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Hartford Financial Services (HIG)

Filed: 27 Apr 21, 3:49pm





UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q
 ____________________________________
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____________ to ______________
Commission file number 001-13958
____________________________________ 
hig-20210331_g1.jpg
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 13-3317783
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Hartford Plaza, Hartford, Connecticut 06155
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(860) 547-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareHIGThe New York Stock Exchange
6.10% Notes due October 1, 2041HIG 41The New York Stock Exchange
7.875% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2042HGHThe New York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, Each Representing a 1/1,000th Interest in a Share of 6.000% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series G, par value $0.01 per shareHIG PR GThe New York Stock Exchange
1




Indicate by check mark:
•     whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.YesNo
•     whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).YesNo
•     whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
•     whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).YesNo
As of April 26, 2021, there were outstanding 357,191,014 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share, of the registrant.
2




THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED MARCH 31, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ItemDescriptionPage
1. 
          NOTE 2 - EARNINGS PER SHARE
          NOTE 3 - SEGMENT INFORMATION
          NOTE 5 - INVESTMENTS
          NOTE 6 - DERIVATIVES
          NOTE 8 - REINSURANCE
          NOTE 11 - INCOME TAXES
          NOTE 13 - EQUITY
          NOTE 16 - BUSINESS DISPOSITION
2. 
3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK[a]
4. 
1. 
1A.   
2. 
6. 
[a]The information required by this item is set forth in the Enterprise Risk Management section of Item 2, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and is incorporated herein by reference.
3




Forward-looking Statements
Certain of the statements contained herein are forward-looking statements made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “seeks,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “projects,” and similar references to future periods.
Forward-looking statements are based on management's current expectations and assumptions regarding future economic, competitive, legislative and other developments and their potential effect upon The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, the "Company" or "The Hartford"). Because forward-looking statements relate to the future, they are subject to inherent uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. Actual results could differ materially from expectations, depending on the evolution of various factors, including the risks and uncertainties identified below, as well as factors described in such forward-looking statements; or in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, in Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and those identified from time to time in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Risks relating to the pandemic caused by the spread of the novel strain of coronavirus, specifically identified as the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (“COVID-19”) including impacts to the Company's insurance and product-related, regulatory/legal, recessionary and other global economic, capital and liquidity and operational risks
Risks Relating to Economic, Political and Global Market Conditions:
challenges related to the Company’s current operating environment, including global political, economic and market conditions, and the effect of financial market disruptions, economic downturns, changes in trade regulation including tariffs and other barriers or other potentially adverse macroeconomic developments on the demand for our products and returns in our investment portfolios;
market risks associated with our business, including changes in credit spreads, equity prices, interest rates, inflation rate, foreign currency exchange rates and market volatility;
the impact on our investment portfolio if our investment portfolio is concentrated in any particular segment of the economy;
the impacts of changing climate and weather patterns on our businesses, operations and investment portfolio including on claims, demand and pricing of our products, the availability and cost of reinsurance, our modeling data used to evaluate and manage risks of catastrophes and severe weather events, the value of our investment portfolios and credit risk with reinsurers and other counterparties;
the risks associated with the discontinuance of the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") on the securities we hold or may have issued, other financial instruments and any other assets and liabilities whose value is tied to LIBOR;
the impacts associated with the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) from the European Union (“E.U.”) on our international operations in the U.K. and E.U.
Insurance Industry and Product-Related Risks:
the possibility of unfavorable loss development, including with respect to long-tailed exposures;
the significant uncertainties that limit our ability to estimate the ultimate reserves necessary for asbestos and environmental claims;
the possibility of another pandemic, civil unrest, earthquake, or other natural or man-made disaster that may adversely affect our businesses;
weather and other natural physical events, including the intensity and frequency of storms, hail, wildfires, flooding, winter storms, hurricanes and tropical storms, as well as climate change and its potential impact on weather patterns;
the possible occurrence of terrorist attacks and the Company’s inability to contain its exposure as a result of, among other factors, the inability to exclude coverage for terrorist attacks from workers' compensation policies and limitations on reinsurance coverage from the federal government under applicable laws;
the Company’s ability to effectively price its property and casualty policies, including its ability to obtain regulatory consents to pricing actions or to non-renewal or withdrawal of certain product lines;
actions by competitors that may be larger or have greater financial resources than we do;
technological changes, including usage-based methods of determining premiums, advancements in automotive safety features, the development of autonomous vehicles, and platforms that facilitate ride sharing,
the Company's ability to market, distribute and provide insurance products and investment advisory services through current and future distribution channels and advisory firms;
political instability, politically motivated violence or civil unrest, may increase the frequency and severity of insured losses;
Financial Strength, Credit and Counterparty Risks:
4




risks to our business, financial position, prospects and results associated with negative rating actions or downgrades in the Company’s financial strength and credit ratings or negative rating actions or downgrades relating to our investments;
capital requirements which are subject to many factors, including many that are outside the Company’s control, such as National Association of Insurance Commissioners ("NAIC") risk based capital formulas, rating agency capital models, Funds at Lloyd's and Solvency Capital Requirement, which can in turn affect our credit and financial strength ratings, cost of capital, regulatory compliance and other aspects of our business and results;
losses due to nonperformance or defaults by others, including credit risk with counterparties associated with investments, derivatives, premiums receivable, reinsurance recoverables and indemnifications provided by third parties in connection with previous dispositions;
the potential for losses due to our reinsurers' unwillingness or inability to meet their obligations under reinsurance contracts and the availability, pricing and adequacy of reinsurance to protect the Company against losses;
state and international regulatory limitations on the ability of the Company and certain of its subsidiaries to declare and pay dividends;
Risks Relating to Estimates, Assumptions and Valuations:
risk associated with the use of analytical models in making decisions in key areas such as underwriting, pricing, capital management, reserving, investments, reinsurance and catastrophe risk management;
the potential for differing interpretations of the methodologies, estimations and assumptions that underlie the Company’s fair value estimates for its investments and the evaluation of intent-to-sell impairments and allowance for credit losses on available-for-sale securities and mortgage loans;
the potential for further impairments of our goodwill;
Strategic and Operational Risks:
the Company’s ability to maintain the availability of its systems and safeguard the security of its data in the event of a disaster, cyber or other information security incident or other unanticipated event;
the potential for difficulties arising from outsourcing and similar third-party relationships;
the risks, challenges and uncertainties associated with capital management plans, expense reduction initiatives and other actions, which may include acquisitions, divestitures or restructurings;
risks associated with acquisitions and divestitures, including the challenges of integrating acquired companies or businesses, which may result in our inability to achieve the anticipated benefits and synergies and may result in unintended consequences;
difficulty in attracting and retaining talented and qualified personnel, including key employees, such as executives, managers and employees with strong technological, analytical and other specialized skills;
the Company’s ability to protect its intellectual property and defend against claims of infringement;
Regulatory and Legal Risks:
the cost and other potential effects of increased federal, state and international regulatory and legislative developments, including those that could adversely impact the demand for the Company’s products, operating costs and required capital levels;
unfavorable judicial or legislative developments;
the impact of changes in federal, state or foreign tax laws;
regulatory requirements that could delay, deter or prevent a takeover attempt that stockholders might consider in their best interests; and
the impact of potential changes in accounting principles and related financial reporting requirements.
Any forward-looking statement made by the Company in this document speaks only as of the date of the filing of this Form 10-Q. Factors or events that could cause the Company’s actual results to differ may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for the Company to predict all of them. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
5

        Table of Contents
Part I - Item 1. Financial Statements

Item 1. Financial Statements
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of
The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc.
Hartford, Connecticut

Results of Review of Interim Financial Information

We have reviewed the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet of The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of March 31, 2021, the related condensed consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), changes in stockholders' equity, and cash flows for the three-month periods ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "interim financial information"). Based on our reviews, we are not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the accompanying interim financial information for it to be in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have previously audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheet of the Company as of December 31, 2020, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), changes in stockholders' equity, and cash flows for the year then ended (not presented herein); and in our report dated February 19, 2021, we expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements. In our opinion, the information set forth in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020, is fairly stated, in all material respects, in relation to the consolidated balance sheet from which it has been derived.

Basis for Review Results

This interim financial information is the responsibility of the Company's management. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our reviews in accordance with standards of the PCAOB. A review of interim financial information consists principally of applying analytical procedures and making inquiries of persons responsible for financial and accounting matters. It is substantially less in scope than an audit conducted in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion regarding the financial statements taken as a whole. Accordingly, we do not express such an opinion.

/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP


Hartford, Connecticut
April 27, 2021


6

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions, except for per share data)20212020
(Unaudited)
Revenues
Earned premiums$4,343 $4,391 
Fee income355 320 
Net investment income509 459 
Net realized capital gains (losses)80 (231)
Other revenues12 17 
Total revenues5,299 4,956 
Benefits, losses and expenses
Benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses3,350 2,916 
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs ("DAC")416 437 
Insurance operating costs and other expenses1,144 1,176 
Interest expense57 64 
Amortization of other intangible assets18 19 
Restructuring and other costs11 
Total benefits, losses and expenses4,996 4,612 
Income before income taxes303 344 
 Income tax expense54 71 
Net income249 273 
Preferred stock dividends
Net income available to common stockholders$244 $268 
Net income available to common stockholders per common share
Basic$0.68 $0.75 
Diluted$0.67 $0.74 
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
7

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20212020
 (Unaudited)
Net income$249 $273 
Other comprehensive income (loss) ("OCI"):
Change in net unrealized gain on fixed maturities(925)(1,057)
Change in unrealized losses on fixed maturities for which an allowance for credit losses ("ACL") has been recorded
Change in net gain on cash flow hedging instruments44 
Change in foreign currency translation adjustments(8)
Changes in pension and other postretirement plan adjustments13 11 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax(906)(1,009)
Comprehensive loss$(657)$(736)
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
8

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in millions, except for share and per share data)March 31,
2021
December 31, 2020
 (Unaudited)
Assets
Investments:
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale, at fair value (amortized cost of $41,317 and $41,561, and ACL of $19 and $23)$43,607 $45,035 
Equity securities, at fair value1,632 1,438 
Mortgage loans (net of ACL of $34 and $38)4,588 4,493 
Limited partnerships and other alternative investments2,326 2,082 
Other investments207 201 
Short-term investments3,367 3,283 
Total investments55,727 56,532 
Cash176 151 
Restricted cash104 88 
Premiums receivable and agents' balances (net of ACL of $144 and $152)4,487 4,268 
Reinsurance recoverables (net of allowance for uncollectible reinsurance of $98 and $108)6,083 6,011 
Deferred policy acquisition costs827 789 
Deferred income taxes, net205 46 
Goodwill1,911 1,911 
Property and equipment, net1,092 1,122 
Other intangible assets, net927 950 
Other assets2,497 2,066 
Assets held for sale165 177 
Total assets$74,201 $74,111 
Liabilities
Unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses$38,540 $37,855 
Reserve for future policy benefits641 638 
Other policyholder funds and benefits payable681 701 
Unearned premiums6,958 6,629 
Long-term debt4,353 4,352 
Other liabilities5,178 5,222 
Liabilities held for sale148 158 
Total liabilities56,499 55,555 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 12)
Stockholders’ Equity
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value — 50,000,000 shares authorized, 13,800 shares issued at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, aggregate liquidation preference of $345334 334 
Common stock, $0.01 par value —1,500,000,000 shares authorized, 384,923,222 shares issued at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020
Additional paid-in capital4,310 4,322 
Retained earnings14,036 13,918 
Treasury stock, at cost 27,406,740 and 26,434,682 shares(1,246)(1,192)
Accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax264 1,170 
Total stockholders’ equity17,702 18,556 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$74,201 $74,111 
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
9

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Equity
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions, except for share and per share data)20212020
 (Unaudited)
Preferred Stock$334 $334 
Common Stock
Additional Paid-in Capital
Additional Paid-in Capital, beginning of period4,322 4,312 
Issuance of shares under incentive and stock compensation plans(69)(79)
Stock-based compensation plans expense57 53 
Additional Paid-in Capital, end of period4,310 4,286 
Retained Earnings
Retained Earnings, beginning of period13,918 12,685 
Cumulative effect of accounting changes, net of tax(18)
Adjusted balance, beginning of period13,918 12,667 
Net income249 273 
Dividends declared on preferred stock(5)(5)
Dividends declared on common stock(126)(116)
Retained Earnings, end of period14,036 12,819 
Treasury Stock, at cost
Treasury Stock, at cost, beginning of period(1,192)(1,117)
Treasury stock acquired(123)(150)
Issuance of shares under incentive and stock compensation plans94 82 
Net shares acquired related to employee incentive and stock compensation plans(25)(35)
Treasury Stock, at cost, end of period(1,246)(1,220)
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), net of tax
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, net of tax, beginning of period1,170 52 
Total other comprehensive loss(906)(1,009)
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), net of tax, end of period264 (957)
Total Stockholders’ Equity$17,702 $15,266 
Preferred Shares Outstanding
Preferred Shares Outstanding, beginning of period13,800 13,800 
Issuance of preferred shares
Preferred Shares Outstanding, end of period13,800 13,800 
Common Shares Outstanding
Common Shares Outstanding, beginning of period (in thousands)358,489 359,570 
Treasury stock acquired(2,386)(2,661)
Issuance of shares under incentive and stock compensation plans1,914 1,685 
Return of shares under incentive and stock compensation plans to treasury stock(500)(660)
Common Shares Outstanding, at end of period357,517 357,934 
Cash dividends declared per common share$0.350 $0.325 
Cash dividends declared per preferred share$375.00 $375.00 
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
10

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20212020
Operating Activities(Unaudited)
Net income$249 $273 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Net realized capital losses (gains)(80)231 
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs416 437 
Additions to deferred policy acquisition costs(449)(447)
Depreciation and amortization174 134 
Other operating activities, net15 79 
Change in assets and liabilities:
Increase in reinsurance recoverables(66)(75)
Net change in accrued and deferred income taxes70 53 
Increase in insurance liabilities996 235 
Net change in other assets and other liabilities(566)(622)
Net cash provided by operating activities759 298 
Investing Activities
Proceeds from the sale/maturity/prepayment of:
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale5,536 3,906 
Equity securities, at fair value157 645 
Mortgage loans307 329 
Partnerships56 34 
Payments for the purchase of:
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale(5,049)(3,578)
Equity securities, at fair value(756)(518)
Mortgage loans(400)(487)
Partnerships(245)(97)
Net proceeds from derivatives27 161 
Net additions of property and equipment(23)(23)
Net proceeds from (payments for) short-term investments(54)407 
Other investing activities, net(6)(2)
Net cash provided by (used for) investing activities(450)777 
Financing Activities
Deposits and other additions to investment and universal life-type contracts22 15 
Withdrawals and other deductions from investment and universal life-type contracts(44)(10)
Net decrease in securities loaned or sold under agreements to repurchase(237)
Repayment of debt(500)
Net return of shares under incentive and stock compensation plans(32)
Treasury stock acquired(123)(150)
Dividends paid on preferred stock(5)(5)
Dividends paid on common stock(116)(108)
Net cash used for financing activities(266)(1,027)
Foreign exchange rate effect on cash(3)(9)
Net increase in cash and restricted cash, including cash classified within assets held for sale40 39 
Less: Net decrease in cash classified within assets held for sale(1)
Net increase in cash and restricted cash41 39 
Cash and restricted cash – beginning of period239 262 
Cash and restricted cash– end of period$280 $301 
Supplemental Disclosure of Cash Flow Information
Income tax received (paid)$32 $(1)
Interest paid$58 $74 
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
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THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Dollar amounts in millions, except for per share data, unless otherwise stated)
(Unaudited)




1. BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc. is a holding company for insurance and financial services subsidiaries that provide property and casualty insurance, group life and disability products and mutual funds and exchange-traded products to individual and business customers in the United States as well as in the United Kingdom, continental Europe and other international locations (collectively, “The Hartford”, the “Company”, “we” or “our”).
On September 30, 2020, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to sell all of the issued and outstanding equity of Navigators Holdings (Europe) N.V., a Belgium holding company, and its subsidiaries, Bracht, Deckers & Mackelbert N.V. (“BDM”) and Assurances Contintales Contintale Verzekeringen N.V. (“ASCO”), (collectively referred to as "Continental Europe Operations"). For further discussion of this transaction see Note 16 - Business Disposition.
The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information, which differ materially from the accounting practices prescribed by various insurance regulatory authorities. These Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto included in the Company's 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report. The results of operations for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.
The accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes are unaudited. These financial statements reflect all adjustments (generally consisting only of normal accruals) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary for the fair statement of the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods. The Company's significant accounting policies are summarized in Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report.
Consolidation
The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc., and entities in which the Company directly or indirectly has a controlling financial interest. Entities in which the Company has significant influence over the operating and financing decisions but does not control are reported using the equity method. Intercompany transactions and balances between The Hartford and its subsidiaries and affiliates have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The most significant estimates include those used in determining property and casualty and group long-term disability insurance product reserves, net of reinsurance; evaluation of goodwill for impairment; valuation of investments and derivative instruments; and contingencies relating to corporate litigation and regulatory matters.
The novel strain of coronavirus, specifically identified as the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (“COVID-19”), continues to impact the global economy. The ultimate impact of COVID-19 and the extent to which COVID-19 continues to impact the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on the duration and severity of the pandemic, the duration and severity of the economic downturn and the degree to which federal, state and local government actions to vaccinate the public and stimulate the economy are effective. Our estimates, judgments and assumptions related to COVID-19 could ultimately differ over time.
Reclassifications
Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year financial information to conform to the current year presentation.
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Note 2 - Earnings Per Common Share
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS


2. EARNINGS PER COMMON SHARE
Computation of Basic and Diluted Earnings per Common Share
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In millions, except for per share data)20212020
Earnings
Net income$249 $273 
Less: Preferred stock dividends
Net income available to common stockholders$244 $268 
Shares
Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic358.2 358.5 
Dilutive effect of stock-based awards under compensation plans4.0 2.6 
Weighted average common shares outstanding and dilutive potential common shares362.2 361.1 
Net income available to common stockholders per common share
Basic$0.68 $0.75 
Diluted$0.67 $0.74 
3. SEGMENT INFORMATION
The Company currently conducts business principally in 5 reporting segments including Commercial Lines, Personal Lines, Property & Casualty Other Operations, Group Benefits and Hartford Funds, as well as a Corporate Category.

Net Income

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Commercial Lines$129 $121 
Personal Lines135 98 
Property & Casualty Other Operations(13)
Group Benefits104 
Hartford Funds47 36 
Corporate(58)(91)
Net income249 273 
Preferred stock dividends
Net income available to common stockholders$244 $268 
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Note 3 - Segment Information
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Revenues
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Earned premiums and fee income:
Commercial Lines
Workers’ compensation$738 $816 
Liability375 343 
Marine58 65 
Package business393 377 
Property200 205 
Professional liability155 143 
Bond69 70 
Assumed reinsurance68 66 
Automobile188 188 
Total Commercial Lines2,244 2,273 
Personal Lines
Automobile512 543 
Homeowners230 240 
Total Personal Lines [1]742 783 
Group Benefits
Group disability739 726 
Group life602 607 
Other77 58 
Total Group Benefits1,418 1,391 
Hartford Funds
Mutual fund and Exchange-Traded Products ("ETP")259 225 
Talcott Resolution life and annuity separate accounts [2]23 22 
Total Hartford Funds282 247 
Corporate12 17 
Total earned premiums and fee income4,698 4,711 
Net investment income509 459 
Net realized capital gains (losses)80 (231)
Other revenues12 17 
Total revenues$5,299 $4,956 
[1]For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, AARP members accounted for earned premiums of $676 and $707, respectively.
[2]Represents revenues earned for investment advisory services on the life and annuity separate account AUM sold in May 2018 that is still managed by the Company's Hartford Funds segment.
14

Note 3 - Segment Information
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Revenue from Non-Insurance Contracts with Customers
Three Months Ended March 31,
Revenue Line Item20212020
Commercial Lines
Installment billing feesFee income$$
Personal Lines
Installment billing feesFee income
Insurance servicing revenuesOther revenues19 19 
Group Benefits
Administrative servicesFee income44 43 
Hartford Funds
Advisor, distribution and other management feesFee income257 224 
Other feesFee income25 23 
Corporate
Investment management and other feesFee income12 13 
Transition service revenuesOther revenues
Total non-insurance revenues with customers$374 $341 
4. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
The Company carries certain financial assets and liabilities at estimated fair value. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market in an orderly transaction between market participants. Our fair value framework includes a hierarchy that gives the highest priority to the use of quoted prices in active markets, followed by the use of market observable inputs, followed by the use of unobservable inputs. The fair value hierarchy levels are as follows:
Level 1    Fair values based primarily on unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities, in active markets that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2    Fair values primarily based on observable inputs, other than quoted prices included in Level 1, or based on prices for similar assets and liabilities.
Level 3    Fair values derived when one or more of the significant inputs are unobservable (including assumptions about risk). With little or no observable market, the determination of fair values uses considerable judgment and represents the Company’s best estimate of an amount that could be realized in a market exchange for the asset or liability. Also included are securities that are traded within illiquid markets and/or priced by independent brokers.
The Company will classify the financial asset or liability by level based upon the lowest level input that is significant to the determination of the fair value. In most cases, both observable inputs (e.g., changes in interest rates) and unobservable inputs (e.g., changes in risk assumptions) are used to determine fair values that the Company has classified within Level 3.
15

Note 4 - Fair Value Measurements
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Assets and (Liabilities) Carried at Fair Value by Hierarchy Level as of March 31, 2021
TotalQuoted Prices in
Active Markets
for Identical
Assets
(Level 1)
Significant
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
Assets accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis
Fixed maturities, AFS
Asset backed securities ("ABS")$1,435 $$1,429 $
Collateralized loan obligations ("CLOs")3,049 2,623 426 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities ("CMBS")4,167 4,106 61 
Corporate19,495 18,551 944 
Foreign government/government agencies868 868 
Municipal9,214 9,214 
Residential mortgage-backed securities ("RMBS")4,025 3,544 481 
U.S. Treasuries1,354 547 807 
Total fixed maturities43,607 547 41,142 1,918 
Equity securities, at fair value1,632 1,022 540 70 
Derivative assets
Credit derivatives21 21 
Interest rate derivatives
Total derivative assets [1]22 22 
Short-term investments3,367 1,754 1,597 16 
Total assets accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis$48,628 $3,323 $43,301 $2,004 
Liabilities accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis
Derivative liabilities
Foreign exchange derivatives$(10)$$(10)$
Interest rate derivatives(45)(45)
Total derivative liabilities [2](55)(55)
Total liabilities accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis$(55)$0 $(55)$0 
16

Note 4 - Fair Value Measurements
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Assets and (Liabilities) Carried at Fair Value by Hierarchy Level as of December 31, 2020
Total
Quoted Prices in
Active Markets
for Identical
Assets
(Level 1)
Significant
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
Assets accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis
Fixed maturities, AFS
ABS$1,564 $$1,564 $
CLOs2,780 2,420 360 
CMBS4,484 4,407 77 
Corporate20,273 19,392 881 
Foreign government/government agencies919 913 
Municipal9,503 9,503 
RMBS4,107 3,726 381 
U.S. Treasuries1,405 529 876 
Total fixed maturities45,035 529 42,801 1,705 
Equity securities, at fair value1,438 872 496 70 
Derivative assets
Credit derivatives21 21 
Foreign exchange derivatives
Interest rate derivatives
Total derivative assets [1]23 23 
Short-term investments3,283 2,663 590 30 
Total assets accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis$49,779 $4,064 $43,910 $1,805 
Liabilities accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis
Derivative liabilities
Foreign exchange derivatives(14)(14)
Interest rate derivatives(70)(70)
Total derivative liabilities [2](84)(84)
Total liabilities accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis$(84)$0 $(84)$0 
[1]Includes derivative instruments in a net positive fair value position after consideration of the accrued interest and impact of collateral posting requirements which may be imposed by agreements and applicable law. See footnote 2 to this table for derivative liabilities.
[2]Includes derivative instruments in a net negative fair value position (derivative liability) after consideration of the accrued interest and impact of collateral posting requirements which may be imposed by agreements and applicable law.
In connection with the acquisition of Navigators Group, the Company has overseas deposits in Other Invested Assets of $61 and $54 as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively, which are measured at fair value using the net asset value as a practical expedient.
Fixed Maturities, Equity Securities, Short-term Investments, and Derivatives
Valuation Techniques
The Company generally determines fair values using valuation techniques that use prices, rates, and other relevant information evident from market transactions involving identical or similar instruments. Valuation techniques also include, where appropriate, estimates of future cash flows that are converted into a single discounted amount using current market expectations. The Company uses a "waterfall" approach comprised of the following pricing sources and techniques, which are listed in priority order:
Quoted prices, unadjusted, for identical assets or liabilities in active markets, which are classified as Level 1.
Prices from third-party pricing services, which primarily utilize a combination of techniques. These services utilize recently reported trades of identical, similar, or benchmark securities making adjustments for market observable inputs available through the reporting date. If there are no recently reported trades, they may use a discounted cash flow technique to develop a price using expected cash flows based upon the anticipated future performance of the underlying collateral discounted at an estimated market rate. Both techniques develop prices that consider the time value of future cash flows and provide a margin for risk, including liquidity and credit risk. Most prices provided by third-party pricing services are classified as Level 2 because the inputs used in pricing the securities are observable. However, some securities that are less liquid or trade less actively are classified as Level 3. Additionally, certain long-dated securities, such as municipal securities and bank loans, include benchmark interest rate or credit spread assumptions that are not observable in the marketplace and are thus classified as Level 3.
17

Note 4 - Fair Value Measurements
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Internal matrix pricing, which is a valuation process internally developed for private placement securities for which the Company is unable to obtain a price from a third-party pricing service. Internal pricing matrices determine credit spreads that, when combined with risk-free rates, are applied to contractual cash flows to develop a price. The Company develops credit spreads using market based data for public securities adjusted for credit spread differentials between public and private securities, which are obtained from a survey of multiple private placement brokers. The market-based reference credit spread considers the issuer’s financial strength and term to maturity, using an independent public security index, while the credit spread differential considers the non-public nature of the security. Securities priced using internal matrix pricing are classified as Level 2 because the significant inputs are observable or can be corroborated with observable data.
Independent broker quotes, which are typically non-binding, use inputs that can be difficult to corroborate with observable market based data. Brokers may use present value techniques using assumptions specific to the security types, or they may use recent transactions of similar securities. Due to the lack of transparency in the process that brokers use to develop prices, valuations that are based on independent broker quotes are classified as Level 3.
The fair value of derivative instruments is determined primarily using a discounted cash flow model or option model technique and incorporates counterparty credit risk. In some cases, quoted market prices for exchange-traded and over-the-counter ("OTC") cleared derivatives may be used and in other cases independent broker quotes may be used. The pricing valuation models primarily use inputs that are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data. The valuation of certain derivatives may include significant inputs that are unobservable, such as volatility levels, and reflect the Company’s view of what other market participants would use when pricing such instruments.
Valuation Controls
The process for determining the fair value of investments is monitored by the Valuation Committee, which is a cross-
functional group of senior management within the Company. The purpose of the Valuation Committee is to provide oversight of the pricing policy, procedures and controls, including approval of valuation methodologies and pricing sources. The Valuation Committee reviews market data trends, pricing statistics and trading statistics to ensure that prices are reasonable and consistent with our fair value framework. Controls and procedures used to assess third-party pricing services are reviewed by the Valuation Committee, including the results of annual due-diligence reviews. Controls include, but are not limited to, reviewing daily and monthly price changes, stale prices, and missing prices and comparing new trade prices to third-party pricing services, weekly price changes to published bond prices of a corporate bond index, and daily OTC derivative market valuations to counterparty valuations. The Company has a dedicated pricing unit that works with trading and investment professionals to challenge the price received by a third party pricing source if the Company believes that the valuation received does not accurately reflect the fair value. New valuation models and changes to current models require approval by the Valuation Committee. In addition, the Company’s enterprise-wide Operational Risk Management function provides an independent review of the suitability and reliability of model inputs, as well as an analysis of significant changes to current models.
Valuation Inputs
Quoted prices for identical assets in active markets are considered Level 1 and consist of on-the-run U.S. Treasuries, money market funds, exchange-traded equity securities, open-ended mutual funds, certain short-term investments, and exchange traded futures and option contracts.
18

Note 4 - Fair Value Measurements
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Valuation Inputs Used in Levels 2 and 3 Measurements for Securities and Derivatives
Level 2
Primary Observable Inputs
Level 3
Primary Unobservable Inputs
Fixed Maturity Investments
Structured securities (includes ABS, CLOs, CMBS and RMBS)
• Benchmark yields and spreads
• Monthly payment information
• Collateral performance, which varies by vintage year and includes delinquency rates, loss severity rates and refinancing assumptions
• Credit default swap indices

Other inputs for ABS, CLOs and RMBS:
• Estimate of future principal prepayments, derived from the characteristics of the underlying structure
• Prepayment speeds previously experienced at the interest rate levels projected for the collateral
• Independent broker quotes
• Credit spreads beyond observable curve
• Interest rates beyond observable curve

Other inputs for less liquid securities or those that trade less actively, including subprime RMBS:
• Estimated cash flows
• Credit spreads, which include illiquidity premium
• Constant prepayment rates
• Constant default rates
• Loss severity
Corporates
• Benchmark yields and spreads
• Reported trades, bids, offers of the same or similar securities
• Issuer spreads and credit default swap curves

Other inputs for investment grade privately placed securities that utilize internal matrix pricing:
• Credit spreads for public securities of similar quality, maturity, and sector, adjusted for non-public nature
• Independent broker quotes
• Credit spreads beyond observable curve
• Interest rates beyond observable curve

Other inputs for below investment grade privately placed securities and private bank loans:
• Credit spreads for public securities of similar quality, maturity, and sector, adjusted for non-public nature
U.S. Treasuries, Municipals, and Foreign government/government agencies
• Benchmark yields and spreads
• Issuer credit default swap curves
• Political events in emerging market economies
• Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board reported trades and material event notices
• Issuer financial statements
• Credit spreads beyond observable curve
• Interest rates beyond observable curve
Equity Securities
• Quoted prices in markets that are not active• For privately traded equity securities, internal discounted cash flow models utilizing earnings multiples or other cash flow assumptions that are not observable
Short-term Investments
• Benchmark yields and spreads
• Reported trades, bids, offers
• Issuer spreads and credit default swap curves
• Material event notices and new issue money market rates
 • Independent broker quotes
Derivatives
Credit derivatives
• Swap yield curve
• Credit default swap curves
Not applicable
Foreign exchange derivatives
• Swap yield curve
• Currency spot and forward rates
• Cross currency basis curves
Not applicable
Interest rate derivatives
• Swap yield curveNot applicable
19

Note 4 - Fair Value Measurements
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Significant Unobservable Inputs for Level 3 - Securities
Assets accounted for at fair value on a recurring basisFair
Value
Predominant
Valuation
Technique
Significant
Unobservable Input
MinimumMaximumWeighted Average [1]Impact of
Increase in Input
on Fair Value [2]
As of March 31, 2021
CLOs [3]$331 Discounted cash flowsSpread232 bps332 bps312 bpsDecrease
CMBS [3]$21 Discounted cash flowsSpread (encompasses prepayment, default risk and loss severity)255 bps670 bps555 bpsDecrease
Corporate [4]$844 Discounted cash flowsSpread91 bps1,231 bps330 bpsDecrease
RMBS [3]$450 Discounted cash flowsSpread [6]2 bps1,499 bps100 bpsDecrease
Constant prepayment rate [6]0%12%6% Decrease [5]
Constant default rate [6]1%10%3%Decrease
Loss severity [6]0%100%76%Decrease
As of December 31, 2020
CLOs [3]$340 Discounted cash flowsSpread304 bps305 bps304 bpsDecrease
CMBS [3]$20 Discounted cash flowsSpread (encompasses prepayment, default risk and loss severity)255 bps975 bps688 bpsDecrease
Corporate [4]$749 Discounted cash flowsSpread110 bps692 bps293 bpsDecrease
RMBS [3]$364 Discounted cash flowsSpread [6]7 bps937 bps119 bpsDecrease
Constant prepayment rate [6]0%10%5%Decrease [5]
Constant default rate [6]2%6%3%Decrease
Loss severity [6]0%100%84%Decrease
[1]The weighted average is determined based on the fair value of the securities.
[2]Conversely, the impact of a decrease in input would have the opposite impact to the fair value as that presented in the table.
[3]Excludes securities for which the Company bases fair value on broker quotations.
[4]Excludes securities for which the Company bases fair value on broker quotations; however, included are broker priced lower-rated private placement securities for which the Company receives spread and yield information to corroborate the fair value.
[5]Decrease for above market rate coupons and increase for below market rate coupons.
[6]Generally, a change in the assumption used for the constant default rate would have been accompanied by a directionally similar change in the assumption used for the loss severity and a directionally opposite change in the assumption used for constant prepayment rate and would have resulted in wider spreads.
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the fair values of the Company's level 3 derivatives were $0 and less than $1, respectively.
The table above excludes certain securities for which fair values are predominately based on independent broker quotes. While the Company does not have access to the significant unobservable inputs that independent brokers may use in their pricing process, the Company believes brokers likely use inputs similar to those used by the Company and third-party pricing services to price similar instruments. As such, in their pricing models, brokers likely use estimated loss severity rates, prepayment rates, constant default rates and credit spreads. Therefore, similar to non-broker priced securities, increases in these inputs would generally cause fair values to decrease. As of March 31, 2021, 0 significant adjustments were made by the Company to broker prices received.

Level 3 Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis Using Significant Unobservable Inputs
The Company uses derivative instruments to manage the risk associated with certain assets and liabilities. However, the derivative instrument may not be classified within the same fair value hierarchy level as the associated asset or liability. Therefore, the realized and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives reported in the Level 3 rollforward may be offset by realized and unrealized gains and losses of the associated assets and liabilities in other line items of the financial statements.
20

Note 4 - Fair Value Measurements
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Fair Value Rollforwards for Financial Instruments Classified as Level 3 for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Total realized/unrealized gains (losses)
Fair value as of January 1, 2021Included in net income [1]Included in OCI [2]PurchasesSettlementsSalesTransfers into Level 3 [3]Transfers out of Level 3 [3]Fair value as of March 31, 2021
Assets
Fixed Maturities, AFS
ABS$$$$$$$$$
CLOs360 140 (15)(59)426 
CMBS77 (2)(15)61 
Corporate881 (13)73 (7)(7)48 (36)944 
Foreign Govt./Govt. Agencies(6)
RMBS381 (1)151 (46)(4)481 
Total Fixed Maturities, AFS1,705 (14)371 (70)(17)48 (110)1,918 
Equity Securities, at fair value70 70 
Short-term investments30 (14)16 
Total Assets$1,805 $$(14)$371 $(84)$(17)$48 $(110)$2,004 



Fair Value Rollforwards for Financial Instruments Classified as Level 3 for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Total realized/unrealized gains (losses)
Fair value as of January 1, 2020Included in net income [1]Included in OCI [2]PurchasesSettlementsSalesTransfers into Level 3 [3]Transfers out of Level 3 [3]Fair value as of March 31, 2020
Assets
Fixed Maturities, AFS
ABS$15 $$(1)$20 $$$$(15)$19 
CLOs95 (6)(6)83 
CMBS10 (1)18 
Corporate732 (10)(80)94 (36)(8)47 (30)709 
Foreign Govt./Govt. Agencies
RMBS560 (25)(46)(7)487 
Total Fixed Maturities, AFS1,414 (10)(112)129 (89)(15)47 (45)1,319 
Equity Securities, at fair value73 (7)69 
Short-term investments15 (1)14 
Total Assets$1,502 $(17)$(112)$132 $(90)$(15)$47 $(45)$1,402 
Liabilities
Contingent Consideration(22)12 10 
Derivatives, net [4]
Equity(15)36 (21)
Total Derivatives, net [4](15)36 (21)
Total Liabilities$(37)$48 $0 $0 $(11)$0 $0 $0 $0 
[1]Amounts in these columns are generally reported in net realized capital gains (losses). All amounts are before income taxes.
[2]All amounts are before income taxes.
[3]Transfers in and/or (out) of Level 3 are primarily attributable to the availability of market observable information and the re-evaluation of the observability of pricing inputs.
[4]Derivative instruments are reported in this table on a net basis for asset (liability) positions and reported in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets in other investments and other liabilities.
21

Note 4 - Fair Value Measurements
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Changes in Unrealized Gains (Losses) for Financial Instruments Classified as
Level 3 Still Held at End of Period
Three Months Ended March 31,
2021202020212020
Changes in Unrealized Gain/(Loss) included in Net Income [1] [2]Changes in Unrealized Gain/(Loss) included in OCI [3]
Assets
Fixed Maturities, AFS
ABS$$$$(1)
CLOs(6)
Corporate(13)(79)
RMBS(1)(24)
Total Fixed Maturities, AFS(14)(110)
Equity Securities, at fair value(6)
Total Assets$5 $(6)$(14)$(110)
Liabilities
Contingent Consideration$$12 $$
Total Liabilities$0 $12 $0 $0 
[1]All amounts in these rows are reported in net realized capital gains (losses). All amounts are before income taxes.
[2]Amounts presented are for Level 3 only and therefore may not agree to other disclosures included herein.
[3]Changes in unrealized gain (loss) on fixed maturities, AFS are reported in changes in net unrealized gain on securities in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
Financial Instruments Not Carried at Fair Value
Financial Assets and Liabilities Not Carried at Fair Value
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Fair Value Hierarchy LevelCarrying Amount [1]Fair ValueFair Value Hierarchy LevelCarrying Amount [1]Fair Value
Assets
Mortgage loansLevel 3$4,588 $4,768 Level 3$4,493 $4,792 
Liabilities
Other policyholder funds and benefits payableLevel 3$681 $683 Level 3$701 $703 
Senior notes [2]Level 2$3,263 $3,965 Level 2$3,262 $4,363 
Junior subordinated debentures [2]Level 2$1,090 $1,128 Level 2$1,090 $1,107 
[1]As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, carrying amount of mortgage loans is net of ACL of $34 and $38, respectively.
[2]Included in long-term debt in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, except for current maturities, which are included in short-term debt.
22

Note 5 - Investments
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. INVESTMENTS
Net Realized Capital Gains (Losses)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(Before tax)20212020
Gross gains on sales$31 $78 
Gross losses on sales(31)(8)
Equity securities [1]43 (386)
Net credit losses on fixed maturities, AFS(12)
Change in ACL on mortgage loans(2)
Intent-to-sell impairments(5)
Other, net [2]29 104 
Net realized capital gains (losses)$80 $(231)
[1] The net unrealized gains (losses) on equity securities included in net realized capital gains (losses) related to equity securities still held as of March 31, 2021, were $40 for the three months ended March 31, 2021. The net unrealized gains (losses) on equity securities included in net realized capital gains (losses) related to equity securities still held as of March 31, 2020, were $(277) for the three months ended March 31, 2020.
[2] For the three months ended March 31, 2021, primarily includes gains (losses) from transactional foreign currency revaluation of ($7) and gains (losses) on non-qualifying derivatives of $35. For the three months ended March 31, 2020, includes gains (losses) from transactional foreign currency revaluation of $10 and gains (losses) on non-qualifying derivatives of $92.
Proceeds from the sales of fixed maturities, AFS totaled $4.2 billion and $3.1 billion for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Accrued Interest Receivable on Fixed Maturities, AFS and Mortgage Loans
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company reported accrued interest receivable related to fixed maturities, AFS of $334 and $327, respectively, and accrued interest receivable related to mortgage loans of $15 and $14, respectively. These amounts are recorded in other assets on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and are not included in the carrying value of the fixed maturities or mortgage loans. The Company does not include the current accrued interest receivable balance when estimating the ACL. The Company has a policy to write-off accrued interest receivable balances that are more than 90 days past due. Write-offs of accrued interest receivable are recorded as a credit loss component of net realized capital gains and losses.
Interest income on fixed maturities and mortgage loans is accrued unless it is past due over 90 days or management deems the interest uncollectible.
Recognition and Presentation of Intent-to-Sell Impairments and ACL on Fixed Maturities, AFS
The Company will record an "intent-to-sell impairment" as a reduction to the amortized cost of fixed maturities, AFS in an unrealized loss position if the Company intends to sell or it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the fixed maturity before a recovery in value. A corresponding charge is recorded in net realized capital losses equal to the difference between the fair value on the impairment date and the amortized cost basis of the fixed maturity before recognizing the impairment.
When fixed maturities are in an unrealized loss position and the Company does not record an intent-to-sell impairment, the Company will record an ACL for the portion of the unrealized loss
due to a credit loss. Any remaining unrealized loss on a fixed maturity after recording an ACL is the non-credit amount and is recorded in OCI. The ACL is the excess of the amortized cost over the greater of the Company's best estimate of the present value of expected future cash flows or the security's fair value. Cash flows are discounted at the effective yield that is used to record interest income. The ACL cannot exceed the unrealized loss and, therefore, it may fluctuate with changes in the fair value of the fixed maturity if the fair value is greater than the Company's best estimate of the present value of expected future cash flows. The initial ACL and any subsequent changes are recorded in net realized capital gains and losses. The ACL is written off against the amortized cost in the period in which all or a portion of the related fixed maturity is determined to be uncollectible.
Developing the Company’s best estimate of expected future cash flows is a quantitative and qualitative process that incorporates information received from third-party sources along with certain internal assumptions regarding the future performance. The Company's considerations include, but are not limited to, (a) changes in the financial condition of the issuer and/or the underlying collateral, (b) whether the issuer is current on contractually obligated interest and principal payments, (c) credit ratings, (d) payment structure of the security and (e) the extent to which the fair value has been less than the amortized cost of the security.
For non-structured securities, assumptions include, but are not limited to, economic and industry-specific trends and fundamentals, instrument-specific developments including changes in credit ratings, industry earnings multiples and the issuer’s ability to restructure, access capital markets, and execute asset sales.
For structured securities, assumptions include, but are not limited to, various performance indicators such as historical and projected default and recovery rates, credit ratings, current and projected delinquency rates, loan-to-value ratios ("LTVs"), average cumulative collateral loss rates that vary by vintage year, prepayment speeds, and property value declines. These assumptions require the use of significant management judgment
23

Note 5 - Investments
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
and include the probability of issuer default and estimates regarding timing and amount of expected recoveries which may include estimating the underlying collateral value.
ACL on Fixed Maturities, AFS by Type
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
(Before tax)CorporateTotalCorporateTotal
Balance as of beginning of period$23 $23 $$
Credit losses on fixed maturities where an allowance was not previously recorded12 12 
Net increases (decreases) on fixed maturities where an allowance was previously recorded(6)(6)
Balance as of end of period$19 $19 $12 $12 
Fixed Maturities, AFS, by Type
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020

Amortized
Cost
ACL
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value

Amortized
Cost
ACL
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value
ABS$1,405 $$30 $$1,435 $1,525 $$39 $$1,564 
CLOs3,040 10 (1)3,049 2,780 (7)2,780 
CMBS3,979 206 (18)4,167 4,219 286 (21)4,484 
Corporate18,385 (19)1,216 (87)19,495 18,401 (23)1,926 (31)20,273 
Foreign govt./govt. agencies825 47 (4)868 842 77 919 
Municipal8,471 762 (19)9,214 8,564 940 (1)9,503 
RMBS3,924 110 (9)4,025 3,966 144 (3)4,107 
U.S. Treasuries1,288 69 (3)1,354 1,264 141 1,405 
Total fixed maturities, AFS$41,317 $(19)$2,450 $(141)$43,607 $41,561 $(23)$3,560 $(63)$45,035 
Fixed Maturities, AFS, by Contractual Maturity Year
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Amortized CostFair ValueAmortized CostFair Value
One year or less$1,394 $1,411 $1,411 $1,432 
Over one year through five years7,706 8,108 7,832 8,286 
Over five years through ten years7,755 8,158 7,622 8,354 
Over ten years12,114 13,254 12,206 14,028 
Subtotal28,969 30,931 29,071 32,100 
Mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities12,348 12,676 12,490 12,935 
Total fixed maturities, AFS$41,317 $43,607 $41,561 $45,035 
Estimated maturities may differ from contractual maturities due to call or prepayment provisions. Due to the potential for variability in payment speeds (i.e. prepayments or extensions), mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities are not categorized by contractual maturity.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company aims to maintain a diversified investment portfolio including issuer, sector and geographic stratification, where
applicable, and has established certain exposure limits, diversification standards and review procedures to mitigate credit risk. The Company had 0 investment exposure to any credit concentration risk of a single issuer greater than 10% of the Company's stockholders' equity as of March 31, 2021 or December 31, 2020 other than U.S. government securities and certain U.S. government agencies.
24

Note 5 - Investments
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Unrealized Losses on Fixed Maturities, AFS
Unrealized Loss Aging for Fixed Maturities, AFS by Type and Length of Time as of March 31, 2021
Less Than 12 Months12 Months or MoreTotal
Fair ValueUnrealized LossesFair ValueUnrealized LossesFair ValueUnrealized Losses
ABS$99 $$$$99 $
CLOs278 458 (1)736 (1)
CMBS360 (8)127 (10)487 (18)
Corporate2,451 (72)300 (15)2,751 (87)
Foreign govt./govt. agencies173 (4)173 (4)
Municipal796 (19)796 (19)
RMBS953 (9)13 966 (9)
U.S. Treasuries560 (3)560 (3)
Total fixed maturities, AFS in an unrealized loss position$5,670 $(115)$898 $(26)$6,568 $(141)

Unrealized Loss Aging for Fixed Maturities, AFS by Type and Length of Time as of December 31, 2020
 Less Than 12 Months12 Months or MoreTotal
Fair ValueUnrealized LossesFair ValueUnrealized LossesFair ValueUnrealized Losses
ABS$44 $$$$44 $
CLOs758 (2)715 (5)1,473 (7)
CMBS410 (17)19 (4)429 (21)
Corporate466 (13)212 (18)678 (31)
Foreign govt./govt. agencies24 24 
Municipal34 (1)34 (1)
RMBS461 (3)21 482 (3)
U.S. Treasuries39 39 
Total fixed maturities, AFS in an unrealized loss position$2,236 $(36)$967 $(27)$3,203 $(63)
As of March 31, 2021, fixed maturities, AFS in an unrealized loss position consisted of 978 instruments, primarily in the corporate sectors, most notably technology and communications and financial services, as well as municipal bonds and CMBS which were depressed largely due to higher interest rates and/or wider credit spreads since the purchase date. As of March 31, 2021, 97% of these fixed maturities were depressed less than 20% of cost or amortized cost. The increase in unrealized losses during the three months ended March 31, 2021 was primarily attributable to higher interest rates, partially offset by tighter credit spreads.
Most of the fixed maturities depressed for twelve months or more relate to the corporate and CMBS sectors which were primarily depressed because current market spreads are wider than at the respective purchase dates. Additionally, certain corporate fixed maturities were also depressed because of their variable-rate coupons and long-dated maturities. The Company neither has an intention to sell nor does it expect to be required to sell the fixed maturities outlined in the preceding discussion. The decision to record credit losses on fixed maturities, AFS in the form of an ACL requires us to make qualitative and quantitative estimates of expected future cash flows. Given the uncertainty about the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on issuers of these securities, actual cash flows could ultimately deviate significantly from our expectations resulting in realized losses in future periods.
25

Note 5 - Investments
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Mortgage Loans
ACL on Mortgage Loans
The Company reviews mortgage loans on a quarterly basis to estimate the ACL with changes in the ACL recorded in net realized capital gains and losses. Apart from an ACL recorded on individual mortgage loans where the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties, the Company records an ACL on the pool of mortgage loans based on lifetime expected credit losses. The Company utilizes a third-party forecasting model to estimate lifetime expected credit losses at a loan level under multiple economic scenarios. The scenarios use macroeconomic data provided by an internationally recognized economics firm that generates forecasts of varying economic factors such as GDP growth, unemployment and interest rates. The economic scenarios are projected over 10 years. The first two to four years of the 10-year period assume a specific modeled economic scenario (including moderate upside, moderate recession and severe recession scenarios) and then revert to historical long-term assumptions over the remaining period. Using these economic scenarios, the forecasting model projects property-specific operating income and capitalization rates used to estimate the value of a future operating income stream. The operating income and the property valuations derived from capitalization rates are compared to loan payment and principal amounts to create debt service coverage ratios ("DSCRs") and loan-to-value ratios ("LTVs") over the forecast period. The model overlays historical data about mortgage loan performance based on DSCRs and LTVs and projects the probability of default, amount of loss given a default and resulting expected loss through maturity for each loan under each economic scenario. Economic scenarios are probability-weighted based on a statistical analysis of the forecasted economic factors and qualitative analysis. The Company records the change in the ACL on mortgage loans based on the weighted-average expected credit losses across the selected economic scenarios.
When a borrower is experiencing financial difficulty, including when foreclosure is probable, the Company measures an ACL on individual mortgage loans. The ACL is established for any shortfall between the amortized cost of the loan and the fair value of the collateral less costs to sell. Estimates of collectibility from an individual borrower require the use of significant management judgment and include the probability and timing of borrower default and loss severity estimates. In addition, cash flow projections may change based upon new information about the borrower's ability to pay and/or the value of underlying collateral such as changes in projected property value estimates. As of March 31, 2021, the Company did 0t have any mortgage loans for which an ACL was established on an individual basis.
There were 0 mortgage loans held-for-sale as of March 31, 2021 or December 31, 2020. For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, the Company had 0 mortgage loans that have had extensions or restructurings other than what is allowable under the original terms of the contract.

ACL on Mortgage Loans
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
ACL as of beginning of period$38 $0 
Cumulative effect of accounting changes [1]19 
Adjusted beginning ACL38 19 
Current period provision (release)(4)
ACL as of March 31,$34 $21 
[1] Represents the adjustment to the ACL recorded on adoption of accounting guidance for credit losses on January 1, 2020. For further information, see the Financial Instruments - Credit Losses section within Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies, included in The Hartford's 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report.
During 2020, the Company increased the estimate of the ACL in response to significant economic stress experienced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The decrease in the allowance for the three months ended March 31, 2021, is the result of improved economic scenarios, including improved GDP growth and unemployment, and higher property valuations as compared to the prior quarter. We continue to monitor the impact on our mortgage loan portfolio from borrower behavior in response to the economic stress. Borrowers with lower LTVs have an incentive to continue to make payments of principal and/or interest in order to preserve the equity they have in the underlying commercial real estate properties.
The weighted-average LTV ratio of the Company’s mortgage loan portfolio was 55% as of March 31, 2021, while the weighted-average LTV ratio at origination of these loans was 61%. LTV ratios compare the loan amount to the value of the underlying property collateralizing the loan with property values based on appraisals updated no less than annually. Factors considered in estimating property values include, among other things, actual and expected property cash flows, geographic market data and the ratio of the property's net operating income to its value. DSCR compares a property’s net operating income to the borrower’s principal and interest payments and are updated no less than annually through reviews of underlying properties.
Mortgage Loans LTV & DSCR by Origination Year as of March 31, 2021
202120202019201820172016 & PriorTotal
Loan-to-valueAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized Cost [1]Avg. DSCR
65% - 80%$26 2.28x$57 2.12x$223 1.59x$210 1.32x$45 1.83x$166 1.57x$727 1.59x
Less than 65%149 2.62x637 2.71x695 2.74x410 2.16x423 1.88x1,581 2.53x3,895 2.49x
Total mortgage loans$175 2.57x$694 2.66x$918 2.46x$620 1.87x$468 1.88x$1,747 2.44x$4,622 2.35x
[1] Amortized cost of mortgage loans excludes ACL of $34.
26

Note 5 - Investments
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Mortgage Loans LTV & DSCR by Origination Year as of December 31, 2020
202020192018201720162015 & PriorTotal
Loan-to-valueAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized CostAvg. DSCRAmortized Cost [1]Avg. DSCR
65% - 80%$28 1.62x$243 1.58x$212 1.33x$45 2.02x$51 1.92x$115 1.74x$694 1.59x
Less than 65%659 2.56x676 2.85x410 2.25x446 1.89x235 2.99x1,411 3.01x3,837 2.69x
Total mortgage loans$687 2.52x$919 2.51x$622 1.94x$491 1.90x$286 2.80x$1,526 2.92x$4,531 2.52x
[1] Amortized cost of mortgage loans excludes ACL of $38.
Mortgage Loans by Region
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Amortized CostPercent of TotalAmortized CostPercent of Total
East North Central$279 6.0 %$290 6.4 %
Middle Atlantic290 6.3 %291 6.4 %
Mountain295 6.4 %254 5.6 %
New England396 8.6 %397 8.8 %
Pacific1,044 22.6 %1,001 22.1 %
South Atlantic1,062 23.0 %1,038 22.9 %
West North Central44 0.9 %44 1.0 %
West South Central431 9.3 %433 9.5 %
Other [1]781 16.9 %783 17.3 %
Total mortgage loans4,622 100.0 %4,531 100.0 %
ACL(34)(38)
Total mortgage loans, net of ACL$4,588 $4,493 
[1]Primarily represents loans collateralized by multiple properties in various regions.
Mortgage Loans by Property Type
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Amortized CostPercent of TotalAmortized CostPercent of Total
Commercial
Industrial$1,472 31.8 %$1,339 29.5 %
Multifamily1,499 32.4 %1,498 33.1 %
Office712 15.4 %774 17.1 %
Retail807 17.5 %788 17.4 %
Single Family92 2.0 %92 2.0 %
Other40 0.9 %40 0.9 %
Total mortgage loans4,622 100.0 %4,531 100.0 %
ACL(34)(38)
Total mortgage loans, net of ACL$4,588 $4,493 
Past-Due Mortgage Loans
Mortgage loans are considered past due if a payment of principal or interest is not received according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement, which typically includes a grace period. As of
March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company held 0 mortgage loans considered past due.
Mortgage Servicing
The Company originates, sells and services commercial mortgage loans on behalf of third parties and recognizes servicing fee income over the period that services are performed. As of March 31, 2021, under this program, the Company serviced mortgage loans with a total outstanding principal of $7.1 billion, of which $3.8 billion was serviced on behalf of third parties and $3.3 billion was retained and reported in total investments on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of December 31, 2020, the Company serviced mortgage loans with a total outstanding principal balance of $6.9 billion, of which $3.7 billion was serviced on behalf of third parties and $3.2 billion was retained and reported in total investments on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Servicing rights are carried at the lower of cost or fair value and were $0 as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, because servicing fees were market-level fees at origination and remain adequate to compensate the Company for servicing the loans.
Variable Interest Entities
The Company is engaged with various special purpose entities and other entities that are deemed to be VIEs primarily as an investor through normal investment activities but also as an investment manager.
A VIE is an entity that either has investors that lack certain essential characteristics of a controlling financial interest, such as simple majority kick-out rights, or lacks sufficient funds to finance its own activities without financial support provided by other entities. The Company performs ongoing qualitative assessments of its VIEs to determine whether the Company has a controlling financial interest in the VIE and therefore is the primary beneficiary. The Company is deemed to have a controlling financial interest when it has both the ability to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIE and the obligation to absorb losses or right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. Based on the Company’s assessment, if it determines it is the primary beneficiary, the Company consolidates the VIE in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Consolidated VIEs
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company did 0t hold any securities for which it is the primary beneficiary.
27

Note 5 - Investments
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Non-Consolidated VIEs
The Company, through normal investment activities, makes passive investments in limited partnerships and other alternative investments. For these non-consolidated VIEs, the Company has determined it is not the primary beneficiary as it has no ability to direct activities that could significantly affect the economic performance of the investments. The Company’s maximum exposure to loss as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 was limited to the total carrying value of $1.4 billion and $1.3 billion, respectively, which are included in limited partnerships and other alternative investments in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company has outstanding commitments totaling $801 and $768, respectively, whereby the Company is committed to fund these investments and may be called by the partnership during the commitment period to fund the purchase of new investments and partnership expenses. These investments are generally of a passive nature in that the Company does not take an active role in management. For further discussion of these investments, see Equity Method Investments within Note 6 - Investments of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report.
In addition, the Company makes passive investments in structured securities issued by VIEs for which the Company is not the manager. These investments are included in ABS, CLOs, CMBS, and RMBS and are reported in fixed maturities, available-for-sale. The Company has not provided financial or other support with respect to these investments other than its original investment. For these investments, the Company determined it is not the primary beneficiary due to the relative size of the Company’s investment in comparison to the principal amount of the structured securities issued by the VIEs, the level of credit subordination which reduces the Company’s obligation to absorb losses or right to receive benefits and the Company’s inability to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIEs. The Company’s maximum exposure to loss on these investments is limited to the amount of the Company’s investment.
Securities Lending, Reverse Repurchase Agreements, Other Collateral Transactions and Restricted Investments
Securities Lending
Under a securities lending program, the Company lends certain fixed maturities within the corporate, foreign government/government agencies, and municipal sectors as well as equity securities to qualifying third-party borrowers in return for collateral in the form of cash or securities. For domestic and non-domestic loaned securities, respectively, borrowers provide collateral of 102% and 105% of the fair value of the securities lent at the time of the loan. Borrowers will return the securities to the Company for cash or securities collateral at maturity dates generally of 90 days or less. Security collateral on deposit from counterparties in connection with securities lending transactions may not be sold or re-pledged, except in the event of default by the counterparty, and is not reflected on the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Additional collateral is obtained if the fair value of the collateral falls below 100% of the
fair value of the loaned securities. The agreements are continuous and do not have stated maturity dates and provide the counterparty the right to sell or re-pledge the securities loaned. If cash, rather than securities, is received as collateral, the cash is typically invested in short-term investments or fixed maturities and is reported as an asset on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Income associated with securities lending transactions is reported as a component of net investment income in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. While the Company did have securities on loan as part of a securities lending program during 2020, as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company did 0t have any securities on loan as part of a securities lending program.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements
From time to time, the Company enters into reverse repurchase agreements where the Company purchases securities and simultaneously agrees to resell the same or substantially the same securities. The maturity of these transactions is generally within one year. The agreements require additional collateral to be transferred to the Company under specified conditions and the Company has the right to sell or re-pledge the securities received. The Company accounts for reverse repurchase agreements as collateralized financing. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company reported $16 and $30, respectively, within short-term investments on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets representing a receivable for the amount of cash transferred to purchase the securities.
Other Collateral Transactions
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company pledged collateral of $9 and $34, respectively, of U.S. government securities or cash primarily related to certain bank loan participations committed to through a limited partnership agreement. Amounts also include collateral related to letters of credit.
For disclosure of collateral in support of derivative transactions, refer to the Derivative Collateral Arrangements section in Note 6 - Derivatives of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Other Restricted Investments
The Company is required by law to deposit securities with government agencies in certain states in which it conducts business. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the fair value of securities on deposit was $2.5 billion and $2.6 billion, respectively.
In addition, as of March 31, 2021, the Company held fixed maturities and short-term investments of $673 and $4, respectively, in trust for the benefit of syndicate policyholders, held fixed maturities of $171 in a Lloyd's of London ("Lloyd's") trust account to provide a portion of the required capital, and maintained other investments of $61 primarily consisting of overseas deposits in various countries with Lloyd's to support underwriting activities in those countries. As of December 31, 2020, the Company held fixed maturities and short-term investments of $661 and $26, respectively, in trust for the benefit of syndicate policyholders, held fixed maturities of $175 in a Lloyd's trust account to provide a portion of the required capital, and maintained other investments of $54 primarily consisting of overseas deposits in various countries with Lloyd's to support
28

Note 5 - Investments
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
underwriting activities in those countries. Lloyd's is an insurance market-place operating worldwide. Lloyd's does not underwrite
risks. The Company accepts risks as the sole member of Lloyd's Syndicate 1221 ("Lloyd's Syndicate").
6. DERIVATIVES
The Company utilizes a variety of OTC, OTC-cleared and exchange traded derivative instruments as a part of its overall risk management strategy as well as to enter into replication transactions or income generation covered call transactions. Derivative instruments are used to manage risk associated with interest rate, equity market, credit spread, issuer default, price, and currency exchange rate or volatility. Replication transactions are used as an economical means to synthetically replicate the characteristics and performance of assets that are permissible investments under the Company’s investment policies.
Strategies that Qualify for Hedge Accounting
Some of the Company's derivatives satisfy hedge accounting requirements as outlined in Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in The Hartford’s 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report. Typically, these hedging instruments include interest rate swaps and, to a lesser extent, foreign currency swaps where the terms or expected cash flows of the hedged item closely match the terms of the swap. The interest rate swaps are typically used to manage interest rate duration of certain fixed maturity securities or debt instruments issued.
Cash Flow Hedges
Interest rate swaps are predominantly used to manage portfolio duration and better match cash receipts from assets with cash disbursements required to fund liabilities. These derivatives primarily convert interest receipts on variable-rate fixed maturity securities to fixed rates. The Company has also entered into interest rate swaps to convert the variable interest payments on 3 month LIBOR + 2.125% junior subordinated debt to fixed interest payments. For further information, see the Junior Subordinated Debentures section within Note 14 - Debt of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in The Hartford's 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report.
Foreign currency swaps are used to convert foreign currency denominated cash flows related to certain investment receipts to U.S. dollars in order to reduce cash flow fluctuations due to changes in currency rates.
The Company also previously entered into forward starting swap agreements to hedge the interest rate exposure related to the future purchase of fixed-rate securities, primarily to hedge interest rate risk inherent in the assumptions used to price certain group benefits liabilities.
Non-Qualifying Strategies
Derivative relationships that do not qualify for hedge accounting (“non-qualifying strategies”) primarily include hedges of interest rate, foreign currency and equity risk of certain fixed maturities and equities. In addition, hedging and replication strategies that utilize credit default swaps do not qualify for hedge accounting. The non-qualifying strategies include:
Credit Contracts
Credit default swaps are used to purchase credit protection on an individual entity or referenced index to economically hedge against default risk and credit-related changes in the value of fixed maturity securities. Credit default swaps are also used to assume credit risk related to an individual entity or referenced index as a part of replication transactions. These contracts require the Company to pay or receive a periodic fee in exchange for compensation from the counterparty or the Company should the referenced security issuers experience a credit event, as defined in the contract. The Company also enters into credit default swaps to terminate existing credit default swaps, thereby offsetting the changes in value of the original swap going forward.
Interest Rate Swaps, Swaptions and Futures
The Company uses interest rate swaps, swaptions and futures to manage interest rate duration between assets and liabilities. In addition, the Company enters into interest rate swaps to terminate existing swaps, thereby offsetting the changes in value of the original swap going forward. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the notional amount of interest rate swaps in offsetting relationships was $7.6 billion.
Foreign Currency Swaps and Forwards
The Company enters into foreign currency swaps to convert the foreign currency exposures of certain foreign currency-denominated fixed maturity investments to U.S. dollars.
Equity Index Options
The Company enters into equity index options to hedge the impact of a decline in the equity markets on the investment portfolio. The Company also enters into covered call options on equity securities to generate additional return.
Derivative Balance Sheet Classification
For reporting purposes, the Company has elected to offset within assets or liabilities, based upon the net of the fair value amounts, income accruals and related cash collateral receivables and payables of OTC derivative instruments executed in a legal entity and with the same counterparty under a master netting agreement, which provides the Company with the legal right of offset. The following fair value amounts do not include income accruals or related cash collateral receivables and payables, which are netted with derivative fair value amounts to determine balance sheet presentation. The Company’s derivative instruments are held for risk management purposes, unless otherwise noted in the following table. The notional amount of derivative contracts represents the basis upon which pay or receive amounts are calculated and is presented in the table to quantify the volume of the Company’s derivative activity. Notional amounts are not necessarily reflective of credit risk.
29

Note 6 - Derivatives
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Derivative Balance Sheet Presentation
Net Derivatives
Asset
Derivatives
Liability Derivatives
Notional AmountFair ValueFair ValueFair Value
Hedge Designation/ Derivative TypeMar. 31, 2021Dec. 31, 2020Mar. 31, 2021Dec. 31, 2020Mar. 31, 2021Dec. 31, 2020Mar. 31, 2021Dec. 31, 2020
Cash flow hedges
Interest rate swaps$2,340 $2,340 $$$$$$
Foreign currency swaps297 286 (10)(13)(13)(16)
Total cash flow hedges2,637 2,626 (10)(13)3 3 (13)(16)
Non-qualifying strategies
Interest rate contracts
Interest rate swaps and futures7,926 8,335 (44)(69)(48)(73)
Foreign exchange contracts
Foreign currency swaps and forwards269 269 
Credit contracts
Credit derivatives that purchase credit protection
Credit derivatives that assume credit risk [1]675 675 21 21 21 21 
Credit derivatives in offsetting positions216 218 (5)(5)
Total non-qualifying strategies9,092 9,503 (23)(48)30 30 (53)(78)
Total cash flow hedges and non-qualifying strategies$11,729 $12,129 $(33)$(61)$33 $33 $(66)$(94)
Balance Sheet Location
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale$269 $269 $$$$$$
Other investments9,657 9,585 22 23 24 25 (2)(2)
Other liabilities1,803 2,275 (55)(84)(64)(92)
Total derivatives$11,729 $12,129 $(33)$(61)$33 $33 $(66)$(94)
[1]The derivative instruments related to this strategy are held for other investment purposes.
Offsetting of Derivative Assets/Liabilities
The following tables present the gross fair value amounts, the amounts offset, and net position of derivative instruments eligible for offset in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Amounts offset include fair value amounts, income accruals and related cash collateral receivables and payables
associated with derivative instruments that are traded under a common master netting agreement, as described in the preceding discussion. Also included in the tables are financial collateral receivables and payables, which are contractually permitted to be offset upon an event of default, although are disallowed for offsetting under U.S. GAAP.
30

Note 6 - Derivatives
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Offsetting Derivative Assets and Liabilities
(i)(ii)(iii) = (i) - (ii)(iv)(v) = (iii) - (iv)
Net Amounts Presented in the Statement of Financial PositionCollateral Disallowed for Offset in the Statement of Financial Position
Gross Amounts of Recognized Assets (Liabilities)Gross Amounts Offset in the Statement of Financial PositionDerivative Assets [1] (Liabilities) [2]Accrued Interest and Cash Collateral (Received) [3] Pledged [2]Financial Collateral (Received) Pledged [4]Net Amount
As of March 31, 2021
Other investments$33 $30 $22 $(19)$$
Other liabilities$(66)$(4)$(55)$(7)$(57)$(5)
As of December 31, 2020
Other investments$33 $31 $23 $(21)$$
Other liabilities$(94)$(6)$(84)$(4)$(83)$(5)
[1]Included in other investments in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
[2]Included in other liabilities in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and is limited to the net derivative payable associated with each counterparty.
[3]Included in other investments in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and is limited to the net derivative receivable associated with each counterparty.
[4]Excludes collateral associated with exchange-traded derivative instruments.
Cash Flow Hedges
For derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges, the gain or loss on the derivative is reported as a
component of OCI and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. All components of each derivative’s gain or loss were included in the assessment of hedge effectiveness.
Gain (Loss) Recognized in OCI
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Interest rate swaps$10 $32 
Foreign currency swaps28 
Total$14 $60 

Gain (Loss) Reclassified from AOCI into Income
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Net Realized Capital Gain/(Loss)Net Investment IncomeInterest ExpenseNet Realized Capital Gain/(Loss)Net Investment IncomeInterest Expense
Interest rate swaps$0 $10 $(2)$$$
Foreign currency swaps0 1 0 0 1 0 
Total$0 $11 $(2)$0 $4 $0 
Total amounts presented on the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations$80 $509 $57 $(231)$459 $64 
As of March 31, 2021, the before tax deferred net gains on derivative instruments recorded in AOCI that are expected to be reclassified to earnings during the next twelve months are $35. This expectation is based on the anticipated interest payments on hedged investments in fixed maturity securities and long-term debt that will occur over the next twelve months. At that time, the Company will recognize the deferred net gains (losses) as an
adjustment to net investment income and interest expense over the term of the investment cash flows.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company had 0 net reclassifications from AOCI to earnings resulting from the discontinuance of cash-flow hedges due to forecasted transactions that were no longer probable of occurring.
31

Note 6 - Derivatives
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Non-Qualifying Strategies
For non-qualifying strategies, including embedded derivatives that are required to be bifurcated from their host contracts and
accounted for as derivatives, the gain or loss on the derivative is recognized currently in earnings within net realized capital gains (losses).
Non-Qualifying Strategies Recognized within Net Realized Capital Gains (Losses)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Foreign exchange contracts
Foreign currency swaps and forwards$$
Interest rate contracts
Interest rate swaps, swaptions, and futures32 20 
Credit contracts
Credit derivatives that purchase credit protection
Credit derivatives that assume credit risk(12)
Equity contracts
Equity index swaps and options75 
Total [1]$35 $92 
[1]Excludes investments that contain an embedded credit derivative for which the Company has elected the fair value option.
Credit Risk Assumed through Credit Derivatives
The Company enters into credit default swaps that assume credit risk of a single entity or referenced index in order to synthetically replicate investment transactions that are permissible under the Company's investment policies. The Company will receive periodic payments based on an agreed upon rate and notional amount and will only make a payment if there is a credit event. A credit event payment will typically be equal to the notional value of the swap contract less the value of the referenced security
issuer’s debt obligation after the occurrence of the credit event. A credit event is generally defined as a default on contractually obligated interest or principal payments or bankruptcy of the referenced entity. The credit default swaps in which the Company assumes credit risk primarily reference investment grade single corporate issuers and baskets, which include standard diversified portfolios of corporate and CMBS issuers. The diversified portfolios of corporate issuers are established within sector concentration limits and may be divided into tranches that possess different credit ratings.
32

Note 6 - Derivatives
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Credit Risk Assumed Derivatives by Type
Underlying Referenced Credit
Obligation(s) [1]
Notional
Amount
[2]
Fair
Value
Weighted
Average
Years to
Maturity
Type
Average
Credit
Rating
Offsetting
Notional
Amount [3]
Offsetting
Fair
Value [3]
As of March 31, 2021
Single name credit default swaps
Investment grade risk exposure$100 $5 yearsCorporate CreditA$$
Basket credit default swaps [4]
Investment grade risk exposure500 12 5 yearsCorporate CreditBBB+
Below investment grade risk exposure75 5 yearsCorporate CreditB+
Investment grade risk exposure100 7 yearsCMBS CreditAAA100 (1)
Below investment grade risk exposure(4)Less than 1 yearCMBS CreditCCC+
Total [5]$783 $18 $108 $3 
As of December 31, 2020
Single name credit default swaps
Investment grade risk exposure$175 $5 yearsCorporate CreditA-$$
Basket credit default swaps [4]
Investment grade risk exposure500 12 5 yearsCorporate CreditBBB+
Investment grade risk exposure100 8 yearsCMBS CreditAAA100 (1)
Below investment grade risk exposure(4)Less than 1 yearCMBS CreditCCC+
Total [5]$784 $18 $109 $3 
[1]The average credit ratings are based on availability and are generally the midpoint of the available ratings among Moody’s, S&P and Fitch. If no rating is available from a rating agency, then an internally developed rating is used.
[2]Notional amount is equal to the maximum potential future loss amount. These derivatives are governed by agreements and applicable law, which include collateral posting requirements. There is no additional specific collateral related to these contracts or recourse provisions included in the contracts to offset losses.
[3]The Company has entered into offsetting credit default swaps to terminate certain existing credit default swaps, thereby offsetting the future changes in value of, or losses paid related to, the original swap.
[4]Comprised of swaps of standard market indices of diversified portfolios of corporate and CMBS issuers referenced through credit default swaps. These swaps are subsequently valued based upon the observable standard market index.
[5]Excludes investments that contain an embedded credit derivative for which the Company has elected the fair value option.
Derivative Collateral Arrangements
The Company enters into various collateral arrangements in connection with its derivative instruments, which require both the pledging and accepting of collateral. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company has 0t pledged cash collateral associated with derivative instruments. In general, collateral receivable is recorded in other assets or other liabilities on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as determined by the Company's election to offset on the balance sheet. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company pledged securities collateral associated with derivative instruments with a fair value of $61 and $90, respectively, which have been included in fixed maturities on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The counterparties generally have the right to sell or re-pledge these securities.
In addition, as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company has pledged initial margin of securities related to OTC-cleared and exchange traded derivatives with a fair value of $60
and $83, respectively, which are included within fixed maturities on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company accepted cash collateral associated with derivative instruments of $22 and $24, respectively, which was invested and recorded in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets in fixed maturities and short-term investments with corresponding amounts recorded in other investments or other liabilities as determined by the Company's election to offset on the balance sheet. The Company also accepted securities collateral as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, with a fair value of $1 as of both dates, which the Company has the right to sell or repledge. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had 0 repledged securities and 0 securities held as collateral have been sold. Non-cash collateral accepted was held in separate custodial accounts and was not included in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
33

Note 7 - Premiums Receivable and Agents' Balances
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
7. PREMIUMS RECEIVABLE AND AGENTS' BALANCES
Premiums Receivable and Agents' Balances
As of March 31, 2021As of December 31, 2020
Premiums receivable, excluding receivables for losses within a deductible and retrospectively-rated policy premiums$4,058 $3,851 
Receivables for loss within a deductible and retrospectively-rated policy premiums, by credit quality:
AAA
AA140 142 
A65 62 
BBB186 185 
BB115 115 
Below BB67 65 
Total receivables for losses within a deductible and retrospectively-rated policy premiums573 569 
Total Premiums Receivable and Agents' Balances, Gross4,631 4,420 
ACL(144)(152)
Total Premiums Receivable and Agents' Balances, Net of ACL$4,487 $4,268 
ACL on Premiums Receivable and Agents' Balances
Balances are considered past due when amounts that have been billed are not collected within contractually stipulated time periods. The Company had an immaterial amount of receivables with a due date of more than one year that are past-due.
Premium receivable and agents' balances, excluding receivables for losses within a deductible and retrospectively-rated policy premiums, are primarily comprised of premiums due from policyholders, which are typically collectible within one year or less. For these balances, the ACL is estimated based on an aging of receivables and recent historical credit loss and collection experience, adjusted for current economic conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts, when appropriate.
A portion of the Company's Commercial Lines business is written with large deductibles or under retrospectively-rated plans.
Under some commercial insurance contracts with a large deductible, the Company is obligated to pay the claimant the full amount of the claim and the Company is subsequently reimbursed by the policyholder for the deductible amount. As such, the Company is subject to credit risk until reimbursement is made. Retrospectively-rated policies are utilized primarily for workers' compensation coverage, whereby the ultimate premium is adjusted based on actual losses incurred. Although the premium adjustment feature of a retrospectively-rated policy substantially reduces insurance risk for the Company, it presents credit risk to the Company. The Company’s results of operations could be adversely affected if a significant portion of such policyholders failed to reimburse the Company for the deductible amount or the amount of additional premium owed under retrospectively-rated policies. The Company manages these credit risks through credit analysis, collateral requirements, and oversight.
The ACL for receivables for loss within a deductible and retrospectively-rated policy premiums is estimated as the amount of the receivable exposed to loss multiplied by estimated factors for probability of default and the amount of loss given a default. The probability of default is assigned based on each policyholder's credit rating, or a rating is estimated if no external rating is available. Credit ratings are reviewed and updated at least annually. The exposure amount is estimated net of collateral and other credit enhancement, considering the nature of the collateral, potential future changes in collateral values, and historical loss information for the type of collateral obtained. The probability of default factors are historical corporate defaults for receivables with similar durations estimated through multiple economic cycles. Credit ratings are forward-looking and consider a variety of economic outcomes. The loss given default factors are based on a study of historical recovery rates for general creditors through multiple economic cycles. The Company's evaluation of the required ACL for receivables for loss within a deductible and retrospectively-rated policy premiums considers the current economic environment as well as the probability-weighted macroeconomic scenarios similar to the approach used for estimating the ACL for mortgage loans. See Note 5 - Investments.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the ACL on premiums receivable decreased as the provision required on premiums written in the quarter was more than offset by write-offs and a reduction in the provision reflecting lessening expected impacts of COVID-19 relative to prior assumptions in certain lines of business. The three months ended March 31, 2020 reflected an increase in the ACL primarily due to increasing expected impacts of COVID-19.
34

Note 7 - Premiums Receivable and Agents' Balances
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Rollforward of ACL on Premiums Receivable and Agents' Balances
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Premiums Receivable and Agents' Balances, Excluding Receivables for Loss within a Deductible and Retrospectively-Rated Policy PremiumsReceivables for Loss within a Deductible and Retrospectively-Rated Policy PremiumsTotalPremiums Receivable and Agents' Balances, Excluding Receivables for Loss within a Deductible and Retrospectively-Rated Policy PremiumsReceivables for Loss within a Deductible and Retrospectively-Rated Policy PremiumsTotal
Beginning ACL$117 $35 $152 $85 $60 $145 
Cumulative effect of accounting change [1]000(2)(21)(23)
Adjusted beginning ACL117 35 152 83 39 122 
Current period provision (release)28 30 
Current period gross write-offs(15)(15)(15)(15)
Current period gross recoveries
Ending ACL$108 $36 $144 $98 $41 $139 
[1]Represents the adjustment to the ACL recorded on adoption of accounting guidance for credit losses on January 1, 2020. The adjusted beginning ACL was based on the Company's historical loss information adjusted for current conditions and the forecasted economic environment at the time the guidance was adopted. For further information, see Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report.
8. REINSURANCE
The Company cedes insurance risk to reinsurers to enable the Company to manage capital and risk exposure. Such arrangements do not relieve the Company of its primary liability to policyholders. Failure of reinsurers to honor their obligations could result in losses to the Company. The Company's procedures include carefully selecting its reinsurers, structuring agreements to provide collateral funds where necessary, and regularly monitoring the financial condition and ratings of its reinsurers.
Reinsurance Recoverables
Reinsurance recoverables include balances due from reinsurance companies and are presented net of an allowance for uncollectible reinsurance. Reinsurance recoverables include an estimate of the amount of gross losses and loss adjustment
expense reserves that may be ceded under the terms of the reinsurance agreements, including incurred but not reported ("IBNR") unpaid losses. The Company’s estimate of losses and loss adjustment expense reserves ceded to reinsurers is based on assumptions that are consistent with those used in establishing the gross reserves for amounts the Company owes to its claimants. The Company estimates its ceded reinsurance recoverables based on the terms of any applicable facultative and treaty reinsurance, including an estimate of how incurred but not reported losses will ultimately be ceded under reinsurance agreements. Accordingly, the Company’s estimate of reinsurance recoverables is subject to similar risks and uncertainties as the estimate of the gross reserve for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses.
35

Note 8 - Reinsurance
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Reinsurance Recoverables by Credit Quality Indicator
As of March 31, 2021As of December 31, 2020
Property and CasualtyGroup BenefitsCorporateTotalProperty and CasualtyGroup BenefitsCorporateTotal
A.M. Best Financial Strength Rating
A++$1,627 $$$1,627 $1,598 $$$1,598 
A+1,823 240 306 2,369 1,788 230 305 2,323 
A565 565 638 638 
A-36 45 37 46 
B++658 661 666 669 
Below B++21 0 22 21 0 22 
Total Rated by A.M. Best4,730 250 309 5,289 4,748 240 308 5,296 
Mandatory (Assigned) and Voluntary Risk Pools259 0 0 259 259 0 0 259 
Captives308 308 305 305 
Other not rated companies318 325 254 259 
Gross Reinsurance Recoverables5,615 257 309 6,181 5,566 245 308 6,119 
Allowance for uncollectible reinsurance(95)(1)(2)(98)(105)(1)(2)(108)
Net Reinsurance Recoverables$5,520 $256 $307 $6,083 $5,461 $244 $306 $6,011 
Balances are considered past due when amounts that have been billed are not collected within contractually stipulated time periods, generally 30, 60 or 90 days. There were 0 write-offs for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
To manage reinsurer credit risk, a reinsurance security review committee evaluates the credit standing, financial performance, management and operational quality of each potential reinsurer. In placing reinsurance, the Company considers the nature of the risk reinsured, including the expected liability payout duration, and establishes limits tiered by reinsurer credit rating.
Where its contracts permit, the Company secures future claim obligations with various forms of collateral or other credit enhancement, including irrevocable letters of credit, secured trusts, funds held accounts and group wide offsets. As part of its reinsurance recoverable review, the Company analyzes recent developments in commutation activity between reinsurers and cedants, recent trends in arbitration and litigation outcomes in disputes between cedants and reinsurers and the overall credit quality of the Company’s reinsurers.
Due to the inherent uncertainties as to collection and the length of time before reinsurance recoverables become due, it is possible that future adjustments to the Company’s reinsurance recoverables, net of the allowance, could be required, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated results of operations or cash flows in a particular quarter or annual period.
The allowance for uncollectible reinsurance comprises an ACL and an allowance for disputed balances. The ACL is estimated as the amount of reinsurance recoverables exposed to loss multiplied by estimated factors for the probability of default and the amount of loss given a default. The probability of default is assigned based on each reinsurer's credit rating, or a rating is estimated if no external rating is available. Credit ratings are reviewed on a quarterly basis and any significant changes are
reflected in an updated estimate. The probability of default factors are historical insurer and reinsurer defaults for liabilities with similar durations to the reinsured liabilities as estimated through multiple economic cycles. Credit ratings are forward-looking and consider a variety of economic outcomes. The loss given default factors are based on a study of historical recovery rates for general creditors of corporations through multiple economic cycles or, in the case of purchased annuities funding structured settlements accounted for as reinsurance, historical recovery rates for annuity contract holders.
As shown in the table above, a portion of the total gross reinsurance recoverable balance relates to the Company’s participation in various mandatory (assigned) and voluntary risk pools. Reinsurance recoverables due from pools are backed by the financial position of all insurance companies participating in the pools and the credit backing the reinsurance recoverable is not limited to the financial strength of each pool. The mandatory pools generally are funded through policy assessments or surcharges and if any participant in the pool defaults, remaining liabilities are apportioned among the other members.
The Company's evaluation of the required ACL for reinsurance recoverables considers the current economic environment as well as macroeconomic scenarios similar to the approach used to estimate the ACL for mortgage loans. See Note 5 - Investments. Insurance companies, including reinsurers, are regulated and hold risk-based capital ("RBC") to mitigate the risk of loss due to economic factors and other risks. Non-U.S. reinsurers are either subject to a capital regime substantively equivalent to domestic insurers or we hold collateral to support collection of reinsurance recoverables. As a result, there is limited history of losses from insurer defaults. The decrease in the ACL for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was primarily due to higher than expected recovery from one reinsurer on which the Company had recognized an ACL.
36

Note 8 - Reinsurance
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Allowance for Uncollectible Reinsurance
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Property and CasualtyGroup BenefitsCorporateTotalProperty and CasualtyGroup BenefitsCorporateTotal
Beginning allowance for uncollectible reinsurance$105 $1 $2 $108 $114 $0 $0 $114 
Beginning allowance for disputed amounts53 0 0 53 66 0 0 $66 
Beginning ACL52 1 2 55 48 0 0 48 
Cumulative effect of accounting change [1]00000 1 1 2 
Adjusted beginning ACL52 1 2 55 48 1 1 50 
Current period provision (release)(13)(13)1 0 1 2 
Ending ACL39 1 2 42 49 1 2 52 
Ending allowance for disputed amounts56 56 65 0 0 65 
Ending allowance for uncollectible reinsurance$95 $1 $2 $98 $114 $1 $2 $117 
[1] Represents the adjustment to the ACL recorded on adoption of accounting guidance for credit losses on January 1, 2020. For further information, see Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report.
37

Note 9 - Reserves for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
9. RESERVE FOR UNPAID LOSSES AND LOSS ADJUSTMENT EXPENSES
Property and Casualty Insurance Products
Rollforward of Liabilities for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
 For the three months ended March 31,
 20212020
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$29,622 $28,261 
Reinsurance and other recoverables5,725 5,275 
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net23,897 22,986 
Provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses  
Current accident year1,924 1,883 
Prior accident year development [1]229 23 
Total provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses2,153 1,906 
Change in deferred gain on retroactive reinsurance included in other liabilities [1](6)(29)
Payments  
Current accident year(292)(304)
Prior accident years(1,221)(1,491)
Total payments(1,513)(1,795)
Net change in reserves transferred to liabilities held for sale(1)
Foreign currency adjustment(6)(20)
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net24,524 23,048 
Reinsurance and other recoverables5,808 5,332 
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$30,332 $28,380 
[1] Prior accident year development does not include the benefit of a portion of losses ceded under the Navigators and A&E ADC which, under retroactive reinsurance accounting, is deferred and is recognized over the period the ceded losses are recovered in cash from NICO. For additional information regarding the two adverse development cover reinsurance agreements, refer to Adverse Development Covers discussion below.
38

Note 9 - Reserves for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Unfavorable (Favorable) Prior Accident Year Development
For the three months ended March 31,
20212020
Workers’ compensation$(40)$(17)
Workers’ compensation discount accretion
General liability307 12 
Marine
Package business(27)
Commercial property(13)(7)
Professional liability(1)
Bond
Assumed reinsurance
Automobile liability - Commercial Lines
Automobile liability - Personal Lines(23)(6)
Homeowners(3)(2)
Catastrophes(16)(13)
Uncollectible reinsurance(9)
Other reserve re-estimates, net31 11 
Prior accident year development before change in deferred gain223 (6)
Change in deferred gain on retroactive reinsurance included in other liabilities [1]29 
Total prior accident year development$229 $23 
[1] The change in deferred gain for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 included $6 and $29, respectively, of adverse development on Navigators 2018 and prior accident year reserves, primarily driven by marine for both periods and due to commercial automobile liability in the 2021 period and prior accident year catastrophes in the 2020 period.
Re-estimates of prior accident year reserves for the three months ended March 31, 2021
Workers’ compensation reserves were decreased primarily within small commercial and national accounts for the 2014 through 2017 accident years driven by lower than previously estimated claim severity.
General liability reserves were increased including an increase for sexual molestation and sexual abuse claims above the amount of reserves previously recorded for this exposure, primarily to reflect an agreement to settle claims made against the Boy Scouts of America ("BSA") as discussed further below, partially offset by reserve decreases for other mass torts and extra contractual liability claims.
Package business reserves decreased largely due to lower estimated loss adjustment expenses for accident years 2014 to 2018 and a reduction in estimated reserves for extra contractual liability claims.
Commercial property reserves were decreased primarily due to favorable development for the 2020 accident year in both middle and large commercial and global specialty.
Automobile liability reserves were decreased in Personal Lines principally due to lower estimated severity on AARP Direct and Agency claims, primarily within accident years 2017 to 2019, and a reduction in estimated reserves for extra contractual liability claims.
Catastrophes reserves were decreased in both Commercial and Personal Lines primarily driven by an expected recovery of subrogation from a utility related to the 2018 Woolsey wildfire in California.
Uncollectible reinsurance reserves were decreased due to a higher than expected recovery from one reinsurer on which the Company had recognized an allowance for credit losses.
Other reserve re-estimates, net, were increased primarily due to an increase in reserves for sexual molestation and sexual abuse claims within P&C Other Operations, principally on assumed reinsurance.
Re-estimates of prior accident year reserves for the three months ended March 31, 2020
Workers’ compensation reserves were reduced on
national account business within middle & large commercial, driven by lower than previously estimated claim severity for the 2014 and prior accident years.
General liability reserves were increased, primarily
related to guaranteed cost construction business for accident years 2016 to 2019 as incurred losses are developing higher than previously expected for premises and operations claims and product liability claims, partly due to a change in industry mix and a heavier concentration of losses in California than initially assumed.
Marine reserves were increased principally due to an increase in domestic marine liability, mostly in accident years 2017 and 2018 due to a higher number of large losses. The increase in marine reserves is included as a component of the change in deferred gain under retroactive reinsurance in the above table.
Commercial property reserves were decreased for
accident year 2019 due to favorable developments on marine and middle market property claims.
Automobile liability reserves were decreased in
Personal Lines principally due to lower than previously expected AARP Direct automobile liability claim severity for the 2018 accident year. Automobile liability reserves were increased in Commercial Lines primarily due to higher than expected large losses on national accounts in the first quarter of 2020 related to accident years 2015 to 2017.
Catastrophes reserves were reduced, primarily due to a reduction in estimated catastrophes for the 2019 accident year and a reduction in estimated reserves for 2017 California wildfires, partially offset by an increase in reserves for 2019 typhoons Hagibis and Faxai in Asia.
Other reserve re-estimates, net, primarily included
an increase in reserves on pool participations.
39

Note 9 - Reserves for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Settlement Agreement with Boy Scouts of America
On April 16, 2021, the Company announced that it has entered into a Settlement Agreement and Release with Boy Scouts of America pursuant to which The Hartford will pay $650 for sexual molestation and sexual abuse claims associated with policies mostly issued in the 1970s. The agreement, entered into after extensive negotiations, contemplates that, in exchange for The Hartford’s payment, the BSA and its local councils will fully release The Hartford from any obligation under policies it issued to the BSA and its local councils. The agreement is in connection with BSA’s Chapter 11 bankruptcy and will become effective upon the occurrence of certain conditions, including confirmation of the BSA’s global resolution plan, executed releases from the local councils, and approval from the abuse claimants and bankruptcy court. The Hartford and the BSA hope to receive court approval in the third quarter of 2021, but this could be delayed for various procedural reasons.
Adverse Development Covers
The Company has an adverse development cover reinsurance agreement with NICO, a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc., to reinsure loss development after 2016 on substantially all of the Company’s asbestos and environmental reserves (the “A&E ADC”). Under the A&E ADC, the Company paid a reinsurance premium of $650 for NICO to assume adverse net loss reserve development up to $1.5 billion above the Company’s existing net A&E reserves as of December 31, 2016 of approximately $1.7 billion including reserves for A&E exposure for accident years prior to 1986 that are reported in Property & Casualty Other Operations ("Run-off A&E") and reserves for A&E exposure for accident years 1986 and subsequent from policies underwritten prior to 2016 that are reported in ongoing Commercial Lines and Personal Lines. The $650 reinsurance premium was placed into a collateral trust account as security for NICO’s claim payment obligations to the Company. The Company has retained the risk of collection on amounts due from other third-party reinsurers and continues to be responsible for claims handling and other administrative services, subject to certain conditions. The A&E ADC covers substantially all the Company’s A&E reserve development up to the reinsurance limit.
Under retroactive reinsurance accounting, net adverse A&E reserve development after December 31, 2016 will result in an offsetting reinsurance recoverable up to the $1.5 billion limit. Cumulative ceded losses up to the $650 reinsurance premium paid have been recognized as a dollar-for-dollar offset to direct losses incurred. Cumulative ceded losses exceeding the $650 reinsurance premium paid result in a deferred gain. As of March 31, 2021, the Company has incurred $860 in cumulative adverse development on asbestos and environmental reserves that have been ceded under the A&E ADC treaty with NICO with $640 of available limit remaining under the A&E ADC. As a result, the Company has recorded a $210 deferred gain within other liabilities, representing the difference between the reinsurance recoverable of $860 and ceded premium paid of $650. The deferred gain is recognized over the claim settlement period in the proportion of the amount of cumulative ceded losses collected from the reinsurer to the estimated ultimate reinsurance recoveries. Consequently, until periods when the deferred gain is recognized as a benefit to earnings, cumulative adverse development of asbestos and environmental claims will result in charges against earnings which may be significant.
Immediately after closing on the acquisition of Navigators Group, effective May 23, 2019, the Company purchased the Navigators ADC, an aggregate excess of loss reinsurance agreement covering adverse reserve development, from NICO, on behalf of Navigators Insurers. Under the Navigators ADC, the Navigators Insurers paid NICO a reinsurance premium of $91 in exchange for reinsurance coverage of $300 of adverse net loss reserve development that attaches $100 above the Navigators Insurers' existing net loss and allocated loss adjustment reserves as of December 31, 2018 subject to the treaty of $1.816 billion for accidents and losses prior to December 31, 2018.
As of March 31, 2021, the Company has recorded a reinsurance recoverable under the Navigators ADC of $215, as estimated cumulative loss development on the 2018 and prior accident year reserves of $315 exceed the $100 deductible. While the reinsurance recoverable is $215, the Company has also recorded a $124 cumulative deferred gain within other liabilities since, under retroactive reinsurance accounting, ceded losses in excess of the $91 of ceded premium paid must be recognized as a deferred gain. Of the $124 of cumulative ceded losses in excess of ceded premium paid, $6 was recognized as a deferred gain in first quarter 2021 and $29 was recognized as a deferred gain in first quarter 2020. As the Company has ceded $215 of the $300 available limit, there is $85 of remaining limit available as of March 31, 2021.

40

Note 9 - Reserves for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Group Life, Disability and Accident Products
Rollforward of Liabilities for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
For the three months ended March 31,
20212020
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$8,233 $8,256 
Reinsurance recoverables [1]237 246 
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net7,996 8,010 
Provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses
Current incurral year1,325 1,148 
Prior year's discount accretion55 57 
Prior incurral year development [2](151)(163)
Total provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses [3]1,229 1,042 
Payments
Current incurral year(350)(278)
Prior incurral years(914)(821)
Total payments(1,264)(1,099)
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net7,961 7,953 
Reinsurance recoverables247 249 
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$8,208 $8,202 
[1]Includes a cumulative effect adjustment of $(1) representing an adjustment to the ACL recorded on adoption of accounting guidance for credit losses on January 1, 2020. For further information refer to 2020 10-K, Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies.
[2]Prior incurral year development represents the change in estimated ultimate incurred losses and loss adjustment expenses for prior incurral years on a discounted basis.
[3]Includes unallocated loss adjustment expenses ("ULAE") of $43 and $44 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, that are recorded in insurance operating costs and other expenses in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Re-estimates of prior incurral years reserves for the three months ended March 31, 2021
Group disability- Prior period reserve estimates decreased by approximately $125 largely driven by group long-term disability claim incidence lower than prior assumptions together with strong recoveries on prior incurral year claims; and by group short-term disability non-COVID-19 claim incidence lower than previously expected.
Group life and accident (including group life premium waiver)- Prior period reserve estimates decreased by approximately $20 largely driven by lower-than-previously expected claim incidence in both group life premium waiver and group accidental death & dismemberment, partially offset by higher than previously estimated 2020 incurral year excess mortality claims on group term life.
Re-estimates of prior incurral years reserves for the three months ended March 31, 2020
Group disability- Prior period reserve estimates decreased by approximately $100 largely driven by group long-term disability claim incidence lower than prior assumptions and strong recoveries on prior incurral year claims.
Group life and accident (including group life premium waiver)- Prior period reserve estimates decreased by approximately $50 largely driven by lower prior year mortality than prior assumptions in group life and lower than previously expected claim incidence in group life premium waiver.
41

Note 10 - Reserve for Future Policy Benefits
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
10. RESERVE FOR FUTURE POLICY BENEFITS
Changes in Reserves for Future Policy Benefits[1]
For the three months ended March 31,
20212020
Beginning liability balance$638 $635 
Incurred37 18 
Paid(26)(22)
Change in unrealized investment gains and losses(8)(2)
Ending liability balance$641 $629 
Beginning reinsurance recoverable asset$28 $31 
Incurred18 (1)
Paid
Ending reinsurance recoverable asset$46 $30 
[1] Reserves for future policy benefits includes paid-up life insurance and whole-life policies resulting from conversion from group life policies included within the Group Benefits segment and reserves for run-off structured settlement and terminal funding agreement liabilities which are in the Corporate category.
11. INCOME TAXES
Income Tax Expense
Income Tax Rate Reconciliation
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Tax provision at U.S. federal statutory rate$63 $72 
Tax-exempt interest(11)(12)
Executive compensation
Increase in deferred tax valuation allowance
Other(4)
Provision for income taxes$54 $71 
Other Tax Matters
Unrecognized tax benefits were $15 and $14 at the beginning and end of the periods ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The entire amount of unrecognized tax benefits, if recognized, would affect the effective tax rate in the period of the release. The Company believes it is reasonably possible approximately $5 of its currently unrecognized tax benefits associated with dividends from segregated asset accounts of the life and annuity business sold in 2018 may be recognized by the end of 2021 as a result of a lapse in the applicable statute of
limitations. This liability is subject to a tax indemnification agreement and has a corresponding receivable included in other assets which would also be taken down upon lapse of the statute of limitations.
For the period ending March 31, 2021, the Company has foreign net operating losses of $11 for which a valuation allowance of $3 has been established. While the foreign NOLs do not expire, this assessment reflects uncertainty in the Company's ability to generate sufficient taxable income in the near term in those specific jurisdictions.
Management has assessed the need for a valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets based on tax character and jurisdiction. In making the assessment, management considered future taxable temporary difference reversals, future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryovers, taxable income in open carry back years and other tax planning strategies which management views as prudent and feasible.
The federal income tax audits for the Company have been completed through 2013, and the Company is not currently under federal income tax examination for any open years. The statute of limitations is closed through the 2016 tax year with the exception of NOL carryforwards utilized in open tax years. Management believes that adequate provision has been made in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for any potential adjustments that may result from tax examinations and other tax-related matters for all open tax years.
12. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Management evaluates each contingent matter separately. A loss is recorded if probable and reasonably estimable. Management establishes liabilities for these contingencies at its “best estimate,” or, if no one number within the range of possible losses is more probable than any other, the Company records an estimated liability at the low end of the range of losses.
Litigation
The Hartford is involved in claims litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, both as a liability insurer defending or providing indemnity for third-party claims brought against insureds and as an insurer defending coverage claims brought against it. The Hartford accounts for such activity through the establishment of unpaid loss and loss adjustment expense
42

Note 12 - Commitments and Contingencies
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
reserves. Subject to the uncertainties related to sexual molestation and sexual abuse claims discussed in Note 9 - Reserves for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses of this Form 10-Q and in Note 12 - Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expense, of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, and in the following discussion under the caption “COVID-19 Pandemic Business Income Insurance Coverage Litigation” and under the caption “Run-off Asbestos and Environmental Claims,” management expects that the ultimate liability, if any, with respect to such ordinary-course claims litigation, after consideration of provisions made for potential losses and costs of defense, will not be material to the consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows of The Hartford.
The Hartford is also involved in other kinds of legal actions, some of which assert claims for substantial amounts. In addition to the matter described below, these actions include putative class actions seeking certification of a state or national class. Such putative class actions have alleged, for example, underpayment of claims or improper sales or underwriting practices in connection with various kinds of insurance policies, such as personal and commercial automobile, property, disability, life and inland marine. The Hartford also is involved in individual actions in which punitive damages are sought, such as claims alleging bad faith in the handling of insurance claims or other allegedly unfair or improper business practices. Like many other insurers, The Hartford also has been joined in actions by asbestos plaintiffs asserting, among other things, that insurers had a duty to protect the public from the dangers of asbestos and that insurers committed unfair trade practices by asserting defenses on behalf of their policyholders in the underlying asbestos cases. Management expects that the ultimate liability, if any, with respect to such lawsuits, after consideration of provisions made for estimated losses, will not be material to the consolidated financial condition of The Hartford. Nonetheless, given the large or indeterminate amounts sought in certain of these actions, and the inherent unpredictability of litigation, the outcome in certain matters could, from time to time, have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations or cash flows in particular quarterly or annual periods.
COVID-19 Pandemic Business Income Insurance Coverage Litigation
Like many others in the property and casualty insurance industry, beginning in April 2020, various direct and indirect subsidiaries of the Company (collectively the "Hartford Writing Companies”), and in some instances the Company itself, have been served as defendants in lawsuits seeking insurance coverage under commercial insurance policies issued by the Hartford Writing Companies for alleged losses resulting from the shutdown or suspension of their businesses due to the spread of COVID-19. More than 240 such lawsuits have been filed, of which more than 50 purport to be filed on behalf of broad nationwide or statewide classes of policyholders. These lawsuits have been filed in state and federal courts in roughly 34 states. Although the allegations vary, the plaintiffs generally seek a declaration of insurance coverage, damages for breach of contract in unspecified amounts, interest, and attorney’s fees. Many of the lawsuits also allege that the insurance claims were denied in bad faith or otherwise in violation of state laws and seek extra-contractual or punitive damages.
The Company and its subsidiaries deny the allegations and intend to defend vigorously. The Hartford Writing Companies maintain that they have no coverage obligations with respect to these suits for business income allegedly lost by the plaintiffs due to the COVID-19 pandemic based on the clear terms of the applicable insurance policies. Although the policy terms vary depending, among other things, upon the size, nature, and location of the policyholder’s business, in general, the claims at issue in these lawsuits were denied because the claimant identified no direct physical damage or loss to property at the insured premises, and the governmental orders that led to the complete or partial shutdown of the business were not due to the existence of any direct physical loss or damage in the immediate vicinity of the insured premises and did not prohibit access to the insured premises, as required by the terms of the insurance policies. In addition, the vast majority of the policies at issue expressly exclude from coverage any loss caused directly or indirectly by the presence, growth, proliferation, spread or activity of a virus, subject to a narrow set of exceptions not applicable in connection with this pandemic, and contain a pollution and contamination exclusion that, among other things, expressly excludes from coverage any loss caused by material that threatens human health or welfare.
In addition to the inherent difficulty in predicting litigation outcomes, the COVID-19 pandemic business income coverage lawsuits present numerous uncertainties and contingencies that are not yet known, including how many policyholders will ultimately file claims, the number of lawsuits that will be filed, the extent to which any state or nationwide classes will be certified, and the size and scope of any such classes. The legal theories advocated by plaintiffs vary significantly by case as do the state laws that govern the policy interpretation. These lawsuits are at various stages of litigation; some are in the earliest stages of litigation, many complaints are in the process of being amended, some have been dismissed voluntarily and may be refiled, while others have been dismissed through rulings in favor of the Hartford Writing Companies. Discovery is underway in certain single plaintiff cases and class actions. More than a dozen policyholders have appealed dismissals in favor of the Hartford Writing Companies. While these appeals are at various stages of the briefing process, none have been fully briefed at this time. In addition, business income calculations depend upon a wide range of factors that are particular to the circumstances of each individual policyholder and, here, virtually none of the plaintiffs have submitted proofs of loss or otherwise quantified or factually supported any allegedly covered loss, and, in any event, the Company’s experience shows that demands for damages often bear little relation to a reasonable estimate of potential loss. Accordingly, management cannot now reasonably estimate the possible loss or range of loss, if any. Nonetheless, given the large number of claims and potential claims, the indeterminate amounts sought, and the inherent unpredictability of litigation, it is possible that adverse outcomes, if any, in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated operating results.
Run-off Asbestos and Environmental Claims
The Company continues to receive A&E claims. Asbestos claims relate primarily to bodily injuries asserted by people who came in contact with asbestos or products containing asbestos. Environmental claims relate primarily to pollution and related clean-up costs.
43

Note 12 - Commitments and Contingencies
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
The vast majority of the Company's exposure to A&E relates to Run-off A&E, reported within the P&C Other Operations segment. In addition, since 1986, the Company has written asbestos and environmental exposures under general liability policies and pollution liability under homeowners policies, which are reported in the Commercial Lines and Personal Lines segments. 
Prior to 1986, the Company wrote several different categories of insurance contracts that may cover A&E claims. First, the Company wrote primary policies providing the first layer of coverage in an insured’s liability program. Second, the Company wrote excess and umbrella policies providing higher layers of coverage for losses that exhaust the limits of underlying coverage. Third, the Company acted as a reinsurer assuming a portion of those risks assumed by other insurers writing primary, excess, umbrella and reinsurance coverages.
Significant uncertainty limits the ability of insurers and reinsurers to estimate the ultimate reserves necessary for unpaid gross losses and expenses related to environmental and particularly asbestos claims. The degree of variability of gross reserve estimates for these exposures is significantly greater than for other more traditional exposures.
In the case of the reserves for asbestos exposures, factors contributing to the high degree of uncertainty include inadequate loss development patterns, plaintiffs’ expanding theories of liability, the risks inherent in major litigation, and inconsistent emerging legal doctrines. Furthermore, over time, insurers, including the Company, have experienced significant changes in the rate at which asbestos claims are brought, the claims experience of particular insureds, and the value of claims, making predictions of future exposure from past experience uncertain. Plaintiffs and insureds also have sought to use bankruptcy proceedings, including “pre-packaged” bankruptcies, to accelerate and increase loss payments by insurers. In addition, some policyholders have asserted new classes of claims for coverages to which an aggregate limit of liability may not apply. Further uncertainties include insolvencies of other carriers and unanticipated developments pertaining to the Company’s ability to recover reinsurance for A&E claims. Management believes these issues are not likely to be resolved in the near future.
In the case of the reserves for environmental exposures, factors contributing to the high degree of uncertainty include expanding theories of liability and damages, the risks inherent in major litigation, inconsistent decisions concerning the existence and scope of coverage for environmental claims, and uncertainty as to the monetary amount being sought by the claimant from the insured.
The reporting pattern for assumed reinsurance claims, including those related to A&E claims, is much longer than for direct claims. In many instances, it takes months or years to determine that the policyholder’s own obligations have been met and how the reinsurance in question may apply to such claims. The delay in reporting reinsurance claims and exposures adds to the uncertainty of estimating the related reserves.
It is also not possible to predict changes in the legal and legislative environment and their effect on the future development of A&E claims.
Given the factors described above, the Company believes the actuarial tools and other techniques it employs to estimate the ultimate cost of claims for more traditional kinds of insurance
exposure are less precise in estimating reserves for A&E exposures. For this reason, the Company principally relies on exposure-based analysis to estimate the ultimate costs of these claims, both gross and net of reinsurance, and regularly evaluates new account information in assessing its potential A&E exposures. The Company supplements this exposure-based analysis with evaluations of the Company’s historical direct net loss and expense paid and reported experience, and net loss and expense paid and reported experience by calendar and/or report year, to assess any emerging trends, fluctuations or characteristics suggested by the aggregate paid and reported activity.
While the Company believes that its current A&E reserves are appropriate, significant uncertainties limit the ability of insurers and reinsurers to estimate the ultimate reserves necessary for unpaid losses and related expenses. The ultimate liabilities, thus, could exceed the currently recorded reserves, and any such additional liability, while not estimable now, could be material to The Hartford’s consolidated operating results and liquidity.
For its Run-off A&E, as of March 31, 2021, the Company reported $676 of net asbestos reserves and $79 of net environmental reserves. In addition, the Company has recorded a $210 deferred gain within other liabilities for losses economically ceded to NICO but for which the benefit is not recognized in earnings until later periods. While the Company believes that its current Run-off A&E reserves are appropriate, significant uncertainties limit our ability to estimate the ultimate reserves necessary for unpaid losses and related expenses. The ultimate liabilities, thus, could exceed the currently recorded reserves, and any such additional liability, while not reasonably estimable now, could be material to The Hartford's consolidated operating results and liquidity.
The Company’s A&E ADC reinsurance agreement with NICO reinsures substantially all A&E reserve development for 2016 and prior accident years, including Run-off A&E and A&E reserves included in Commercial Lines and Personal Lines. The A&E ADC has a coverage limit of $1.5 billion above the Company’s existing net A&E reserves as of December 31, 2016 of approximately $1.7 billion. As of March 31, 2021, the Company has incurred $860 in cumulative adverse development on A&E reserves that have been ceded under the A&E ADC treaty with NICO, leaving $640 of coverage available for future adverse net reserve development, if any. Cumulative adverse development of A&E claims for accident years 2016 and prior could ultimately exceed the $1.5 billion treaty limit in which case any adverse development in excess of the treaty limit would be absorbed as a charge to earnings by the Company. In these scenarios, the effect of these charges could be material to the Company’s consolidated operating results and liquidity. For more information on the A&E ADC, refer to Note 12, Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report.
Derivative Commitments
Certain of the Company’s derivative agreements contain provisions that are tied to the financial strength ratings, as set by nationally recognized statistical agencies, of the individual legal entity that entered into the derivative agreement. If the legal entity’s financial strength were to fall below certain ratings, the counterparties to the derivative agreements could demand immediate and ongoing full collateralization and, in certain
44

Note 12 - Commitments and Contingencies
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
instances, enable the counterparties to terminate the agreements and demand immediate settlement of all outstanding derivative positions traded under each impacted bilateral agreement. The settlement amount is determined by netting the derivative positions transacted under each agreement. If the termination rights were to be exercised by the counterparties, it could impact the legal entity’s ability to conduct hedging activities by increasing the associated costs and decreasing the willingness of counterparties to transact with the legal entity. The aggregate fair value of all derivative instruments with credit-risk-related contingent features that are in a net liability position as of March 31, 2021 was $60 for which the legal entities have posted collateral of $61 in the normal course of business. Based on derivative market values as of March 31, 2021, a downgrade of one level below the current financial strength ratings by either Moody's or S&P would not require additional assets to be posted as collateral. A downgrade of two levels below the current financial strength ratings by either Moody’s or S&P would require an additional $2 of assets to be posted as collateral. These collateral amounts could change as derivative market values change, as a result of changes in our hedging activities or to the extent changes in contractual terms are negotiated. The nature of the additional collateral that we would post, if required, would be primarily in the form of U.S. Treasury bills, U.S. Treasury notes and government agency securities.

13. EQUITY
Equity Repurchase Program
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company repurchased $123 (2.4 million shares) of common stock under the share repurchase program, effective January 1, 2021 until December 31, 2022, authorized by the Board of Directors in December 2020. The share repurchase program was initially authorized at $1.5 billion and, in April 2021, the Company announced an increase in the share repurchase authorization to $2.5 billion, which remains effective until December 31, 2022. During the period April 1, 2021 through April 26, 2021, the Company repurchased $27 (0.4 million shares) under this repurchase program. The timing of future repurchases will be dependent on several factors, including the market price of the Company's securities, the Company's capital position, consideration of the effect of any repurchases on the Company's financial strength or credit ratings, the Company's blackout periods, and other considerations.
During the three months ended March 31, 2020, The Company repurchased $150 (2.7 million shares) of common stock under the previous share repurchase program that expired December 31, 2020.
14. CHANGES IN AND RECLASSIFICATIONS FROM ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
Changes in AOCI, Net of Tax for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Changes in
Net Unrealized Gain on Fixed MaturitiesUnrealized Loss on Fixed Maturities with ACLNet Gain on Cash Flow Hedging InstrumentsForeign Currency Translation AdjustmentsPension and Other Postretirement Plan AdjustmentsAOCI,
net of tax
Beginning balance$2,834 $(2)$12 $43 $(1,717)$1,170 
OCI before reclassifications(922)12 (909)
Amounts reclassified from AOCI(3)(7)13 
     OCI, net of tax(925)13 (906)
Ending balance$1,909 $(2)$17 $44 $(1,704)$264 


45

Note 14 - Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), Net of Tax
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Reclassifications from AOCI
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021Affected Line Item in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations
Net Unrealized Gain on Fixed Maturities
Available-for-sale fixed maturities$Net realized capital gains (losses)
4 Total before tax
 Income tax expense
$3 Net income
Net Gains on Cash Flow Hedging Instruments
Interest rate swaps$10 Net investment income
Interest rate swaps(2)Interest expense
Foreign currency swapsNet investment income
9 Total before tax
 Income tax expense
$7 Net income
Pension and Other Postretirement Plan Adjustments
Amortization of prior service credit$Insurance operating costs and other expenses
Amortization of actuarial loss(19)Insurance operating costs and other expenses
(17)Total before tax
(4) Income tax expense
$(13)Net income
Total amounts reclassified from AOCI$(3)Net income
Changes in AOCI, Net of Tax for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Changes in
Net Unrealized Gain on Fixed MaturitiesNet Unrealized Loss on Fixed Maturities with ACLNet Gain on Cash Flow Hedging InstrumentsForeign Currency Translation AdjustmentsPension and Other Postretirement Plan AdjustmentsAOCI,
net of tax
Beginning balance$1,684 $(3)$9 $34 $(1,672)$52 
OCI before reclassifications(1,015)47 (8)(1)(976)
Amounts reclassified from AOCI(42)(3)12 (33)
     OCI, net of tax(1,057)44 (8)11 (1,009)
Ending balance$627 $(2)$53 $26 $(1,661)$(957)


46

Note 14 - Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), Net of Tax
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Reclassifications from AOCI
Three Months Ended March 31, 2020Affected Line Item in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations
Net Unrealized Gain on Fixed Maturities
Available-for-sale fixed maturities$53 Net realized capital gains (losses)
53 Total before tax
11  Income tax expense
$42 Net income
Net Gains on Cash Flow Hedging Instruments
Interest rate swaps$Net investment income
Foreign currency swapsNet investment income
4 Total before tax
 Income tax expense
$3 Net income
Pension and Other Postretirement Plan Adjustments
Amortization of prior service credit$Insurance operating costs and other expenses
Amortization of actuarial loss(17)Insurance operating costs and other expenses
(15)Total before tax
(3) Income tax expense
$(12)Net income
Total amounts reclassified from AOCI$33 Net income
15. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS
The Company’s employee benefit plans are described in Note 19 - Employee Benefit Plans of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in The Hartford’s 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. Net periodic cost (benefit) is recognized in insurance
operating costs and other expenses in the condensed consolidated statement of operations.
Net Periodic Cost (Benefit)
Pension BenefitsOther Postretirement Benefits
Three Months Ended March 31,Three Months Ended March 31,
2021202020212020
Service cost$$$$
Interest cost24 32 
Expected return on plan assets(51)(54)(1)(1)
Amortization of prior service credit(2)(2)
Amortization of actuarial loss17 15 
Net periodic cost (benefit)$(9)$(6)$0 $1 
16. BUSINESS DISPOSITION
Sale of Continental Europe Operations
On September 30, 2020, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to sell its Continental Europe Operations consisting of multiple arrangements designed as a single transaction. The Continental Europe Operations are included in the Commercial Lines reporting segment. Revenues and earnings are not material to the Company's consolidated results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. The pending sale
resulted in an estimated loss on the sale of approximately $47, before tax, which was recorded within net realized capital gains (losses). The accrual for the estimated before tax loss is included as a reduction of the carrying value of assets held for sale in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2021. The transaction is expected to close in the second or third quarter of 2021, subject to customary closing conditions, including regulatory approvals.
47

Note 16 - Business Disposition
THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Carrying Value of Assets and Liabilities to be Transferred in Connection With the Sale [1]
As of March 31, 2021As of December 31, 2020
Assets
Investments and cash$137 $142 
Reinsurance recoverables and other28 35 
Total assets held for sale165 177 
Liabilities
Unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses77 84 
Unearned premiums23 31 
Other liabilities48 43 
Total liabilities held for sale$148 $158 
[1] As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the estimated fair value of the disposal group was $14 based on the estimated consideration to be received less cost to sell. Within the disposal group, as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, investments in fixed maturities and short-term investments, which are measured at fair value on a recurring basis, had a fair value of $80 and $84, respectively, of which $1 and $1, respectively, was based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and $79 and $83, respectively, was based on significant observable inputs. The remaining fair value less costs to sell for the disposal group as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 was ($66) and ($70), respectively, which is measured on a nonrecurring basis using significant unobservable inputs. See Note 4—Fair Value Measurements for more information.
17. RESTRUCTURING AND OTHER COSTS
In recognition of the need to become more cost efficient and competitive along with enhancing the experience we provide to agents and customers, on July 30, 2020 the Company announced an operational transformation and cost reduction plan it refers to as Hartford Next. Hartford Next is intended to reduce annual insurance operating costs and other expenses through reduction of the Company's headcount, investment in information technology ("IT") to further enhance our capabilities, and other activities. The activities are expected to be substantially complete by the end of 2022.
Termination benefits related to workforce reductions and professional fees are included within restructuring and other
costs in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations and unpaid restructuring costs are included in other liabilities in the March 31, 2021 Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. Subsequent to March 31, 2021, the Company expects to incur additional costs including amortization of right of use assets and other lease exit costs, other IT costs to retire applications, professional fees and other expenses. Total restructuring and other costs are expected to be approximately $164, before tax, and are being recognized in Corporate for segment reporting.
Restructuring and Other Costs, Before Tax
Incurred in the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021Cumulative Incurred Through March 31, 2021Total Amount Expected to be Incurred
Severance benefits$$73 $73 
IT costs27 
Professional fees and other expenses38 64 
Total restructuring and other costs, before tax$11 $115 $164 
Accrued Restructuring and Other Costs
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Severance Benefits and Related CostsIT CostsProfessional Fees and OtherTotal Restructuring and Other Costs Liability
Balance, beginning of period$54 $0 $0 $54 
Incurred11 
Payments(6)(2)(6)(14)
Balance, end of period$48 $0 $3 $51 
48

Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Item 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
(Dollar amounts in millions except for per share data, unless otherwise stated)
The Hartford provides projections and other forward-looking information in the following discussions, which contain many forward-looking statements, particularly relating to the Company’s future financial performance. These forward-looking statements are estimates based on information currently available to the Company, are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and are subject to the cautionary statements set forth on pages 4 and 5 of this Form 10-Q. Actual results are likely to differ, and in the past have differed, materially from those forecast by the Company, depending on the outcome of various factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth in the following discussion; Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors in The Hartford’s 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report; and our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Hartford undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
On September 30, 2020, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to sell all of the issued and outstanding equity of Navigators Holdings (Europe) N.V., a Belgium holding company, and its subsidiaries, Bracht, Deckers & Mackelbert N.V. (“BDM”) and Assurances Contintales Contintale Verzekeringen N.V. (“ASCO”), (collectively referred to as "Continental Europe Operations"). For discussion of this transaction, see Note 16 - Business Disposition of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Certain reclassifications have been made to historical financial information presented in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") to conform to the current period presentation.
The Hartford defines increases or decreases greater than or equal to 200% as “NM” or not meaningful.
INDEX
Throughout the MD&A, we use certain terms and abbreviations, the more commonly used are summarized in the Acronyms section.
KEY PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND RATIOS
The Company considers the measures and ratios in the following discussion to be key performance indicators for its businesses. Management believes that these ratios and measures are useful in understanding the underlying trends in The Hartford’s businesses. However, these key performance indicators should only be used in conjunction with, and not in lieu of, the results presented in the segment discussions that follow in this MD&A. These ratios and measures may not be comparable to other performance measures used by the Company’s competitors.
49

Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Definitions of Non-GAAP and Other Measures and Ratios
Assets Under Management ("AUM")- Include mutual fund and exchange-traded products ("ETP") assets. AUM is a measure used by the Company's Hartford Funds segment because a significant portion of the Company’s mutual fund and ETP revenues are based upon asset values. These revenues increase or decrease with a rise or fall in AUM whether caused by changes in the market or through net flows.
Book Value per Diluted Share excluding accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI")- This is a non-GAAP per share measure that is calculated by dividing (a) common stockholders' equity, excluding AOCI, after tax, by (b) common shares outstanding and dilutive potential common shares. The Company provides this measure to enable investors to analyze the amount of the Company's net worth that is primarily attributable to the Company's business operations. The Company believes that excluding AOCI from the numerator is useful to investors because it eliminates the effect of items that can fluctuate significantly from period to period, primarily based on changes in interest rates. Book value per diluted share is the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure.
Combined Ratio- The sum of the loss and loss adjustment expense ratio, the expense ratio and the policyholder dividend ratio. This ratio is a relative measurement that describes the related cost of losses and expenses for every $100 of earned premiums. A combined ratio below 100 demonstrates underwriting profit; a combined ratio above 100 demonstrates underwriting losses.
Core Earnings- The Hartford uses the non-GAAP measure core earnings as an important measure of the Company’s operating performance. The Hartford believes that core earnings provides investors with a valuable measure of the performance of the Company’s ongoing businesses because it reveals trends in our insurance and financial services businesses that may be obscured by including the net effect of certain items. Therefore, the following items are excluded from core earnings:
Certain realized capital gains and losses - Some realized capital gains and losses are primarily driven by investment decisions and external economic developments, the nature and timing of which are unrelated to the insurance and underwriting aspects of our business. Accordingly, core earnings excludes the effect of all realized gains and losses that tend to be highly variable from period to period based on capital market conditions. The Hartford believes, however, that some realized capital gains and losses are integrally related to our insurance operations, so core earnings includes net realized gains and losses such as net periodic settlements on credit derivatives. These net realized gains and losses are directly related to an offsetting item included in the income statement such as net investment income.
Restructuring and other costs - Costs incurred as part of a restructuring plan are not a recurring operating expense of the business.

Loss on extinguishment of debt - Largely consisting of make-whole payments or tender premiums upon paying debt off before maturity, these losses are not a recurring operating expense of the business.
Gains and losses on reinsurance transactions - Gains or losses on reinsurance, such as those entered into upon sale of a business or to reinsure loss reserves, are not a recurring operating expense of the business.
Integration and transaction costs in connection with an acquired business - As transaction costs are incurred upon acquisition of a business and integration costs are completed within a short period after an acquisition, they do not represent ongoing costs of the business.
Change in loss reserves upon acquisition of a business - These changes in loss reserves are excluded from core earnings because such changes could obscure the ability to compare results in periods after the acquisition to results of periods prior to the acquisition.
Deferred gain resulting from retroactive reinsurance and subsequent changes in the deferred gain - Retroactive reinsurance agreements economically transfer risk to the reinsurers and including the full benefit from retroactive reinsurance in core earnings provides greater insight into the economics of the business.
Change in valuation allowance on deferred taxes related to non-core components of pre-tax income - These changes in valuation allowances are excluded from core earnings because they relate to non-core components of pre-tax income, such as tax attributes like capital loss carryforwards.
Results of discontinued operations - These results are excluded from core earnings for businesses sold or held for sale because such results could obscure the ability to compare period over period results for our ongoing businesses.
In addition to the above components of net income available to common stockholders that are excluded from core earnings, preferred stock dividends declared, which are excluded from net income available to common stockholders, are included in the determination of core earnings. Preferred stock dividends are a cost of financing more akin to interest expense on debt and are expected to be a recurring expense as long as the preferred stock is outstanding.
Net income (loss) and net income (loss) available to common stockholders are the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measures to core earnings. Core earnings should not be considered as a substitute for net income (loss) or net income (loss) available to common stockholders and does not reflect the overall profitability of the Company’s business. Therefore, The Hartford believes that it is useful for investors to evaluate net income (loss), net income (loss) available to common stockholders, and core earnings when reviewing the Company’s performance.
50

Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Reconciliation of Net Income to Core Earnings
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20212020
Net income$249 $273 
Preferred stock dividends
Net income available to common stockholders244 268 
Adjustments to reconcile net income available to common stockholders to core earnings:
Net realized capital losses (gains) excluded from core earnings, before tax(77)232 
Restructuring and other costs, before tax11 — 
Integration and transaction costs associated with acquired business, before tax13 
Change in deferred gain on retroactive reinsurance, before tax29 
Income tax expense (benefit)10 (57)
Core earnings$203 $485 
Core Earnings Margin- The Hartford uses the non-GAAP measure core earnings margin to evaluate, and believes it is an important measure of, the Group Benefits segment's operating performance. Core earnings margin is calculated by dividing core earnings by revenues, excluding buyouts and realized gains (losses). Net income margin, calculated by dividing net income by revenues, is the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure. The Company believes that core earnings margin provides investors with a valuable measure of the performance of Group Benefits because it reveals trends in the business that may be obscured by the effect of buyouts and realized gains (losses) as well as other items excluded in the calculation of core earnings. Core earnings margin should not be considered as a substitute for net income margin and does not reflect the overall profitability of Group Benefits. Therefore, the Company believes it is important for investors to evaluate both core earnings margin and net income margin when reviewing performance. A reconciliation of net income margin to core earnings margin is set forth in the Results of Operations section within MD&A - Group Benefits.
Current Accident Year Catastrophe Ratio- A component of the loss and loss adjustment expense ratio, represents the ratio of catastrophe losses incurred in the current accident year (net of reinsurance) to earned premiums. For U.S. events, a catastrophe is an event that causes $25 or more in industry insured property losses and affects a significant number of property and casualty policyholders and insurers, as defined by the Property Claim Service office of Verisk. For international events, the Company's approach is similar, informed, in part, by how Lloyd's of London defines catastrophes. Lloyd's of London is an insurance market-place operating worldwide ("Lloyd's"). Lloyd's does not underwrite risks. The Company accepts risks as the sole member of Lloyd's Syndicate 1221 ("Lloyd's Syndicate"). The current accident year catastrophe ratio includes the effect of catastrophe losses, but does not include the effect of reinstatement premiums.
Expense Ratio- For the underwriting segments of Commercial Lines and Personal Lines is the ratio of underwriting expenses less fee income, to earned premiums. Underwriting expenses include the amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs ("DAC") and insurance operating costs and expenses, including certain centralized services costs and bad debt expense. DAC include commissions, taxes, licenses and fees and other
incremental direct underwriting expenses and are amortized over the policy term.
The expense ratio for Group Benefits is expressed as the ratio of insurance operating costs and other expenses including amortization of intangibles and amortization of DAC, to premiums and other considerations, excluding buyout premiums.
The expense ratio for Commercial Lines, Personal Lines and Group Benefits does not include integration and other transaction costs associated with an acquired business.
Fee Income- Is largely driven from amounts earned as a result of contractually defined percentages of assets under management in our Hartford Funds business. These fees are generally earned on a daily basis. Therefore, the growth in assets under management either through positive net flows or favorable market performance will have a favorable impact on fee income. Conversely, either negative net flows or unfavorable market performance will reduce fee income.
Gross New Business Premium- Represents the amount of premiums charged, before ceded reinsurance, for policies issued to customers who were not insured with the Company in the previous policy term. Gross new business premium plus gross renewal written premium less ceded reinsurance equals total written premium.
Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Ratio- A measure of the cost of claims incurred in the calendar year divided by earned premium and includes losses and loss adjustment expenses incurred for both the current and prior accident years. Among other factors, the loss and loss adjustment expense ratio needed for the Company to achieve its targeted return on equity ("ROE") fluctuates from year to year based on changes in the expected investment yield over the claim settlement period, the timing of expected claim settlements and the targeted returns set by management based on the competitive environment.
The loss and loss adjustment expense ratio is affected by claim frequency and claim severity, particularly for shorter-tail property lines of business, where the emergence of claim frequency and severity is credible and likely indicative of ultimate losses. Claim frequency represents the percentage change in the average number of reported claims per unit of exposure in the
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


current accident year compared to that of the previous accident year. Claim severity represents the percentage change in the estimated average cost per claim in the current accident year compared to that of the previous accident year. As one of the factors used to determine pricing, the Company’s practice is to first make an overall assumption about claim frequency and severity for a given line of business and then, as part of the rate-making process, adjust the assumption as appropriate for the particular state, product or coverage.
Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Ratio before Catastrophes and Prior Accident Year Development- A measure of the cost of non-catastrophe loss and loss adjustment expenses incurred in the current accident year divided by earned premiums. Management believes that the current accident year loss and loss adjustment expense ratio before catastrophes is a performance measure that is useful to investors as it removes the impact of volatile and unpredictable catastrophe losses and prior accident year development.
Loss Ratio, excluding Buyouts- Utilized for the Group Benefits segment and is expressed as a ratio of benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses, excluding those related to buyout premiums, to premiums and other considerations, excluding buyout premiums. Since Group Benefits occasionally buys a block of claims for a stated premium amount, the Company excludes this buyout from the loss ratio used for evaluating the profitability of the business as buyouts may distort the loss ratio. Buyout premiums represent takeover of open claim liabilities and other non-recurring premium amounts.
Mutual Fund and Exchange-Traded Product Assets- Are owned by the shareholders of those products and not by the Company and, therefore, are not reflected in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements except in instances where the Company seeds new investment products and holds an investment in the fund for a period of time. Mutual fund and ETP assets are a measure used by the Company primarily because a significant portion of the Company’s Hartford Funds segment revenues are based upon asset values. These revenues increase or decrease with a rise or fall in AUM whether caused by changes in the market or through net flows.
Net New Business Premium- Represents the amount of premiums charged, after ceded reinsurance, for policies issued to customers who were not insured with the Company in the previous policy term. Net new business premium plus renewal written premium equals total written premium.
Policies in Force- Represents the number of policies with coverage in effect as of the end of the period. The number of policies in force is a growth measure used for Personal Lines and standard commercial lines (small commercial and middle market lines within middle & large commercial) within Commercial Lines and is affected by both new business growth and policy count retention.
Policy Count Retention- Represents the ratio of the number of policies renewed during the period divided by the number of policies available to renew. The number of policies available to renew represents the number of policies, net of any cancellations, written in the previous policy term. Policy count retention is affected by a number of factors, including the percentage of renewal policy quotes accepted and decisions by
the Company to non-renew policies because of specific policy underwriting concerns or because of a decision to reduce premium writings in certain classes of business or states. Policy count retention is also affected by advertising and rate actions taken by competitors.
Policyholder Dividend Ratio- The ratio of policyholder dividends to earned premium.
Prior Accident Year Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Ratio- Represents the increase (decrease) in the estimated cost of settling catastrophe and non-catastrophe claims incurred in prior accident years as recorded in the current calendar year divided by earned premiums.
Reinstatement Premiums- Represents additional ceded premium paid for the reinstatement of the amount of reinsurance coverage that was reduced as a result of the Company ceding losses to reinsurers.
Renewal Earned Price Increase (Decrease)- Written premiums are earned over the policy term, which is six months for certain Personal Lines automobile business and twelve months for substantially all of the remainder of the Company’s Property and Casualty business. Since the Company earns premiums over the six to twelve month term of the policies, renewal earned price increases (decreases) lag renewal written price increases (decreases) by six to twelve months.
Renewal Written Price Increase (Decrease)- For Commercial Lines, represents the combined effect of rate changes, amount of insurance and individual risk pricing decisions per unit of exposure on commercial lines policies that renewed. For Personal Lines, renewal written price increases represent the total change in premium per policy since the prior year on those policies that renewed and includes the combined effect of rate changes, amount of insurance and other changes in exposure. For Personal Lines, other changes in exposure include, but are not limited to, the effect of changes in number of drivers, vehicles and incidents, as well as changes in customer policy elections, such as deductibles and limits. The rate component represents the change in rate filed with and approved by state regulators during the period and the amount of insurance represents the change in the value of the rating base, such as model year/vehicle symbol for automobiles, building replacement costs for property and wage inflation for workers’ compensation. A number of factors affect renewal written price increases (decreases) including expected loss costs as projected by the Company’s pricing actuaries, rate filings approved by state regulators, risk selection decisions made by the Company’s underwriters and marketplace competition. Renewal written price changes reflect the property and casualty insurance market cycle. Prices tend to increase for a particular line of business when insurance carriers have incurred significant losses in that line of business in the recent past or the industry as a whole commits less of its capital to writing exposures in that line of business. Prices tend to decrease when recent loss experience has been favorable or when competition among insurance carriers increases. Renewal written price statistics are subject to change from period to period, based on a number of factors, including changes in actuarial estimates and the effect of subsequent cancellations and non-renewals, and modifications made to better reflect ultimate pricing achieved.
Return on Assets (“ROA”), Core Earnings-The Company uses this non-GAAP financial measure to evaluate, and
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


believes is an important measure of, the Hartford Funds segment’s operating performance. ROA, core earnings is calculated by dividing annualized core earnings by a daily average AUM. ROA is the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure. The Company believes that ROA, core earnings, provides investors with a valuable measure of the performance of the Hartford Funds segment because it reveals trends in our business that may be obscured by the effect of items excluded in the calculation of core earnings. ROA, core earnings, should not be considered as a substitute for ROA and does not reflect the overall profitability of our Hartford Funds business. Therefore, the Company believes it is important for investors to evaluate both ROA, and ROA, core earnings when reviewing the Hartford Funds segment performance. A reconciliation of ROA to ROA, core earnings is set forth in the Results of Operations section within MD&A - Hartford Funds.
Underlying Combined Ratio- This non-GAAP financial measure of underwriting results represents the combined ratio before catastrophes, prior accident year development and current accident year change in loss reserves upon acquisition of a business. Combined ratio is the most directly comparable GAAP measure. The underlying combined ratio represents the combined ratio for the current accident year, excluding the impact of current accident year catastrophes and current accident year change in loss reserves upon acquisition of a business. The Company believes this ratio is an important measure of the trend in profitability since it removes the impact of volatile and unpredictable catastrophe losses and prior accident year loss and loss adjustment expense reserve development. The changes to loss reserves upon acquisition of a business are excluded from underlying combined ratio because such changes could obscure the ability to compare results in periods after the acquisition to results of periods prior to the acquisition as such trends are valuable to our investors' ability to assess the Company's financial performance.

A reconciliation of combined ratio to underlying combined ratio is set forth in the Results of Operations section within MD&A - Commercial Lines and Personal Lines.
Underwriting Gain (Loss)- The Hartford's management evaluates profitability of the Commercial and Personal Lines segments primarily on the basis of underwriting gain or loss. Underwriting gain (loss) is a before tax non-GAAP measure that represents earned premiums less incurred losses, loss adjustment expenses and underwriting expenses. Net income (loss) is the most directly comparable GAAP measure. Underwriting gain (loss) is influenced significantly by earned premium growth and the adequacy of The Hartford's pricing. Underwriting profitability over time is also greatly influenced by The Hartford's underwriting discipline, as management strives to manage exposure to loss through favorable risk selection and diversification, effective management of claims, use of reinsurance and its ability to manage its expenses. The Hartford believes that the measure underwriting gain (loss) provides investors with a valuable measure of profitability, before tax, derived from underwriting activities, which are managed separately from the Company's investing activities.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Reconciliation of Net Income to Underwriting Gain (Loss)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Commercial Lines
Net income$129 $121 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to underwriting gain (loss):
Net servicing income(2)(1)
Net investment income(327)(277)
Net realized capital losses (gains)(44)143 
Other expense
Income tax expense24 28 
Underwriting gain (loss)$(216)$20 
Personal Lines
Net income$135 $98 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to underwriting gain (loss):
Net servicing income(4)(2)
Net investment income(35)(41)
Net realized capital losses (gains)(7)23 
Other expense— — 
Income tax expense35 25 
Underwriting gain$124 $103 
P&C Other Ops
Net income (loss)$(13)$5 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to underwriting gain (loss):
Net investment income(16)(16)
Net realized capital losses (gains)(2)
Income tax expense (benefit)(4)
Underwriting loss$(35)$(3)
Written and Earned Premiums- Written premium represents the amount of premiums charged for policies issued, net of reinsurance, during a fiscal period. Premiums are considered earned and are included in the financial results on a pro rata basis over the policy period. Management believes that written premium is a performance measure that is useful to investors as it reflects current trends in the Company’s sale of property and casualty insurance products. Written and earned premium are recorded net of ceded reinsurance premium.
Traditional life and disability insurance type products, such as those sold by Group Benefits, collect premiums from policyholders in exchange for financial protection for the policyholder from a specified insurable loss, such as death or disability. These premiums together with net investment income earned are used to pay the contractual obligations under these insurance contracts. Two major factors, new sales and persistency, impact premium growth. Sales can increase or decrease in a given year based on a number of factors, including but not limited to, customer demand for the Company’s product offerings, pricing competition, distribution channels and the Company’s reputation and ratings. Persistency refers to the percentage of premium remaining in-force from year-to-year.
THE HARTFORD’S OPERATIONS
The Hartford conducts business principally in five reporting segments including Commercial Lines, Personal Lines, Property & Casualty Other Operations, Group Benefits and Hartford Funds, as well as a Corporate category. The Company includes in the Corporate category reserves for run-off structured settlement and terminal funding agreement liabilities, restructuring costs, capital raising activities (including equity financing, debt financing and related interest expense), transaction expenses incurred in connection with an acquisition, purchase accounting adjustments related to goodwill and other expenses not allocated to the reporting segments. Corporate also includes investment management fees and expenses related to managing third party business, including management of the invested assets of Talcott Resolution Life, Inc. and its subsidiaries ("Talcott Resolution"). Talcott Resolution is the holding company of the life and annuity business that was sold in May 2018. In addition, Corporate includes a 9.7% ownership interest in the legal entity that acquired the life and annuity business sold. The sale of Talcott Resolution to a new group of investors is expected to close by
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June 30, 2021. The Company will receive 9.7% of the proceeds and any pre-closing dividends.
The Company derives its revenues principally from: (a) premiums earned for insurance coverage provided to insureds; (b) management fees on mutual fund and ETP assets; (c) net investment income; (d) fees earned for services provided to third parties; and (e) net realized capital gains and losses. Premiums charged for insurance coverage are earned principally on a pro rata basis over the terms of the related policies in-force.
The profitability of the Company's property and casualty insurance businesses over time is greatly influenced by the Company’s underwriting discipline, which seeks to manage exposure to loss through favorable risk selection and diversification, its management of claims, its use of reinsurance, the size of its in force block, actual mortality and morbidity experience, and its ability to manage its expense ratio which it accomplishes through economies of scale and its management of acquisition costs and other underwriting expenses. Pricing adequacy depends on a number of factors, including the ability to obtain regulatory approval for rate changes, proper evaluation of underwriting risks, the ability to project future loss cost frequency and severity based on historical loss experience adjusted for known trends, the Company’s response to rate actions taken by competitors, its expense levels and expectations about regulatory and legal developments. The Company seeks to price its insurance policies such that insurance premiums and future net investment income earned on premiums received will cover underwriting expenses and the ultimate cost of paying claims reported on the policies and provide for a profit margin. For many of its insurance products, the Company is required to obtain approval for its premium rates from state insurance departments and the Lloyd's Syndicate 1221's ("Lloyd's Syndicate") ability to write business is subject to Lloyd's approval for its premium capacity each year. Most of Personal Lines written premium is associated with our exclusive licensing agreement with AARP. This agreement provides an important competitive advantage given the size of the 50 plus population and the strength of the AARP brand. In 2020, the Company extended this agreement through December 31, 2032.
Similar to property and casualty, profitability of the Group Benefits business depends, in large part, on the ability to evaluate and price risks appropriately and make reliable estimates of mortality, morbidity, disability and longevity. To manage the pricing risk, Group Benefits generally offers term insurance policies, allowing for the adjustment of rates or policy terms in order to minimize the adverse effect of market trends, loss costs, declining interest rates and other factors. However, as policies are typically sold with rate guarantees of up to three years, pricing for the Company’s products could prove to be inadequate if loss and expense trends emerge adversely during the rate guarantee period or if investment returns are lower than expected at the time the products were sold. For some of its products, the Company is required to obtain approval for its premium rates from state insurance departments. New and renewal business for group benefits business, particularly for long-term disability, are priced using an assumption about expected investment yields over time. While the Company employs asset-liability duration matching strategies to mitigate risk and may use interest-rate sensitive derivatives to hedge its exposure in the Group Benefits investment portfolio, cash flow patterns related to the payment of benefits and claims are uncertain and actual investment yields could differ significantly
from expected investment yields, affecting profitability of the business. In addition to appropriately evaluating and pricing risks, the profitability of the Group Benefits business depends on other factors, including the Company’s response to pricing decisions and other actions taken by competitors, its ability to offer voluntary products and self-service capabilities, the persistency of its sold business and its ability to manage its expenses which it seeks to achieve through economies of scale and operating efficiencies.
The financial results of the Company’s mutual fund and ETP businesses depend largely on the amount of assets under management and the level of fees charged based, in part, on asset share class and product type. Changes in assets under management are driven by the two main factors of net flows and the market return of the funds, which are heavily influenced by the return realized in the equity and bond markets. Net flows are comprised of new sales less redemptions by mutual fund and ETP shareholders. Financial results are highly correlated to the growth in assets under management since these products generally earn fee income on a daily basis.
The investment return, or yield, on invested assets is an important element of the Company’s earnings since insurance products are priced with the assumption that premiums received can be invested for a period of time before benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses are paid. Due to the need to maintain sufficient liquidity to satisfy claim obligations, the majority of the Company’s invested assets have been held in available-for-sale securities, including, among other asset classes, corporate bonds, municipal bonds, government debt, short-term debt, mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities and collateralized loan obligations. The primary investment objective for the Company is to maximize economic value, consistent with acceptable risk parameters, including the management of credit risk and interest rate sensitivity of invested assets, while generating sufficient net of tax income to meet policyholder and corporate obligations. Investment strategies are developed based on a variety of factors including business needs, regulatory requirements and tax considerations.
Impact of COVID-19 on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity
Impact to revenues
Written and Earned premiums
While we are beginning to emerge from the pandemic with economic stimulus measures being passed in the U.S. and other jurisdictions and progress being made to vaccinate the public from the COVID-19 virus, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to cause significant disruption to the economy of the U.S. and other countries in which we operate. As one of the largest providers of small business insurance in the U.S., we were negatively affected by economic effects of the pandemic on small businesses beginning in March of 2020. In 2021, economic conditions have improved and in the first quarter of 2021, we experienced a 4% year over year increase in our small commercial written premium. Our middle and large commercial business was also negatively affected by COVID-19 and written premium in that line has been slower to rebound with written premium in middle & large commercial down 3% year over year in the first quarter. Overall,
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


first quarter 2021 Commercial Lines written premium increased $95, or 4%, as growth in small commercial package business and excess and surplus lines as well as growth in U.S. wholesale, global reinsurance, U.S. financial lines and international lines of business was partially offset by a decline in workers' compensation. Contributing to a year over year decline in workers’ compensation written premium in first quarter 2021 was the effect of lower payrolls as a result of the continued economic effects of COVID-19, resulting in lower average premium per policy.
Personal Lines written premium declined 4% in first quarter 2021 compared to first quarter 2020, largely attributable to the effect of increased shopping behaviors and lower new business levels arising out of the competitive marketplace.
In Group Benefits, fully insured ongoing premium increased 4% in the first quarter of 2021 compared to first quarter of 2020, primarily due to higher in-force employer group disability premiums and higher supplemental health product premiums, though the book of business continues to be negatively impacted by lower insured exposure on in-force policies.
Net investment income and realized capital gains (losses)
Total net investment income increased in the first quarter of 2021 primarily due to greater income from limited partnerships and other alternative investments, a higher return on equity fund investments and a higher level of invested assets, partially offset by a lower yield on fixed maturity investments resulting from lower reinvestment rates and a lower yield on floating rate investments. While longer term interest rates have risen year to date in 2021, a prolonged period of low interest rates could depress the Company's net investment income such that to earn the same level of return on equity we may have to charge higher premiums for the insurance products we sell unless loss costs similarly lessen.
Net realized capital gains (losses) on equity securities for the three months ended March 31, 2021 totaled $43 before tax, largely due to an increase in equity market levels since year end 2020. However, we may incur net realized capital losses on equity securities in future periods if we experience declines in equity market levels. In addition, if the economy does not recover as expected, we could experience elevated credit losses on fixed maturity securities, particularly related to highly leveraged companies, resulting in net realized capital losses.
Impact to direct benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses from COVID-19 claims
The Company continued to incur direct COVID-19 incurred losses and excess mortality claims in first quarter 2021, compared to a small impact in first quarter 2020.
For the three months ended March 31,
20212020
Excess mortality claims on group life$185 $— 
COVID-19 short-term disability claims and benefits under New York's disability and paid family leave legislation13 16 
Workers' compensation COVID-19 claims20 — 
Global specialty financial lines and other— 
Total direct COVID-19 and excess mortality claims$222 $16 
While COVID-19 property claims in P&C were incurred in the second quarter of 2020, there were no COVID-19 P&C property losses incurred in the three months ended March 31, 2021 or 2020. Nearly all of our property insurance policies require direct physical loss or damage to property and contain standard exclusions that we believe preclude coverage for COVID-19 related claims, and the vast majority of such policies contain exclusions for virus-related losses. Within Property & Casualty, we incur COVID-19 workers’ compensation losses when it is determined that workers were exposed to COVID-19 out of and in the course of their employment and in other cases where states have passed laws providing for the presumption of coverage for certain industry classes, including health care and other essential workers.
Within Group Benefits, the Company experienced excess mortality in its group life business, including those claims where COVID-19 is specifically listed as the cause of death.
Other impacts from COVID-19
In Personal Lines automobile, miles driven have begun to increase again as we emerge from the pandemic which we expect will increase loss costs in 2021. In addition, as the effects of favorable claim frequency from lower miles driven during the pandemic are factored into rates, we expect lower earned pricing increases resulting in a higher expected automobile loss ratio in 2021 than in 2020. Refer to Personal Lines Results of Operations for discussion of pricing and loss cost trends in first quarter 2021.
Aided by some improvement in the economy and the effect of the government’s economic stimulus payments to our customers, in first quarter 2021, we recorded a $8 decrease in the ACL on premiums receivable, reflecting a lower expectation of credit losses, though there remains an elevated risk of uncollectible premiums receivable relative to historical trends if economic conditions do not improve further.
As we emerge from the pandemic, we expect travel costs and certain employee benefits costs will increase relative to the lower level of those costs we incurred when shelter-in-place orders were more broadly in effect.
For information about resources the Company has to manage capital and liquidity, refer to the Capital Resources & Liquidity section of MD&A.
For additional information about the potential economic impacts to the Company of the COVID-19 pandemic, see the risk factor "The pandemic caused by the spread of COVID-19 has disrupted
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


our operations and may have a material adverse impact on our business results, financial condition, results of operations and/or liquidity" in Item 1A of Part I of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Operational Transformation and Cost Reduction Plan
In recognition of the need to become more cost efficient and competitive along with enhancing the experience we provide to agents and customers, on July 30, 2020, the Company announced an operational transformation and cost reduction plan it refers to as Hartford Next. Through reduction of its headcount, IT investments to further enhance our capabilities, and other activities, relative to 2019, the Company expects to achieve a reduction in annual insurance operating costs and other expenses of approximately $540 by 2022 and $625 by 2023. The Hartford Next program will contribute to our goal of reducing the 2022 P&C expense ratio by about 2.0 to 2.5 points, reducing the 2022 Group Benefits expense ratio by about 1.5 to 2.0 points and
reducing our 2022 claim expense ratio by approximately 0.5 point.
To achieve those expected savings, we expect to incur approximately $410 over the course of the program, with $180 expensed cumulatively through March 31, 2021, and expected expenses of $75 over the last nine months of 2021, $77 in 2022 and $78 after 2022, with the expenses after 2022 consisting mostly of amortization of internal use software and capitalized real estate costs. Included in the estimated costs of $410, we expect to incur restructuring costs of approximately $164, including $73 of employee severance incurred in 2020, and approximately $91 of other costs, including consulting expenses and the cost to retire certain IT applications. Restructuring costs are reported as a charge to net income but not in core earnings.
The following table presents Hartford Next program costs incurred, including restructuring costs, and expense savings realized in the three months ended March 31, 2021 and expected annual costs and expense savings for the full year in 2021 and 2022:
Hartford Next Costs and Expense Savings
Three months ended March 31, 2021Estimate for 2021Estimate for 2022
IT costs to retire applications$$11 $14 
Professional fees and other expenses24 11 
Estimated restructuring costs11 35 25 
Non-capitalized IT costs12 49 30 
Other costs17 14 
Amortization of capitalized IT development costs [1]— 
Amortization of capitalized real estate [2]— — 
Estimated costs within core earnings16 67 52 
Total Hartford Next program costs$27 $102 $77 
Cumulative savings for the period relative to 2019$(90)$(370)$(540)
Net expense (savings) before tax:$(63)$(268)$(463)
Net expense (savings) before tax:
To be accounted for within core earnings$(74)$(303)$(488)
Restructuring costs recognized outside of core earnings11 35 25 
Net expense (savings) before tax$(63)$(268)$(463)
[1]Does not include approximately $50 of IT asset amortization after 2022.
[2]Does not include approximately $21 of real estate amortization after 2022.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Financial Highlights
Net Income Available to Common StockholdersNet Income Available to Common Stockholders per Diluted ShareBook Value per Diluted Share
hig-20210331_g2.jpghig-20210331_g3.jpghig-20210331_g4.jpg
ÞDecreased $24 or 9%ÞDecreased $0.07 or 9%ÞDecreased $2.35 or 5%
-Greater net unfavorable prior accident year reserve development, primarily due to increases in reserves for sexual molestation and sexual abuse in the 2021 period.-Decrease in net income available to common stockholders.-Decrease in common stockholders' equity largely due to a decrease in AOCI, primarily driven by a decrease in net unrealized capital gains on available for sale securities.
-Higher mortality within group life driven by the direct and indirect impacts of COVID-19.-Increase in dilutive shares under stock-based compensation largely due to an increase in the quarterly average stock price.-Increase in dilutive shares outstanding from stock-based compensation awards.
-An increase in current accident year catastrophes.+Share repurchase activity.
+A change from net realized capital losses in the 2020 period to net realized capital gains in the 2021 period.
+An increase in net investment income.
+An improvement in the P&C underlying combined ratio, including a decrease in insurance operating costs and other expenses.

Investment Yield, After TaxProperty & Casualty Combined RatioGroup Benefits Net Income Margin
hig-20210331_g5.jpghig-20210331_g6.jpghig-20210331_g7.jpg
ÝIncreased 10 bpsÝIncreased 8.2 pointsÞDecreased 6.3 points
+Greater returns on limited partnerships and other alternative investments.+Greater net unfavorable prior accident year reserve development, primarily due to increases in reserves for sexual molestation and sexual abuse in the 2021 period.-Higher mortality in group life, driven by the direct and indirect impacts of COVID-19.
+Higher returns on equity fund investments.+Higher current accident year catastrophe losses.'+A change from net realized capital losses in the 2020 period to net realized capital gains in 2021 period.
+A higher level of invested assets.-Lower current accident year loss ratio, due to lower personal automobile claim frequency, and lower current accident year loss ratios in middle market workers’ compensation, U.S. wholesale, global reinsurance and U.S. financial lines.
-Lower reinvestment rates and lower yield on floating rate investments.+An increase in net investment income .
+A lower group disability loss ratio primarily due to more favorable prior incurral year development driven by higher claim recoveries and continued improving claim incidence.
-A lower expense ratio, driven by lower staffing and other costs as well as a decrease in the ACL on uncollectible premiums receivable in 2021 compared to an increase in 2020.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations



CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The Consolidated Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the Company's Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and the related Notes as well as with the segment operating results sections of MD&A.
Consolidated Results of Operations
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020Change
Earned premiums$4,343 $4,391 (1 %)
Fee income355 320 11 %
Net investment income509 459 11 %
Net realized capital gains (losses)80 (231)135 %
Other revenues12 17 (29 %)
Total revenues5,299 4,956 7 %
Benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses3,350 2,916 15 %
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs416 437 (5 %)
Insurance operating costs and other expenses1,144 1,176 (3 %)
Interest expense57 64 (11 %)
Amortization of other intangible assets18 19 (5 %)
Restructuring and other costs11 — NM
Total benefits, losses and expenses4,996 4,612 8 %
Income, before tax303 344 (12 %)
Income tax expense54 71 (24 %)
Net income249 273 (9 %)
Preferred stock dividends %
Net income available to common stockholders$244 $268 (9 %)

Three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020
Net income available to common stockholders decreased by $24, primarily driven by $206 before tax of greater unfavorable P&C prior accident year development, losses in Group Benefits resulting from higher mortality in group life, including deaths specifically attributable to COVID-19, and a $140 before tax increase in current accident year catastrophe losses driven by the February 2021 winter storms. These declines were partially offset by a $311 before tax change from net realized capital losses in the 2020 period to net realized capital gains in the 2021 period, a $50 before tax increase in net investment income driven by higher returns on limited partnerships and other alternative investments, and an improvement in the P&C underlying combined ratio, including a decrease in insurance operating costs and other expenses. The increase in net unfavorable P&C prior accident year reserve development was principally driven by increased reserves for sexual molestation and sexual abuse claims in the first quarter 2021, primarily related to an agreement to settle claims made against the Boy Scouts of America.
For a discussion of the Company's operating results by segment, see MD&A - Segment Operating Summaries. For further
discussion of impacts resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, refer to the Impact of COVID-19 on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity section of this MD&A.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Revenue
Earned Premiums
hig-20210331_g8.jpg
[1] For the three months ended March 31, 2020, the total includes $4 in Corporate.
Earned premiums declined by $48, or 1%, primarily due to:
A decline in Property and Casualty reflecting a 5% decline in Personal Lines and a 1% decline in Commercial Lines.
Partially offset by a 2% increase in Group Benefits primarily due to higher-in-force employer group disability premium and higher supplemental health product premium.
Fee income increased driven by Hartford Funds as a result of higher daily average assets under management due to an increase in equity market levels.

Net Investment Income
hig-20210331_g9.jpg
Net investment income increased primarily due to:
Greater income from limited partnerships and other alternative investments primarily driven by higher valuations of underlying investments within private equity funds
A higher return on equity fund investments resulting from the increase in equity market levels
A higher level of invested assets
Partially offset by a lower yield on fixed maturity investments resulting from reinvesting at lower rates and a lower yield on floating rate investments.
Net realized capital gains (losses) improved from net losses of $231 in first quarter 2020 to net gains of $80 in first quarter 2021, primarily driven by:
Gains on equity securities in the first quarter of 2021 driven by appreciation in value compared to losses on equity securities in the first quarter of 2020 driven by depreciation in value and realized losses upon sales, partially offset by net realized gains upon termination of derivatives used to hedge against a decline in equity market levels.
A net reduction in ACL on fixed maturities in the 2021 period due to an increase in fair value of corporate securities, compared to an increase in the ACL on fixed maturities in the 2020 period.
Partially offset by lower net realized capital gains on sales of fixed maturity securities.
For further discussion of investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results, Net Realized Capital Gains and MD&A - Investment Results, Net Investment Income.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Benefits, losses and expenses
Losses and LAE Incurred for P&C
hig-20210331_g10.jpg
Benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses increased due to:
An increase in Group Benefits of $189 driven by higher mortality in group life, primarily caused by $185 of direct and indirect claims from COVID-19 in first quarter 2021, partially offset by the impact of a lower group disability loss ratio that was principally due to more favorable prior incurral year development driven by higher claim recoveries and continued improving claim incidence.
An increase in Property & Casualty, which was attributable to:
An increase in Property & Casualty net unfavorable prior accident year reserve development $206. Prior accident year reserve development in 2021 was an unfavorable $229 before tax and primarily included reserve increases for sexual molestation and sexual abuse claims, primarily to reflect an agreement to settle claims made against the Boy Scouts of America. Also included were reserve decreases for workers’ compensation, package business, personal automobile liability, catastrophes and commercial property, partially offset by $6 of adverse development as the result of recognizing a deferred gain on retroactive reinsurance. Prior accident year reserve development in 2020 was an unfavorable $23 before tax and primarily included reserve increases for marine, general liability and workers' compensation pool participants, partially offset by reserve decreases for workers' compensation, and catastrophes. The $23 of net unfavorable reserve development in first quarter 2020 included $29 of adverse development as the result of recognizing a deferred gain on retroactive reinsurance. For further discussion, see Note 9 - Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
An increase in current accident year catastrophe losses of $140. Catastrophe losses of $214 in the first quarter of 2021 included $176 from February winter storms primarily in the South, with the remainder from various wind and hail events, mostly concentrated in the South and along the Pacific Coast. The $176 of losses from the February winter storms is net of a $46 reinsurance recoverable under the Company's per occurrence catastrophe treaty that covers 70% of up to $250 in losses in excess of $100 on catastrophe events occurring within a 7-day period other than from earthquakes and named hurricanes and tropical storms, subject to a $50 annual aggregate deductible. Catastrophe losses in 2020 were primarily from tornado, wind and hail events in the Midwest and Southeast. For additional information, see MD&A - Critical Accounting Estimates, Property & Casualty Insurance Product Reserves, Net of Reinsurance.
Partially offset by a decrease in Property & Casualty current accident year ("CAY") loss and loss adjustment expenses before catastrophes primarily due to lower personal automobile claim frequency, and lower current accident year loss ratios in middle market workers’ compensation, U.S. wholesale, global reinsurance and U.S. financial lines.

Losses and LAE Incurred for Group Benefits
hig-20210331_g11.jpg
For further discussion of impacts resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, refer to the Impact of COVID-19 on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity section of this MD&A.
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs decreased from the prior year period due primarily to reductions in Personal Lines, middle & large commercial and small commercial, which was consistent with the decline in earned premium in those lines of business.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Insurance operating costs and other expenses decreased primarily due to:
Lower staffing and other costs driven by the Company’s Hartford Next operational and transformation cost reduction plan. In addition, employee travel costs were also lower as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
A decrease in the ACL on uncollectible premiums receivable in Property & Casualty and Group Benefits in 2021 compared to an increase in 2020 due to the economic impacts of COVID-19.
Partially offset by higher commissions expense as a result of increased premiums in Group Benefits, increased AARP direct marketing costs in Personal Lines and higher variable costs of the Hartford Funds business due to higher daily average assets under management.
Interest expense declined as a result of the Company repaying at maturity the $500 principal amount of its 5.5% senior notes in the first quarter of 2020.
Restructuring and other costs are due to the Company's Hartford Next operational transformation and cost reduction plan which includes professional fees and IT costs to retire applications.
For further discussion of impacts resulting from the Hartford Next initiative, see MD&A - The Hartford's Operations, Operational Transformation and Cost Reduction Plan and Note 17 - Restructuring and Other Costs of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Income tax expense decreased primarily due to an decline in income before tax. For further discussion of income taxes, see Note 11 - Income Taxes of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
INVESTMENT RESULTS
Composition of Invested Assets
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
AmountPercentAmountPercent
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale ("AFS"), at fair value$43,607 78.3 %$45,035 79.7 %
Equity securities, at fair value1,632 2.9 %1,438 2.5 %
Mortgage loans (net of ACL of $34 and $38)4,588 8.2 %4,493 7.9 %
Limited partnerships and other alternative investments2,326 4.2 %2,082 3.7 %
Other investments [1]207 0.4 %201 0.4 %
Short-term investments3,367 6.0 %3,283 5.8 %
Total investments$55,727 100.0 %$56,532 100.0 %
[1]Primarily consists of equity fund investments, overseas deposits, consolidated investment funds and derivative instruments which are carried at fair value.
March 31, 2021 compared to December 31, 2020
Fixed maturities, AFS decreased primarily due to a decrease in valuations due to higher interest rates, partially offset by tighter credit spreads.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Net Investment Income
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20212020
(Before tax)AmountYield [1]AmountYield [1]
Fixed maturities [2]$349 3.2 %$377 3.6 %
Equity securities10 2.8 %12 3.0 %
Mortgage loans43 3.8 %42 3.9 %
Limited partnerships and other alternative investments112 21.1 %58 13.2 %
Other [3]14 (12)
Investment expense(19)(18)
Total net investment income$509 3.8 %$459 3.7 %
Total net investment income excluding limited partnerships and other alternative investments$397 3.1 %$401 3.3 %
[1]Yields calculated using annualized net investment income divided by the monthly average invested assets at amortized cost, as applicable, excluding repurchase agreement and securities lending collateral, if any, and derivatives book value.
[2]Includes net investment income on short-term investments.
[3]Primarily includes changes in fair value of certain equity fund investments and income from derivatives that qualify for hedge accounting and are used to hedge fixed maturities.
Three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020
Total net investment income increased primarily due to:
Greater income from limited partnerships and other alternative investments primarily driven by higher valuations of underlying investments within private equity funds
A higher return on equity fund investments within Other resulting from the increase in equity market levels
A higher level of invested assets
Partially offset by a lower yield on fixed maturities resulting from reinvesting at lower rates and a lower yield on floating rate investments.
Annualized net investment income yield, excluding limited partnerships and other alternative investments and non-routine items on fixed maturities, which primarily include make-whole payments and prepayment fees, was down primarily due to lower reinvestment rates, partially offset by higher equity fund investment returns.
Average reinvestment rate, on fixed maturities and mortgage loans, excluding certain U.S. Treasury securities, for the first quarter of 2021 was 2.3%, which was below the average yield of sales and maturities of 2.9% for the same period. The average reinvestment rate for the 2020 three month period was 2.9%, which was below the average yield of sales and maturities of 3.3%.
For the 2021 calendar year, we expect the annualized net investment income yield, excluding limited partnerships and other alternative investments and non-routine items on fixed maturities, to be lower than the portfolio yield earned in 2020, due to a lower yield on short-term investments and lower reinvestment rates. The estimated impact on net investment income yield is subject to change due to evolving market conditions and active portfolio management.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Net Realized Capital Gains (Losses)
Three Months Ended March 31,
(Before tax)20212020
Gross gains on sales$31 $78 
Gross losses on sales(31)(8)
Equity securities [1]43 (386)
Net credit losses on fixed maturities, AFS [2](12)
Change in ACL on mortgage loans [3](2)
Intent-to-sell impairments [2]— (5)
Other, net [4]29 104 
Net realized capital gains (losses)$80 $(231)
[1] The net unrealized gains (losses) on equity securities included in net realized capital gains (losses) related to equity securities still held as of March 31, 2021, were $40 for the three months ended March 31, 2021. The net unrealized gains (losses) on equity securities included in net realized capital gains (losses) related to equity securities still held as of March 31, 2020, were $(277) for the three months ended March 31, 2020.
[2]See Credit Losses on Fixed Maturities, AFS and Intent-to-Sell Impairments within the Investment Portfolio Risks and Risk Management section of the MD&A.
[3]See ACL on Mortgage Loans within the Investment Portfolio Risks and Risk Management section of the MD&A.
[4]For the three months ended March 31, 2021 primarily includes gains (losses) from transactional foreign currency revaluation of $(7) and gains (losses) on non-qualifying derivatives of $35. For the three months ended March 31, 2020, includes gains (losses) from transactional foreign currency revaluation of $10 and gains (losses) on non-qualifying derivatives of $92.
Three months ended March 31, 2021
Gross gains and losses on sales were primarily driven by issuer-specific sales of corporate securities, a reduction of exposure in the foreign government sector, and sales of U.S. treasury securities for duration management.
Equity securities net gains were primarily driven by appreciation in value due to higher equity market levels.
Other, net gains were primarily due to $32 of gains on interest rate derivative trades, driven by an increase in interest rates.
Three months ended March 31, 2020
Gross gains and losses on sales were primarily driven by issuer-specific selling of corporate securities and RMBS as well as sales of U.S. treasury securities for duration management.
Equity securities net losses were primarily driven by mark-to-market losses due to a decline in equity market levels and losses incurred on sales across multiple issuers as the Company reduced its exposure to equity securities during the quarter.
Other, net gains for the three month period were primarily due to $75 of realized gains on terminated derivatives used to hedge against a decline in equity market levels and $20 of gains on interest rate derivatives due to a decline in interest rates.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ, and in the past have differed, from those estimates.
The Company has identified the following estimates as critical in that they involve a higher degree of judgment and are subject to a significant degree of variability:
property and casualty insurance product reserves, net of reinsurance;
group benefit long-term disability ("LTD") reserves, net of reinsurance;
evaluation of goodwill for impairment;
valuation of investments and derivative instruments including evaluation of credit losses on fixed maturities, AFS and ACL on mortgage loans; and
contingencies relating to corporate litigation and regulatory matters.
Certain of these estimates are particularly sensitive to market conditions, and deterioration and/or volatility in the worldwide debt or equity markets could have a material impact on the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. In developing these estimates, management makes subjective and complex judgments that are inherently uncertain and subject to material change as facts and circumstances develop. Although variability is inherent in these estimates, management believes the amounts provided are appropriate based upon the facts available upon compilation of the financial statements.
The Company’s critical accounting estimates are discussed in Part II, Item 7 MD&A in the Company’s 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report. In addition, Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report should be read in conjunction with this section to assist with obtaining an understanding of the underlying accounting policies related to these estimates. The following discussion updates certain of the Company’s critical accounting estimates as of March 31, 2021.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Property & Casualty Insurance Product Reserves, Net of Reinsurance
P&C Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Reserves, Net of Reinsurance, by Segment as of March 31, 2021
hig-20210331_g12.jpg
Based on the results of the quarterly reserve review process, the Company determines the appropriate reserve adjustments, if any, to record. Recorded reserve estimates are adjusted after consideration of numerous factors, including but not limited to, the magnitude of the difference between the actuarial indication and the recorded reserves, improvement or deterioration of actuarial indications in the period, the maturity of the accident year, trends observed over the recent past and the level of volatility within a particular line of business. In general, adjustments are made more quickly to more mature accident years and less volatile lines of business. Such adjustments of reserves are referred to as “prior accident year development”. Increases in previous estimates of ultimate loss costs are referred to as either an increase in prior accident year reserves or as unfavorable reserve development. Decreases in previous estimates of ultimate loss costs are referred to as either a decrease in prior accident year reserves or as favorable reserve development. Reserve development can influence the comparability of year over year underwriting results and is set forth in the paragraphs and tables that follow.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Rollforward of Property and Casualty Insurance Product Liabilities for Unpaid Losses and LAE for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Commercial LinesPersonal
Lines
Property & Casualty Other OperationsTotal Property & Casualty
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$25,058 $1,836 $2,728 $29,622 
Reinsurance and other recoverables4,271 28 1,426 5,725 
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net20,787 1,808 1,302 23,897 
Provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses
Current accident year before catastrophes1,296 414 — 1,710 
Current accident year ("CAY") catastrophes175 39 — 214 
Prior accident year development ("PYD") [1]238 (42)33 229 
Total provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses1,709 411 33 2,153 
Change in deferred gain on retroactive reinsurance included in other liabilities [1](6)— — (6)
Payments(1,030)(442)(41)(1,513)
Net change in reserves transferred to liabilities held for sale(1)— — (1)
Foreign currency adjustment(6)— — (6)
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net21,453 1,777 1,294 24,524 
Reinsurance and other recoverables4,347 34 1,427 5,808 
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$25,800 $1,811 $2,721 $30,332 
Earned premiums and fee income$2,244 $742 
Loss and loss expense paid ratio [2]45.9 59.6 
Loss and loss expense incurred ratio76.5 56.0 
Prior accident year development (pts) [3]10.6 (5.7)
[1] Prior accident year development does not include the benefit of a portion of losses ceded under the Navigators and A&E ADC which, under retroactive reinsurance accounting, is deferred and is recognized over the period the ceded losses are recovered in cash from National Indemnity Company ("NICO"). For additional information regarding the two adverse development cover reinsurance agreements, refer to Note 9 - Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
[2] The “loss and loss expense paid ratio” represents the ratio of paid losses and loss adjustment expenses to earned premiums and fee income.
[3]“Prior accident year development (pts)” represents the ratio of prior accident year development to earned premiums.
Current Accident Year Catastrophe Losses for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021, Net of Reinsurance
Commercial
Lines
Personal
Lines
Total
Wind and hail$21 $17 $38 
Winter storms [1]154 22 176 
Total catastrophe losses$175 $39 $214 
[1] Includes catastrophe losses from the February winter storms in Texas and other areas within Commercial Lines and Personal Lines of $194 and $28, respectively, gross of reinsurance, and $154 and $22, respectively, net of reinsurance under the Company's per occurrence property catastrophe treaty covering events other than earthquakes and named hurricanes and tropical storms. The reinsurance covers 70% of up to $250 of losses in excess of $100 from such events occurring within a seven day time period, subject to a $50 annual aggregate deductible. For further information on the treaty, refer to Enterprise Risk Management — Insurance Risk section of this MD&A.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Unfavorable (Favorable) Prior Accident Year Development for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
 Commercial LinesPersonal
Lines
Property & Casualty Other OperationsTotal Property & Casualty Insurance
Workers’ compensation$(40)$— $— $(40)
Workers’ compensation discount accretion— — 
General liability307 — — 307 
Marine— — 
Package business(27)— — (27)
Commercial property(13)— — (13)
Professional liability(1)— — (1)
Assumed reinsurance— — 
Automobile liability— (23)— (23)
Homeowners— (3)— (3)
Catastrophes(4)(12)— (16)
Uncollectible reinsurance(5)— (4)(9)
Other reserve re-estimates, net(2)(4)37 31 
Prior accident year development before change in deferred gain232 (42)33 223 
Change in deferred gain on retroactive reinsurance included in other liabilities— — 
Total prior accident year development$238 $(42)$33 $229 
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Rollforward of Property and Casualty Insurance Product Liabilities for Unpaid Losses and LAE for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
 Commercial
Lines
Personal
Lines
Property & Casualty Other OperationsCorporateTotal Property & Casualty Insurance
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$23,363 $2,201 $2,697 $ $28,261 
Reinsurance and other recoverables [1]4,029 68 1,178 — 5,275 
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net19,334 2,133 1,519  22,986 
Transfer of Y-Risk from Commercial Lines to Corporate(5)— — — 
Provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses
Current accident year before catastrophes1,343 463 — 1,809 
Current accident year catastrophes55 19 — — 74 
Prior accident year development [2]41 (18)— — 23 
Total provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses1,439 464  3 1,906 
Change in deferred gain on retroactive reinsurance included in other liabilities [2](29)— — — (29)
Payments(1,194)(550)(50)(1)(1,795)
Foreign currency adjustment(20)— — — (20)
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net19,525 2,047 1,469 7 23,048 
Reinsurance and other recoverables4,107 68 1,157 — 5,332 
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$23,632 $2,115 $2,626 $7 $28,380 
Earned premiums and fee income$2,273 $783 
Loss and loss expense paid ratio [3]52.5 70.2 
Loss and loss expense incurred ratio63.5 60.0 
Prior accident year development (pts) [4]1.8 (2.3)
[1] Includes a cumulative effect adjustment of $1 and $(1) for Commercial Lines and Property & Casualty Other Operations respectively, representing an adjustment to the ACL recorded on adoption of accounting guidance for credit losses on January 1, 2020. See Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report.
[2]Prior accident year development does not include the benefit of a portion of losses ceded under the Navigators and A&E ADC which, under retroactive reinsurance accounting, is deferred and is recognized over the period the ceded losses are recovered in cash from NICO. For additional information regarding the two adverse development cover reinsurance agreements, refer to Note 9 - Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
[3] The “loss and loss expense paid ratio” represents the ratio of paid losses and loss adjustment expenses to earned premiums and fee income.
[4]“Prior accident year development (pts)” represents the ratio of prior accident year development to earned premiums.
Current Accident Year Catastrophe Losses for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020, Net of Reinsurance
Commercial
Lines
Personal
Lines
Total
Wind and hail$50 $18 $68 
Explosion/Fire
Other— 
Total catastrophe losses$55 $19 $74 
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Unfavorable (Favorable) Prior Accident Year Development for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
 Commercial Lines
Personal
Lines
Property & Casualty Other OperationsTotal Property & Casualty Insurance
Workers’ compensation$(17)$— $— $(17)
Workers’ compensation discount accretion— — 
General liability12 — — 12 
Marine— — — — 
Package business— — 
Commercial property(7)— — (7)
Professional liability— — 
Bond— — — — 
Assumed Reinsurance— — — — 
Automobile liability(6)— (1)
Homeowners— (2)— (2)
Net asbestos reserves— — — — 
Net environmental reserves— — — — 
Catastrophes(5)(8)— (13)
Uncollectible reinsurance— — — — 
Other reserve re-estimates, net13 (2)— 11 
Prior accident year development before change in deferred gain12 (18) (6)
Change in deferred gain on retroactive reinsurance included in other liabilities29 — — 29 
Total prior accident year development$41 $(18)$ $23 
For discussion of the factors contributing to unfavorable (favorable) prior accident year reserve development, please refer to Note 9 - Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations



SEGMENT OPERATING SUMMARIES
COMMERCIAL LINES
Results of Operations
Underwriting Summary
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020Change
Written premiums$2,503 $2,408 %
Change in unearned premium reserve268 143 87 %
Earned premiums2,235 2,265 (1 %)
Fee income13 %
Losses and loss adjustment expenses
Current accident year before catastrophes1,296 1,343 (3 %)
Current accident year catastrophes [1]175 55 NM
Prior accident year development [1]238 41 NM
Total losses and loss adjustment expenses1,709 1,439 19 %
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs344 356 (3 %)
Underwriting expenses394 443 (11 %)
Amortization of other intangible assets— %
Dividends to policyholders(25 %)
Underwriting gain (loss)(216)20 NM
Net servicing income100 %
Net investment income [2]327 277 18 %
Net realized capital gains (losses) [2]44 (143)131 %
Other expenses(4)(6)33 %
 Income before income taxes153 149 3 %
 Income tax expense [3]24 28 (14 %)
Net income$129 $121 7 %
[1]For discussion of current accident year catastrophes and prior accident year development, see MD&A - Critical Accounting Estimates, Property and Casualty Insurance Product Reserves Development, Net of Reinsurance and Note 9 - Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
[2]For discussion of consolidated investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results.
[3]For discussion of income taxes, see Note 11 - Income Taxes of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Premium Measures
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Small Commercial:
Net new business premium$176 $157 
Policy count retention86