composite Index and a peer group of the S&P Regional Bank Index. Total return assumes the reinvestment of all dividends and that the value of Common Stock and each index was $100 on December 31, 2015.
|Security Federal Corporation||$100.00||$166.99||$151.14||$137.88||$172.50||$128.83|
|S&P 600 Regional Banks||$100.00||$144.80||$141.62||$127.66||$153.92||$135.38|
Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The information contained in the section captioned "Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data" in the Annual Report is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The information contained in the section captioned "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in the Annual Report is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Market risk is the risk of loss from adverse changes in market prices and rates. Our market risk arises principally from interest rate risk inherent in our lending, investing, deposit and borrowings activities. Management actively monitors and manages its interest rate risk exposure. In addition to other risks that we manage in the normal course of business, such as credit quality and liquidity, management considers interest rate risk to be a significant market risk that could potentially have a material effect on our financial condition and result of operations. The information contained in the section captioned "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Asset and Liability Management" in the Annual Report is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm*
Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019*
Consolidated Statements of Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018*
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018*
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders' Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018*
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018*
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements*
* Contained in the Annual Report filed as an exhibit hereto and incorporated herein by reference.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
(a) Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures: An evaluation of the Company's disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Section 13a-15(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Act")) was carried out under the supervision and with the participation of the Company's Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and several other members of the Company's senior management as of the end of the period covered by this report. The Company's Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that the Company's disclosure controls and procedures as currently in effect are effective in ensuring that the information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Act is (i) accumulated and communicated to the Company's management (including the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer) in a timely manner, and (ii) recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC's rules and forms.
(b) Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting: The management of the Company is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. The internal control process has been designed under our supervision to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the Company's financial statements for external reporting purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Management conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, utilizing the framework established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this assessment, management has determined that the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020 is effective.
Our internal control over financial reporting includes policies and procedures that pertain to the maintenance of records that accurately and fairly reflect, in reasonable detail, transactions and dispositions of assets; and provide reasonable assurances that: (1) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States; (2) receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and the directors of the Company; and (3) unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Company's assets that could have a material effect on the Company's financial statements are prevented or timely detected.
All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
This annual report does not include an attestation report of the Company's independent registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting. Management's report was not subject to attestation by the Company's independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission that permit the Company to provide only management's report in this annual report.
(c) Changes in Internal Controls: There have been no changes in the Company's internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2020 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Item 9B. Other Information
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
The information contained under the section captioned "Proposal 1 - Election of Directors" in the Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
For information regarding the executive officers of the Company and the Bank, see the information contained herein under the section captioned "Item 1. Business - Personnel - Executive Officers."
Audit Committee Financial Expert. The Audit Committee of the Company is composed of Directors Moore (Chairperson), Alexander, Clyburn, Thomas and Simmons. Directors Moore, Clyburn and Alexander are "independent" as defined in the Nasdaq Stock Market listing standards. The Board of Directors has determined there is no "audit committee financial expert" as defined by the SEC; however, the Board believes that the current members of the Audit Committee are qualified to serve based on their collective experience and background.
Code of Ethics. The Board of Directors has adopted a Code of Ethics for the Company's officers (including its senior financial officers), directors and employees. The Code is applicable to the Company's principal executive officer and senior financial officers. The Company has posted its Code of Ethics on its website www.securityfederalbank.com.
Delinquent Section 16(a) Reports. None. The information contained under the section captioned "Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance" is included in the Company's Proxy Statement and is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 11. Executive Compensation
The information contained in the section captioned "Executive Compensation" in the Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
(a)Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners. The information contained in the section captioned "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management" in the Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
(b)Security Ownership of Management. The information contained in the section captioned "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management" in the Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
(c) Changes In Control. The Company is not aware of any arrangements, including any pledge by any person of securities of the Company, the operation of which may at a subsequent date result in a change in control of the Company.
(d) Equity Compensation Plan Information. There were no securities remaining to be issued under the Company's equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2020.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Related Transactions. The information contained in the section captioned "Meetings and Committees of the Board of Directors and Corporate Governance Matters - Corporate Governance - Related Party Transactions" in the Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Director Independence. The information contained in the section captioned "Meetings and Committees of the Board of Directors and Corporate Governance Matters - Corporate Governance - Director Independence" in the Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
The information contained under the section captioned "Auditor" is included in the Company's Proxy Statement and is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
1. Financial Statements. For a list of the financial statements filed as part of this report see Part II - Item 8.
2. Financial Statement Schedules. All schedules have been omitted as the required information is either inapplicable or contained in the Consolidated Financial Statements or related Notes contained in the Annual Report filed as an exhibit hereto.
3. Exhibit Index:
|4.1||Form of Stock Certificate of the Company and other instruments defining the rights of security holders, including indentures (3)|
|10.1||1993 Salary Continuation Agreements (5)|
|10.2||Amendment One to 1993 Salary Continuation Agreements (6)|
|10.1||2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (12)|
|10.11||Incentive Compensation Plan (5)|
|101.0||The following materials from Security Federal Corporation's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, formatted in Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL): (1) Consolidated Balance Sheets; (2) Consolidated Statements of Income; (3) Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income; (4) Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders' Equity; (5) Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows; and (6) Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements|
(1)Filed on June 26, 1998, as an exhibit to the Company's Proxy Statement and incorporated herein by reference.
(2)Incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 16, 2015.
(3)Filed on August 12, 1987, as an exhibit to the Company's Registration Statement on Form 8-A and incorporated herein by reference.
(4)Filed on July 13, 2009 as an exhibit to the Company's Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-160553) and incorporated herein by reference.
(5)Filed on June 28, 1993, as an exhibit to the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-KSB and incorporated herein by reference.
(6)Filed as an exhibit to the Company's Quarterly Report on Form 10-QSB for the quarter ended September 30, 1993 and incorporated herein by reference.
(7)Filed on May 24, 2006 as an exhibit to the Company's Current Report on Form 8-K dated May 18, 2006 and incorporated herein by reference.
(8)Filed on March 2, 2000, as an exhibit to the Company's Registration Statement on Form S-8 (Registration Statement No. 333-31500) and incorporated herein by reference
(9)Filed on January 3, 2003, as an exhibit to the Company's Registration Statement on Form S-8 (Registration Statement No. 333-102337) and incorporated herein by reference.
(10)Filed on August 22, 2006, as an exhibit to the Company's Registration Statement on Form S-8 (Registration Statement No. 333-136813) and incorporated herein by reference.
(11)Filed on November 12, 2008, as an exhibit to the Company's Registration Statement on Form S-8 (Registration Statement No. 333-155295) and incorporated herein by reference.
(12)Filed on March 28, 2018, as an exhibit to the Company's Proxy Statement and incorporated herein by reference.
(13)Filed as an exhibit to the Company's Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 23, 2008.
(14)The Company elects to satisfy Regulation S-K §229.406(c) by posting its Code of Ethics on its website at www.securityfederalbank.com.
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
Pursuant to the requirements of section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
SECURITY FEDERAL CORPORATION
|Date: March 29, 2021||/s/ J. Chris Verenes|
|J. Chris Verenes|
|Chief Executive Officer and Director|
|(Duly Authorized Representative)|
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
|By:||/s/ J. Chris Verenes||March 29, 2021|
|J. Chris Verenes|
|Chief Executive Officer and Director|
|(Principal Executive Officer)|
|By:||/s/Darrell Rains||March 29, 2021|
|Chief Financial Officer|
|(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)|
|By:||/s/Roy G. Lindburg||March 29, 2021|
|Roy G. Lindburg|
|President and Director|
|By:||/s/Timothy W. Simmons||March 29, 2021|
|Timothy W. Simmons|
|Chairman of the Board and Director|
|By:||/s/Frank M. Thomas, Jr.||March 29, 2021|
|Frank M. Thomas, Jr.|
|By:||/s/Frampton W. Toole III||March 29, 2021|
|Frampton W. Toole III|
|By:||/s/Richard T. Harmon||March 29, 2021|
|Richard T. Harmon|
|By:||/s/Robert E. Alexander||March 29, 2021|
|Robert E. Alexander|
|By:||/s/Jessica T. Cummins||March 29, 2021|
|Jessica T. Cummins|
|By:||/s/Thomas L. Moore||March 29, 2021|
|Thomas L. Moore|
|By:||/s/William Clyburn||March 29, 2021|
|By:||/s/Harry O. Weeks, Jr.||March 29, 2021|
|Harry O. Weeks, Jr.|