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Idexx Laboratories (IDXX)

Filed: 2 Aug 22, 3:01pm

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 
FORM 10-Q 
 
(Mark One) 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2022
OR 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 
For the transition period from _______________ to _______________. 
  
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER: 000-19271 

idxx-20220630_g1.jpg
  IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC. 
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Delaware01-0393723
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation 
or organization)
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
One IDEXX DriveWestbrookMaine04092
(Address of principal executive offices)(ZIP Code)
207-556-0300
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.10 par value per shareIDXXNASDAQ Global Select Market
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No ¨


    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý No  ¨

    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date. The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.10 par value per share, was 83,253,705 on July 27, 2022.



GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND SELECTED ABBREVIATIONS

    In order to aid the reader, we have included certain terms and abbreviations used throughout this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q below:
Term / Abbreviation
 
Definition
 
AOCIAccumulated other comprehensive income or loss
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASUAccounting Standards Update
CAGCompanion Animal Group, a reporting segment that provides veterinarians diagnostic products and services and information management solutions that enhance the health and well-being of pets
Credit FacilityOur $1 billion unsecured revolving credit facility, also referred to as line of credit
Clinical visitsThe reason for the visit involves an interaction between a clinician and a pet
FASBU.S. Financial Accounting Standards Board
LPDLivestock, Poultry and Dairy, a reporting segment that provides diagnostic products and services for livestock and poultry health and to ensure the quality and safety of milk and improve producer efficiency
OPTI Medical
OPTI Medical Systems, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of IDEXX Laboratories Inc., located in Roswell, Georgia. This business provides point-of-care and laboratory diagnostics (including electrolyte and blood gas analyzers and related consumable products) for the human medical diagnostics sector, as well as COVID-19 testing products and services. The Roswell facility also manufactures electrolytes slides (instrument consumables) to run Catalyst One®, Catalyst Dx®, and blood gas analyzers and consumables for the veterinary sector; also referred to as OPTI. OPTI Medical is reported in our Other operating segment.
Organic revenue growthA non-GAAP financial measure and represents the percentage change in revenue, as compared to the same period for the prior year, net of the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, certain business acquisitions and divestitures. Organic revenue growth should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for or as a superior measure to, revenue growth reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
PCRPolymerase chain reaction, a technique used to amplify small segments of DNA
R&DResearch and development
Reported revenue growthRepresents the percentage change in revenue reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP, as compared to the same period in the prior year
SaaSSoftware-as-a-service
SECU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
Senior Note AgreementsNote purchase agreements for the private placement of senior notes, referred to as senior notes or long-term debt
U.S. GAAPAccounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America
WaterWater, a reporting segment that provides water microbiology testing products




IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC. 
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q 
Table of Contents 







PART I— FINANCIAL INFORMATION 
Item 1.  Financial Statements.  
IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS 
(in thousands, except per share amounts) 
(Unaudited)

June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
ASSETS  
Current Assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$114,362 $144,454 
Accounts receivable, net412,898 368,348 
Inventories332,565 269,030 
Other current assets183,000 173,823 
Total current assets1,042,825 955,655 
Long-Term Assets:
Property and equipment, net594,224 587,667 
Operating lease right-of-use assets115,461 105,101 
Goodwill355,528 359,345 
Intangible assets, net100,594 99,035 
Other long-term assets398,553 330,400 
Total long-term assets1,564,360 1,481,548 
TOTAL ASSETS$2,607,185 $2,437,203 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current Liabilities:
Accounts payable$127,262 $116,140 
Accrued liabilities387,510 458,909 
Line of credit611,000 73,500 
Current portion of long-term debt— 74,996 
Current portion of deferred revenue40,775 40,034 
Total current liabilities1,166,547 763,579 
Long-Term Liabilities:
Deferred income tax liabilities10,852 8,935 
Long-term debt, net of current portion767,995 775,205 
Long-term deferred revenue, net of current portion36,965 41,174 
Long-term operating lease liabilities98,041 87,377 
Other long-term liabilities69,777 70,941 
Total long-term liabilities983,630 983,632 
Total liabilities2,150,177 1,747,211 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 16)00
Stockholders’ Equity:
Common stock, $0.10 par value: Authorized: 120,000 shares; Issued: 107,075 shares in 2022 and 106,878 shares in 2021; Outstanding: 83,428 shares in 2022 and 84,562 shares in 202110,707 10,688 
Additional paid-in capital1,419,709 1,377,320 
Deferred stock units: Outstanding: 58 units in 2022 and 90 units in 20215,170 5,719 
Retained earnings3,246,384 2,920,440 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(67,705)(53,484)
Treasury stock, at cost: 23,647 shares in 2022 and 22,317 shares in 2021(4,157,257)(3,570,691)
Total stockholders’ equity457,008 689,992 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY$2,607,185 $2,437,203 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
3


IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME 
(in thousands, except per share amounts) 
(Unaudited)  

For the Three Months Ended June 30,For the Six Months Ended June 30,
2022202120222021
Revenue:
Product revenue$492,518 $480,715 $970,895 $935,063 
Service revenue368,028 345,427 726,200 668,786 
Total revenue860,546 826,142 1,697,095 1,603,849 
Cost of Revenue:
Cost of product revenue167,323 169,832 329,394 317,102 
Cost of service revenue179,191 167,002 354,916 326,657 
Total cost of revenue346,514 336,834 684,310 643,759 
Gross profit514,032 489,308 1,012,785 960,090 
Expenses:
Sales and marketing130,257 119,032 262,549 233,843 
General and administrative81,488 73,326 159,437 144,096 
Research and development123,221 37,697 163,389 75,276 
Income from operations179,066 259,253 427,410 506,875 
Interest expense(8,317)(7,613)(15,313)(15,197)
Interest income334 91 477 143 
Income before provision for income taxes171,083 251,731 412,574 491,821 
Provision for income taxes39,104 49,125 86,630 84,926 
Net income131,979 202,606 325,944 406,895 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest— 24 — 56 
Net income attributable to IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. stockholders$131,979 $202,582 $325,944 $406,839 
Earnings per Share:
Basic$1.57 $2.37 $3.87 $4.76 
Diluted$1.56 $2.34 $3.82 $4.69 
Weighted Average Shares Outstanding:
Basic83,922 85,325 84,164 85,427 
Diluted84,858 86,654 85,222 86,794 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

4


IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME 
(in thousands) 
(Unaudited) 
For the Three Months Ended June 30,For the Six Months Ended June 30,
2022202120222021
Net income$131,979 $202,606 $325,944 $406,895 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
Foreign currency translation adjustments(31,081)12,087 (27,804)(7,246)
Benefit plans, net of tax expense of $(991) and $(991) in 2022 and $0 and $0 in 2021(5,056)— (5,056)— 
Reclassification adjustment for benefit plans included in net income, net of tax of $51 and $51 in 2022 and $0 and $0 in 2021260 — 260 — 
Unrealized gain (loss) on Euro-denominated notes, net of tax expense (benefit) of $1,286 and $1,725 in 2022 and $(313) and $837 in 20214,124 (994)5,533 2,654 
Unrealized gain (loss) on investments, net of tax expense (benefit) of $(7) and $(12) in 2022 and $2 and $48 in 2021(25)(42)154 
Unrealized gain (loss) on derivative instruments:
Unrealized gain (loss) on foreign currency exchange contracts, net of tax expense (benefit) of $4,298 and $5,734 in 2022 and $(594) and $655 in 202111,343 (1,224)13,440 3,191 
Unrealized gain (loss) on cross currency swaps, net of tax expense (benefit) of $1,335 and $1,646 in 2022 and $(349) and $694 in 20214,282 (1,106)5,278 2,202 
Reclassification adjustment for loss (gain) included in net income, net of tax benefit (expense) of $(1,577) and $(2,187) in 2022 and $340 and $876 in 2021(4,204)2,375 (5,830)4,269 
Unrealized gain on derivative instruments11,421 45 12,888 9,662 
Other comprehensive gain (loss), net of tax(20,357)11,145 (14,221)5,224 
Comprehensive income111,622 213,751 311,723 412,119 
Less: Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interest— 24 — 56 
Comprehensive income attributable to IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.$111,622 $213,727 $311,723 $412,063 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC.  AND SUBSIDIARIES 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands, except per share amounts) 
(Unaudited)  
Common Stock
Number of Shares$0.10 Par ValueAdditional Paid-in CapitalDeferred Stock UnitsRetained EarningsAccumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss) IncomeTreasury StockNon-controlling InterestTotal Stockholders’ Equity
Balance December 31, 2021106,878 $10,688 $1,377,320 $5,719 $2,920,440 $(53,484)$(3,570,691)$ $689,992 
Net income— — — — 193,965 — — — 193,965 
Other comprehensive income, net— — — — — 6,136 — — 6,136 
Repurchases of common stock, net— — — — — — (273,058)— (273,058)
Common stock issued under stock plans, including excess tax benefit125 12 11,583 (5)— — — — 11,590 
Share-based compensation cost— — 11,122 51 — — — — 11,173 
Balance March 31, 2022107,003 $10,700 $1,400,025 $5,765 $3,114,405 $(47,348)$(3,843,749)$ $639,798 
Net income— — — — 131,979 — — 131,979 
Other comprehensive loss, net— — — — — (20,357)— — (20,357)
Repurchases of common stock, net— — — — — — (313,508)— (313,508)
Common stock issued under stock plans, including excess tax benefit72 7,779 (1,060)— — — — 6,726 
Deferred stock units activity— — (459)459 — — — — — 
Share-based compensation cost— — 12,364 — — — — 12,370 
Balance June 30, 2022107,075 $10,707 $1,419,709 $5,170 $3,246,384 $(67,705)$(4,157,257)$ $457,008 
Balance December 31, 2020106,457 $10,646 $1,294,849 $4,503 $2,175,595 $(53,615)$(2,799,890)$707 $632,795 
Net income— — — — 204,257 — — 32 204,289 
Other comprehensive loss, net— — — — — (5,921)— — (5,921)
Repurchases of common stock, net— — — — — — (154,033)— (154,033)
Common stock issued under stock plans, including excess tax benefit219 22 17,408 — — — — — 17,430 
Share-based compensation cost— — 8,829 46 — — — — 8,875 
Balance March 31, 2021106,676 $10,668 $1,321,086 $4,549 $2,379,852 $(59,536)$(2,953,923)$739 $703,435 
Net income— — — — 202,582 — — 24 202,606 
Other comprehensive loss, net— — — — — 11,145 — — 11,145 
Repurchases of common stock, net— — — — — — (188,378)— (188,378)
Common stock issued under stock plans, including excess tax benefit72 9,771 — — — — — 9,778 
Deferred stock units activity— — (1,035)1,035 — — — — — 
Share-based compensation cost— — 9,591 46 — — — — 9,637 
Balance June 30, 2021106,748 $10,675 $1,339,413 $5,630 $2,582,434 $(48,391)$(3,142,301)$763 $748,223 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
6


IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC.  AND SUBSIDIARIES 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands) 
(Unaudited) 

For the Six Months Ended
June 30,
20222021
  
Cash Flows from Operating Activities:  
Net income$325,944 $406,895 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization54,633 50,434 
Impairment charges2,346 3,795 
Provision for credit losses3,358 768 
Deferred income taxes(23,517)4,193 
Share-based compensation expense23,543 18,512 
Other1,200 1,300 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(53,794)(50,721)
Inventories(49,349)(20,412)
Other assets and liabilities(94,729)(55,162)
Accounts payable(6,735)3,812 
Deferred revenue(2,344)(5,037)
Net cash provided by operating activities180,556 358,377 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities:
Purchases of property and equipment(61,924)(42,744)
Acquisition of intangible assets(10,000)— 
Equity investment(25,000)— 
Acquisitions of a business, net of cash acquired— (156,506)
Net cash used by investing activities(96,924)(199,250)
Cash Flows from Financing Activities:
Borrowings under revolving credit facility, net537,500 — 
Payment of senior debt(75,000)— 
Payments of acquisition-related contingent consideration and holdbacks(2,816)(1,500)
Repurchases of common stock, net(573,060)(320,787)
Proceeds from exercises of stock options and employee stock purchase plans18,379 27,371 
Shares withheld for statutory tax withholding payments on restricted stock(10,390)(14,952)
Net cash used by financing activities(105,387)(309,868)
Net effect of changes in exchange rates on cash(8,337)(1,053)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents(30,092)(151,794)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period144,454 383,928 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$114,362 $232,134 
  
Supplemental Cash Flow Information:
Cash paid for income taxes$128,325 $81,923 
Unpaid property and equipment, reflected in accounts payable and accrued liabilities$10,340 $9,676 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

7


IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES 
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 
(Unaudited)

NOTE 1. BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND PRINCIPLES OF CONSOLIDATION 

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. and its subsidiaries have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP for interim financial information and with the requirements of Regulation S-X, Rule 10-01 for financial statements required to be filed as a part of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q to “IDEXX,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us” refer to IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. and our wholly-owned and majority-owned subsidiaries. We do not have any variable interest entities for which we are the primary beneficiary. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect, in the opinion of our management, all adjustments necessary for a fair statement of our financial position and results of operations. All such adjustments are of a recurring nature. The condensed consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2021, was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year or any future period. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2022, and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, (the “2021 Annual Report”) filed with the SEC.

The preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgments, and assumptions that may affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, equity, revenues, and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis we evaluate our estimates, judgments, and methodologies. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, and equity, and the amount of revenues and expenses.

We have included certain terms and abbreviations used throughout this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q in the “Glossary of Terms and Selected Abbreviations.”

NOTE 2. ACCOUNTING POLICIES  

Significant Accounting Policies

The significant accounting policies used in preparation of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of and for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, are consistent with those discussed in “Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” to the consolidated financial statements in our 2021 Annual Report, and as updated below.

Investments in Companies Accounted for Using the Equity or Cost Method of Accounting

Investments where we have the ability to exercise significant influence, but do not control the entity, are accounted for under the equity method of accounting. Significant influence generally exists if we have a 20% to 50% ownership interest in the investee. Equity investments in entities for which we do not have the ability to exercise significant influence and whose securities do not have a readily determinable fair value are carried at cost less impairment, if any, adjusted for changes resulting from qualifying observable price changes for the identical investment of the same issuer should they occur.

We evaluate our investments for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of such investments may be impaired. If a decline in the value of an investment is determined to be other than temporary, a loss is recorded in earnings in the current period.

As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, our equity investments of $30.3 million and $5.3 million, respectively, are recorded at cost as other long-term assets.


8


New Accounting Pronouncements Adopted

None

New Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, “Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Acquired Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities.” ASU 2021-08 is intended to improve comparability for both the recognition and measurement of acquired revenue contracts with customers at the date of and after a business combination by providing consistent recognition guidance. This standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. Adoption of the ASU 2021-08 should be applied prospectively. Early adoption is permitted, including in an interim period, for any period for which financial statements have not yet been issued. We are currently evaluating the impact, if any, of ASU 2021-08 on our consolidated financial statements.

In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, “Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting.” ASU 2020-04 is intended to provide optional expedients and exceptions to the U.S. GAAP guidance on contract modifications and hedge accounting to ease the financial reporting burdens related to the discontinuation of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) or by another reference rate expected to be discontinued. The FASB also issued ASU 2021-01, "Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope," in January 2021. It clarifies that certain optional expedients and exceptions apply to derivatives that are affected by the discounting transition. The amendments in this ASU affect the guidance in ASU No. 2020-04 and are effective in the same timeframe as ASU 2020-04. The relief offered by this guidance, if adopted, is available to companies for the period March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022. Our Credit Facility includes a provision for the determination of a benchmark replacement rate as a successor to the LIBOR rate; therefore, we do not expect the discontinuation of LIBOR to have an impact on our consolidated financial statements.
NOTE 3. REVENUE RECOGNITION

Our revenue is recognized when, or as, performance obligations under the terms of a contract are satisfied, which occurs when control of the promised products or services is transferred to a customer. We exclude sales, use, value-added, and other taxes we collect on behalf of third parties from revenue. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring products or services to a customer. To accurately present the consideration received in exchange for promised products or services, we apply the five-step model outlined below:

1.Identification of a contract or agreement with a customer
2.Identification of our performance obligations in the contract or agreement
3.Determination of the transaction price
4.Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations
5.Recognition of revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation        

We enter into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which are generally capable of being distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations. The timing of revenue recognition, billings, and cash collections results in accounts receivable, lease receivables, and contract assets as a result of revenue recognized in advance of billings (included within other assets), and contract liabilities or deferred revenue as a result of receiving consideration in advance of revenue recognition within our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet. Our payment terms generally range from 30 to 60 days, with exceptions for certain individual customers and geographies. Below is a listing of our major categories of revenue for our products and services:

Diagnostic Products and Accessories. Diagnostic products and accessories revenues, including IDEXX VetLab® consumables and accessories, rapid assay, LPD, Water, and OPTI testing products, are predominantly recognized and invoiced at the time of shipment, which is when the customer obtains control of the product based on legal title transfer and we have the right to payment. We also provide customers with certain consumables that are recognized upon utilization by the customer, which is when we have the right to payment and the risks and rewards of ownership transfer. Shipping costs reimbursed by the customer are included in revenue and cost of sales. As a practical expedient, we do not account for shipping activities as a separate performance obligation.

Laboratory Diagnostic and Consulting Services. Laboratory diagnostic and consulting services revenues are recognized and invoiced when performed.

9


Instruments, Software and Systems. CAG Diagnostics capital instruments, veterinary software, and diagnostic imaging systems revenues are recognized and invoiced when the customer obtains control of the products based on legal title transfer and we have the right to payment, which generally occurs at the time of installation and customer acceptance. Our instruments, software, and systems are often included in one of our significant customer programs, as further described below. For veterinary software systems that include multiple performance obligations, such as perpetual software licenses and computer hardware, we allocate revenue to each performance obligation based on estimates of the price that we would charge the customer for each promised product or service if it were sold on a standalone basis.

Lease Revenue. Revenues from instrument rental agreements and reagent rental programs are recognized either as operating leases on a ratable basis over the term of the agreement or as sales-type leases at the time of installation and customer acceptance. Customers typically pay for the right to use instruments under rental agreements in equal monthly amounts over the term of the rental agreement. Our reagent rental programs provide our customers the right to use our instruments upon entering into agreements to purchase specified amounts of consumables, which are considered embedded leases. For some agreements, the customers are provided with the right to purchase the instrument at the end of the lease term. Lease revenues from these agreements are presented in product revenue on our unaudited condensed consolidated income statement. Lease revenue was approximately $4.9 million and $9.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to $4.7 million and $9.5 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, including both operating leases and sales-type leases under ASC 842, Leases, for leases entered into after January 1, 2019, and ASC 840, “Leases,” for leases entered into prior to 2019. Refer to below for revenue recognition under our reagent rental programs.

Extended Warranties and Post-Contract Support. CAG Diagnostics capital instruments and diagnostic imaging systems extended warranties typically provide customers with continued coverage for a period of one to five years beyond the first-year standard warranty. Customers can either pay in full for the extended warranty at the time of instrument or system purchase or can be billed on a quarterly basis over the term of the contract. We recognize revenue associated with extended warranties over time on a ratable basis using a time elapsed measure of performance over the contract term, which approximates the expected timing in which applicable services are performed.

Veterinary software post-contract support provides customers with access to technical support when and as needed through access to call centers and online customer assistance. Post-contract support contracts typically have a term of 12 months and customers are billed for post-contract support in equal quarterly amounts over the term. We recognize revenue for post-contract support services over time on a ratable basis using a time elapsed measure of performance over the contract term, which approximates the expected timing in which applicable services are performed.

On December 31, 2021, our deferred revenue related to extended warranties and post-contract support was $30.0 million, of which approximately $2.5 million and $17.2 million was recognized during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. Furthermore, as a result of new agreements, our deferred revenue related to extended warranties and post-contract support was $27.5 million as of June 30, 2022. We do not disclose information about remaining performance obligations that are part of contracts with an original expected duration of one year or less and do not adjust for the effect of the financing components when the period between customer payment and revenue recognition is one year or less. Deferred revenue related to extended warranties and post-contract support with an original duration of more than one year was $13.0 million as of June 30, 2022, of which approximately 26%, 38%, 20%, 8%, and 8% are expected to be recognized during the remainder of 2022, the full years 2023, 2024, 2025, and thereafter, respectively. Additionally, we have determined these agreements do not include a significant financing component.

SaaS Subscriptions. We offer a variety of veterinary software and diagnostic imaging SaaS subscriptions including ezyVet®, Animana®, Neo®, Cornerstone® Cloud, Pet Health Network® Pro, Petly® Plans, Web PACS, rVetLink®, and Smart Flow. We recognize revenue for our SaaS subscriptions over time on a ratable basis over the contract term, beginning on the date our service is made available to the customer. Our subscription contracts vary in term from monthly to two years. Customers typically pay for our subscription contracts in equal monthly amounts over the term of the agreement. Deferred revenue related to our SaaS subscriptions is not material.

Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations. We enter into contracts with multiple performance obligations where customers purchase a combination of IDEXX products and services. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately requires significant judgment. We determine the transaction price for a contract based on the total consideration we expect to receive in exchange for the transferred goods or services. To the extent the transaction price includes variable consideration, such as volume rebates or expected price adjustments, we apply judgment in constraining the estimated variable consideration due to factors that may
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cause reversal of revenue recognized. We evaluate constraints based on our historical and projected experience with similar customer contracts.

We allocate revenue to each performance obligation in proportion to the relative standalone selling prices, and recognize revenue when transfer of the related goods or services has occurred for each obligation. We utilize the observable standalone selling price when available, which represents the price charged for the performance obligation when sold separately. When standalone selling prices for our products or services are not directly observable, we determine the standalone selling prices using relevant information available and apply suitable estimation methods including, but not limited to, the cost plus a margin approach. We recognize revenue as each performance obligation is satisfied, either at a point in time or over time, as described in the revenue categories above. We do not disclose information about remaining performance obligations that are part of contracts with an original expected duration of one year or less.

The following customer programs represent our most significant customer contracts which contain multiple performance obligations:

Customer Commitment Programs. We offer customer incentives upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products and services.

Up-Front Customer Loyalty Programs. Our up-front loyalty programs provide customers with incentives in the form of cash payments or IDEXX Points upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of future products or services. If a customer breaches their agreement, they are required to refund all or a portion of the up-front cash or IDEXX Points, or make other repayments, remedial actions, or both. Up-front incentives to customers in the form of cash or IDEXX Points are not made in exchange for distinct goods or services and are capitalized as customer acquisition costs within other current and long-term assets, which are subsequently recognized as a reduction to revenue over the term of the customer agreement. If these up-front incentives are subsequently utilized to purchase instruments, we allocate total consideration, including future committed purchases less up-front incentives and estimates of expected price adjustments, based on relative standalone selling prices to identified performance obligations and recognize instrument revenue and cost at the time of installation and customer acceptance. To the extent invoiced instrument revenue exceeds recognized instrument revenue, we record deferred revenue as a contract liability, which is subsequently recognized upon the purchase of products and services over the term of the contract. We have determined these agreements do not include a significant financing component. Differences between estimated and actual customer purchases may impact the timing and amount of revenue recognition.

On December 31, 2021, our capitalized customer acquisition costs were $158.3 million, of which approximately $12.5 million and $25.2 million was recognized as a reduction of revenue during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. Furthermore, as a result of new up-front customer loyalty payments, net of subsequent recognition, our capitalized customer acquisition costs were $156.4 million as of June 30, 2022. We monitor customer purchases over the term of their agreement to assess the realizability of our capitalized customer acquisition costs and review estimates of variable consideration. Impairments, revenue adjustments that relate to performance obligations satisfied in prior periods, and contract modifications during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, were not material.

Volume Commitment Programs. Our volume commitment programs, such as our IDEXX 360 program, provide customers with a free or discounted instrument or system upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of products and services. We allocate total consideration, including future committed purchases and expected price adjustments, based on relative standalone selling prices to identified performance obligations and recognize instrument revenue and cost at the time of installation and customer acceptance in advance of billing the customer, which is also when the customer obtains control of the instrument based on legal title transfer. Our right to future consideration related to instrument revenue is recorded as a contract asset within other current and long-term assets. The contract asset is transferred to accounts receivable when customers are billed for future products and services over the term of the contract. We have determined these agreements do not include a significant financing component. Differences between estimated and actual customer purchases may impact the timing and amount of revenue recognition.

On December 31, 2021, our volume commitment contract assets were $159.9 million, of which approximately $9.6 million and $18.9 million was reclassified to accounts receivable when customers were billed for related products and services during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively.
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Furthermore, as a result of new placements under volume commitment programs, net of subsequent amounts reclassified to accounts receivable, and allowances established for credit losses, our contract assets were $179.1 million as of June 30, 2022. We monitor customer purchases over the term of their agreement to assess the realizability of our contract assets and review estimates of variable consideration. Impairments, revenue adjustments that relate to performance obligations satisfied in prior periods, and contract modifications during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, were not material.

For our up-front customer loyalty and volume commitment programs, we estimate future revenues related to multi-year agreements to be approximately $3.0 billion, of which approximately 14%, 27%, 22%, 17%, and 20% are expected to be recognized during the remainder of 2022, the full years 2023, 2024, 2025, and thereafter, respectively. These future revenues relate to performance obligations not yet satisfied, for which customers have committed to purchase goods and services, net of the expected revenue reductions from customer acquisition costs and expected price adjustments, and, as a result, are lower than stated contractual commitments by our customers.

Instrument Rebate Programs. Our instrument rebate programs require an instrument purchase and provide customers the opportunity to earn future rebates based on the volume of products and services they purchase over the term of the program. We account for the customer’s right to earn rebates on future purchases as a separate performance obligation and determine the standalone selling price based on an estimate of rebates the customer will earn over the term of the program. Total consideration allocated to identified performance obligations is limited to goods and services that the customer is presently obligated to purchase and does not include estimates of future purchases that are optional. We allocate total consideration to identified performance obligations, including the customer’s right to earn rebates on future purchases, which is deferred and recognized upon the purchase of future products and services, partially offsetting future rebates as they are earned.

On December 31, 2021, our deferred revenue related to instrument rebate programs was $33.0 million, of which approximately $3.1 million and $6.5 million was recognized when customers purchased eligible products and services and earned rebates during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. Furthermore, as a result of new instrument purchases under rebate programs, net of subsequent recognition, our deferred revenue was $29.4 million as of June 30, 2022, of which approximately 20%, 31%, 21%, 14%, and 14% are expected to be recognized during the remainder of 2022, the full years 2023, 2024, 2025, and thereafter, respectively.

Reagent Rental Programs. Our reagent rental programs provide our customers the right to use our instruments upon entering into multi-year agreements to purchase annual minimum amounts of consumables. These types of agreements include an embedded lease for the right to use our instrument, and we determine the amount of lease revenue allocated to the instrument based on relative standalone selling prices. We evaluate the terms of these embedded leases to determine classification as either a sales-type lease or an operating lease.

Sales-type Reagent Rental Programs. Our reagent rental programs that effectively transfer control of instruments to our customers are classified as sales-type leases, and we recognize instrument revenue and cost in advance of billing the customer, at the time of installation and customer acceptance. Our right to future consideration related to instrument revenue is recorded as a lease receivable within other current and long-term assets, and is transferred to accounts receivable when customers are billed for future products and services over the term of the contract. On December 31, 2021, our lease receivable assets were $15.3 million, of which approximately $0.9 million and $1.7 million was reclassified to accounts receivable when customers were billed for related products and services during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. Furthermore, as a result of new placements under sales-type reagent rental programs, net of subsequent amounts reclassified to accounts receivable, and allowances established for credit losses, our lease receivable assets were $15.8 million as of June 30, 2022. The impacts of discounting and unearned income as of June 30, 2022 were not material. Profit and loss recognized at the commencement date and interest income during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, were not material. We monitor customer purchases over the term of their agreement to assess the realizability of our lease receivable assets. Impairments during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 were not material.

Operating-type Reagent Rental Programs. Our reagent rental programs that do not effectively transfer control of instruments to our customers are classified as operating leases, and we recognize instrument revenue and costs ratably over the term of the agreement. The cost of the instrument is capitalized within property and equipment. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, we transferred instruments of $4.6 million and $7.6 million, as compared to $3.3 million and $5.8 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, from inventory to property and equipment.
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We estimate future revenue to be recognized related to our reagent rental programs of approximately $35.9 million, of which approximately 17%, 29%, 23%, 17%, and 14% are expected to be recognized during the remainder of 2022, the full years 2023, 2024, 2025, and thereafter, respectively. These future revenues relate to performance obligations not yet satisfied for which customers have committed to future purchases, net of any expected price adjustments, and, as a result, may be lower than stated contractual commitments by our customers.

Other Customer Incentive Programs. Certain agreements with customers include discounts or rebates on the sale of products and services applied retrospectively, such as volume rebates achieved by purchasing a specified purchase threshold of goods and services. We account for these discounts as variable consideration and estimate the likelihood of a customer meeting the threshold in order to determine the transaction price using the most predictive approach. We typically use the most-likely-amount method for incentives that are offered to individual customers and the expected-value method for programs that are offered to a broad group of customers. Revenue adjustments that relate to performance obligations satisfied in prior periods during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, were not material. Refund obligations related to customer incentive programs are recorded in accrued liabilities for the actual issuance of incentives, incentives earned but not yet issued, and estimates of incentives to be earned in the future.

Program Combinations. At times, we combine elements of our significant customer programs within a single customer contract. We separate each significant program element and include the contract assets, customer acquisition costs, deferred revenues, and estimated future revenues within the most relevant program disclosures above. Each customer contract is presented as a net contract asset or net contract liability on our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet.

IDEXX Points. IDEXX Points may be applied to trade receivables due to us, converted to cash, or applied against the purchase price of IDEXX products and services. We consider IDEXX Points equivalent to cash. IDEXX Points that have not yet been used by customers are included in accrued liabilities until utilized or expired. Breakage is not material because customers can apply IDEXX Points to trade receivables at any time.

Accounts Receivable. We recognize revenue when it is probable that we will collect substantially all of the consideration to which we will be entitled, based on the customer’s intent and ability to pay the promised consideration. We apply judgment in determining the customer’s ability and intention to pay, which is based on a variety of factors including the customer’s historical payment experience or, in the case of a new customer, published credit and financial information pertaining to the customer. We have no significant customers that accounted for greater than 10% of our consolidated revenues, and we have no concentration of credit risk as of June 30, 2022.

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Disaggregated Revenues. We present disaggregated revenue for our CAG segment based on major product and service categories. Our Water segment is comprised of a single major product category. Although our LPD segment does not meet the quantitative requirements to be reported as a separate segment, we believe it is important to disaggregate these revenues as a major product and service category separately from our Other reportable segment given its distinct markets, and therefore we have elected to report LPD as a reportable segment.

The following table presents disaggregated revenue by major product and service categories:
(in thousands)For the Three Months Ended June 30,For the Six Months Ended June 30,
2022202120222021
CAG segment revenue:  
CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue:$685,413 $661,300 $1,350,223 $1,278,580 
IDEXX VetLab consumables266,079 256,352 533,252 502,444 
Rapid assay products87,481 83,887 162,000 153,498 
Reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services304,130 293,675 599,205 569,456 
CAG Diagnostics services and accessories27,723 27,386 55,766 53,182 
CAG Diagnostics capital - instruments36,227 35,054 73,224 66,244 
Veterinary software, services and diagnostic imaging systems62,447 49,241 121,824 93,538 
CAG segment revenue784,087 745,595 1,545,271 1,438,362 
Water segment revenue39,195 37,191 75,566 71,231 
LPD segment revenue29,889 33,524 60,759 72,794 
Other segment revenue7,375 9,832 15,499 21,462 
Total revenue$860,546 $826,142 $1,697,095 $1,603,849 

Revenue by principal geographic area, based on customers’ domiciles, was as follows:
(in thousands)For the Three Months Ended June 30,For the Six Months Ended June 30,
2022202120222021
United States$559,825 $515,238 $1,085,731 $987,876 
Europe, the Middle East and Africa161,993 171,553 335,801 342,803 
Asia Pacific Region80,100 83,624 163,961 168,406 
Canada39,533 39,337 74,765 72,795 
Latin America & Caribbean19,095 16,390 36,837 31,969 
Total revenue$860,546 $826,142 $1,697,095 $1,603,849 

Costs to Obtain a Contract. We capitalize sales commissions, and the related fringe benefits earned by our sales force when considered incremental, and recoverable costs of obtaining a contract. Our contracts include performance obligations related to various goods and services, some of which are satisfied at a point in time and others over time. Commission costs related to performance obligations satisfied at a point in time are expensed at the time of sale, which is when revenue is recognized. Commission costs related to long-term service contracts and performance obligations satisfied over time, including extended warranties and SaaS subscriptions, are deferred and recognized on a systematic basis that is consistent with the transfer of the goods or services to which the asset relates. We apply judgment in estimating the amortization period, which typically ranges from 3 to 7 years, by taking into consideration our customer contract terms, history of renewals, expected length of customer relationship, and the useful life of the underlying technology and products. Amortization expense is included in sales and marketing expenses in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of income. Deferred commission costs are periodically reviewed for impairment.

On December 31, 2021, our deferred commission costs, included within other assets, were $19.5 million, of which approximately $1.6 million and $3.4 million of commission expense was recognized during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. Furthermore, as a result of commissions related to new extended warranties and SaaS subscriptions, net of subsequent recognition, our deferred commission costs were $19.3 million as of June 30, 2022. Impairments of deferred commission costs during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, were not material.

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NOTE 4. ACQUISITIONS, ASSET PURCHASES AND INVESTMENTS

We believe that our acquisitions of businesses and other assets enhance our existing businesses by either expanding our geographic range and customer base, or expanding our existing product lines. From time to time we may acquire small reference laboratory or radiology practices that we account for as either asset purchases or business combinations.

Asset Purchases and Investments

During the second quarter of 2022, we entered into two arrangements to license intellectual property for which we paid $50.0 million and accrued $30.0 million in subsequent payments. The $80.0 million in the aggregate was charged to research and development expense for these license rights. These 2 arrangements were treated as asset acquisitions under U.S. GAAP and resulted in the full amount being expensed to research and development expense as in-process research and development costs with no alternative future use. The acquisition of these licensing arrangements supports new instrument platform advancements. The expense was recorded in our CAG segment. We also purchased $25.0 million of preferred shares for a noncontrolling minority interest in one of these entities. We have elected to measure the investment as an equity security investment, under ASC 321, “Investment - Equity Securities,” and recorded the investment at cost. The investment is included in other long-term assets.

During the first quarter of 2022 we made a $10.0 million payment for a perpetual intellectual property license, which will be amortized over 10 years and included in our CAG segment.

Business Combinations

During the fourth quarter of 2021, we acquired the shares of a reference laboratory located in Finland for approximately $13.4 million in cash, including a holdback of approximately $1.4 million. This acquisition expands our international reference laboratory presence and was accounted for as a business combination. The fair values of the assets acquired consist of customer relationship intangibles of approximately $7.4 million, with a life of 10 years; a non-compete agreement of approximately $0.8 million, with a life of 3 years; approximately $6.9 million of goodwill, representing synergies within our broader CAG portfolio; and approximately $1.7 million in net tangible liabilities, including deferred taxes associated with the acquired intangible assets. Goodwill related to this acquisition is not expected to be deductible for tax purposes. Pro forma information has not been presented for this acquisition because such information is not material to the financial statements. The results of operations have been included in our CAG segment since the acquisition date. The acquisition expenses were not material.

During the first quarter of 2021, we acquired the shares of a reference laboratory located in Switzerland for approximately $5.5 million in cash, including holdback and contingent payments of approximately $1.1 million. This acquisition expands our international reference laboratory presence and was accounted for as a business combination. The fair value of the assets acquired consists of approximately $4.3 million in intangible assets, primarily for customer relationships, which will be amortized over 9 years; approximately $1.8 million for goodwill, representing synergies within our broader CAG portfolio; and approximately $0.6 million of liabilities, including deferred taxes associated with the acquired intangible assets. Goodwill related to this acquisition is not deductible for tax purposes. Pro forma information has not been presented for this acquisition because such information is not material to the financial statements. The results of operations have been included in our CAG segment since the acquisition date. The acquisition expenses were not material.
NOTE 5. SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION 

The fair value of options, restricted stock units, deferred stock units, and employee stock purchase rights awarded during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, totaled $4.4 million and $55.4 million, respectively, as compared to $4.0 million and $48.3 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively. The total unrecognized compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, for unvested share-based compensation awards outstanding as of June 30, 2022, was $87.2 million, which will be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately 1.7 years. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, we recognized expenses of $12.3 million and $23.5 million, respectively, as compared to $9.6 million and $18.5 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, related to share-based compensation.

We determine the assumptions used in the valuation of option awards as of the date of grant. Differences in the expected stock price volatility, expected term, or risk-free interest rate may necessitate distinct valuation assumptions at each grant date. As such, we may use different assumptions for options granted throughout the year. Option awards are granted with an exercise price equal to or greater than the closing market price of our common stock at the date of grant. We have never paid
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any cash dividends on our common stock, and we have no intention to pay such a dividend at this time; therefore, we assume that no dividends will be paid over the expected terms of option awards.

The weighted averages of the valuation assumptions used to determine the fair value of each option award on the date of grant and the weighted average estimated fair values were as follows:
For the Six Months Ended
June 30,
20222021
  
Share price at grant$494.95 $542.57 
Share price at exercise$499.09 $546.43 
Expected stock price volatility30 %31 %
Expected term, in years6.46.2
Risk-free interest rate2.0 %0.7 %
Weighted average fair value of options granted$167.25 $167.94 
NOTE 6. CREDIT LOSSES  

We are exposed to credit losses primarily through our sales of products and services to our customers. We maintain allowances for credit losses for potentially uncollectible receivables. We base our estimates on a detailed analysis of specific customer situations and a percentage of our accounts receivable by aging category. Historical credit loss experience provides the basis for the estimation of expected credit losses. Adjustments to historical loss information are made for differences in current economic conditions.

Additional allowances may be required if either the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, or a strengthening U.S. dollar impacts the ability of foreign customers to make payments to us on their U.S. dollar-denominated purchases. We monitor our ongoing credit exposure through active review of counterparty balances against contract terms and due dates. Our activities include timely account reconciliations, dispute resolution, and payment confirmations. We may employ collection agencies and legal counsel to pursue recovery of defaulted receivables.

Account balances are charged off against the allowance when we believe it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. We may require collateralized asset support or a prepayment to mitigate credit risk. We do not have any off-balance sheet credit exposure related to our customers.

Accounts Receivable

The allowance for credit losses associated with accounts receivable was $8.0 million and $5.7 million as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Accounts receivable reflected on the balance sheet is net of this reserve. Based on an aging analysis, as of June 30, 2022, approximately 92% of our accounts receivable had not yet reached the invoice due date and approximately 8% was considered past due, of which approximately 0.2% was greater than 60 days past due. As of December 31, 2021, approximately 90% of our accounts receivable had not yet reached the invoice due date and approximately 10% was considered past due, of which approximately 1.8% was greater than 60 days past due.

Contract assets and lease receivables

The allowance for credit losses associated with the contract assets and lease receivables was $4.9 million and $4.4 million as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. The assets reflected on the balance sheet are net of these reserves. Historically, we have experienced low credit loss rates on our customer commitment programs and lease receivables. We apply judgment in determining the customer’s ability and intention to pay, which is based on a variety of factors including the customer’s historical payment experience or, in the case of a new customer, published credit and financial information pertaining to the customer.
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NOTE 7. INVENTORIES

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. The components of inventories were as follows:
(in thousands)June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
  
Raw materials$85,297 $60,427 
Work-in-process30,735 26,397 
Finished goods216,533 182,206 
Inventories$332,565 $269,030 

NOTE 8. LEASES

Maturities of operating lease liabilities were as follows:
(in thousands, except lease term and discount rate)June 30, 2022
 
2022 (remainder of year)$10,683 
202323,714 
202419,657 
202515,502 
202612,661 
Thereafter54,124 
Total lease payments136,341 
Less imputed interest(18,562)
Total$117,779 

Total minimum future lease payments for leases that have not commenced as of June 30, 2022, are approximately $8.1 million, and those leases will commence between 2022 and 2024.


Supplemental cash flow information for leases was as follows:
(in thousands)For the Six Months Ended
June 30, 2022
For the Six Months Ended
June 30, 2021
 
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of operating leases liabilities$12,110 $11,914 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for operating lease obligations, net of early
lease terminations
$23,019 $24,427 
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NOTE 9. OTHER CURRENT AND LONG-TERM ASSETS

Other current assets consisted of the following:
(in thousands)June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
  
Customer acquisition costs$49,657 $48,942 
Contract assets, net (1)
40,364 37,772 
Prepaid expenses36,287 41,997 
Taxes receivable19,854 19,464 
Foreign currency exchange contracts14,863 6,512 
Deferred sales commissions6,504 6,475 
Other assets15,471 12,661 
Other current assets$183,000 $173,823 
(1) Contract assets, net, are net of allowances for credit loss. Refer to "Note 6. Credit Losses."

Other long-term assets consisted of the following:
(in thousands)June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
Contract assets, net (1)
$138,776 $122,160 
Customer acquisition costs106,727 109,392 
Deferred income taxes40,548 24,784 
Equity investments30,250 5,250 
Investment in long-term product supply arrangements22,642 13,348 
Deferred sales commissions12,804 13,019 
Taxes receivable361 1,806 
Other assets46,445 40,641 
Other long-term assets$398,553 $330,400 
(1) Contract assets, net, are net of allowances for credit loss. Refer to "Note 6. Credit Losses."
NOTE 10. ACCRUED LIABILITIES

Accrued liabilities consisted of the following:
(in thousands)June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
  
Accrued expenses$158,623 $133,978 
Accrued employee compensation and related expenses110,342 182,926 
Accrued customer incentives and refund obligations76,705 79,469 
Accrued taxes22,102 42,605 
Current lease liabilities19,738 19,931 
Accrued liabilities$387,510 $458,909 

Other long-term liabilities consisted of the following:
(in thousands)June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
Accrued taxes$50,530 $56,466 
Other accrued long-term expenses19,247 14,475 
Other long-term liabilities$69,777 $70,941 
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NOTE 11. DEBT

Credit Facility

As of June 30, 2022, we had $611.0 million outstanding borrowings under our Credit Facility with a year-to-date weighted average effective interest rate of 1.6%. As of December 31, 2021, we had $73.5 million outstanding borrowings under our Credit Facility with a weighted average effective interest rate of 1.1%. As of June 30, 2022, we had a remaining borrowing availability of $387.6 million under our $1 billion Credit Facility. The funds available under the Credit Facility reflect a further reduction due to the issuance of letters of credit, which were issued in connection with our workers’ compensation policy, for $1.4 million.

The Credit Facility contains affirmative, negative, and financial covenants customary for financings of this type. The negative covenants include restrictions on liens, indebtedness of subsidiaries of the Company, fundamental changes, investments, transactions with affiliates, certain restrictive agreements, and violations of laws and regulations. The sole financial covenant is a consolidated leverage ratio test that requires our ratio of debt to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, and share-based compensation defined as the consolidated leverage ratio under the terms of the Credit Facility, not to exceed 3.5-to-1. As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, we were in compliance with the covenants of the Credit Facility.

Senior Notes

The following describes all of our currently outstanding unsecured senior notes issued and sold in private placements (collectively, the “Senior Notes”) as of June 30, 2022:
(Principal Amount in thousands)
Issue DateDue DateSeriesPrincipal AmountCoupon RateSenior Note Agreement
12/11/201312/11/20232023 Series A Notes$75,000 3.94 %NY Life 2013 Note Agreement
12/11/201312/11/20252025 Series B Notes$75,000 4.04 %NY Life 2013 Note Agreement
9/4/20149/4/20262026 Senior Notes$75,000 3.72 %NY Life 2014 Note Agreement
7/21/20147/21/20242024 Series B Notes$75,000 3.76 %Prudential 2015 Amended Agreement
6/18/20156/18/20252025 Series C Notes88,857 1.785 %Prudential 2015 Amended Agreement
2/12/20152/12/20272027 Series B Notes$75,000 3.72 %MetLife 2014 Note Agreement
3/14/201903/14/20292029 Series C Notes$100,000 4.19 %MetLife 2014 Note Agreement
4/2/202004/02/2030MetLife 2030 Series D Notes$125,000 2.50 %MetLife 2014 Note Agreement
4/14/202004/14/2030Prudential 2030 Series D Notes$75,000 2.50 %Prudential 2015 Amended Agreement

In February 2022, we paid off our $75.0 million 2022 Series A Notes with cash provided by operations and financing activities.

The Senior Note Agreements contain affirmative, negative, and financial covenants customary for agreements of this type. The negative covenants include restrictions on liens, indebtedness of our subsidiaries, priority indebtedness, fundamental changes, investments, transactions with affiliates, certain restrictive agreements, and violations of laws and regulations. The sole financial covenant is a consolidated leverage ratio test that requires our ratio of debt to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, and share-based compensation, as defined in the Senior Note Agreements, not to exceed 3.5-to-1. As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, we were in compliance with the covenants of the Senior Note Agreements.
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NOTE 12. REPURCHASES OF COMMON STOCK
We primarily acquire shares by repurchases in the open market. However, we also acquire shares that are surrendered by employees in payment for the minimum required statutory withholding taxes due on the vesting of restricted stock units and the settlement of deferred stock units, otherwise referred to herein as employee surrenders. We issue shares of treasury stock upon the vesting of certain restricted stock units and upon the exercise of certain stock options. The number of shares of treasury stock issued during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 was not material.

The following is a summary of our open market common stock repurchases, reported on a trade date basis, and shares acquired through employee surrender:
(in thousands, except per share amounts)For the Three Months Ended June 30,For the Six Months Ended June 30,
2022202120222021
  
Shares repurchased in the open market809 341 1,311 618 
Shares acquired through employee surrender for statutory tax withholding— — 21 28 
Total shares repurchased809 341 1,332 646 
Cost of shares repurchased in the open market$313,455 $188,409 $576,238 $327,622 
Cost of shares for employee surrenders52 10,390 14,986 
Total cost of shares$313,507 $188,412 $586,628 $342,608 
Average cost per share - open market repurchases$387.78 $552.08 $439.63 $529.45 
Average cost per share - employee surrenders$369.63 $550.59 $504.60 $544.08 
Average cost per share - total$387.78 $552.08 $440.63 $530.07 

NOTE 13. INCOME TAXES 

Our effective income tax rate was 22.9% for the three months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to 19.5% for the three months ended June 30, 2021, the increase in the effective tax rate for the three months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to the same periods in the prior year, was primarily driven by higher taxes on international income and decreases in tax benefits related to share-based compensation.

Our effective income tax rate was 21.0% for the six months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to 17.3% for the six months ended June 30, 2021. The increase in our effective tax rate for the six months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to the same periods in the prior year, was primarily driven by decreases in tax benefits related to share-based compensation and higher taxes on international income.

The effective tax rate for the three months ended June 30, 2022, differed from the U.S. federal statutory tax rate of 21% primarily due to U.S. state income taxes, net of federal benefit, partially offset by tax benefits from share-based compensation.

The effective tax rate for the six months ended June 30, 2022, was equivalent to the U.S. federal statutory tax rate of 21%. The impact on the effective tax rate from U.S. state income taxes, net of federal benefit, was substantially offset by tax benefits from share-based compensation.

The effective tax rate for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, differed from the U.S. statutory tax rate of 21% primarily due to tax benefits from share-based compensation.
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NOTE 14. ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

The changes in AOCI, net of tax, consisted of the following:
For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
Unrealized Gain (Loss) on Cash Flow Hedges, Net of TaxUnrealized Gain (Loss) on
Net Investment Hedges, Net of Tax
(in thousands)Unrealized Gain (Loss) on Investments,
Net of Tax
Foreign Currency Exchange ContractsEuro-Denominated NotesCross Currency SwapsBenefit Plans, Net of TaxCumulative Translation
Adjustment
Total
     
Balance as of December 31, 2021$(126)$4,979 $422 $3,240 $— $(61,999)$(53,484)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications(42)13,440 5,533 5,278 (5,056)(27,804)(8,651)
Reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income— (5,830)— — 260 — (5,570)
Balance as of June 30, 2022$(168)$12,589 $5,955 $8,518 $(4,796)$(89,803)$(67,705)

For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
Unrealized Gain (Loss) on Cash Flow Hedges,
Net of Tax
Unrealized Gain (Loss) on
Net Investment Hedges, Net of Tax
(in thousands)Unrealized (Loss) Gain on Investments,
Net of Tax
Foreign Currency Exchange ContractsEuro-Denominated NotesCross Currency SwapsBenefit Plans, Net of TaxCumulative Translation
Adjustment
Total
     
Balance as of December 31, 2020$(272)$(9,934)$(5,982)$(2,159)$— $(35,268)$(53,615)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications154 3,191 2,654 2,202 — (7,246)955 
Reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income— 4,269 — — — — 4,269 
Balance as of June 30, 2021$(118)$(2,474)$(3,328)$43 $— $(42,514)$(48,391)
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The following tables present components and amounts associated with cash flow hedges reclassified out of AOCI to net income:
(in thousands)Affected Line Item in the Statements of IncomeAmounts Reclassified from AOCI For the Three Months Ended June 30,Amounts Reclassified from AOCI For the Six Months Ended June 30,
 2022202120222021
Gain (loss) on derivative instruments classified as cash flow hedges included in net income: 
Foreign currency exchange contractsCost of revenue$5,781 $(2,715)$8,017 $(5,145)
Tax expense (benefit)1,577 (340)2,187 (876)
Gain (loss), net of tax$4,204 $(2,375)$5,830 $(4,269)


The following tables present components and amounts associated with pension reclassified out of AOCI to net income:
(in thousands)Affected Line Item in the Statements of IncomeAmounts Reclassified from AOCI For the Three Months Ended June 30,Amounts Reclassified from AOCI For the Six Months Ended June 30,
 2022202120222021
Gain (loss) on pension plans included in net income: 
Pension plansCost of revenue and operating expenses$(311)$— $(311)$— 
Tax benefit(51)— (51)— 
Loss, net of tax$(260)$— $(260)$— 
NOTE 15. EARNINGS PER SHARE

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to our stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock and vested deferred stock units outstanding during the year. The computation of diluted earnings per share is similar to the computation of basic earnings per share, except that the denominator is increased for the assumed exercise of dilutive options and assumed issuance of unvested restricted stock units and unvested deferred stock units using the treasury stock method unless the effect is anti-dilutive. The treasury stock method assumes that proceeds, including cash received from the exercise of employee stock options and the total unrecognized compensation expense for unvested share-based compensation awards, would be used to purchase our common stock at the average market price during the period. Vested deferred stock units outstanding are included in shares outstanding for basic and diluted earnings per share because the associated shares of our common stock are issuable for no cash consideration, the number of shares of our common stock to be issued is fixed, and issuance is not contingent. Refer to Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements in our 2021 Annual Report for additional information regarding deferred stock units.

The following is a reconciliation of weighted average shares outstanding for basic and diluted earnings per share:
(in thousands)For the Three Months Ended June 30,For the Six Months Ended June 30,
2022202120222021
  
Shares outstanding for basic earnings per share83,922 85,325 84,164 85,427 
Shares outstanding for diluted earnings per share:
Shares outstanding for basic earnings per share83,922 85,325 84,164 85,427 
Dilutive effect of share-based payment awards936 1,329 1,058 1,367 
84,858 86,654 85,222 86,794 

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Certain awards and options to acquire shares have been excluded from the calculation of shares outstanding for diluted earnings per share because they were anti-dilutive. The following table presents information concerning those anti-dilutive awards and options:
(in thousands)For the Three Months Ended June 30,For the Six Months Ended June 30,
2022202120222021
  
Weighted average number of shares underlying anti-dilutive awards79 — 40 1
Weighted average number of shares underlying anti-dilutive options284 135248 102

NOTE 16. COMMITMENTS, CONTINGENCIES AND GUARANTEES

Commitments

Refer to “Note 8. Leases,” for more information regarding our lease commitments.

Contingencies

We are subject to claims that may arise in the ordinary course of business, including with respect to actual and threatened litigation and other matters. We accrue for loss contingencies when it is probable that future expenditures will be made, and such expenditures can be reasonably estimated. However, the results of legal actions cannot be predicted with certainty, and therefore our actual losses with respect to these contingencies could be higher or lower than our accruals. Except for the litigation matter described below, as of June 30, 2022, our accruals with respect to actual and threatened litigation were not material.

We are a defendant in an ongoing litigation matter involving an alleged breach of contract for underpayment of royalty payments made from 2004 through 2017 under an expired patent license agreement. The plaintiff has asserted a claim of approximately $50 million, inclusive of interest through June 30, 2020, alleging that the incorrect royalty provision was applied to certain licensed products and services throughout the agreement term and that royalties were also due on non-licensed diagnostic services that were provided concurrently with licensed services. The trial court previously ruled in favor of the plaintiff in this matter and we are appealing the judgment and continue to vigorously defend ourselves against the plaintiff’s allegations. While we believe the claim is without merit, litigation is inherently unpredictable and there can be no assurance that we will prevail in this matter. During the third quarter of 2020, we established an accrual of $27.5 million related to this ongoing matter, which represents the amount of the contingent loss that we have determined to be probable and estimable. We have not made any adjustments to this accrual since it was established. The actual cost of resolving this matter may be higher or lower than the amount we have accrued.

From time to time, we have received notices alleging that our products infringe third party proprietary rights, although we are not aware of any pending litigation with respect to such claims. Patent litigation frequently is complex and expensive, and the outcome of patent litigation can be difficult to predict. There can be no assurance that we will prevail in any infringement proceedings that may be commenced against us. If we lose any such litigation, we may be stopped from selling certain products and/or we may be required to pay damages as a result of the litigation.

Guarantees

We enter into agreements with third parties in the ordinary course of business under which we are obligated to indemnify such third parties for and against various risks and losses. The precise terms of such indemnities vary with the nature of the agreement. In many cases, we limit the maximum amount of our indemnification obligations, but in some cases, those obligations may be theoretically unlimited. We have not incurred material expenses in discharging any of these indemnification obligations and, based on our analysis of the nature of the risks involved, we believe that the fair value of potential indemnification under these agreements is minimal. Accordingly, we have recorded no liabilities for these obligations as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
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NOTE 17. SEGMENT REPORTING

Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”), or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. Our CODM is our Chief Executive Officer. Our reportable segments include diagnostic and information technology-based products and services for the veterinary sector, which we refer to as the Companion Animal Group (“CAG”), water quality products (“Water”), and diagnostic products and services for livestock and poultry health and to ensure the quality and safety of milk and improve producer efficiency, which we refer to as Livestock, Poultry and Dairy (“LPD”). Although our LPD segment does not meet the quantitative thresholds to be reported as a separate segment, we believe it is important to disaggregate these revenues as a major product and service category within our Other reportable segment given its distinct markets, and therefore we have elected to report LPD as a reportable segment. Our Other operating segment combines and presents products and services for the human medical diagnostics sector with our out-licensing arrangements. Assets are not allocated to segments for internal reporting purposes.


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The following is a summary of segment performance:
(in thousands)For the Three Months Ended June 30,
CAGWaterLPDOtherConsolidated Total
2022
Revenue$784,087 $39,195 $29,889 $7,375 $860,546 
Income from operations$156,526 $17,920 $3,230 $1,390 $179,066 
Interest expense, net(7,983)
Income before provision for income taxes171,083 
Provision for income taxes39,104 
Net income131,979 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest— 
Net income attributable to IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. stockholders$131,979 
2021
Revenue$745,595 $37,191 $33,524 $9,832 $826,142 
Income from operations$234,735 $17,228 $6,868 $422 $259,253 
Interest expense, net(7,522)
Income before provision for income taxes251,731 
Provision for income taxes49,125 
Net income202,606 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest24 
Net income attributable to IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. stockholders$202,582 


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(in thousands)For the Six Months ended June 30,
CAGWaterLPDOtherConsolidated Total
2022
Revenue$1,545,271 $75,566 $60,759 $15,499 $1,697,095 
Income from operations$379,651 $34,574 $9,967 $3,218 $427,410 
Interest expense, net(14,836)
Income before provision for income taxes412,574 
Provision for income taxes86,630 
Net income325,944 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest— 
Net income attributable to IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. stockholders$325,944 
2021
Revenue$1,438,362 $71,231 $72,794 $21,462 $1,603,849 
Income from operations$447,945 $32,000 $20,676 $6,254 $506,875 
Interest expense, net(15,054)
Income before provision for income taxes491,821 
Provision for income taxes84,926 
Net income406,895 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest56 
Net income attributable to IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. stockholders$406,839 

Refer to “Note 3. Revenue Recognition” for a summary of disaggregated revenue by reportable segment and by major product and service category for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021. 
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NOTE 18. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS 

U.S. GAAP defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. U.S. GAAP requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs, where available, and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.  

We have certain financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis, certain nonfinancial assets and liabilities that may be measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis, and certain financial assets and liabilities that are not measured at fair value in our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets but for which we disclose the fair value. The fair value disclosures of these assets and liabilities are based on a three-level hierarchy, which is defined as follows: 
Level 1Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date.
Level 2Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.

Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability. We did not have any transfers in or out of Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022.

Our cross currency swap contracts are measured at fair value on a recurring basis in our accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets. We measure the fair value of our cross currency swap contracts classified as derivative instruments using prevailing market conditions as of the close of business on each balance sheet date. The product of this calculation is then adjusted for counterparty risk.

Our foreign currency exchange contracts are measured at fair value on a recurring basis in our accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets. We measure the fair value of our foreign currency exchange contracts classified as derivative instruments using an income approach, based on prevailing market forward rates less the contract rate multiplied by the notional amount. The product of this calculation is then adjusted for counterparty risk.

The amounts outstanding under our unsecured revolving credit facility (“Credit Facility” or “line of credit”) and senior notes (“long-term debt”) are measured at carrying value in our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets though we disclose the fair value of these financial instruments. We determine the fair value of the amount outstanding under our Credit Facility and long-term debt using an income approach, utilizing a discounted cash flow analysis based on current market interest rates for debt issues with similar remaining years to maturity, adjusted for applicable credit risk. Our Credit Facility and long-term debt are valued using Level 2 inputs. The estimated fair value of our Credit Facility approximates its carrying value. The estimated fair value and carrying value of our long-term debt were $765.0 million and $768.5 million, respectively, as of June 30, 2022, and $916.3 million and $850.7 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2021.


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The following tables set forth our assets and liabilities that were measured at fair value on a recurring basis by level within the fair value hierarchy:
(in thousands)
As of June 30, 2022Quoted Prices
in Active
Markets for
Identical Assets
(Level 1)
Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
Balance as of June 30, 2022
    
Assets    
Equity mutual funds (2)
$586 $— $— $586 
Cross currency swaps (3)
$— $11,179 $— $11,179 
Foreign currency exchange contracts (3)
$— $16,799 $— $16,799 
Liabilities
Foreign currency exchange contracts (3)
$— $$— $
Deferred compensation (4)
$586 $— $— $586 
Contingent payments - acquisitions$— $— $3,730 $3,730 
(in thousands)
As of December 31, 2021Quoted Prices
in Active
Markets for
Identical Assets
(Level 1)
Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
Balance as of December 31, 2021
    
Assets    
Money market funds (1)
$76 $— $— $76 
Equity mutual funds (2)
$826 $— $— $826 
Cross currency swaps (3)
$— $4,256 $— $4,256 
Foreign currency exchange contracts (3)
$— $6,512 $— $6,512 
Liabilities
Foreign currency exchange contracts (3)
$— $601 $— $601 
Deferred compensation (4)
$826 $— $— $826 
Contingent payments - acquisitions$— $— $7,230 $7,230 
(1)Money market funds with an original maturity of less than ninety days are included within cash and cash equivalents. The remaining balance of cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2021 consisted of demand deposits. As of June 30, 2022, we did not have any money market funds outstanding.
(2)Equity mutual funds relate to a deferred compensation plan that was assumed as part of a previous business combination. This amount is included within other long-term assets. Refer to footnote (4) below for a discussion of the related deferred compensation liability. 
(3)Cross currency swaps and foreign currency exchange contracts are included within other current assets, other long-term assets, accrued liabilities, or other long-term liabilities depending on the gain (loss) position and anticipated settlement date.  
(4)A deferred compensation plan assumed as part of a previous business combination is included within accrued liabilities and other long-term liabilities. The fair value of our deferred compensation plan is indexed to the performance of the underlying equity mutual funds discussed in footnote (2) above.  

The estimated fair value of certain financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, and accounts payable, approximate carrying value due to their short maturity.

Contingent Consideration

We have classified our liability for contingent consideration related to acquisitions within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because the fair value is determined using significant unobservable inputs, which includes the achievements of future revenues. The contingent consideration is included within other short-term liabilities.


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We record changes in the estimated fair value of contingent consideration in the condensed consolidated statements of income. Changes in contingent consideration liabilities are measured at fair value on a recurring basis using unobservable inputs (Level 3) and during the six months ended June 30, 2022, are as follows:

(in thousands)Fair Value
 
Contingent consideration as of December 31, 2021$7,230 
Payment of contingent consideration(3,500)
Contingent consideration as of June 30, 2022$3,730 

During the second quarter of 2022, we determined that the $7.0 million contingent consideration associated with our ezyVet acquisition in the second quarter of 2021 would be earned based on revenue achievements obtained. The remainder of the contingent consideration is expected to be paid during the third quarter of 2022.
NOTE 19. HEDGING INSTRUMENTS
 
Disclosure within this note is presented to provide transparency about how and why we use derivative and non-derivative instruments (collectively “hedging instruments”), how the instruments and related hedged items are accounted for, and how the instruments and related hedged items affect our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

We are exposed to certain risks related to our ongoing business operations. The primary risk that we currently manage by using hedging instruments is foreign currency exchange risk. We may also enter into interest rate swaps to minimize the impact of interest rate fluctuations associated with borrowings under our variable-rate Credit Facility.

Our subsidiaries enter into foreign currency exchange contracts to manage the exchange risk associated with their forecasted intercompany inventory purchases and sales for the next year. From time to time, we may also enter into other foreign currency exchange contracts, cross currency swaps, or foreign-denominated debt issuances to minimize the impact of foreign currency fluctuations associated with specific balance sheet exposures, including net investments in certain foreign subsidiaries.  

The primary purpose of our foreign currency hedging activities is to protect against the volatility associated with foreign currency transactions, including transactions denominated in the euro, British pound, Japanese yen, Canadian dollar, and Australian dollar. We also utilize natural hedges to mitigate our transaction and commitment exposures. Our corporate policy prescribes the range of allowable hedging activity. We enter into foreign currency exchange contracts with well-capitalized multinational financial institutions, and we do not hold or engage in transactions involving derivative instruments for purposes other than risk management. Our accounting policies for these contracts are based on the designation of such instruments as hedging transactions.

We recognize all hedging instruments on the balance sheet at fair value at the balance sheet date. Instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting treatment must be recorded at fair value through earnings. To qualify for hedge accounting treatment, cash flow and net investment hedges must be highly effective in offsetting changes to expected future cash flows or fair value on hedged transactions. If the instrument qualifies for hedge accounting, changes in the fair value of the hedging instrument from the effective portion of the hedge are deferred in AOCI, net of tax, and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. We immediately record in earnings the extent to which a hedging instrument is not effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value. We de-designate hedging instruments from hedge accounting when the likelihood of the hedged transaction occurring becomes less than probable. For de-designated instruments, the gain or loss from the time of de-designation through maturity of the instrument is recognized in earnings. Any gain or loss in AOCI at the time of de-designation is reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. Refer to “Note 14. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income” for further information regarding the effect of hedging instruments on our unaudited condensed consolidated statements of income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021.

We enter into master netting arrangements with the counterparties to our derivative transactions which permit certain outstanding receivables and payables to be offset in the event of default. Our derivative contracts do not require either party to post cash collateral. We elect to present our derivative assets and liabilities in the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets on a gross basis. All cash flows related to our foreign currency exchange contracts are classified as operating cash flows, which is consistent with the cash flow treatment of the underlying items being hedged. 
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Cash Flow Hedges 

We have designated our foreign currency exchange contracts as cash flow hedges as these derivative instruments mitigate the exposure to variability in the cash flows of forecasted transactions attributable to foreign currency exchange. Unless noted otherwise, we have also designated our derivative instruments as qualifying for hedge accounting treatment.  

We did not de-designate any instruments from hedge accounting treatment during either the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 or 2021. As of June 30, 2022, the estimated amount of net gains, net of tax, which are expected to be reclassified out of AOCI and into earnings within the next 12 months, is $11.2 million if exchange rates do not fluctuate from the levels as of June 30, 2022. 

We target to hedge approximately 75% to 85% of the estimated exposure from intercompany product purchases and sales denominated in the euro, British pound, Canadian dollar, Japanese yen, and Australian dollar. We have additional unhedged foreign currency exposures related to foreign services and emerging markets where it is not practical to hedge. We primarily utilize foreign currency exchange contracts with durations of less than 24 months. Quarterly, we enter into contracts to hedge incremental portions of anticipated foreign currency transactions for the current and following year. As a result, our risk with respect to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and the notional value of foreign currency exchange contracts may vary throughout the year. The U.S. dollar is the currency purchased or sold in all of our foreign currency exchange contracts. The notional amount of foreign currency exchange contracts to hedge forecasted intercompany inventory purchases and sales totaled $259.4 million and $286.7 million as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.

The following tables present the effect of cash flow hedge accounting on our unaudited condensed consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income, and provide information regarding the location and amounts of pretax gains or losses of derivatives: 
(in thousands) Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months ended June 30,
 2022202120222021
Financial statement line items in which effects of cash flow hedges are recordedCost of revenue$346,514 $336,834 $684,310 $643,759 
Foreign exchange contracts
Amount of gain (loss) reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income into income$5,781 $(2,715)$8,017 $(5,145)

Net Investment Hedges, Euro-Denominated Notes

In June 2015, we issued and sold through a private placement an aggregate principal amount of €88.9 million in euro-denominated 1.785% Series C Senior Notes due June 18, 2025. We have designated these euro-denominated notes as a hedge of our euro net investment in certain foreign subsidiaries to reduce the volatility in stockholders’ equity caused by changes in foreign currency exchange rates in the euro relative to the U.S. dollar. As a result of this designation, gains and losses from the change in translated U.S. dollar value of these euro-denominated notes are recorded in AOCI rather than to earnings. We recorded gains of $4.1 million and $5.5 million, net of tax, within AOCI as a result of this net investment hedge for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, and losses of $1.0 million and gains of $2.7 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively. The related cumulative unrealized gain recorded as of June 30, 2022, will not be reclassified in earnings until the complete or substantially complete liquidation of the net investment in the hedged foreign operations or a portion of the hedge no longer qualifies for hedge accounting treatment. Refer to Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements included in our 2021 Annual Report for further information regarding the issuance of these euro-denominated notes.

Net Investment Hedges, Cross Currency Swaps

We have entered into several cross currency swap contracts as a hedge of our net investment in foreign operations to offset foreign currency translation gains and losses on the net investment. These cross currency swaps have maturity dates beginning on June 30, 2023, through June 18, 2025. At maturity of the cross currency swap contracts, we will deliver the notional amount of €90.0 million and will receive approximately $104.5 million from the counterparties on June 30, 2023, and
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we will deliver the notional amount of €15 million and will receive approximately $17.5 million from the counterparties on June 18, 2025. The changes in fair value of the cross currency swap contracts are recorded in AOCI and will be reclassified to earnings when the foreign subsidiaries are sold or substantially liquidated. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, we recorded gains of $4.3 million and $5.3 million, net of tax, respectively, within AOCI as a result of these net investment hedges, and losses of $1.1 million and gains of $2.2 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively. We will receive quarterly interest payments from the counterparties based on a fixed interest rate until maturity of the cross currency swaps. This interest rate component is excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and is recognized as a reduction to interest expense over the life of the hedge instrument. We recognized approximately $0.7 million and $1.4 million related to the excluded component as a reduction of interest expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, and $0.7 million and $1.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively.

Fair Values of Hedging Instruments Designated as Hedges in Consolidated Balance Sheets

The fair values of hedging instruments and their respective classification on our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets and amounts subject to offset under master netting arrangements consisted of the following derivative instruments, unless otherwise noted: 
(in thousands) Hedging Assets
 June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
   
Derivatives and non-derivatives designated as hedging instrumentsBalance Sheet Classification  
Foreign currency exchange contractsOther current assets$14,863 $6,512 
Foreign currency exchange contractsOther long-term assets1,936 — 
Cross currency swapsOther long-term assets11,179 4,256 
Total derivative instruments presented as hedge instruments on the balance sheet27,978 10,768 
Gross amounts subject to master netting arrangements not offset on the balance sheet(5)(601)
Net amount $27,973 $10,167 


(in thousands) Hedging Liabilities
 June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
   
Derivatives and non-derivatives designated as hedging instrumentsBalance Sheet Classification  
Foreign currency exchange contractsAccrued liabilities$$601 
Total derivative instruments presented as cash flow hedges on the balance sheet601 
Non-derivative foreign currency denominated debt designated as net investment hedge on the balance sheet (1)
Long-term debt93,451 100,711 
Total hedging instruments presented on the balance sheet93,456 101,312 
Gross amounts subject to master netting arrangements not offset on the balance sheet(5)(601)
Net amount $93,451 $100,711 
(1) Amounts represent reported carrying amounts of our foreign currency-denominated debt. Refer to “Note 18. Fair Value Measurements” for information regarding the fair value of our long-term debt.


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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. 
 
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains statements which, to the extent they are not statements of historical fact, constitute “forward-looking statements.” Such forward-looking statements about our business and expectations within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), include statements relating to, among other things, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; our expectations regarding LPD financial performance and supply chain and logistics challenges; our operations in Russia; future revenue growth rates; revenue recognition timing and amounts; business trends, earnings and other measures of financial performance; the effect of economic downturns on our business performance; projected impact of foreign currency exchange rates; demand for companion animal healthcare and our products; realizability of assets; future cash flow and uses of cash; future repurchases of common stock; future levels of indebtedness and capital spending, the working capital and liquidity outlook; the projected impact of new accounting standards; critical accounting estimates; deductibility of goodwill; research and development expense estimate; and future commercial and operational efforts. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as “expects,” “may,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “would,” “will,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates,” “should,” “project,” and similar words and expressions. These forward-looking statements are intended to provide our current expectations or forecasts of future events; are based on current estimates, projections, beliefs, and assumptions; and are not guarantees of future performance. Actual events or results may differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties, including, among other things, the adverse impact, and the duration, of the effects of the current war in Ukraine and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on our business, results of operations, liquidity, financial condition, and stock price, supply chain and logistics delays and disruptions, as well as the other matters described under the headings “Business,” “Risk Factors,” “Legal Proceedings,” “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk” in our 2021 Annual Report and in the corresponding sections of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and for the quarter ended March 31, 2022, as well as those described from time to time in our other periodic reports filed with the SEC.

Any forward-looking statements represent our estimates only as of the day this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q was filed with the SEC and should not be relied upon as representing our estimates as of any subsequent date. From time to time, oral or written forward-looking statements may also be included in other materials released to the public. While we may elect to update forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, even if our estimates or expectations change.  

You should read the following discussion and analysis in conjunction with our 2021 Annual Report that includes additional information about us, our results of operations, our financial position, and our cash flows, and with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included in “Part I. Item 1. Financial Statements” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Our fiscal quarter ended on June 30. Unless otherwise stated, the analysis and discussion of our financial condition and results of operations below, including references to growth and organic growth and increases and decreases, are being compared to the equivalent prior-year periods.

Business Overview 
 
We develop, manufacture, and distribute products and provide services primarily for the companion animal veterinary, livestock, poultry and dairy, and water testing sectors. We also design, manufacture, and distribute point of care and laboratory diagnostics for the human medical diagnostics sector. Our primary products and services are:

Point-of-care veterinary diagnostic products, comprising instruments, consumables, and rapid assay test kits;
Veterinary reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services;
Practice management and diagnostic imaging systems and services used by veterinarians;
Health monitoring, biological materials testing, and laboratory diagnostic instruments and services used by the biomedical research community;
Diagnostic, health-monitoring products for livestock, poultry, and dairy;
Products that test water for certain microbiological contaminants; and
Point-of-care electrolytes, blood gas analyzers, and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR (COVID-19 test) used in the human diagnostics sector.


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Operating Segments. We operate primarily through three business segments: diagnostic and information technology-based products and services for the veterinary sector, which we refer to as the Companion Animal Group (“CAG”), water quality products (“Water”), and diagnostic products and services for livestock and poultry health and to ensure the quality and safety of milk and improve producer efficiency, which we refer to as Livestock, Poultry and Dairy (“LPD”). Our Other operating segment combines and presents products for the human medical diagnostics sector with our out-licensing arrangements because they do not meet the quantitative or qualitative thresholds for reportable segments. 

CAG develops, designs, manufactures, and distributes products and software, and performs services for veterinarians and the biomedical analytics sector, primarily related to diagnostics and information management. Water develops, designs, manufactures, and distributes a range of products used in the detection of various microbiological parameters in water. LPD develops, designs, manufactures, and distributes diagnostic tests and related software and performs services that are used to manage the health status of livestock and poultry, to improve bovine reproductive efficiency, and to ensure the quality and safety of milk. OPTI Medical develops, designs, manufactures, and distributes point-of-care and laboratory diagnostics (including electrolyte and blood gas analyzers, COVID-19 PCR test, and related consumable products) for the human medical diagnostics sector.

Effects of Certain Factors and Trends on Results of Operations 

CAG Trends. The continued growth in demand for companion animal healthcare supported solid gains for CAG diagnostic products and services across regions, compared to very strong prior year demand levels. Average diagnostics revenues grew 6% at U.S. veterinary practices on a same-store basis in the second quarter, ahead of 3% growth in overall clinic revenues, reflecting continued expansion of demand for pet healthcare services. U.S. same-store clinical visits at veterinary practices declined 3% in the second quarter compared to prior year period clinical visit growth of 13%, which included benefits from increases in new pet ownership during the COVID-19 pandemic.

LPD Trends. Our LPD revenues, on a year-over-year comparison, declined due to the relaxation of local African Swine Fever disease management programs, as well as additional impacts in China from lower pork prices and changing government requirements related to live animal imports and livestock infectious disease programs, which began in the second quarter of 2021. The comparisons to prior year are expected to improve in the second half of 2022.

Supply Chain and Logistics Challenges. We believe that building and maintaining a well-managed and disciplined infrastructure have helped minimize impacts of the current supply chain constraints, including product and component availability issues, logistics challenges, including extended shipping periods and delays, and inflationary pressures that are currently occurring worldwide. Our proactive approach to managing our operational processes, including forward planning with a focus on working closely with our suppliers and logistics partners, has enabled us to maintain continued high levels of product and service availability and customer service. We continue to monitor these supply chain and logistics challenges, including potential fuel rationing and shortages, and have implemented mitigation strategies to adjust for, among other things, delayed shipments of products and components. Although we expect these challenges to continue during 2022, we believe we are well positioned to enable sustained high growth in our businesses going forward and to effectively manage the impacts of potentially relatively higher costs in certain areas to support these growth plans. However, there can be no assurance as to the duration or severity of the supply chain and logistics challenges or the effectiveness of our mitigating activities.

War in Ukraine / Russia Operations. Our operations in the Russia, Belarus and Ukraine region are limited. Our 2021 revenue from the region represented less than 1% of our 2021 consolidated revenue, and we have no manufacturing or significant supply arrangement in the region. After significantly scaling back our operations in Russia in the first quarter, including suspending sales of veterinary diagnostic equipment; promotional, marketing, and hiring activities; and new business development and related investments, we decided in June 2022, after careful consideration, to wind down and liquidate our sole Russian subsidiary, as well as our direct Russian operations, which consisted of marketing and selling diagnostic products for veterinary clinics in Russia. After we conclude the wind-down of our direct Russian operations, we anticipate that only a limited number of our products, which are important for human or animal healthcare, will continue to be sold in Russia pursuant to ongoing third-party distribution agreements. Some of our products are also sold in Belarus pursuant to ongoing third-party distribution agreements.


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Currency and Other Items

Currency Impact. Refer to “Part I, Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for additional information regarding the impact of foreign currency exchange rates.

Other Items. Refer to “Part I, Item 1. Business - Patents and Licenses” and “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in our 2021 Annual Report for additional information regarding distributor purchasing and inventories, economic conditions, and patent expiration.

Critical Accounting Estimates and Assumptions 

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The critical accounting policies and the significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, are consistent with those discussed in our 2021 Annual Report in the section under the heading “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Critical Accounting Estimates and Assumptions.”  

Recent Accounting Pronouncements 

For more information regarding the impact that recent accounting standards and amendments will have on our consolidated financial statements, refer to Note 2 to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in “Part I. Item 1. Financial Statements” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

The following revenue analysis and discussion focuses on organic revenue growth, and references in this analysis and discussion to “revenue,” “revenues” or “revenue growth” are references to “organic revenue growth.” Organic revenue growth is a non-GAAP financial measure and represents the percentage change in revenue during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to the same periods for the prior year, net of the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, certain business acquisitions, and divestitures. Organic revenue growth should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for, or as a superior measure to, revenue growth reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. Management believes that reporting organic revenue growth provides useful information to investors by facilitating easier comparisons of our revenue performance with prior and future periods and to the performance of our peers.

We exclude from organic revenue growth the effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates because changes in foreign currency exchange rates are not under management’s control, are subject to volatility, and can obscure underlying business trends. We calculate the impact on revenue resulting from changes in foreign currency exchange rates by applying the difference between the weighted average exchange rates during the current year period and the comparable prior-year period to foreign currency denominated revenues for the prior-year period. 

We also exclude from organic revenue growth the effect of certain business acquisitions and divestitures because the nature, size and number of these transactions can vary dramatically from period to period, and because they either require or generate cash as an inherent consequence of the transaction, and therefore can also obscure underlying business and operating trends. We exclude only acquisitions that are considered to be a business from organic revenue growth. In a business combination, if substantially all the fair value of the assets acquired is concentrated in a single asset or group of similar assets, we do not consider these assets to be a business and include these acquisitions in organic revenue growth. A typical acquisition that we do not consider a business is a customer list asset acquisition, which does not have all elements necessary to operate a business, such as employees or infrastructure. We believe the efforts required to convert and retain these acquired customers are similar in nature to our existing customer base and therefore are included in organic revenue growth. The percentage change in revenue resulting from acquisitions represents revenues during the current year period, limited to the initial 12 months from the date of the acquisition, that are directly attributable to business acquisitions.
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We also use Adjusted EBITDA, gross debt, net debt, gross debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio and net debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio, in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, all of which are non-GAAP financial measures that should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for, financial measures presented according to U.S. GAAP. Management believes that reporting these non-GAAP financial measures provides supplemental analysis to help investors further evaluate our business performance and available borrowing capacity under our Credit Facility.
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Results of Operations

Three Months Ended June 30, 2022, Compared to Three Months Ended June 30, 2021

Total Company. The following table presents total Company revenue by operating segment:
For the Three Months Ended June 30,
Net Revenue
(dollars in thousands)
20222021Dollar Change
Reported Revenue Growth (1)
Percentage Change from CurrencyPercentage Change from Acquisitions
Organic Revenue Growth (1)
       
CAG$784,087 $745,595 $38,492 5.2 %(3.3 %)1.1 %7.3 %
United States532,626 486,252 46,374 9.5 %— 1.5 %8.1 %
International251,461 259,343 (7,882)(3.0 %)(9.2 %)0.4 %5.7 %
Water39,195 37,191 2,004 5.4 %(3.5 %) 8.9 %
United States19,533 17,747 1,786 10.1 %— — 10.1 %
International19,662 19,444 218 1.1 %(6.7 %)— 7.8 %
LPD29,889 33,524 (3,635)(10.8 %)(5.8 %) (5.0 %)
United States3,742 3,516 226 6.5 %— — 6.5 %
International26,147 30,008 (3,861)(12.9 %)(6.4 %)— (6.4 %)
Other7,375 9,832 (2,457)(25.0 %)1.9 % (26.9 %)
Total Company$860,546 $826,142 $34,404 4.2 %(3.3 %)1.0 %6.5 %
United States559,825 515,238 44,587 8.7 %— 1.4 %7.3 %
International300,721 310,904 (10,183)(3.3 %)(8.6 %)0.3 %5.0 %
(1)Reported revenue growth and organic revenue growth may not recalculate due to rounding.

Total Company Revenue. The increase in organic revenue was driven by volume gains in CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue, primarily in the U.S. Overall growth reflects higher realized prices and expanding demand for companion animal diagnostics globally. Our CAG Diagnostics instrument revenue reflects high placement volume this quarter. The higher revenue in our Water business was primarily due to the benefit of price increases and higher testing volumes. The decline in our LPD business was primarily due to lower demand for swine testing in China. Other revenues reflects lower OPTI COVID-19 PCR testing products and services in the U.S. The impact of foreign currency movements decreased total revenue growth by 3.3%, while acquisitions increased revenue growth by 1.0%.


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    The following table presents total Company results of operations:
For the Three Months Ended June 30,Change
Total Company - Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
2022Percent of Revenue2021Percent of RevenueAmountPercentage
      
Revenues$860,546 $826,142 $34,404 4.2 %
Cost of revenue346,514 336,834 9,680 2.9 %
Gross profit514,032 59.7 %489,308 59.2 %24,724 5.1 %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing130,257 15.1 %119,032 14.4 %11,225 9.4 %
General and administrative81,488 9.5 %73,326 8.9 %8,162 11.1 %
Research and development123,221 14.3 %37,697 4.6 %85,524 226.9 %
Total operating expenses334,966 38.9 %230,055 27.8 %104,911 45.6 %
Income from operations$179,066 20.8 %$259,253 31.4 %$(80,187)(30.9 %)

Gross Profit. Gross profit increased due to higher sales volumes and a 50 basis point increase in the gross profit margin. The increase in the gross profit margin was primarily due to net price gains, the benefit of our reference laboratory productivity initiatives, and improved software services gross margins. The margin also increased due to comparisons to a prior year impairment charge related to rental assets in certain regions. These increases were offset by higher product, freight and distribution, and labor costs, including the impacts of inflation. The impact from foreign currency movements increased the gross profit margin by approximately 50 basis points, primarily from the impact of higher hedge gains in the current year as compared to hedge losses in the prior year.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related costs, including investments in our global commercial capability. General and administrative expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related expense and increases in amortization and depreciation expense related to business acquisitions and capital investments. Research and development expense increased primarily due to expenses totaling $80 million for acquiring rights to use certain licensed technology under two separate intellectual property licensing arrangements. These licenses are being used for future product development. The overall change in foreign currency exchange rates decreased operating expenses growth by approximately 2%.
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Companion Animal Group

The following table presents revenue by product and service category for CAG: 
For the Three Months Ended June 30,
Net Revenue
(dollars in thousands)
20222021Dollar Change
Reported Revenue Growth(1)
Percentage Change from CurrencyPercentage Change from Acquisitions
Organic Revenue Growth(1)
       
CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue:$685,413 $661,300 $24,113 3.6 %(3.3 %)0.2 %6.8 %
IDEXX VetLab consumables266,079 256,352 9,727 3.8 %(4.1 %)— 7.9 %
Rapid assay products87,481 83,887 3,594 4.3 %(1.6 %)— 5.8 %
Reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services304,130 293,675 10,455 3.6 %(3.0 %)0.4 %6.1 %
CAG diagnostics services and accessories27,723 27,386 337 1.2 %(4.4 %)— 5.7 %
CAG Diagnostics capital - instruments36,227 35,054 1,173 3.3 %(4.9 %)— 8.3 %
Veterinary software, services and diagnostic imaging systems62,447 49,241 13,206 26.8 %(1.1 %)13.8 %14.0 %
Net CAG revenue$784,087 $745,595 $38,492 5.2 %(3.3 %)1.1 %7.3 %
(1) Reported revenue growth and organic revenue growth may not recalculate due to rounding.

CAG Diagnostics Recurring Revenue. The increase was driven by higher demand for companion animal diagnostics globally across modalities. The increase in CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue was primarily due to increased volumes in IDEXX VetLab consumables and reference laboratory diagnostic services, and higher realized prices. The impact of foreign currency movements decreased revenue growth by 3.3%. The impact of acquisitions increased revenue growth by 1.1%.

The increase in IDEXX VetLab consumables revenue was primarily due to higher sales volumes, primarily of our Catalyst consumables and, to a lesser extent, ProCyte consumables, and higher price realization. These volume increases were supported by the expansion of our installed base of instruments, our expanded menu of available tests in certain regions, and high customer retention levels.

The increase in rapid assay revenue resulted from higher testing volume levels in the U.S., primarily from SNAP® 4Dx Plus, and higher price realization.
The increase in reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services revenue was primarily due to higher testing volumes and price realization in our U.S. labs. Growth in other regions was moderately lower, with volume growth pressured by comparison to strong prior period demand levels, offset by higher realized prices.

The increase in CAG Diagnostics services and accessories revenue was primarily a result of the expansion of our active installed base of instruments.

CAG Diagnostics Capital – Instrument Revenue. The increase in instrument revenue was primarily due to strong premium instrument placements globally, including the successful global launch of the ProCyte One analyzer, to support increased diagnostic testing.


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Veterinary Software, Services and Diagnostic Imaging Systems Revenue. Acquisitions increased revenue 13.8% as compared to the second quarter of 2021, with the purchase of ezyVet in June 2021. Excluding the impact of acquisitions, the increase in veterinary software and services revenue was primarily due to higher veterinary software system placements to continue the expansion in our active installed base, and higher realized prices on service offerings. The increase in our diagnostic imaging systems revenues was primarily due to increases in our active installed base resulting in higher service revenue, as well as higher realized prices.

The following table presents the CAG segment results of operations:
For the Three Months Ended June 30,Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
2022Percent of Revenue2021Percent of RevenueAmountPercentage
Revenues$784,087 $745,595 $38,492 5.2 %
Cost of revenues317,833 304,809 13,024 4.3 %
Gross profit466,254 59.5 %440,786 59.1 %25,468 5.8 %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing118,899 15.2 %109,151 14.6 %9,748 8.9 %
General and administrative72,079 9.2 %64,134 8.6 %7,945 12.4 %
Research and development118,750 15.1 %32,766 4.4 %85,984 262.4 %
Total operating expenses309,728 39.5 %206,051 27.6 %103,677 50.3 %
Income from operations$156,526 20.0 %$234,735 31.5 %$(78,209)(33.3 %)

Gross Profit. Gross profit increased primarily due to higher sales volume and a 40 basis point increase in the gross profit margin. The increase in the gross profit margin was primarily due to net price gains, the benefit of our reference laboratory productivity initiatives, and improved software services gross margins. The margin also increased due to comparisons to a prior year impairment charge related to rental assets in certain regions. These increases were offset by increases in product, freight and distribution, and labor costs, including the impacts of inflation. The impact from foreign currency movements increased the gross profit margin by approximately 30 basis points, primarily from the impact of hedge gains in the current year as compared to hedge losses in the prior year.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related costs, including investments in our global commercial capability. General and administrative expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related expense and increases in amortization and depreciation expense related to business acquisitions and capital investments. Research and development expense increased primarily due to expenses totaling $80 million for acquiring rights to use certain licensed technology under two separate intellectual property licensing arrangements. These licenses are being used for future product development. The overall change in foreign currency exchange rates decreased operating expenses by 2%.

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Water

The following table presents the Water segment results of operations:
For the Three Months Ended June 30,Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
2022Percent of Revenue2021Percent of RevenueAmountPercentage
Revenues$39,195 $37,191 $2,004 5.4 %
Cost of revenue11,836 11,444 392 3.4 %
Gross profit27,359 69.8 %25,747 69.2 %1,612 6.3 %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing4,711 12.0 %4,099 11.0 %612 14.9 %
General and administrative3,623 9.2 %3,384 9.1 %239 7.1 %
Research and development1,105 2.8 %1,036 2.8 %69 6.7 %
Total operating expenses9,439 24.1 %8,519 22.9 %920 10.8 %
Income from operations$17,920 45.7 %$17,228 46.3 %$692 4.0 %

Revenue. The increase in revenue was due to higher realized prices and testing volumes, primarily in our Colilert test products and related accessories used in coliform and E. coli testing. Testing volumes were lower in the Asia-Pacific region largely due to COVID restrictions. The impact of foreign currency movements decreased revenue by approximately 3.5%.

Gross Profit. Gross profit increased due to higher sales volumes and a 60 basis point increase in the gross profit margin, which reflected a 230 basis point increase due to foreign currency movements, primarily from the impact of hedge gains in the current year compared to hedge losses in the prior year. The gross profit margin was decreased by higher freight and distribution costs and, to a lesser extent, higher product costs, partially offset by the net benefit of price gains.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing and research and development expenses increased primarily due to higher personnel-related costs. General and administrative expense increased primarily due to personnel-related cost and third-party services. The overall change in foreign currency exchange rates resulted in a decrease in operating expenses of approximately 2%.



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Livestock, Poultry and Dairy 

The following table presents the LPD segment results of operations:
For the Three Months Ended June 30,Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
2022Percent of Revenue2021Percent of RevenueAmountPercentage
      
Revenues$29,889 $33,524 $(3,635)(10.8 %)
Cost of revenue12,893 13,998 (1,105)(7.9 %)
Gross profit16,996 56.9 %19,526 58.2 %(2,530)(13.0 %)
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing6,216 20.8 %5,142 15.3 %1,074 20.9 %
General and administrative4,532 15.2 %4,271 12.7 %261 6.1 %
Research and development3,018 10.1 %3,245 9.7 %(227)(7.0 %)
Total operating expenses13,766 46.1 %12,658 37.8 %1,108 8.8 %
Income from operations$3,230 10.8 %$6,868 20.5 %$(3,638)(53.0 %)

Revenue. The decrease in LPD revenues was primarily due to lower demand for diagnostic testing in China. Beginning during the second quarter of 2021, and continuing through the second quarter of 2022, we experienced lower livestock testing volumes in China, as changes in disease management approaches, low pork prices, and changes in government requirements related to live animal imports and livestock infectious disease programs unfavorably impacted testing volumes, in comparison to high prior-year demand for African Swine Fever testing. The decrease in revenue was partially offset by moderate growth, including benefits from higher price gains in other regions. The unfavorable impact of foreign currency movements decreased revenues by 5.8%.

Gross Profit. Gross profit decreased due to lower sales volumes and a 130 basis point decrease in the gross profit margin. The gross profit margin decreased as a result of higher distribution and freight charges, higher product costs, and investments in our bovine laboratory services. The decrease in the gross profit margin was partially offset by the impact from foreign currency movements, which increased the gross profit margin by approximately 400 basis points, primarily from the impact of hedge gains in the current year compared to hedge losses in the prior year.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expense increased primarily due to increases in personnel-related costs and product marketing costs. General and administrative expenses increased primarily due to higher bad debt expense and higher personnel-related costs. Research and development expense decreased primarily due to lower personnel-related costs. The overall change in foreign currency exchange rates resulted in a decrease in operating expenses of approximately 4%.

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Other

The following table presents the Other results of operations:
For the Three Months Ended June 30,Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
2022Percent of Revenue2021Percent of RevenueAmountPercentage
      
Revenues$7,375 $9,832 $(2,457)(25.0 %)
Cost of revenue3,952 6,583 (2,631)(40.0 %)
Gross profit3,423 46.4 %3,249 33.0 %174 5.4 %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing431 5.8 %640 6.5 %(209)(32.7 %)
General and administrative1,254 17.0 %1,537 15.6 %(283)(18.4 %)
Research and development348 4.7 %650 6.6 %(302)(46.5 %)
Total operating expenses2,033 27.6 %2,827 28.8 %(794)(28.1 %)
Income from operations$1,390 18.8 %$422 4.3 %$968 229.4 %


Revenue. The decrease in revenue was primarily due to lower OPTI COVID-19 PCR testing products and services in the U.S., and lower OPTI Medical consumables revenue due to COVID-19 restrictions in Asia and Latin America. The impact of foreign currency movements increased revenue by 1.9%.
 
Gross Profit. The increase in gross profit and the 1,340 basis point increase in the gross profit margin were primarily due to lower costs of our testing products and services, including the benefit from the comparison to write-downs of excess COVID-19 testing inventory in the prior period. This increase was partially offset by higher freight and distribution costs. The overall change in foreign currency exchange rates had an immaterial impact on gross profit.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expense decreased primarily due to lower personnel-related costs. General and administrative expense decreased primarily due to lower bad debt expense. Research and development expense decreased primarily due to lower project costs compared to investments in the development of the OPTI COVID-19 PCR test during the prior year.

Non-Operating Items

Interest Expense. Interest expense was $8.3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to $7.6 million for the same period in the prior year. The increase in interest expense was primarily the result of higher average debt levels.

Provision for Income Taxes. Our effective income tax rate was 22.9% for the three months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to 19.5% for the three months ended June 30, 2021. The increase in our effective tax rate was primarily driven by higher taxes on international income and decreases in tax benefits related to share-based compensation.
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Results of Operations

Six Months Ended June 30, 2022, Compared to Six Months Ended June 30, 2021

Total Company. The following table presents total Company revenue by operating segment:
For the Six Months Ended June 30,
Net Revenue
(dollars in thousands)
20222021Dollar Change
Reported Revenue Growth (1)
Percentage Change from CurrencyPercentage Change from Acquisitions
Organic Revenue Growth (1)
CAG$1,545,271 $1,438,362 $106,909 7.4 %(2.6 %)1.3 %8.7 %
United States1,032,392 930,662 101,730 10.9 %— 1.8 %9.1 %
International512,879 507,700 5,179 1.0 %(7.3 %)0.4 %7.9 %
Water75,566 71,231 4,335 6.1 %(2.6 %)— 8.7 %
United States37,364 34,315 3,049 8.9 %— — 8.9 %
International38,202 36,916 1,286 3.5 %(5.0 %)— 8.5 %
LPD60,759 72,794 (12,035)(16.5 %)(3.8 %)— (12.7 %)
United States7,602 7,264 338 4.7 %— — 4.7 %
International53,157 65,530 (12,373)(18.9 %)(4.1 %)— (14.8 %)
Other15,499 21,462 (5,963)(27.8 %)0.7 %— (28.5 %)
Total Company$1,697,095 $1,603,849 $93,246 5.8 %(2.6 %)1.2 %7.2 %
United States1,085,731 987,876 97,855 9.9 %— 1.7 %8.2 %
International611,364 615,973 (4,609)(0.7 %)(6.7 %)0.3 %5.6 %
(1)Reported revenue growth and organic revenue growth may not recalculate due to rounding.

Total Company Revenue. The increase in organic revenues was driven by solid volume gains in CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue, primarily in the U.S. Overall growth reflects continued demand for companion animal diagnostics globally, as well as higher realized prices. Our CAG Diagnostics instrument revenue reflects strong placement volume for the first half of the year. The higher revenue in our Water business was primarily due to the benefit of price increases and higher testing volumes. The decline in our LPD business was primarily due to lower demand for swine testing in China. Other revenues reflect lower OPTI COVID-19 PCR testing products. The impact of acquisitions increased total revenue growth by 1.2% while the impact of currency movements decreased total revenue growth by 2.6%.
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The following table presents total Company results of operations:
For the Six Months Ended June 30,Change
Total Company - Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
2022Percent of Revenue2021Percent of RevenueAmountPercentage
Revenues$1,697,095 $1,603,849 $93,246 5.8 %
Cost of revenue684,310 643,759 40,551 6.3 %
Gross profit1,012,785 59.7 %960,090 59.9 %52,695 5.5 %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing262,549 15.5 %233,843 14.6 %28,706 12.3 %
General and administrative159,437 9.4 %144,096 9.0 %15,341 10.6 %
Research and development163,389 9.6 %75,276 4.7 %88,113 117.1 %
Total operating expenses585,375 34.5 %453,215 28.3 %132,160 29.2 %
Income from operations$427,410 25.2 %$506,875 31.6 %$(79,465)(15.7 %)

Gross Profit. Gross profit increased due to higher sales volumes, moderated by a 20 basis point decrease in the gross profit margin. The decrease in the gross profit margin reflects higher product, freight and distribution, and labor costs across our segments. These decreases were partially offset by net price gains and the improved software services gross margins, as well as the benefit of our reference laboratory productivity initiatives, which helped to offset the effects of inflation on our gross margins. The margin also benefited due to comparisons to a prior year impairment charge related to rental assets in certain regions. The impact from foreign currency movements increased the gross profit margin by approximately 40 basis points, primarily from the impact of hedge gains in the current year as compared to hedge losses in the prior year.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related costs, including investments in our global commercial capability, as well as travel costs. General and administrative expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related expense, increases in amortization and depreciation expense related to business acquisitions and capital investments. Research and development expense increased primarily due to expenses totaling $80 million for acquiring rights to use certain licensed technology under two separate intellectual property licensing arrangements. The overall change in foreign currency exchange rates decreased operating expenses growth by approximately 2%.

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Companion Animal Group

The following table presents revenue by product and service category for CAG: 
For the Six Months Ended June 30,
Net Revenue
(dollars in thousands)
20222021Dollar Change
Reported Revenue Growth(1)
Percentage Change from CurrencyPercentage Change from Acquisitions
Organic Revenue Growth(1)
CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue:$1,350,223 $1,278,580 $71,643 5.6 %(2.6 %)0.2 %8.0 %
IDEXX VetLab consumables533,252 502,444 30,808 6.1 %(3.3 %)— 9.5 %
Rapid assay products162,000 153,498 8,502 5.5 %(1.3 %)— 6.9 %
Reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services599,205 569,456 29,749 5.2 %(2.3 %)0.5 %7.0 %
CAG diagnostics services and accessories55,766 53,182 2,584 4.9 %(3.6 %)— 8.4 %
CAG Diagnostics capital - instruments73,224 66,244 6,980 10.5 %(4.3 %)— 14.8 %
Veterinary software, services and diagnostic imaging systems121,824 93,538 28,286 30.2 %(0.8 %)17.3 %13.7 %
Net CAG revenue$1,545,271 $1,438,362 $106,909 7.4 %(2.6 %)1.3 %8.7 %

(1) Reported revenue growth and organic revenue growth may not recalculate due to rounding

CAG Diagnostics Recurring Revenue. The increase was driven by expanding demand for companion animal diagnostics globally across modalities. The increase in CAG Diagnostics recurring revenue was primarily due to increased volumes in IDEXX VetLab consumables and reference laboratory diagnostic services, and higher realized prices. The impact of currency movements decreased revenue growth by 2.6%.

The increase in IDEXX VetLab consumables revenue was primarily due to higher sales volumes, primarily of our Catalyst consumables and, to a lesser extent, ProCyte consumables, and higher price realization. These volume increases were supported by the expansion of our installed base of instruments, our expanded menu of available tests in certain regions, and high customer retention levels.

The increase in rapid assay revenue resulted primarily from higher price realization and higher clinic testing levels, primarily from SNAP® 4Dx Plus.

The increase in reference laboratory diagnostic and consulting services revenue was primarily due to higher testing volumes and price realization in our U.S. labs. Growth in other regions was primarily due to higher price realization, partially offset by moderately lower international volumes as compared to strong prior period growth levels. Acquisitions increased revenue growth by 0.5%.

The increase in CAG Diagnostics services and accessories revenue was primarily a result of the increase in our active installed base of instruments.

CAG Diagnostics Capital – Instrument Revenue. The increase in instrument revenue was primarily due to strong premium instrument placements globally, including the successful global launch of the ProCyte One analyzer, to support increased diagnostic testing.

Veterinary Software, Services and Diagnostic Imaging Systems Revenue. Acquisitions increased revenue growth by 17.3%. Excluding the impact of acquisitions, the increase in veterinary software and services revenue was primarily due to higher veterinary software system placements to continue the expansion of our active installed base, and higher realized prices on service offerings. The increase in our diagnostic imaging systems revenues was primarily due to increases in our active installed base resulting in higher service revenue, as well as higher realized prices.
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The following table presents the CAG segment results of operations:
For the Six Months Ended June 30,Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
2022Percent of Revenue2021Percent of RevenueAmountPercentage
Revenues$1,545,271 $1,438,362 $106,909 7.4 %
Cost of revenue629,918 584,702 45,216 7.7 %
Gross profit915,353 59.2 %853,660 59.3 %61,693 7.2 %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing240,559 15.6 %213,442 14.8 %27,117 12.7 %
General and administrative140,960 9.1 %127,038 8.8 %13,922 11.0 %
Research and development154,183 10.0 %65,235 4.5 %88,948 136.4 %
Total operating expenses535,702 34.7 %405,715 28.2 %129,987 32.0 %
Income from operations$379,651 24.6 %$447,945 31.1 %$(68,294)(15.2 %)

Gross Profit. Gross profit increased primarily due to higher sales volume, moderated by a 10 basis point decrease in the gross profit margin. The decrease in the gross profit margin reflects higher product and service costs and higher freight and distribution costs. These decreases were partially offset by recurring revenue net price gains and improved software services gross margins, as well as the benefit of our reference laboratory productivity initiatives, which helped to offset the effects of inflation on our gross margins. The margin also benefited from comparisons to a prior year impairment charge related to rental assets in certain regions. The impact from foreign currency movements increased the gross profit margin by approximately 20 basis points, primarily from the impact of hedge gains in the current year as compared to hedge losses in the prior year.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related costs, including investments in our global commercial capability, as well as travel costs. General and administrative expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related expense and increases in amortization and depreciation expense related to business acquisitions and capital investments. Research and development expense increased primarily due to expenses totaling $80 million for acquiring rights to use certain licensed technology under two separate intellectual property licensing arrangements. The overall change in foreign currency exchange rates resulted in a decrease in operating expenses growth by approximately 2%.
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Water

The following table presents the Water segment results of operations:
For the Six Months Ended June 30,Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
2022Percent of Revenue2021Percent of RevenueAmountPercentage
Revenues$75,566 $71,231 $4,335 6.1 %
Cost of revenue22,470 22,019 451 2.0 %
Gross profit53,096 70.3 %49,212 69.1 %3,884 7.9 %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing9,309 12.3 %8,457 11.9 %852 10.1 %
General and administrative6,905 9.1 %6,620 9.3 %285 4.3 %
Research and development2,308 3.1 %2,135 3.0 %173 8.1 %
Total operating expenses18,522 24.5 %17,212 24.2 %1,310 7.6 %
Income from operations$34,574 45.8 %$32,000 44.9 %$2,574 8.0 %

Revenue. The increase in our Water business reflects higher realized prices and testing volumes, primarily in our Colilert test products and related accessories used in coliform and E. coli testing. Testing volumes were lower in the Asia-Pacific region primarily due to COVID restrictions. The impact of currency movements decreased revenue growth by 2.6%.

Gross Profit. Gross profit increased due to higher sales volumes and a 120 basis point increase in the gross profit margin, which reflected an approximately 190 basis point increase due to foreign currency movements, primarily from the impact of hedge gains in the current year compared to hedge losses in the prior year. The gross profit margin decreased primarily due to higher distribution and freight costs, partially offset by higher realized prices.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related costs and higher travel expense. General and administrative expense increased primarily due to higher personnel-related costs and third-party services. Research and development expense increased primarily due to third-party services. The overall change in foreign currency exchange rates resulted in a decrease in operating expenses growth of less than 2%.

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Livestock, Poultry and Dairy 

The following table presents the LPD segment results of operations:
For the Six Months Ended June 30,Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
2022Percent of Revenue2021Percent of RevenueAmountPercentage
Revenues$60,759 $72,794 $(12,035)(16.5 %)
Cost of revenue24,216 26,387 (2,171)(8.2 %)
Gross profit36,543 60.1 %46,407 63.8 %(9,864)(21.3 %)
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing11,784 19.4 %10,680 14.7 %1,104 10.3 %
General and administrative8,693 14.3 %8,579 11.8 %114 1.3 %
Research and development6,099 10.0 %6,472 8.9 %(373)(5.8 %)
Total operating expenses26,576 43.7 %25,731 35.3 %845 3.3 %
Income from operations$9,967 16.4 %$20,676 28.4 %$(10,709)(51.8 %)

Revenue. Revenues decreased primarily due to lower demand for diagnostic testing in China. Beginning during the second quarter of 2021, and continuing through the first half of 2022, we experienced lower livestock testing volumes in China, as changes in disease management approaches, low pork prices, and changes in government requirements related to the live animal imports and livestock infectious disease programs impacted testing volumes, in comparison to high prior-year demand for African Swine Fever testing. The decrease in revenue was partially offset by moderately higher price gains in other regions. The unfavorable impact of foreign currency movements decreased revenue growth by 3.8%.

Gross ProfitThe decrease in gross profit was primarily due to lower sales volumes and a 370 basis point decrease in the gross profit margin. The decrease in the gross profit margin is primarily due to higher freight and distribution charges, higher product costs, investments in our bovine laboratory services, and the unfavorable overall mix impacts largely from lower African Swine Fever testing. The decrease in the gross profit margin was partially offset by the impact from foreign currency movements, which increased gross profit margin by approximately 310 basis points, primarily from the impact of hedge gains in the current year compared to hedge losses in the prior year.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expense increased primarily due to increases in product marketing costs, personnel-related costs, and travel costs. Research and development expense decreased primarily due to lower personnel-related costs. The overall change in foreign currency exchange rates resulted in a decrease in operating expenses growth of approximately 3%.

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Other

The following table presents the Other results of operations:
For the Six Months Ended June 30,Change
Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
2022Percent of Revenue2021Percent of RevenueAmountPercentage
Revenues$15,499 $21,462 $(5,963)(27.8 %)
Cost of revenue7,706 10,651 (2,945)(27.6 %)
Gross profit7,793 50.3 %10,811 50.4 %(3,018)(27.9 %)
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing897 5.8 %1,264 5.9 %(367)(29.0 %)
General and administrative2,879 18.6 %1,859 8.7 %1,020 54.9 %
Research and development799 5.2 %1,434 6.7 %(635)(44.3 %)
Total operating expenses4,575 29.5 %4,557 21.2 %18 0.4 %
Income from operations$3,218 20.8 %$6,254 29.1 %$(3,036)(48.5 %)

Revenue. The decrease in revenue was primarily due to lower OPTI COVID-19 PCR testing products and services in the U.S. and lower OPTI Medical consumables revenue related to COVID-19 restrictions in Asia and Latin America. The impact of foreign currency movements increased revenue by 0.7%.

Gross Profit. The decrease in gross profit was primarily due to lower sales volume and a gross profit margin decrease of 10 basis points, primarily due to higher freight and distribution costs, partially offset by lower costs for our testing products and services, including the benefit from the comparison to write-downs of excess COVID-19 testing inventory in the prior period. The overall change in foreign currency exchange rates had an immaterial impact on gross profit.

Operating Expenses. Sales and marketing expense decreased primarily due to lower personnel-related costs. General and administrative expense increased primarily due to higher foreign exchange losses on settlements of foreign currency denominated transactions, as compared to the prior year, as well as higher estimated bad debt expense. Foreign exchange losses on settlements for all operating segments are reported within our Other segment. Research and development expense decreased primarily due to lower COVID-19 related project costs compared to the prior year.

Non-Operating Items

Interest Expense. Interest expense was $15.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to $15.2 million for the same period in the prior year.

Provision for Income Taxes. Our effective income tax rate was 21.0% for the six months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to 17.3% for the six months ended June 30, 2021. The increase in our effective tax rate, as compared to the same period in the prior year, was primarily driven by decreases in tax benefits related to share-based compensation and higher taxes on international income.


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Liquidity and Capital Resources  
  
We fund the capital needs of our business through cash on hand, funds generated from operations, proceeds from long-term senior note financings, and amounts available under our Credit Facility. As of June 30, 2022, we had $114.4 million of cash and cash equivalents, as compared to $144.5 million as of December 31, 2021. Working capital totaled negative $123.7 million as of June 30, 2022, as compared to $192.1 million as of December 31, 2021. The change in working capital is primarily due to the borrowings under our Credit Facility. As of June 30, 2022, we had borrowing availability of $387.6 million under our $1 billion Credit Facility, with $611.0 million outstanding borrowings on the Credit Facility. The general availability of funds under our Credit Facility is reduced by $1.4 million for outstanding letters of credit. We believe that, if necessary, we could obtain additional borrowings to fund our growth objectives. We further believe that current cash and cash equivalents, funds generated from operations, and committed borrowing availability will be sufficient to fund our operations, capital purchase requirements, and anticipated growth needs for at least the next twelve months. We believe that these resources, coupled with our ability, as needed, to obtain additional financing, will also be sufficient to fund our business as currently conducted for the foreseeable future. We may enter into new financing arrangements or refinance or retire existing debt in the future depending on market conditions. Should we require more capital in the U.S. than is generated by our operations, for example to fund significant discretionary activities, we could elect to raise capital in the U.S. through the incurrence of debt or equity issuances, which we may not be able to complete on favorable terms or at all. In addition, these alternatives could result in increased interest expense or other dilution of our earnings.

We manage our worldwide cash requirements considering available funds among all of our subsidiaries. Our foreign cash and marketable securities are generally available without restrictions to fund ordinary business operations outside the U.S. 
The following table presents cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities held domestically and by our foreign subsidiaries:
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
(in thousands)
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
  
U.S.$3,260 $2,632 
Foreign111,101 141,822 
Total$114,361 $144,454 
  
Total cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities held in U.S. dollars by our foreign subsidiaries$8,558 $6,245 
Of the $114.4 million of cash and cash equivalents held as of June 30, 2022, greater than 99% was held as bank deposits. Cash and cash equivalents at June 30, 2022, included approximately USD $4.8 million of cash held in countries with currency control restrictions, which limit our ability to transfer funds outside of the country in which they are held. The currency control restricted cash is generally available for use within the country where it is held.

During the second quarter of 2022, we decided to wind down and liquidate our sole Russian subsidiary, as well as its direct Russian operations, which consisted of marketing and selling diagnostic products for veterinary clinics in Russia. As a result of this decision, we adopted the liquidation basis of accounting for this subsidiary. Substantially all assets other than cash were fully impaired because we believe the carrying amounts are not recoverable. We also accrued estimated costs that we expect to incur through the end of liquidation. These adjustments are not material to our balance sheet and are recorded as operating activities in our unaudited condensed consolidated statements of cash flow. Our direct Russian operations were not material to our financial statements and are not considered discontinued operations.
 

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The following table presents additional key information concerning working capital: 
For the Three Months Ended
June 30, 2022March 31, 2022December 31, 2021September 30, 2021June 30, 2021
  
Days sales outstanding (1)
43.2 42.0 42.4 42.7 42.2 
Inventory turns (2)
1.5 1.6 2.0 1.9 2.1 
(1)     Days sales outstanding represents the average of the accounts receivable balances at the beginning and end of each quarter divided by revenue for that quarter, the result of which is then multiplied by 91.25 days.
(2)     Inventory turns represent inventory-related cost of product revenue for the 12 months preceding each quarter-end divided by the average inventory balances at the beginning and end of each quarter.

The decrease in inventory turns over the current year is a result of larger inventory on-hand, as we have increased inventory to sustain levels of product availability, as well as higher inventory related to our new ProCyte One analyzer.

Sources and Uses of Cash 

The following table presents cash provided (used):
For the Six Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)20222021Dollar Change
   
Net cash provided by operating activities$180,556 $358,377 $(177,821)
Net cash used by investing activities(96,924)(199,250)102,326 
Net cash used by financing activities(105,387)(309,868)204,481 
Net effect of changes in exchange rates on cash(8,337)(1,053)(7,284)
Net change in cash and cash equivalents$(30,092)$(151,794)$121,702 

Operating Activities. The decrease in cash provided by operating activities of $177.8 million was driven primarily by a decrease in net income as a result of research and development investments, and changes in other assets and liabilities, as well as inventory. The following table presents cash flow impacts from changes in operating assets and liabilities: 
For the Six Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)20222021Dollar Change
   
Accounts receivable$(53,794)$(50,721)$(3,073)
Inventories(49,349)(20,412)(28,937)
Accounts payable(6,735)3,812 (10,547)
Deferred revenue(2,344)(5,037)2,693 
Other assets and liabilities(94,729)(55,162)(39,567)
Total change in cash due to changes in operating assets and liabilities$(206,951)$(127,520)$(79,431)

Cash used increased due to changes in operating assets and liabilities during the six months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to the same period in the prior year, by approximately $79.4 million. Cash used for inventory in the current period, as compared to the prior period, was higher primarily to support increasing demand, and to mitigate potential supply-chain impacts. The increase of cash used for other asset and liabilities was primarily due to payroll timing and lower non-cash operating expenses recorded as accrued liabilities, as compared to the same period in the prior year.

We have historically experienced proportionally lower net cash flows from operating activities during the first quarter and proportionally higher cash flows from operating activities for the remainder of the year driven primarily by payments related to annual employee incentive programs in the first quarter following the year for which the bonuses were earned.

During the second quarter of 2022, we entered into two arrangements to license intellectual property. Under one arrangement we paid $45.0 million and expect to issue subsequent milestone payments during 2022 of $10.0 million. Under the second arrangement, we paid $25.0 million for an equity investment and $5.0 million for license rights, with expected
51


subsequent milestone payments of $20.0 million. The $25 million paid for the equity investment is reflected in investing activities, while the $50 million paid during the quarter to license intellectual property is reflected in operating activities.

Investing Activities. Cash used by investing activities was $96.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to $199.3 million for the same period in the prior year. The decrease in cash used by investing activities was primarily due to the acquisition of ezyVet in the prior year, partially offset by an equity investment and the acquisition of an intangible asset during the second quarter of 2022.

Our outlook for full year capital spending is approximately $180.0 million for 2022.

Financing Activities. Cash used by financing activities was $105.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to $309.9 million of cash used for the same period in the prior year. The decrease in cash used by financing activities was due to a $537.5 million increase in borrowings under our Credit Facility, partially offset by $252.3 million in additional repurchases of our common stock in the current period as compared to the same period in the prior year. Cash was also used to pay off our $75.0 million 2022 Series A Notes when due and payable on February 14, 2022.

Cash used to repurchase shares of our common stock increased $252.3 million during the six months ended June 30, 2022. We believe that the repurchase of our common stock is a favorable means of returning value to our stockholders, and we also repurchase our stock to offset the dilutive effect of our share-based compensation programs. Repurchases of our common stock may vary depending upon the level of other investing activities and the share price. Refer to Note 12 to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I. Item 1. of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for additional information about our share repurchases.

Under our Credit Facility, the net borrowing activity during the six months ended June 30, 2022, as compared to the same period in the prior year, increased $537.5 million. As of June 30, 2022, we had $611.0 million outstanding borrowings under the Credit Facility. The obligations under our Credit Facility may be accelerated upon the occurrence of an event of default under the Credit Facility, which includes customary events of default including payment defaults, defaults in the performance of the affirmative, negative and financial covenants, the inaccuracy of representations or warranties, bankruptcy and insolvency-related defaults, defaults relating to judgments, certain events related to employee pension benefit plans under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”), the failure to pay specified indebtedness, cross-acceleration to specified indebtedness, and a change of control default.

The Credit Agreement contains affirmative, negative, and financial covenants customary for financings of this type. The negative covenants include restrictions on liens, indebtedness of subsidiaries of the Company, fundamental changes, investments, transactions with affiliates, certain restrictive agreements, and violations of laws and regulations. The financial covenant is a consolidated leverage ratio test.

On February 2022, we paid off our $75.0 million 2022 Series A Notes with cash provided by operations and financing activity. Should we elect to prepay any of our senior notes, such aggregate prepayment will include the applicable make-whole amount(s), as defined within the applicable Senior Note Agreements. Additionally, in the event of a change in control of the Company or upon the disposition of certain assets of the Company the proceeds of which are not reinvested (as defined in the Senior Note Agreements), we may be required to prepay all or a portion of the senior notes. The obligations under the senior notes may be accelerated upon the occurrence of an event of default under the applicable Senior Note Agreements, each of which includes customary events of default including payment defaults, defaults in the performance of the affirmative, negative and financial covenants, the inaccuracy of representations or warranties, bankruptcy and insolvency-related defaults, defaults relating to judgments, certain events related to employee pension benefit plans under ERISA, the failure to pay specified indebtedness, and cross-acceleration to specified indebtedness.

Effect of Currency Translation on Cash. The net effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates is related to changes in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the functional currencies of our foreign subsidiaries. These changes will fluctuate for each period presented as the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the value of foreign currencies changes. A currency’s value depends on many factors, including interest rates and the country’s debt levels and strength of economy.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements. We have no off-balance sheet arrangements or variable interest entities, except for letters of credit and third party guarantees.

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Financial Covenant. The sole financial covenant of our Credit Facility and Senior Note Agreements is a consolidated leverage ratio test that requires our ratio of debt to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, non-recurring transaction expenses incurred in connection with acquisitions, share-based compensation expense, and certain other non-cash losses and charges (“Adjusted EBITDA”) not to exceed 3.5-to-1. As of June 30, 2022, we were in compliance with such covenant. The following details our consolidated leverage ratio calculation:
(in thousands)Twelve Months ended
Trailing 12 Months Adjusted EBITDA:June 30, 2022
 
Net income attributable to stockholders (as reported)$663,950 
Interest expense29,924 
Provision for income taxes159,514 
Depreciation and amortization108,795 
Acquisition-related expense3,008 
Share-based compensation expense42,786 
Extraordinary and other non-recurring non-cash charges1,353 
Adjusted EBITDA$1,009,330 
 
(dollars in thousands)
Debt to Adjusted EBITDA Ratio:June 30, 2022
 
Line of credit$611,000 
Current and long-term portions of long-term debt767,995 
Total debt1,378,995 
Acquisition-related contingent consideration payable7,144 
Financing leases
Deferred financing costs456 
Gross debt$1,386,603 
Gross debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio1.37 
Less: Cash and cash equivalents$114,362 
Net debt$1,272,241 
Net debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio1.26

Adjusted EBITDA, gross debt, net debt, gross debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio, and net debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio are non-GAAP financial measures which should be considered in addition to, and not as a replacement for, financial measures presented according to U.S. GAAP. Management believes that reporting these non-GAAP financial measures provides supplemental analysis to help investors further evaluate our business performance and available borrowing capacity under our Credit Facility. 

Other Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees 

Significant commitments, contingencies, and guarantees as of June 30, 2022, are described in Note 16 to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I. Item 1. of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
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Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk 
 
For quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk affecting us, refer to the section under the heading “Part II. Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk” of our 2021 Annual Report. As of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, there have been no material changes to the market risks described in our 2021 Annual Report, except for the impact of foreign exchange rates, as discussed below. 

Foreign Currency Exchange Impacts. Approximately 21% and 22% of our consolidated revenue was derived from products manufactured in the U.S. and sold internationally in local currencies for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, as compared to 22% and 23% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively. Strengthening of the U.S. dollar exchange rate relative to other currencies has a negative impact on our revenues derived in currencies other than the U.S. dollar and on profits of products manufactured in the U.S. and sold internationally, and a weakening of the U.S. dollar has the opposite effect. Similarly, to the extent that the U.S. dollar is stronger in current or future periods relative to the exchange rates in effect in the corresponding prior periods, our growth rate will be negatively affected. The impact of foreign currency denominated costs and expenses and foreign currency denominated supply contracts partly offsets this exposure. Additionally, our designated hedges of intercompany inventory purchases and sales help delay the impact of certain exchange rate fluctuations on non-U.S. dollar denominated revenues.

Our foreign currency exchange impacts are comprised of three components: 1) local currency revenues and expenses; 2) the impact of hedge contracts; and 3) intercompany and monetary balances for our subsidiaries that are denominated in a currency that is different from the functional currency used by each subsidiary. Based on projected revenues and expenses for the remainder of 2022, excluding the impact of intercompany and trade balances denominated in currencies other than the functional subsidiary currencies, we project a 1% strengthening of the U.S. dollar would reduce revenue by approximately $5 million and operating income by approximately $3 million. Additionally, we project our foreign currency hedge contracts in place as of June 30, 2022, would result in incremental offsetting gains of approximately $1 million in operating income. The impact of the intercompany and trade balances, and monetary balances referred to in the third component above have been excluded, as they are transacted at multiple times during the year and we are not able to reliably forecast the impact that changes in exchange rates would have on such balances.

At our current foreign currency exchange rate assumptions, we anticipate the effect of a stronger U.S. dollar for the remainder of the year, as compared to the respective prior-year period, will have a unfavorable impact on our operating results by decreasing our revenues, operating profit, and diluted earnings per share for the remainder of the year ending December 31, 2022, by approximately $69 million, $13 million, and $0.12 per share, respectively. This unfavorable year-over-year currency impact includes foreign currency hedging activity, which is expected to increase our total operating profit by approximately $20 million and $0.18 per share for the remainder of the year ended December 31, 2022. The actual impact of changes in the value of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies in which we transact may materially differ from our expectations described above. The above estimates assume that the value of the U.S. dollar will reflect the euro at $1.00, the British pound at $1.18, the Canadian dollar at $0.76, and the Australian dollar at $0.67; and the Japanese yen at ¥139, the Chinese renminbi at RMB 6.79, and the Brazilian real at R$5.40 relative to the U.S. dollar for the remainder of 2022.
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The following table presents the estimated foreign currency exchange impact on our revenues, operating profit, and diluted earnings per share for the current period and as compared to the respective prior-year period:
For the Three Months Ended
June 30,
For the Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands, except per share amounts)2022202120222021
  
Revenue impact$(27,597)$25,280 $(42,661)$44,714 
Operating profit impact, excluding hedge activity and exchange impacts on settlement of foreign currency denominated transactions$(14,769)$14,169 $(22,708)$25,930 
Hedge gains (losses) - current period5,781 (2,715)8,017 (5,145)
Exchange (losses) on settlements of foreign currency denominated transactions - current period(832)(854)(1,607)(924)
Operating profit impact - current period$(9,820)$10,600 $(16,298)$19,861 
Hedge losses (gains) - prior period2,715 (1,812)5,145 (3,153)
Exchange losses (gains) on settlement of foreign currency denominated transactions - prior period854 (799)924 1,108 
Operating profit impact - as compared to prior period$(6,251)$7,989 $(10,229)$17,816 
Diluted earnings per share impact - as compared to prior period$(0.06)$0.07 $(0.10)$0.16 
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Item 4. Controls and Procedures 
 
Disclosure Controls and Procedures 
 
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining disclosure controls and procedures, as defined by the SEC in its Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of an issuer that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the issuer in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act are recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of June 30, 2022, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer have concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.  
 
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting 
 
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) during the three months ended June 30, 2022, that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. 


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PART II — OTHER INFORMATION 
 
Item 1. Legal Proceedings

Due to the nature of our activities, we are at times subject to pending and threatened legal actions that arise out of the ordinary course of business. In the opinion of management, based in part upon advice of legal counsel, the disposition of any such currently pending matters is not expected to have a material effect on our results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows. However, the results of legal actions cannot be predicted with certainty. Therefore, it is possible that our results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows could be materially adversely affected in any particular period by the unfavorable resolution of one or more legal actions.

Item 1A. Risk Factors 
 
In addition to the other information set forth in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, you should carefully consider the risk factors discussed in “Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors” in our 2021 Annual Report, and the risk factor below, which supplements and should be read in conjunction with the risk factors disclosed in our 2021 Annual Report, any and all of which could materially affect our business, financial condition, or future results. Except as described below in this Item 1A., there have been no material changes from the risk factors previously disclosed in the 2021 Annual Report. The risks described below and in our 2021 Annual Report are not the only risks facing our Company. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, or future results.

The current war in Ukraine may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations

Since our business is global in nature, political, economic, and other conditions in foreign countries and regions, including geopolitical risks, such as the current war between Russia and Ukraine, may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our operations in the Russia, Belarus and Ukraine region are limited. Our 2021 revenue from the region represented less than 1% of our 2021 consolidated revenue, and we have no manufacturing or significant supply arrangement in the region. After significantly scaling back our operations in Russia in the first quarter, including suspending sales of veterinary diagnostic equipment; promotional, marketing, and hiring activities; and new business development and related investments, we decided in June 2022, after careful consideration, to wind down and liquidate our sole Russian subsidiary, as well as our direct Russian operations, which consisted of marketing and selling diagnostic products for veterinary clinics in Russia.

After we conclude the wind-down of our direct Russian operations, we anticipate that only a limited number of our products, which are important for human or animal healthcare, will continue to be sold in Russia pursuant to ongoing third-party distribution agreements. Some of our products are also sold in Belarus pursuant to ongoing third-party distribution agreements. These limited operations in the region have been affected by sanctions and other economic, financial and export restrictions imposed by various governments. The broader consequences of this war, which may include further sanctions, embargoes, regional instability, potential retaliatory action by sanctioned governments against companies (including us), increased tensions between the United States and countries in which we operate, and the extent of the war’s effect on our business and results of operations, as well as the global economy, cannot be predicted.

In addition, this war may also heighten other risks disclosed in our 2021 Annual Report, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Such risks include, but are not limited to, adverse effects on macroeconomic conditions, supply chain disruptions, fuel supply shortages and/or rationing, increased cyberattack and cybersecurity risks, adverse changes in international trade policies and relations, regulatory enforcement, our ability to implement and execute our business strategy, our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations, reputational risk, and volatility or disruption in the capital markets.

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Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds 
 
During the three months ended June 30, 2022, we repurchased shares of common stock as described below:  
PeriodTotal Number of Shares Purchased
(a) 
Average Price Paid per Share
(b)
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)
(c)
Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
(d)
    
April 1 to April 30, 2022159,346 $498.22 159,346 4,330,474 
May 1 to May 31, 2022321,860 $369.86 321,860 4,008,614 
June 1 to June 30, 2022327,272 $351.62 327,131 3,681,483 
Total808,478 (2)808,337 3,681,483 

(1)On August 13, 1999, our Board of Directors approved and announced the repurchase of our common stock in the open market or in negotiated transactions pursuant to the Company’s share repurchase program. The authorization has been increased by the Board of Directors on numerous occasions; most recently, on February 12, 2020, the maximum level of shares that may be repurchased under the program was increased from 68 million to 73 million shares. There is no specified expiration date for this share repurchase program. There were no other repurchase programs outstanding during the three months ended June 30, 2022, and no share repurchase programs expired during the period. There were 808,337 share repurchases made during the three months ended June 30, 2022, in transactions made pursuant to our share repurchase program.

(2)During the three months ended June 30, 2022, we received 141 shares of our common stock that were surrendered by employees in payment for the minimum required withholding taxes due on the vesting of restricted stock units and settlement of deferred stock units. In the above table, these shares are included in columns (a) and (b), but excluded from columns (c) and (d). These shares do not reduce the number of shares that may yet be purchased under the share repurchase program.

The total shares repurchased include shares surrendered for employee statutory tax withholding. Refer to Note 12 to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I. Item 1. of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for additional information about our share repurchases.

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Item 6. Exhibits 
Exhibit No.Description
101The following financial and related information from IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2022, formatted in Inline eXtensible Business Reportable Language (iXBRL) includes: (i) the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet; (ii) the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Income; (iii) the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income; (iv) the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Changes in Stockholders' Equity; (v) the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows; and, (vi) Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
104The cover page from the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2022, formatted in Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101.

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SIGNATURES 
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized. 
IDEXX LABORATORIES, INC.
/s/ Brian P. McKeon 
Date: August 2, 2022Brian P. McKeon
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
(Principal Financial Officer)
 

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