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Flushing Financial (FFIC)

Filed: 17 Nov 21, 6:06am
The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to the securities to be sold by the issuer has become effective under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell these securities and are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
  Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
 Registration No. 333-260993
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED NOVEMBER 17, 2021
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
(To Prospectus dated November 12, 2021)
$      
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_fficflusing-4clr.jpg]
    % Fixed-to-Floating Rate Subordinated Notes due 2031
We are offering $      aggregate principal amount of    % fixed-to-floating rate subordinated notes due 2031 (the “Notes”) pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The Notes will be offered in minimum denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof. The Notes will mature on                 , 2031 (the “Maturity Date”). From and including the date of original issuance to, but excluding,                 , 2026 or the date of earlier redemption (the “fixed rate period”), the Notes will bear interest at an initial rate of    % per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears on                 and                 of each year, commencing on                 , 2022. The last interest payment date for the fixed rate period will be                 , 2026. From and including                 , 2026 to, but excluding, the Maturity Date or the date of earlier redemption (the “floating rate period”), the Notes will bear interest at a floating rate per annum equal to the Benchmark rate (which is expected to be Three-Month Term SOFR), each as defined and subject to the provisions described under “Description of the Notes — Interest” in this prospectus supplement, plus                 basis points, payable quarterly in arrears on           ,                 , and           of each year, commencing on                 , 2026. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Benchmark rate is less than zero, the Benchmark rate will be deemed to be zero.
We may, at our option, beginning with the interest payment date of                 , 2026 and on any interest payment date thereafter, redeem the Notes, in whole or in part. The Notes will not otherwise be redeemable by us prior to maturity, unless certain events occur, as described under “Description of the Notes — Redemption” in this prospectus supplement. The redemption price for any redemption is 100% of the principal amount of the Notes being redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon to, but excluding, the date of redemption. Any redemption of the Notes will be subject to the receipt of the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”) to the extent then required under applicable laws or regulations, including capital regulations.
The Notes will be unsecured subordinated obligations, will rank pari passu, or equally, with all of our existing and future unsecured subordinated debt, will be senior to all of our existing and future junior subordinated debt and will be junior to all of our existing and future senior debt. The Notes will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future liabilities of our subsidiaries and will be effectively subordinated to our existing and future secured indebtedness. There will be no sinking fund for the Notes. The Notes will be obligations of Flushing Financial Corporation (“FFIC”) only and will not be obligations of, and will not be guaranteed by, any of FFIC’s subsidiaries. For a more detailed description of the Notes, see “Description of the Notes.”
Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for the Notes. The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange or included in any automated quotation system.
The Notes are not deposits and are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) or any other governmental agency. The Notes are ineligible as collateral for a loan or extension of credit from FFIC or any of its subsidiaries. None of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), the FDIC, the Federal Reserve, the New York Department of Financial Services (the “NYDFS”) or any other bank regulatory agency or any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the Notes or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Investing in the Notes involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement and those risk factors in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
Per NoteTotal
Public offering price(1)
%$   
Underwriting discount(2)
%$
Proceeds, before expenses, to us%$
(1)
Plus accrued interest, if any, from the original issue date.
(2)
See “Underwriting” in this prospectus supplement for details regarding the underwriters’ compensation.
The underwriters expect to deliver the Notes to purchasers in book-entry form through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company, against payment on or about                 , 2021. See “Underwriting” in this prospectus supplement for details.
Lead Bookrunning Manager
Piper Sandler
Co-Managers
D.A. Davidson & Co.RBC Capital Markets
The date of this prospectus supplement is                 , 2021.

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Prospectus Supplement
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Prospectus
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
Unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms “FFIC,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus refer to Flushing Financial Corporation and its subsidiaries.
References to the “Bank” refer to Flushing Bank. References to a particular year mean our fiscal year commencing on January 1 and ending on December 31 of that year.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a shelf registration statement that we filed with the SEC. The registration statement incorporates by reference important business and financial information about us that is not included in or delivered with this document. This information, other than exhibits to documents that are not specifically incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, is available to you via the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov or without charge upon written or oral request to FFIC at the address or telephone number indicated in the section entitled “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” in this prospectus supplement.
This document contains two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which contains specific information about us and the terms on which we are selling the Notes and adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein. The second part is the accompanying prospectus dated November 12, 2021, which contains and incorporates by reference a more general description of the securities we may offer from time to time, some of which does not apply to the Notes we are offering, and important business and financial information about us. If information contained in this prospectus supplement differs or varies from the information contained in the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on the information set forth in this prospectus supplement.
Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any “free writing prospectus” prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we may have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not, and the underwriters are not, making an offer to sell the Notes in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any free writing prospectus relating to this prospectus supplement provided or approved by us and the documents incorporated by reference in either this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is accurate only as of the respective dates of those documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
Before you invest in the Notes, you should carefully read the registration statement (including the exhibits thereto) of which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus form a part, this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The incorporated documents are described under “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”
EXTENDED SETTLEMENT
We expect that delivery of the Notes will be made against payment therefor on or about           , 2021, which will be the            business day following the date of pricing of the Notes, or “T+      .”  Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the Notes prior to the delivery of the Notes will be required, by virtue of the fact that the Notes initially settle in T+      , to specify an alternate settlement arrangement at the time of any such trade to prevent a failed settlement. Purchasers of the Notes who wish to trade the Notes prior to their date of delivery hereunder should consult their advisors.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our reports filed electronically with the SEC are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
We also maintain an Internet site where you can find additional information about us, including our SEC filings. The address of our Internet site is www.flushingbank.com. All Internet addresses provided in this prospectus supplement or in the accompanying prospectus are for informational purposes only and are not intended to be hyperlinks. In addition, the information on our Internet website, or any other Internet site described in this prospectus supplement or in the accompanying prospectus, is not a part of, and is not incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in, this prospectus supplement or in the accompanying prospectus or other offering materials.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” much of the information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. In other words, in the case of a conflict or inconsistency between information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, you should rely on the information contained in the document that was filed later. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus incorporate by reference the documents listed below and all documents we subsequently file with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, prior to the termination of the offering of the Notes described in this prospectus supplement; provided, however, that we are not incorporating by reference any documents, portions of documents or other information deemed to have been “furnished” and not “filed” with the SEC:


Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 8, 2021 (to the extent specifically incorporated by reference in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 16, 2021);

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2021, June 30, 2021 and September 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on May 7, 2021, August 4, 2021 and November 5, 2021, respectively;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 5, 2021, April 1, 2021, May 19, 2021 (relating to Item 5.07), July 1, 2021 and October 4, 2021 (not including any information furnished under Items 2.02, 7.01 or 9.01 of any such Form 8-K); and

the description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on September 25, 1995, including any other amendment or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.
Upon request, we will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus supplement is delivered, a copy of any or all of the information that has been incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement but not delivered with this prospectus supplement (other than the exhibits to such documents which are not specifically incorporated by reference therein). We will provide this information at no cost to the requester upon written or oral request to Flushing Financial Corporation, Attn: Secretary, 220 RXR Plaza, Uniondale, New York, 11556; Tel.: (718) 961-5400.
 
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You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or set forth in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor any underwriters, dealers or agents have authorized anyone else to provide you with additional or different information.
 
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SPECIAL NOTE CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference or deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus and any other written or oral statements made by us from time to time may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These statements include statements with respect to our beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, expectations, anticipations, assumptions, estimates, intentions and future performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which may be beyond our control and that may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements.
All forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of FFIC to differ materially from any results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such factors include, among others:

the COVID-19 pandemic may adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations;

changes in interest rates may adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations;

our lending activities involve risks that may be exacerbated depending on the mix of loan types;

failure to effectively manage our liquidity could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations;

our ability to obtain brokered deposits as an additional funding source could be limited;

the markets in which we operate are highly competitive;

our results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in national and/or local economic conditions;

changes in laws and regulations could adversely affect our business;

current conditions in, and regulation of, the banking industry may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations;

a failure in or breach of our operational or security systems or infrastructure, or those of our third party vendors and other service providers, including as a result of cyberattacks, could disrupt our business, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses;

we may experience increased delays in foreclosure proceedings;

our inability to hire or retain key personnel could adversely affect our business;

we are not required to pay dividends on our common stock;

goodwill recorded as a result of acquisitions could become impaired, negatively impacting our earnings and capital;

we may not fully realize the expected benefit of our deferred tax assets;

uncertainty surrounding the elimination of LIBOR and the proposed transition to SOFR may adversely affect our business; and

the ultimate success of integrating Empire Bancorp, Inc., which the Company recently acquired, into the Company’s operations cannot be assured and the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the merger may not be realized.
These and other factors are more fully described under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 16, 2021, and other factors discussed in the filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act.
All forward-looking statements attributable to our Company are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which such statements
 
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are made. Except as required by law, we disclaim any obligation to update these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. There is no assurance that future results, levels of activity, performance or goals will be achieved.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus supplement and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. You should read this summary together with the more detailed information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, as well as the information in the accompanying prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference or deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2021, June 30, 2021 and September 30, 2021, and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020. In addition, certain statements include forward-looking information that involves risks and uncertainties. See “Special Note Concerning Forward-Looking Statements” in this prospectus supplement.
Overview
FFIC is a Delaware corporation organized in 1994. The Bank was organized in 1929 as a New York State-chartered mutual savings bank. Today the Bank operates as a full-service New York State commercial bank. Our primary business is the operation of the Bank. The Bank owns two subsidiaries: Flushing Service Corporation and FSB Properties Inc. The Bank also operates an internet branch (the “Internet Branch”), which operates under the brands of iGObanking.com® and BankPurely®. The activities of FFIC are primarily funded by dividends, if any, received from the Bank, issuances of subordinated debt and junior subordinated debt, and issuances of equity securities. FFIC’s common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “FFIC.”
FFIC also owns Flushing Financial Capital Trust II, Flushing Financial Capital Trust III, and Flushing Financial Capital Trust IV (the “Trusts”), which are special purpose business trusts formed to issue a total of $60.0 million of capital securities and $1.9 million of common securities (which are the only voting securities). FFIC owns 100% of the common securities of the Trusts. The Trusts used the proceeds from the issuance of these securities to purchase junior subordinated debentures from FFIC. The Trusts are not included in our consolidated financial statements as we would not absorb the losses of the Trusts if losses were to occur.
On October 30, 2020, the Company completed its acquisition of Empire Bancorp, Inc. (“Empire”), in a transaction valued at $87.5 million upon closing, all outstanding shares of Empire voting and non-voting common stock were exchanged for consideration consisting of $54.8 million in cash and 2,557,028 shares of FFIC common stock. Goodwill of $1.5 million was recorded as a result of the Empire acquisition. Under the terms of the merger agreement, each share of Empire common stock was exchanged for either 0.6548 shares of FFIC’s common stock or $14.04 in cash, based upon the election of each Empire shareholder, subject to the election and proration procedures specified in the merger agreement (which provided for an aggregate split of total consideration of 50% FFIC common stock and 50% cash). In connection with the transaction, Empire National Bank, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Empire, merged with and into the Bank, with the Bank as the surviving entity.
At September 30, 2021, FFIC had total assets of $8.1 billion, deposits of $6.4 billion and stockholders’ equity of $668.1 million.
Corporate Information
Our executive offices are located at 220 RXR Plaza, Uniondale, New York, 11556. Our telephone number at this address is (718) 961-5400 and our website is www.flushingbank.com. The information on our website is not part of this prospectus supplement.
 
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THE OFFERING
The following summary highlights selected information from this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus about the Notes and this offering. This description is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in the Notes. You should read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, carefully before making a decision about whether to invest in the Notes. For a more complete understanding of the Notes, you should read the section of this prospectus supplement entitled “Description of the Notes.”
Issuer
Flushing Financial Corporation, a Delaware corporation and a bank holding company.
Notes Offered
     % Fixed-to-Floating Rate Subordinated Notes due 2031
Aggregate Principal Amount
$
Issue Price
     %
Maturity Date
The Notes will mature on               , 2031.
Interest
Fixed rate period:   A fixed rate per annum of    %.
Floating rate period:   A floating per annum rate equal to the Benchmark rate (which is expected to be Three-Month Term SOFR) plus          basis points for each quarterly interest period during the floating rate period; provided, however, that if the Benchmark rate is less than zero, the Benchmark rate will be deemed to be zero.
For each interest period during the floating rate period, “Three-Month Term SOFR” means the rate for Term SOFR for a tenor of three months that is published by the Term SOFR Administrator at the Reference Time for any interest period, as determined by the calculation agent after giving effect to the Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions (each as defined under “Description of the Notes”).
If the calculation agent determines on or prior to the relevant Reference Time that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date (each as defined under “Description of the Notes”) have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR, then the provisions under “Description of the Notes — Effect of Benchmark Transition Event,” which are referred to herein as the benchmark transition provisions, will thereafter apply to all determinations of the interest rate on the Notes for each interest period during the floating rate period. In accordance with the benchmark transition provisions, after a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred, the interest rate on the Notes for each interest period during the floating rate period will be an annual rate equal to the Benchmark Replacement (as defined under Description of the Notes) plus          basis points.
We will appoint a calculation agent for the Notes (which may be us or an affiliate) prior to the commencement of the floating rate period. We will act as the initial calculation agent.
 
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Interest Payment Dates
Fixed rate period:             and          of each year, commencing on               , 2022. The last interest payment date for the fixed rate period will be          , 2026.
Floating rate period:          ,       ,        and         of each year, commencing on            , 2026.
Record Dates
Interest on each Note will be payable to the person in whose name such Note is registered on the 15th day immediately preceding the applicable interest payment date (whether or not a Business Day).
Day Count Convention
Fixed rate period:   360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months.
Floating rate period:   360-day year and the actual number of days elapsed.
No Guarantee
The Notes will not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries. As a result, the Notes will be structurally subordinated to the liabilities of our subsidiaries as discussed below under “Ranking; Subordination.”
Ranking; Subordination
The Notes offered by this prospectus supplement will be issued by us under an Indenture between FFIC and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee (the “Trustee”), to be dated as of the issue date (the “Base Indenture”), as supplemented by a First Supplemental Indenture between FFIC and the Trustee, to be dated as of the issue date (the “First Supplemental Indenture”). We refer to the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, as the “Indenture.” The Notes will be our unsecured, subordinated obligations and:

will rank junior in right of payment and upon our liquidation to any of our existing and all future senior indebtedness (as defined under “Description of the Notes — Subordination of the Notes”), all as described under “Description of the Notes”;

will rank equal in right of payment and upon our liquidation with any of our existing and all of our future indebtedness the terms of which provide that such indebtedness ranks equally with the Notes, including our 5.25% fixed-to-floating rate subordinated notes due 2026 and our outstanding junior subordinated debentures due 2025;

will rank senior in right of payment and upon our liquidation to (1) our existing junior subordinated debentures underlying outstanding trust preferred securities and (2) any of our future indebtedness the terms of which provide that such indebtedness ranks junior in right of payment to indebtedness such as the Notes; and

will be effectively subordinated to our future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness, and structurally subordinated to the existing and future indebtedness of our subsidiaries, including without limitation the Bank’s depositors, liabilities to general creditors and liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business or otherwise.
As of September 30, 2021, on a consolidated basis, our outstanding debt and deposits totaled approximately $7.2 billion, which
 
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includes approximately $6.5 billion of deposit liabilities. In addition, as of September 30, 2021, we had no indebtedness that would rank senior to the Notes, $90.3 million of indebtedness that would rank pari passu to the Notes, and $61.9 million of indebtedness that would rank junior to the Notes. The Indenture does not limit the amount of additional indebtedness we or our subsidiaries may incur.
Form and Denomination
The Notes will be offered in book-entry form only through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company (with its successors, “DTC”) in minimum denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof.
Optional Redemption
We may, at our option, beginning with the interest payment date of          , 2026, and on any interest payment date thereafter, redeem the Notes, in whole or in part, from time to time, subject to obtaining the prior approval of the Federal Reserve to the extent such approval is then required under the rules of the Federal Reserve, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes being redeemed plus any accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption.
Special Redemption
We may also redeem the Notes at any time prior to their maturity, including prior to               , 2026, in whole, but not in part, subject to obtaining the prior approval of the Federal Reserve to the extent such approval is then required under the rules of the Federal Reserve, if: (1) we receive an opinion from independent tax counsel to the effect that (a) there has been an amendment or change (including any announced prospective amendment or change) in law, (b) an administrative or judicial action has been announced or taken, (c) there has been an amendment to or change in any official position with respect to, or interpretation of, an administrative or judicial action or a law or regulation that differs from the previously generally accepted position or interpretation, or (d) there is a threatened challenge in connection with an audit of us or a similar issuer, in each case that, as a result of which, there is a more than insubstantial increase in the risk that interest payable by us on the Notes is not, or within 90 days of the date of such opinion, will not be deductible by us, in whole or in part, for U.S. federal income tax purposes; (2) we receive an opinion from independent bank regulatory counsel that a specified subsequent event has occurred as a result of which the Notes do not constitute, or within 90 days of such opinion will not constitute, Tier 2 capital for regulatory capital purposes; or (3) we are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”). In each case, the redemption would be at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes being redeemed plus any accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption. For more information, see “Description of the Notes — Redemption.”
Sinking Fund
There is no sinking fund for the Notes.
Future Issuances
The Notes will initially be limited to an aggregate principal amount of $      . We may, from time to time, without notice to or consent of the holders of the Notes, issue additional Notes in the future with the same terms as the Notes, except for the issue date, the offering price and the first interest payment date, and such additional notes may be consolidated with the Notes issued in this
 
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offering and form a single series; provided that if any such additional notes are not fungible with the Notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes, such additional notes will have a separate CUSIP or other identifying number.
Use of Proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $      , after deducting the underwriting discount and our estimated offering expenses. We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for general corporate purposes, which include repayment of the outstanding principal amount of our outstanding subordinated notes and subordinated debentures. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Listing
The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange or quoted on any quotation system. Currently, there is no market for the Notes, and there is no assurance that any public market for the Notes will develop.
ERISA Considerations
For a discussion of certain prohibited transactions and fiduciary duty issues pertaining to purchases by or on behalf of an employee benefit plan, see “Certain ERISA Considerations.”
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
For a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations of purchasing, owning and disposing of the Notes, see “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”
Governing Law
The Notes and the Indenture will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.
Trustee
Wilmington Trust, National Association
Risk Factors
Investing in the Notes involves risks. Potential investors are urged to read and consider the risk factors relating to an investment in the Notes set forth under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement, as well as the risk factors and other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, for a discussion of factors that you should carefully consider before deciding whether to invest in the Notes.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities is subject to risks inherent to our business. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with the risk factors and other information included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2021, June 30, 2021 and September 30, 2021, and in other documents that we subsequently file with the SEC, all of which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Additional risks and uncertainties that management is not aware of or that management currently deems immaterial may also impair our business operations. See also the discussion under the heading “Special Note Concerning Forward-Looking Statements.” This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are qualified in their entirety by these risk factors. If any of these risks actually occurs, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. If this were to happen, the value of our securities could decline significantly, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Risk Factors Related to the Notes
The Notes will be unsecured and subordinated to any existing and future senior indebtedness.
The Notes will be subordinated obligations of FFIC. Accordingly, they will be junior in right of payment to any existing and all future senior indebtedness, and in certain events of insolvency, to other financial obligations as described under “Description of the Notes.” Our senior indebtedness includes all indebtedness, except indebtedness that is expressly subordinated to or ranked pari passu with the Notes, subject to certain exceptions. The Notes will rank equally with all other unsecured subordinated indebtedness of FFIC issued in the future under the Indenture. In addition, the Notes will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness, liabilities and other obligations, including deposits of our subsidiaries, including the Bank. As of September 30, 2021, on a consolidated basis, our outstanding debt and deposits totaled approximately $7.2 billion. In addition, as of September 30, 2021, we had no indebtedness that would rank senior to the Notes, $90.3 million of indebtedness that would rank pari passu to the Notes, and $61.9 million of indebtedness that would rank junior to the Notes.
In addition, the Notes will not be secured by any of our assets. As a result, the Notes will be effectively subordinated to all of our secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness. The Indenture governing the Notes does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness and other financial obligations or secured obligations that we or our subsidiaries may incur.
As a result of the subordination provisions described above, holders of the Notes may not be fully repaid in the event of our bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization.
The Notes will not be insured or guaranteed by the FDIC, any other governmental agency or any of our subsidiaries. The Notes will be structurally subordinated to the indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries, which means that creditors of our subsidiaries generally will be paid from those subsidiaries’ assets before holders of the Notes would have any claims to those assets.
The Notes are not savings accounts, deposits or other obligations of the Bank or any of our non-bank subsidiaries and are not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other governmental agency or public or private insurer. The Notes are obligations of FFIC only and are neither obligations of, nor guaranteed by, any of our subsidiaries. The Notes will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries, which means that creditors of our subsidiaries (including, in the case of the Bank, its depositors) generally will be paid from those subsidiaries’ assets before holders of the Notes would have any claims to those assets. Even if we become a creditor of any of our subsidiaries, our rights as a creditor would be subordinate to any security interest in the assets of that subsidiary and any debt of that subsidiary senior to that held by us, and our rights could otherwise be subordinated to the rights of other creditors and depositors of that subsidiary. Furthermore, none of our subsidiaries is under any obligation to make payments to us, and any payments to us depend on the earnings or financial condition of our subsidiaries and various business considerations. Statutory, contractual or other restrictions also limit our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends or make distributions, loans or advances to us. For these reasons, we may not have access to any assets or cash flows of our subsidiaries to make interest and principal payments on the Notes.
 
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The Indenture governing the Notes does not contain any limitations on our ability to incur additional indebtedness, grant or incur a lien on our assets, sell or otherwise dispose of assets, pay dividends or repurchase our capital stock.
Neither we nor any of our subsidiaries are restricted from incurring additional indebtedness or other liabilities, including additional senior or subordinated indebtedness, under the Indenture governing the terms of the Notes. If we incur additional indebtedness or liabilities, our ability to pay our obligations on the Notes could be adversely affected. We expect that we will from time to time incur additional indebtedness and other liabilities. In addition, we are not restricted under the Indenture governing the Notes from granting or incurring a lien on any of our assets, selling or otherwise disposing of any of our assets, paying dividends or issuing or repurchasing our securities including our regular quarterly dividend and share repurchases pursuant to our previously announced share repurchase program.
In addition, there are no financial covenants in the Indenture governing the Notes. Except as expressly provided in the Indenture, you are not protected under the Indenture governing the Notes in the event of a highly leveraged transaction, reorganization, default under our existing indebtedness, restructuring, merger or similar transaction that may adversely affect you. See “Description of the Notes — Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets.”
Payments on the Notes will depend on receipt of dividends and distributions from our subsidiaries.
We are a bank holding company and we conduct substantially all of our operations through subsidiaries, including the Bank. We depend on dividends, distributions and other payments from our subsidiaries to meet our obligations, including to fund payments on the Notes.
Federal and state banking regulations limit dividends from our bank subsidiary to us. Generally, banks are prohibited from paying dividends when doing so would cause them to fall below regulatory minimum capital levels. In addition, the Bank may declare and pay dividends out of its net profits, unless there is an impairment of capital, but must receive the approval of the NYDFS if the total of all dividends declared by the Bank in a calendar year would exceed the lesser of the Bank’s retained earnings or the Bank’s net profits for that year combined with its retained net profits for the preceding three years less prior dividends paid. The Bank had retained earnings of $446.0 million as of September 30, 2021.
In addition, federal bank regulatory agencies have the authority to prohibit the Bank from engaging in unsafe or unsound practices in conducting its business. The payment of dividends or other transfers of funds to us, depending on the financial condition of the Bank, could be deemed an unsafe or unsound practice.
Accordingly, we can provide no assurance that we will receive dividends or other distributions from our bank subsidiary and our other subsidiaries in an amount sufficient to pay interest on or principal of the Notes.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our debt, including the Notes.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of principal and interest, or to satisfy our obligations in respect of our debt or to refinance our debt, will depend on the future performance of our operating subsidiaries. Prevailing economic conditions (including interest rates), regulatory constraints, including, without limitation, limiting distributions to us from the Bank and required capital levels with respect to the Bank and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, will also affect our ability to meet these needs. Our subsidiaries may not be able to generate sufficient cash flows from operations, or we may be unable to obtain future borrowings in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our debt, or to fund our other liquidity needs. We may need to refinance all or a portion of our debt at or before maturity. We may not be able to refinance any of our debt when needed (including, without limitation, upon commencement of the floating rate period) on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
Regulatory guidelines may restrict our ability to pay the principal of, and accrued and unpaid interest on, the Notes.
As a bank holding company, our ability to pay the principal of, and interest on, the Notes is subject to the rules and guidelines of the Federal Reserve regarding capital adequacy. We intend to treat the Notes as “Tier 2 capital” under these rules and guidelines. The Federal Reserve guidelines generally require us to review the effects of the cash payment on Tier 2 capital instruments, such as the Notes, on our overall financial condition. The guidelines also require that we review our net income for the current and past four quarters,
 
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and the amounts we have paid on Tier 2 capital instruments for those periods, as well as our projected rate of earnings retention. Moreover, pursuant to federal law and Federal Reserve regulations, as a bank holding company, we are required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to the Bank and commit resources to its support, including, without limitation, the guarantee of its capital plans if it is undercapitalized. Such support may be required at times when we may not otherwise be inclined or able to provide it. As a result of the foregoing, we may be unable to pay accrued interest on the Notes on one or more of the scheduled interest payment dates, or at any other time, or the principal of the Notes at the maturity of the Notes.
If we were to be the subject of a bankruptcy proceeding under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, then the bankruptcy trustee would be deemed to have assumed, and would be required to cure immediately, any deficit under any commitment we have to any of the federal banking agencies to maintain the capital of the Bank, and any other insured depository institution for which we have such a responsibility, and any claim for breach of such obligation would generally have priority over most other unsecured claims.
Holders of the Notes will have limited rights, including limited rights of acceleration, if there is an event of default.
Payment of principal on the Notes may be accelerated only in the case of certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency involving us or the Bank. There is no automatic acceleration, or right of acceleration, in the case of default in the payment of principal of or interest on the Notes, or in the performance of any of our other obligations under the Notes or the Indenture governing the Notes. Our regulators can, if we or the Bank become subject to an enforcement action, prohibit the Bank from paying dividends to us, and prevent our payment of interest on or principal of the Notes and any dividends on our capital stock, but such limits will not permit acceleration of the Notes. See “Description of the Notes — Events of Default; Limitation on Suits.”
An active trading market for the Notes may not develop.
The Notes constitute a new issue of securities for which there is no existing trading market. We do not intend to apply for listing of the Notes on any securities exchange or for quotation of the Notes in any automated dealer quotation system. We cannot provide you with any assurance regarding whether a trading market for the Notes will develop, the ability of holders of the Notes to sell their Notes or the prices at which holders may be able to sell their Notes. The underwriters have advised us that they currently intend to make a secondary market in the Notes. The underwriters, however, are not obligated to do so, and any market-making with respect to the Notes may be discontinued at any time without notice. There may be a limited number of buyers if you decide to sell your Notes. This may affect the price you receive for your Notes or your ability to sell your Notes at all. Investors in the Notes may not be able to sell the Notes at all or may not be able to sell the Notes at prices that will provide them with a yield comparable to similar investments that have a developed secondary market, and may consequently suffer from increased pricing volatility and market risk.
If a trading market for the Notes develops, changes in the debt markets, among others, could adversely affect your ability to liquidate your investment in the Notes and the market price of the Notes.
Many factors could affect the trading market for, and the trading value of, the Notes. These factors include: the method of calculating the principal, premium, if any, interest or other amounts payable, if any, on the Notes; the time remaining to the maturity of the Notes; the ranking of the Notes; the redemption features of the Notes; the outstanding amount of subordinated notes with terms similar or identical to the Notes offered hereby; the prevailing interest rates being paid by other companies similar to us; changes in U.S. interest rates; whether the ratings on the Notes or us provided by any rating agency have changed; our financial condition, financial performance and future prospects; the level, direction and volatility of market interest rates generally; general economic conditions of the capital markets in the United States; and geopolitical conditions and other financial, political, regulatory, and judicial events that affect the capital markets generally. The condition of the financial markets and prevailing interest rates have fluctuated significantly in the past and are likely to fluctuate in the future. Such fluctuations could adversely affect the trading market (if any) for, and the market price of, the Notes.
 
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Because the Notes may be redeemed at our option under certain circumstances prior to their maturity, if we elect to redeem all or any portion of the Notes, you may be subject to reinvestment risk.
On or after                 , 2026, we may, at our option, redeem the Notes in whole or in part on each interest payment date. In addition, we may also redeem the Notes prior to maturity, at our option, in whole but not in part, if: (1) we receive an opinion from independent tax counsel to the effect that (a) there has been an amendment or change (including any announced prospective amendment or change) in law, (b) an administrative or judicial action has been announced or taken, (c) there has been an amendment to or change in any official position with respect to, or interpretation of, an administrative or judicial action or a law or regulation that differs from the previously generally accepted position or interpretation, or (d) there is a threatened challenge in connection with an audit of us or a similar issuer, in each case that, as a result of which, there is a more than insubstantial increase in the risk that interest payable by us on the Notes is not, or within 90 days of the date of such opinion, will not be deductible by us, in whole or in part, for U.S. federal income tax purposes; (2) we receive an opinion from independent bank regulatory counsel that a specified subsequent event has occurred as a result of which the Notes do not constitute, or within 90 days of such opinion will not constitute, Tier 2 capital for regulatory capital purposes; or (3) we are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act. The redemption price for any redemption is 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon to, but excluding, the date of redemption. Any redemption of the Notes will be subject to the receipt of the approval of the Federal Reserve, to the extent then required under applicable laws or regulations, including capital regulations. Any such redemption may have the effect of reducing the income or return that you may receive on an investment in the Notes by reducing the term of the investment. Under current regulatory capital guidelines, the aggregate principal amount of the Notes that will count as Tier 2 capital will be reduced by 20% in each of the last five years prior to the Maturity Date of the Notes. As a result, we may be more likely to redeem the Notes prior to their Maturity Date. If this occurs, you may not be able to reinvest the proceeds at an interest rate comparable to the rate paid on the Notes. See “Description of the Notes — Redemption.”
We may elect to redeem the Notes on or after the date on which they become redeemable at our option; however, investors should not expect us to make such election on such date when the Notes are first redeemable or at any time thereafter. Under Federal Reserve regulations, unless the Federal Reserve authorizes us in writing to do otherwise, we may not redeem the Notes unless they are replaced with other Tier 2 capital instruments or unless we can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Federal Reserve that, following redemption, we will continue to hold capital commensurate with our risk.
The amount of interest payable on the Notes will vary after           , 2026.
During the fixed rate period, the Notes will bear interest at an initial rate of    % per annum. Thereafter, the Notes will bear interest at a floating rate per annum equal to the Benchmark rate (which is expected to be Three-Month Term SOFR) plus           basis points, subject to the provisions under “Description of the Notes — Interest.” The per annum interest rate that is determined at the reference time for each interest period will apply to the entire quarterly interest period following such determination date even if the Benchmark rate increases during that period.
Floating rate notes bear additional significant risks not associated with fixed rate debt securities. These risks include fluctuation of the interest rates and the possibility that you will receive an amount of interest that is lower than expected. We have no control over a number of matters, including, without limitation, economic, financial, and political events, that are important in determining the existence, magnitude, and longevity of market volatility and other risks and their impact on the value of, or payments made on, the Notes. In recent years, interest rates have been volatile, and that volatility may be expected in the future.
Our published credit ratings may not reflect all risks of an investment in the Notes.
The published credit ratings of us or our indebtedness are an assessment by rating agencies of our ability to pay our debts when due. These ratings are not recommendations to purchase, hold or sell the Notes, inasmuch as the ratings do not comment as to market price or suitability for a particular investor, are limited in scope, and do not address all material risks relating to an investment in the Notes, but rather reflect only the view of each rating agency at the time the rating is issued. The published credit ratings assigned to the Notes may not reflect the potential impact of all risks related to structure and other factors on any trading market for, or trading value of, the Notes.
 
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Accordingly, you should consult your own financial and legal advisors as to the risks entailed by an investment in the Notes and the suitability of investing in the Notes in light of your particular circumstances.
A downgrade of our credit ratings or the ratings of our subsidiaries or other financial institutions could have a material adverse impact on us and the value of and market for the Notes.
Rating agencies continuously evaluate us and our subsidiaries, and their ratings of our long-term and short-term debt are based on a number of factors, including financial strength, as well as factors not entirely within our control, such as conditions affecting the financial services industry generally. In light of these reviews and the continued focus on the financial services industry generally, we and our subsidiaries may not be able to maintain our current credit ratings. Ratings downgrades by a rating agency could have a significant and immediate impact on our funding and liquidity through cash obligations, reduced funding capacity and collateral triggers. A reduction in our or our subsidiaries’ credit ratings could also increase our borrowing costs and limit access to the capital markets. These changes could have a material adverse impact on the value of and market for the Notes.
Downgrades in the credit or financial strength ratings assigned to the counterparties with whom we transact could create the perception that our financial condition will be adversely impacted as a result of potential future defaults by such counterparties. Additionally, we could be adversely affected by a general, negative perception of financial institutions caused by the downgrade of other financial institutions. Accordingly, ratings downgrades for other financial institutions could affect the market price of our stock and could limit our access to or increase our cost of capital. These changes could have a material adverse impact on the value of and market for the Notes.
Investors should not rely on indicative or historical data concerning SOFR.
The interest rate during the floating rate period will be determined using Three-Month Term SOFR (unless a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date occur with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR, in which case the rate of interest will be based on the next-available Benchmark Replacement, which is Compounded SOFR). In the following discussion of SOFR, when we refer to the Notes, we mean the Notes at any time during the floating rate period when the interest rate on the Notes is or will be determined based on SOFR, including Three-Month Term SOFR.
SOFR is published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (“FRBNY”) and is intended to be a broad measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities. FRBNY reports that SOFR includes all trades in the Broad General Collateral Rate, plus bilateral U.S. Treasury repurchase agreement (“repo”) transactions cleared through the delivery-versus-payment service offered by the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (the “FICC”), a subsidiary of DTC. SOFR is filtered by FRBNY to remove a portion of the foregoing transactions considered to be “specials.” According to FRBNY, “specials” are repos for specific-issue collateral that take place at cash-lending rates below those for general collateral repos because cash providers are willing to accept a lesser return on their cash to obtain a particular security.
FRBNY reports that SOFR is calculated as a volume-weighted median of transaction-level tri-party repo data collected from The Bank of New York Mellon, which currently acts as the clearing bank for the tri-party repo market, as well as General Collateral Finance Repo transaction data and data on bilateral U.S. Treasury repo transactions cleared through the FICC’s delivery-versus-payment service. FRBNY states that it obtains information from DTCC Solutions LLC, an affiliate of DTC.
FRBNY currently publishes SOFR daily on its website at https://apps.newyorkfed.org/markets/autorates/sofr. FRBNY states on its publication page for SOFR that use of SOFR is subject to important disclaimers, limitations and indemnification obligations, including that FRBNY may alter the methods of calculation, publication schedule, rate revision practices or availability of SOFR at any time without notice. The foregoing Internet website is an inactive textual reference only, meaning that the information contained on the website is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference herein or therein.
FRBNY started publishing SOFR in April 2018. FRBNY has also started publishing historical indicative SOFRs dating back to 2014, although such historical indicative data inherently involves assumptions, estimates and approximations. Investors should not rely on such historical indicative data or on any historical changes or trends in SOFR as an indicator of the future performance of SOFR.
 
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SOFR may be more volatile than other benchmark or market rates.
Since the initial publication of SOFR, daily changes in the rate have, on occasion, been more volatile than daily changes in comparable benchmark or market rates, and SOFR over time may bear little or no relation to the historical actual or historical indicative data. In addition, the return on and value of the Notes may fluctuate more than floating rate securities that are linked to less volatile rates.
Changes in SOFR could adversely affect holders of the Notes and the trading prices for the Notes.
Because SOFR is published by FRBNY based on data received from other sources, we have no control over its determination, calculation or publication. There is no assurance that SOFR will not be discontinued or fundamentally altered in a manner that is materially adverse to the interests of investors in the Notes. If the manner in which SOFR is calculated is changed, that change may result in a reduction in the amount of interest that accrues on the Notes during the floating rate period, which may adversely affect the trading prices of the Notes. Further, if the Benchmark rate on the Notes during the floating rate period on any determination date declines to zero or becomes negative, the interest rate will be deemed to equal zero. In addition, once the Benchmark rate for the Notes for each interest period during the floating rate period is determined by the calculation agent on the determination date, interest on the Notes will accrue at such Benchmark rate for the applicable interest period and will not be subject to change during such interest period. There is no assurance that changes in SOFR could not have a material adverse effect on the yield on, value of and market for the Notes.
SOFR differs fundamentally from, and may not be a comparable substitute for, U.S. dollar LIBOR.
In June 2017, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee (the “ARRC”) convened by the Federal Reserve and FRBNY announced SOFR as its recommended alternative to the London interbank offered rate (“LIBOR”) for U.S. dollar obligations. However, because SOFR is a broad U.S. Treasury repo financing rate that represents overnight secured funding transactions, it differs fundamentally from LIBOR. For example, SOFR is a secured overnight rate, while LIBOR is an unsecured rate that represents interbank funding over different maturities. In addition, because SOFR is a transaction-based rate, it is backward-looking, whereas LIBOR is forward-looking. Because of these and other differences, there is no assurance that SOFR will perform in the same way as LIBOR would have performed at any time, and there is no guarantee that it is a comparable substitute for LIBOR.
Any failure of SOFR to gain market acceptance could adversely affect holders of the Notes.
SOFR may fail to gain market acceptance. SOFR was developed for use in certain U.S. dollar derivatives and other financial contracts as an alternative to LIBOR in part because it is considered to be a good representation of general funding conditions in the overnight U.S. Treasury repo market. However, as a rate based on transactions secured by U.S. Treasury securities, it does not measure bank-specific credit risk and, as a result, is less likely to correlate with the unsecured short-term funding costs of banks. This may mean that market participants would not consider SOFR to be a comparable substitute or successor for all of the purposes for which LIBOR historically has been used (including, without limitation, as a representation of the unsecured short-term funding costs of banks), which may, in turn, lessen its market acceptance. Any failure of SOFR to gain market acceptance could adversely affect the yield on, value of and market for the Notes.
The interest rate for the Notes during the applicable floating rate period may be determined based on a rate other than Three-Month Term SOFR.
Under the terms of the Notes, the interest rate on the Notes for each interest period during the applicable floating rate period will be based on Three-Month Term SOFR, a forward-looking term rate for a tenor of three months that will be based on SOFR. On July 29, 2021, the ARRC formally recommended the use of the CME Group’s computation of forward-looking SOFR term rates. Uncertainty surrounding the adoption and use of forward-looking term rates based on SOFR could have a material adverse effect on the return on, value of, and market for the Notes. If, at the commencement of the floating rate period for the Notes, we determine that the use of a forward-looking rate for a tenor of three months based on SOFR is not administratively feasible, then the next-available Benchmark Replacement under the benchmark transition provisions will be used to determine the interest rate on the Notes during the applicable floating rate period (unless a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date occur with respect to that next-available Benchmark Replacement).
 
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Under the terms of the Notes, the calculation agent is expressly authorized to make determinations, decisions or elections with respect to technical, administrative or operational matters that it decides are appropriate to reflect the use of Three-Month Term SOFR as the interest rate basis for the Notes, which are defined in the terms of the Notes as “Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions.” Such determination and implementation of any Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions could result in adverse consequences to the amount of interest that accrues on the Notes during the applicable floating rate period, which could adversely affect the return on, value of and market for the Notes.
Any Benchmark Replacement may not be the economic equivalent of Three-Month Term SOFR.
Under the benchmark transition provisions of the Notes, if the calculation agent determines that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR, then the floating interest rate on the Notes for each interest period during the floating rate period will be determined using the next-available Benchmark Replacement (which may include a related Benchmark Replacement Adjustment). However, the Benchmark Replacement may not be the economic equivalent of Three-Month Term SOFR. For example, Compounded SOFR, the first-available Benchmark Replacement, is the compounded average of the daily SOFR calculated in arrears, while Three-Month Term SOFR is intended to be a forward-looking rate with a tenor of three months. Neither the ARRC nor FRBNY has made a final determination regarding the method for calculating Compounded SOFR. In addition, very limited market precedent exists for securities that use Compounded SOFR as the rate basis, and the method for calculating Compounded SOFR in those precedents varies. Further, the ISDA Fallback Rate, which is another Benchmark Replacement, has not yet been established and may change over time.
The implementation of Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes could adversely affect holders of the Notes.
Under the benchmark transition provisions of the Notes, if Three-Month Term SOFR has been discontinued or if a particular Benchmark Replacement or Benchmark Replacement Adjustment cannot be determined, then the next-available Benchmark Replacement or Benchmark Replacement Adjustment will apply. These replacement rates and adjustments may be selected or formulated by: (1) the Relevant Governmental Body (such as the ARRC or FRBNY); (2) the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. (“ISDA”); or (3) in certain circumstances, us. In addition, the benchmark transition provisions expressly authorize us to make certain changes, which are defined in the terms of the Notes as “Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes,” with respect to, among other things, the determination of interest periods, and the timing and frequency of determining rates and making payments of interest. The application of a Benchmark Replacement and Benchmark Replacement Adjustment, and any implementation of Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes, could result in adverse consequences to the amount of interest that accrues on the Notes during any interest period during the floating rate period, which could adversely affect the yield on, value of and market for the Notes. Further, there is no assurance that the characteristics of any Benchmark Replacement will be similar to the then-current Benchmark rate that it is replacing, or that any Benchmark Replacement will produce the economic equivalent of the then-current Benchmark rate that it is replacing.
Also, since SOFR is a relatively new market index, SOFR-linked debt securities likely will have no established trading market when issued, and an established trading market may never develop or may not be very liquid. Market terms for debt securities indexed to SOFR, such as the spread over the index reflected in interest rate provisions, may evolve over time, and trading prices of the Notes may be lower than those of later-issued SOFR-linked debt securities as a result. Similarly, if SOFR does not prove to be widely used in securities similar to the Notes, the trading price of the Notes may be lower than those of debt securities linked to such rates that are more widely used. Debt securities indexed to SOFR (as the Notes will be) may not be able to be sold at all or may not be able to be sold at prices that will provide a yield comparable to similar investments that have a developed secondary market, and may consequently suffer from increased pricing volatility and market risk.
We or an affiliate of ours will or could have authority to make determinations and elections that could affect the return on, value of and market for the Notes.
Under the terms of the Notes, we may make certain determinations, decisions and elections with respect to the Benchmark rate on the Notes during the floating rate period, including, without limitation, any
 
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determination, decision or election required to be made by the calculation agent that the calculation agent fails to make. We will make any such determination, decision or election in our sole discretion, and any such determination, decision or election that we make could affect the amount of interest that accrues on the Notes during any interest period in the floating rate period. If the calculation agent fails, when required, to make a determination that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred, or fails, when required, to determine the Benchmark Replacement and Benchmark Replacement Adjustment, then we will make those determinations in our sole discretion. Furthermore, we or an affiliate of ours may serve as calculation agent. We will act as the initial calculation agent and, though we will appoint a calculation agent prior to the commencement of the floating rate period, we may appoint ourselves or an affiliate and we cannot assure you that we will appoint an independent third-party calculation agent at any time. Any exercise of discretion by us under the terms of the Notes, including, without limitation, any discretion exercised by us or by an affiliate acting as calculation agent, could present a conflict of interest. In making the required determinations, decisions and elections, we or an affiliate of ours acting as calculation agent may have economic interests that are adverse to the interest of the holders of the Notes, and those determinations, decisions or elections could have a material adverse effect on the yield on, value of and market for the Notes. All determinations, decisions or elections by us, or by us or an affiliate acting as calculation agent, under the terms of the Notes will be conclusive and binding absent manifest error.
The Notes may be issued with original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
The Notes may be issued with original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In such case, holders subject to U.S. federal income taxation, whether on the cash or accrual method of tax accounting, generally would be required to include any amounts representing original issue discount in gross income (as ordinary income) as the original issue discount accrues on a constant yield to maturity basis, in advance of the receipt of cash payments to which such income is attributable. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $      , after deducting the underwriting discount and our estimated offering expenses. We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for general corporate purposes. Our general corporate purposes include the repayment of $75.0 million of the Company’s subordinated debentures due 2026 and $15.3 million of the Company’s subordinated debentures due 2025, and providing capital to support our growth organically or through strategic acquisitions and for investing in the Bank as regulatory capital. The precise amounts and timing of our use of the net proceeds will depend on our, and our subsidiaries’, funding requirements and the availability of other funds.
Our management will have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the Notes. The foregoing represents our intentions based upon our present plans and business conditions. The occurrence of unforeseen events or changed business conditions, however, could result in the application of the net proceeds of the offering in a manner other than as described in this prospectus supplement.
 
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table shows our capitalization at September 30, 2021:
(1)
on a consolidated basis; and
(2)
on a consolidated basis as adjusted to give effect to the issuance and sale of the Notes in this offering (after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses).
This table should be read in conjunction with the risk factors and the consolidated financial statements and related notes of FFIC for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the quarter ended September 30, 2021, incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
As of September 30, 2021
(in thousands, except
share data)
Actual
As Adjusted
for this
Offering
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity:
Deposits:
Non-interest bearing$941,259$941,259
Interest bearing5,480,1325,480,132
Total deposits6,421,3916,421,391
Mortgagors’ escrow deposits67,20767,207
Federal Home Loan Bank advances611,186611,186
Subordinated debentures due 202674,911(1)
Subordinated debentures due 202515,250(1)
    % Notes offered hereby
      (2)
Other liabilities219,293219,293
Total liabilities7,409,238
Shareholders’ Equity:
Common stock, $0.01 par value (100,000,000 shares authorized; 34,087,623 shares issued at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 30,675,861 shares and 30,775,854 shares outstanding at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively, actual and as adjusted)341341
Additional paid-in capital262,009262,009
Treasury stock, at average cost (actual and as adjusted)(71,738)(71,738)
Retained earnings486,418486,418
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(8,934)(8,934)
Total stockholders’ equity668,096668,096
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity8,077,3348,077,334
Capital Ratios(3)
Common equity Tier 1 capital ratio10.68%    %
Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio11.48
Total risk-based capital ratio13.44
Tier 1 leverage ratio8.83
(1)
Reflects the expected redemption of these subordinated debentures in December 2021.
 
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(2)
Represents the aggregate principal amount of the Notes, reduced by the underwriting discount ($      ) and our estimated offering expenses ($      ).
(3)
The as adjusted calculations for the risk-based capital ratios for FFIC assume that the net proceeds from the sales of the Notes are invested in assets that carry a 0% risk weighting as of September 30, 2021.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF THE NOTES
We will issue the Notes under the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture. You may request a copy of the Indenture from us as described under “ You may request a copy of the Indenture from us as described under “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.” We have summarized the material terms of the Indenture and the Notes below, but the summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the Indenture and the Notes. The following description of the terms of the Indenture and the Notes supplements and, to the extent inconsistent therewith, replaces and supersedes the description of the general terms and provisions of the subordinated debt securities in the accompanying prospectus.
You should read the Indenture and the Notes because they, and not this description, define your rights as holders of the Notes. For purposes of this section, references to “FFIC,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” include only FFIC and not any of its subsidiaries.
General
The Notes will be unsecured, subordinated obligations of the Company and will mature on                 , 2031 unless redeemed prior to such date in accordance with the provisions set forth below under “— Redemption.” The Notes will be issued and may be transferred only in minimum denominations of $1,000 or integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof.
Unless previously redeemed prior to maturity, we will repay the Notes at 100% of their principal amount, together with accrued and unpaid interest thereon to, but excluding, the Maturity Date, at their maturity. We will pay principal of and interest on the Notes in U.S. dollars.
The Notes will constitute our unsecured debt obligations and will rank equally among themselves, will rank equal in right of payment with our existing 5.25% fixed-to-floating rate subordinated notes due 2026 (the “Existing Subordinated Notes”), our outstanding subordinated debentures due 2025 and any of our future indebtedness the terms of which provide that such indebtedness ranks equal in right of payment to indebtedness such as the Notes, will rank senior in right of payment to our existing junior subordinated debentures and any of our future indebtedness the terms of which provide that such indebtedness ranks junior in right of payment to indebtedness such as the Notes, and will rank junior in right of payment to any of our future senior indebtedness as described below in “— Subordination of the Notes.” No sinking fund will exist for the Notes, and no sinking fund payments will be made with respect to the Notes. The Notes will not be convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property. Except as described below under “— Clearance and Settlement,” the Notes will be issued only in book-entry form and will be represented by one or more global notes registered in the name of Cede & Co., as the nominee of DTC. See “— Clearance and Settlement” below.
The Notes offered hereby will be issued under the Indenture. We may, from time to time, without notice to, or the consent of, the holders of the Notes, issue additional Notes ranking equally with the Notes and identical to the Notes previously issued in all respects (except for the issue date, the offering price, the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such additional Notes and the first payment of interest following the issue date of such additional Notes) in order that such additional Notes may be consolidated and form a single series with the Notes and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the Notes. However, any additional notes of the series of which the Notes are a part that are issued and are not fungible with the outstanding Notes of such series for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be issued under one or more separate CUSIP numbers and ISIN numbers. No limit exists on the aggregate principal amount of the Notes of this series that we may issue in the future.
The Indenture contains no covenants or restrictions restricting the incurrence of indebtedness or other obligations by us or by our subsidiaries, including the Bank. The Indenture contains no financial covenants requiring us to achieve or maintain any minimum financial results relating to our financial position or results of operations or meet or exceed any financial ratios, as a general matter or in order to incur additional indebtedness or obligations, or to maintain any reserves. Moreover, neither the Indenture nor the Notes contain any covenants prohibiting us from, or limiting our right to, incur additional indebtedness or obligations, to grant liens on our assets to secure our indebtedness or other obligations that are senior in right of payment to the Notes, to repurchase our stock or other securities, including any of the Notes, or to pay dividends or make other distributions to our shareholders. In addition, neither the Indenture nor the Notes contain any provision that would provide protection to the holders of the Notes against a sudden and
 
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dramatic decline in our credit quality, including resulting from a merger, takeover, recapitalization or similar restructuring or other events involving us or our subsidiaries that may adversely affect our credit quality.
The Notes are not deposits in the Bank and are not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other government agency or instrumentality. The Notes are solely obligations of the Company and are neither obligations of, nor guaranteed by, the Bank or any of our other subsidiaries or affiliates.
No recourse will be available for the payment of principal of or interest on any Note, for any claim based thereon, or otherwise in respect thereof, against any incorporator, shareholder, employee, agent, officer or director, as such, past, present or future, of ours or of any successor entity, it being expressly understood that all such liability is waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of the First Supplemental Indenture and the issuance of the Notes.
Interest
Payment of the full principal amount of the Notes will be due on                 , 2031 (the “Maturity Date”), unless the Notes are redeemed prior to the Maturity Date.
Fixed Rate Period
From and including the date of issuance to, but excluding,                 , 2026 (unless redeemed prior to such date as contemplated below under “— Redemption”), which we refer to as the “fixed rate period,” the notes will bear interest at a rate of    % per year. During the fixed rate period, interest on the Notes will accrue from and including                 , 2021, and will be payable semiannually in arrears on                 and                 of each year during the fixed rate period, each a “fixed period interest payment date,” commencing on                 , 2022. During the fixed rate period, interest will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months. Dollar amounts resulting from that calculation will be rounded to the nearest cent, with one-half cent being rounded upward. The interest payable on the Notes on any fixed period interest payment date will, except as noted below, be paid to the person in whose name the Notes are registered at the close of business on the 15th calendar day (whether or not a business day (as defined below)) immediately preceding the fixed period interest payment date. If any fixed period interest payment date for the Notes or the date for the payment of principal for the Notes occurring during the fixed rate period falls on a day that is not a business day, the Company will postpone the interest or principal payment to the next succeeding business day, but the payments made on such dates will be treated as being made on the date that the payment was first due and the holders of the Notes will not be entitled to any further interest, principal or other payments with respect to such postponements.
Floating Rate Period
From and including                 , 2026 to, but excluding, the Maturity Date (unless redeemed prior to such date as contemplated below under “— Redemption”), which we refer to as the “floating rate period,” the notes will bear interest at a floating rate per year equal to the Benchmark (which is expected to be Three-Month Term SOFR), plus                 basis points. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Benchmark is less than zero, the Benchmark will be deemed to be zero.
During the floating rate period, interest on the notes will accrue from and including                 , 2026 and will be payable quarterly in arrears on                 ,                 ,                 and                 of each year (each a “floating period interest payment date” and, together with any fixed period interest payment date, an “Interest Payment Date”), commencing on                 , 2026, and interest will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year and the actual number of days elapsed. Dollar amounts resulting from that calculation will be rounded to the nearest cent, with one-half cent being rounded upward.
For the purpose of calculating the interest on the Notes for each floating rate interest period during the floating rate period when the Benchmark is Three-Month Term SOFR, “Three-Month Term SOFR” means the rate for Term SOFR for a tenor of three months that is published by the Term SOFR Administrator at the Reference Time for any floating rate interest period, as determined by the calculation agent after giving effect to the Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions. All percentages used in or resulting from any calculation of Three-Month Term SOFR will be rounded, if necessary, to the nearest one-hundred-thousandth of a percentage point, with 0.000005% rounded up to 0.00001%. When we use the term “floating
 
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rate interest period” we mean the period from and including the immediately preceding floating period interest payment date in respect of which interest has been paid or duly provided for, to, but excluding, the applicable floating period interest payment date or Maturity Date or date of earlier redemption, if applicable (except that the first floating rate interest period will commence on                 , 2026). See “— Calculation Agent” below.
As used herein:
“Benchmark” means, initially, Three-Month Term SOFR; provided that, if the calculation agent determines on or prior to the Reference Time for any floating rate interest period that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR or the then-current Benchmark, then “Benchmark” means the applicable Benchmark Replacement for such floating rate interest period and any subsequent floating rate interest periods.
“Corresponding Tenor” means (i) with respect to Term SOFR, three months, and (ii) with respect to a Benchmark Replacement, a tenor (including overnight) having approximately the same length (disregarding business day adjustment) as the applicable tenor for the then-current Benchmark.
“FRBNY’s Website” means the website of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (the “FRBNY”) at http://www.newyorkfed.org, or any successor source. The foregoing Internet website is an inactive textual reference only, meaning that the information contained on the website is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference herein or therein.
“Reference Time” with respect to any determination of the Benchmark means (i) if the Benchmark is Three-Month Term SOFR, the time determined by the calculation agent after giving effect to the Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions, and (ii) if the Benchmark is not Three-Month Term SOFR, the time determined by the calculation agent after giving effect to the Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes.
“Relevant Governmental Body” means the Federal Reserve and/or the FRBNY, or a committee officially endorsed or convened by the Federal Reserve and/or the FRBNY or any successor thereto.
“SOFR” means the secured overnight financing rate published by the FRBNY, as the administrator of the Benchmark (or any successor administrator), on the FRBNY’s Website.
“Term SOFR” means the forward-looking term rate for the applicable Corresponding Tenor based on SOFR that has been selected or recommended by the Relevant Governmental Body.
“Term SOFR Administrator” means any entity designated by the Relevant Governmental Body as the administrator of Term SOFR (or any successor administrator).
“Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions” means any determination, decision, or election with respect to any technical, administrative, or operational matter (including with respect to the manner and timing of the publication of Three-Month Term SOFR, or changes to the definition of “floating rate interest period,” timing and frequency of determining Three-Month Term SOFR with respect to each floating rate interest period and making payments of interest, rounding of amounts or tenors, and other administrative matters) that the calculation agent determines may be appropriate to reflect the use of Three-Month Term SOFR as the Benchmark in a manner substantially consistent with market practice (or, if the calculation agent determines that adoption of any portion of such market practice is not administratively feasible or if the calculation agent determines that no market practice for the use of Three-Month Term SOFR exists, in such other manner as the calculation agent determines is reasonably necessary).
The terms “Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes,” “Benchmark Replacement Date,” “Benchmark Replacement,” “Benchmark Replacement Adjustment,” and “Benchmark Transition Event” have the meanings set forth under the heading “— Effect of Benchmark Transition Event” below.
Notwithstanding the foregoing paragraphs related to the determination of interest, if the calculation agent determines on or prior to the relevant Reference Time that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR, then the provisions set forth under the heading “— Effect of Benchmark Transition Event,” which we refer to as the “benchmark transition provisions,” will thereafter apply to all determinations of the benchmark used to calculate the interest rate on the Notes for each floating rate interest period. In accordance with the benchmark transition provisions, if the calculation agent determines that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark
 
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Replacement Date have occurred on or prior to the Reference Time in respect of any floating rate interest period during the floating rate period, then the Benchmark Replacement will replace the then-current Benchmark for all purposes relating to the Notes during such floating rate interest period and the remainder of the floating rate period.
Absent manifest error, the calculation agent’s determination of the interest rate for a floating rate interest period for the Notes will be binding and conclusive on you, us (if we are not also the calculation agent) and the Trustee. The Trustee will have no duty to confirm or verify any such calculation. By its acquisition of the Notes, each holder of Notes (including, for the avoidance of doubt, each beneficial owner) will acknowledge, accept, consent to and agree to be bound by the calculation agent’s determination of the interest rate for each floating rate interest period, including the calculation agent’s determination of any Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes, Benchmark Replacement Date, Benchmark Replacement, Benchmark Replacement Adjustment, and Benchmark Transition Event, including as may occur without any prior notice from us or the calculation agent and without the need for us or it to obtain any further consent from any holder. The calculation agent’s determination of any interest rate, and its calculation of interest payments, for any floating rate interest period, will be maintained on file at the calculation agent’s principal offices and will be made available to any holder of the Notes by the Company upon request, and the calculation agent will provide the Company and the Trustee with written notice of the interest rate in effect on the Notes promptly after the Reference Time (or such other date of determination for the applicable Benchmark).
If the then-current Benchmark is Three-Month Term SOFR, the calculation agent will have the right to establish the Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions, and if any of the foregoing provisions concerning the calculation of the interest rate and interest payments during the floating rate period are inconsistent with any of the Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions determined by the calculation agent, then the relevant Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions will apply. Furthermore, if the calculation agent determines that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR at any time when any of the Notes are outstanding, then the foregoing provisions concerning the calculation of the interest rate and interest payments during the floating rate period will be modified in accordance with the benchmark transition provisions.
When we use the term “business day,” we mean any day, other than a Saturday or Sunday, that is neither a legal holiday nor a day on which banking institutions or trust companies in the City of New York, New York or any place of payment are authorized or obligated by law, regulation, or executive order to close or remain closed.
If any floating period interest payment date or the Maturity Date for the Notes falls on a day that is not a business day, the Company will postpone the interest payment or the payment of principal and interest at maturity to the next succeeding business day (and, with respect to the Maturity Date, no additional interest will accrue on the amount payable for the period from and after the Maturity Date), unless, with respect to a floating period interest payment date only, such day falls in the next calendar month, in which case the floating period interest payment date will instead be the immediately preceding day that is a business day, and interest will accrue to, but excluding, such floating period interest payment date as so adjusted.
The interest payable on the Notes on any floating period interest payment date, subject to certain exceptions, will be paid to the person in whose name the Notes are registered at the close of business on the 15th calendar day (whether or not a business day) immediately preceding the floating period interest payment date. Payments will include interest accrued to, but excluding, the relevant floating period interest payment date. However, interest that the Company pays on the Maturity Date will be paid to the person to whom the principal will be payable.
Principal and interest on the Notes will be payable by wire transfer in immediately available funds in U.S. dollars at an office or agency of the Company maintained for such purpose, which will initially be the corporate trust office of the Trustee.
Subordination of the Notes
Our obligation to make any payment on account of the principal of, or interest on, the Notes will be subordinate and junior in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness.
 
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“senior indebtedness” means the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest, including interest accruing after the commencement of any bankruptcy proceeding relating to the Company, on, or substantially similar payments we make in respect of the following categories of debt, whether that debt is outstanding on the date of execution of the First Supplemental Indenture or thereafter incurred, created or assumed:

our indebtedness evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities issued under the provisions of any indenture, fiscal agency agreement, debenture or note purchase agreement or other agreement, including any senior debt securities that may be offered, including by means of the base prospectus and one or more prospectus supplements;

our indebtedness for money borrowed or represented by purchase-money obligations, as defined below;

our indebtedness to general creditors;

our obligations as lessee under leases of property, whether made as part of a sale and leaseback transaction to which we are a party or otherwise;

indebtedness, obligations and liabilities of others in respect of which we are liable contingently or otherwise to pay or advance money or property or as guarantor, endorser or otherwise or which we have agreed to purchase or otherwise acquire and indebtedness of partnerships and joint ventures that is included in our consolidated financial statements;

reimbursement and other obligations relating to letters of credit, bankers’ acceptances and similar obligations;

obligations under various hedging arrangements and agreements, including interest rate and currency hedging agreements and swap and nonswap forward agreements;

all of our obligations issued or assumed as the deferred purchase price of property or services, but excluding trade accounts payable and accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business; and

deferrals, renewals or extensions of any of the indebtedness or obligations described in the clauses above.
However, “senior indebtedness” excludes:

any indebtedness, obligation or liability referred to in the definition of senior indebtedness above as to which, in the instrument creating, governing or evidencing that indebtedness, obligation or liability, it is expressly provided that such indebtedness, obligation or liability is not senior in right of payment to, is junior in right of payment to, or ranks equally in right of payment with, other specified types of indebtedness, obligations and liabilities of the Company, which other specified types of indebtedness, obligations and liabilities of the Company include the Notes;

any indebtedness, obligation or liability that is subordinated to other of our indebtedness, obligations or liabilities to substantially the same extent as or to a greater extent than the Notes are subordinated;

all obligations to trade creditors created or assumed by the Company in the ordinary course of business; and

the Notes and any other securities issued pursuant to the Indenture, the Existing Subordinated Notes, our outstanding junior subordinated debentures and, unless expressly provided in the terms thereof, any of our indebtedness to our subsidiaries.
As used above, the term “purchase-money obligations” means indebtedness, obligations evidenced by a note, debenture, bond or other instrument, whether or not secured by a lien or other security interest, issued to evidence the obligation to pay or a guarantee of the payment of, and any deferred obligation for the payment of, the purchase price of property but excluding indebtedness or obligations for which recourse is limited to the property purchased, issued or assumed as all or a part of the consideration for the acquisition of property or services, whether by purchase, merger, consolidation or otherwise, but does not include any trade accounts payable.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Federal Reserve (or other competent regulatory agency or authority) promulgates any rule or issues any interpretation that defines general creditor(s), the main purpose of which is
 
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to establish criteria for determining whether the subordinated debt of a bank holding company is to be included in its capital, then the term “general creditors” as used in the definition of “Senior Indebtedness” in the Indenture will have the meaning as described in that rule or interpretation.
In accordance with the subordination provisions of the Indenture and the Notes, we are permitted to make payments of accrued and unpaid interest on the Notes on the Interest Payment Dates and at maturity and to pay the principal of the Notes at maturity unless:

we are subject to any insolvency, bankruptcy, receivership, liquidation or other marshalling of our assets and liabilities; or

a default in the payment of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any senior indebtedness has occurred that is continuing beyond any applicable grace period or an event of default has occurred and is continuing with respect to any senior indebtedness or would occur as a result of a payment of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the Notes being made and that event of default would permit the holders of any senior indebtedness (or a trustee on behalf of the holders thereof) to accelerate the maturity of that senior indebtedness and such default or event of default has not been cured, waived and otherwise ceased to exist.
In the event of our insolvency, bankruptcy, receivership, liquidation or other marshalling of our assets and liabilities, we must pay to the holders of all of our senior indebtedness the full amounts of principal of, and premium, if any, and interest (including interest accruing after the commencement of any proceeding for our bankruptcy or reorganization) on, that senior indebtedness before any payment is made on the Notes. If, after we have paid the senior indebtedness in full, there are any amounts available for payment of the Notes and any of our other indebtedness and obligations ranking equally in right of payment with the Notes, then we will use such remaining assets to pay the amounts of principal of, premium, if any, and accrued and unpaid interest on, the Notes and such other of our indebtedness and obligations that rank equally in right of payment with the Notes. If those assets are insufficient to pay in full the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Notes and such other indebtedness and obligations, those assets will be applicable ratably to the payment of such amounts owing with respect to the Notes and such other indebtedness and obligations.
In the event of our insolvency, bankruptcy, receivership, liquidation or other marshalling of our assets and liabilities, if the holders of the Notes receive for any reason any payment on the Notes or other distributions of our assets with respect to the Notes before all of our senior indebtedness is paid in full, the holders of the Notes will be required to return that payment or distribution to the bankruptcy trustee, receiver, liquidating trustee, custodian, assignee, agent or other person making payment of our assets for all our senior indebtedness remaining unpaid until all that senior indebtedness has been paid in full, after giving effect to any other concurrent payment or distribution to the holders of such senior indebtedness.
By reason of the above subordination in favor of the holders of our senior indebtedness, in the event of our bankruptcy or insolvency, holders of our senior indebtedness may receive more, ratably, and holders of the Notes may receive less, ratably, than our other creditors.
We have outstanding junior subordinated debentures that relate to outstanding trust preferred securities issued to certain capital trusts to which the Notes will rank senior in right of payment. We also have outstanding subordinated notes to which the Notes will rank equally in right of payment. In addition, we may incur other indebtedness and obligations, the terms of which may provide that such indebtedness ranks either equally with or junior in right of payment to the Notes or promissory notes, bonds, debentures and other evidences of indebtedness of a type that includes the Notes. As discussed above, in the event of our insolvency, bankruptcy, receivership, liquidation or other marshalling of our assets and liabilities, the indebtedness and obligations ranking equally with the Notes will participate ratably in any of our assets remaining after the payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness. In such circumstances, our indebtedness and other obligations junior in right of payment to the Notes, such as our junior subordinated debentures, will not be entitled to receive any payments until the Notes and all of our indebtedness and obligations ranking equally in right of payment to the Notes have been paid in full.
All liabilities of the Bank, including deposits, and our other subsidiaries, including each subsidiary’s liabilities to general creditors arising during its ordinary course of business or otherwise, will be effectively senior in right of payment to the Notes to the extent of the assets of such subsidiary because, as a stockholder
 
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of the subsidiary, we do not have any rights to the assets of the subsidiary except if the subsidiary declares a dividend payable to us or if there are assets of the subsidiary remaining after it has discharged its liabilities to its creditors in connection with its liquidation. Over the term of the Notes, we will need to rely primarily on dividends paid to us by the Bank, which is a regulated financial institution, for the funds necessary to pay the interest on our outstanding debt obligations and to make dividends and other payments on our other securities outstanding now or in the future. With respect to the payment of the principal of the Notes at their maturity, we may rely on the funds we receive from dividends paid to us by our subsidiaries, but will likely have to rely on the proceeds of borrowings and other securities we sell to pay the principal amount of the Notes.
Regulatory rules may restrict the Bank’s ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us or to provide funds to us by other means. As a result of the foregoing, with respect to the assets of each of our subsidiaries, our creditors (including the holders of the Notes) are structurally subordinated to the prior claims of creditors of any such subsidiary, including the depositors of the Bank, except to the extent that we may be a creditor with recognized claims against any such subsidiary.
As discussed above, neither the Notes nor the Indenture contains any limitation on the amount of senior indebtedness or other obligations ranking senior to or equally with the indebtedness evidenced by the Notes that we, the Bank or any of our other subsidiaries may incur. Any indebtedness and liabilities of the Bank or our other subsidiaries is not a part of our senior indebtedness. The Notes will be effectively subordinate to all of the existing and future indebtedness and liabilities, including deposit liabilities, of our subsidiaries, including the Bank. As of September 30, 2021, on a consolidated basis, our outstanding debt and deposits totaled approximately $7.2 billion. In addition, as of September 30, 2021, we had no indebtedness that would rank senior to the Notes, $90.3 million of indebtedness that would rank pari passu to the Notes and $61.9 million of indebtedness that would rank junior to the Notes.
Redemption
We may redeem the Notes, at our sole option, beginning with the Interest Payment Date of                 , 2026 and on any Interest Payment Date thereafter, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption, subject to prior approval of the Federal Reserve, to the extent that such approval is then required under the rules of the Federal Reserve. If we elect to redeem the Notes, we will be required to notify the Trustee of the aggregate principal amount of Notes to be redeemed and the redemption date. Any such redemption may be subject to the satisfaction of one or more conditions precedent set forth in the applicable notice of redemption. If fewer than all of the Notes are to be redeemed, the selection of Notes to be redeemed will occur in accordance with the rules of DTC (or, in the case of any certificated Notes, by lot, on a pro rata basis or in such other manner the Trustee deems fair and appropriate unless otherwise required by law). The Notes are not subject to repayment at the option of the holders. The Notes may not otherwise be redeemed by us prior to the scheduled maturity of the Notes, except we may, at our sole option, redeem the Notes at any time before the scheduled maturity of the Notes in whole, but not in part, upon or after the occurrence of any of the following:
(1) a “Tax Event,” which is defined in the Indenture to mean the receipt by us of an opinion from independent tax counsel to the effect that (a) an amendment to or change (including any announced prospective amendment or change) in any law, treaty, statute or code, or any regulation thereunder, of the United States or any of its political subdivisions or taxing authorities, (b) a judicial decision, administrative action, official administrative pronouncement, ruling, regulatory procedure, regulation, notice or announcement, including any notice or announcement of intent to adopt or promulgate any ruling, regulatory procedure or regulation (any of the foregoing, an “administrative or judicial action”), (c) an amendment to or change in any official position with respect to, or any interpretation of, an administrative or judicial action or a law or regulation of the United States that differs from the previously generally accepted position or interpretation, or (d) a threatened challenge asserted in writing in connection with an audit of our federal income tax returns or positions or a similar audit of any of our subsidiaries or a publicly known threatened challenge asserted in writing against any other taxpayer that has raised capital through the issuance of securities that are substantially similar to the Notes, in each case, occurring or becoming publicly known on or after the date of original issuance of the Notes, resulting in more than an insubstantial increase in the risk that the interest paid by us on the Notes is not, or within 90 days of receipt of such opinion of tax counsel, will not be, deductible by us, in whole or in part, for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
 
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(2) a “Tier 2 Capital Event,” which is defined in the Indenture to mean the receipt by us of an opinion from independent bank regulatory counsel to the effect that, as a result of (a) any amendment to, or change (including any announced prospective change) in, the laws or any regulations thereunder of the United States or any rules, guidelines or policies of an applicable regulatory authority for the Company or (b) any official administrative pronouncement or judicial decision interpreting or applying such laws or regulations, which amendment or change is effective or which pronouncement or decision is announced on or after the date of original issuance of the Notes, the Notes do not constitute, or within 90 days of the date of such opinion will not constitute, Tier 2 capital (or its then equivalent if we were subject to such capital requirement) for purposes of capital adequacy guidelines of the Federal Reserve (or any successor regulatory authority with jurisdiction over bank holding companies), as then in effect and applicable to us; or
(3) our becoming required to register as an investment company pursuant to the Investment Company Act.
Any such redemption of the Notes will be at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption. Notwithstanding the foregoing, installments of interest on any Notes that are due and payable on Interest Payment Dates falling on or prior to the applicable date of redemption will be payable on such Interest Payment Dates to the registered holders at the close of business on the relevant record dates in accordance with the Notes and the Indenture. Any such redemption may be subject to the satisfaction of one or more conditions precedent set forth in the applicable notice of redemption. Any redemption of the Notes would require prior approval of the Federal Reserve, to the extent that such approval is then required under the rules of the Federal Reserve.
Our election to redeem any of the Notes will be provided to the Trustee at least three business days prior to the requested date of delivery (or such shorter period as is satisfactory to the Trustee). In the case of any redemption, at least 15 days but no more than 60 days before the redemption date, the Company will send in accordance with the applicable procedures of the depositary (with a copy to the Trustee), or if the Notes are not then global securities the Company will mail, or cause to be mailed, a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each holder of Notes to be redeemed at such holder’s registered address appearing on the register (with a copy to the Trustee).
The Notes Are Intended to Qualify as Tier 2 Capital
We intend to treat the Notes as Tier 2 capital under the capital adequacy rules established by the Federal Reserve for bank holding companies, as the same may be amended or supplemented from time to time. The rules set forth specific criteria for instruments to qualify as Tier 2 capital. Among other things, the Notes must:

be unsecured;

have a minimum original maturity of at least five years;

be subordinated to depositors and general creditors, which, in our case, will be to the holders of our senior indebtedness;

not contain provisions permitting the holders of the Notes to accelerate payment of principal prior to maturity except in the event of receivership, insolvency, liquidation or similar proceedings of the institution;

only be callable after a minimum of five years following issuance, except upon certain special events, and, in any case, subject to obtaining the prior approval of the Federal Reserve to the extent such approval is then required under the rules of the Federal Reserve; and

unless the Federal Reserve authorizes us to do otherwise in writing, not be redeemed or repurchased unless they are replaced with an equivalent amount of other Tier 2 capital instruments or we can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Federal Reserve that following redemption, we will continue to hold capital commensurate with our risk.
Events of Default; Limitation on Suits
Under the Indenture, an event of default will occur if we fail to pay accrued and unpaid interest on the Notes and any notes of the same series offered in the future and such failure continues for 90 days, we fail
 
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to pay principal of any notes of that series when due, whether at maturity or upon redemption, or upon our default in the performance, or breach, of any other covenant or warranty contained in the Notes or the Indenture, other than a covenant added to the Indenture solely for the benefit of any other series of subordinated debt securities issued under the Indenture, and such default continues for 90 days after written notice as provided in the Indenture. In addition, an event of default will occur upon the entry of a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company by a court having jurisdiction in the premises in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, including Chapter 7 (liquidation) or Chapter 11 (reorganization) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, as now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee, sequestrator (or similar official) of the Company or for any substantial part of the property of the Company, or ordering the winding-up or liquidation of its affairs and such decree or order continues unstayed and in effect for a period of 60 consecutive days or if the Company commences a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, including under Chapter 7 (liquidation) or Chapter 11 (reorganization) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, as now or hereafter in effect, or shall consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, custodian, sequestrator (or similar official) of the Company or for any substantial part of the property of the Company, or shall make any general assignment for the benefit of creditors each of which events of default we refer to as an “insolvency event of default.”
Neither the Trustee nor the holders of the Notes will have the right to accelerate the maturity of the Notes in the case of our failure to pay the principal of, or interest on, the Notes or our nonperformance of any other covenant or warranty under the Notes or the Indenture. Nevertheless, during the continuation of such an event of default under the Notes, the Trustee may, subject to certain limitations and conditions, seek to enforce its rights and the rights of the holders of Notes to regularly scheduled payments of interest and the payment of principal at the scheduled maturity of the Notes, as well as the performance of any covenant or agreement in the Indenture. Any such rights to receive payment of such amounts under the Notes remain subject to the subordination provisions of the Notes as discussed above under “— Subordination of the Notes.”
No holder of Notes will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy under the Indenture, unless:

such holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to the Notes;

the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Notes shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such event of default in its own name as Trustee under the Indenture;

such holder or holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses, and liabilities to be incurred in complying with such request;

the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request, and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Notes.
If an insolvency event of default occurs and is continuing, the principal amount and accrued and unpaid interest on the Notes will become immediately due and payable, without the need for any action on the part of the holders of the Notes or the Trustee, subject to the broad equity powers of a federal bankruptcy court and the determination by that court of the nature and status of the payment claims of the holders of the Notes. At any time after acceleration with respect to the Notes has occurred, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of outstanding Notes, of the series of our subordinated notes which the Notes are a part and other affected series of securities issued under the Indenture, voting as one class, may waive all defaults and rescind and annul any acceleration occurring as to any and all securities of such series, including the Notes, but only if (1) we have paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum of money sufficient (a) to pay to the holders of the outstanding securities of all affected series of securities established under the Indenture, including the Notes, (i) all overdue installments of any interest that have become due otherwise than by such
 
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declaration of acceleration, (ii) the principal of and any premium that have become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration and, to the extent permitted by applicable law, interest thereon at the rate of interest borne by these securities and (iii) to the extent permitted by applicable law, interest upon installments of any interest, if any, that have become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration at the rate of interest borne by these securities and (b) to pay all sums paid or advanced by the Trustee under the Indenture and the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel and all other amounts due the Trustee; and (2) all events of default with respect to the Notes other than the nonpayment of the principal of, or any premium and interest on, the Notes that will have become due solely by such acceleration, will have been cured or waived as provided in the Indenture. Even in the event of an acceleration of the maturity of the Notes upon the occurrence of an insolvency event, the rights of the holders of the Notes to receive payment of the principal of, and accrued and unpaid interest on, the Notes remain subject to the subordination provisions of the Notes as discussed above under “—Subordination of the Notes.”
The Indenture provides that, the Trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the Indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of Notes unless such holders will have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred by it in complying with such request or direction. Subject to certain provisions in the Indenture, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Notes outstanding from time to time will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Notes.
Legal Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance
We may choose to either discharge our obligations under the Indenture and the Notes in a legal defeasance or to release ourselves from certain or all of our covenant restrictions under the Indenture and the Notes in a covenant defeasance. If we choose the legal defeasance option, the holders of the Notes will not be entitled to the benefits of the Indenture except for certain limited rights, including registration of transfer and exchange of Notes, replacement of lost, stolen or mutilated Notes and the right to receive payments of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Notes when such payments are due.
We may elect legal defeasance or covenant defeasance only if we meet certain requirements. Among other things, we must irrevocably deposit with the Trustee for the benefit of the holders of the Notes sufficient cash and/or U.S. government securities to pay the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest and any other sums due on the Maturity Date or a redemption date of the Notes. In addition, we must deliver to the Trustee an opinion of our legal counsel to the effect that beneficial owners of the Notes will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times, as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance had not occurred. In the case of legal defeasance only, this opinion must be based on either a ruling received from or published by the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) or a change in the applicable federal income tax law after the date hereof. We may not have a default under the Indenture or the Notes on the date of deposit. The defeasance may not cause the Trustee to have a conflicting interest for purposes of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”), and may not cause the resulting trust to become an investment company under the Investment Company Act. The defeasance may not violate any of our agreements to which we are a party or by which we are bound.
Any defeasance of the Notes pursuant to the Indenture will be subject to our obtaining the prior approval of the Federal Reserve and any additional requirements that the Federal Reserve may impose with respect to defeasance of the Notes. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if, due to a change in law, regulation or policy subsequent to the issue date of the Notes the Federal Reserve does not require that defeasance of instruments be subject to Federal Reserve approval in order for the instrument to be accorded Tier 2 capital treatment, then no such approval of the Federal Reserve will be required for such defeasance.
Satisfaction and Discharge
We may discharge our obligations under the Indenture and the Notes (except for certain surviving rights of the Trustee and our obligations in connection therewith) if: (a) all outstanding Notes and all other outstanding notes issued under the Indenture (i) have been delivered for cancellation, or (ii) (1) have become due and payable, (2) will become due and payable at their stated maturity within one year, or (3) are to be called for
 
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redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice and redemption by the Trustee (and in each case, we have irrevocably deposited with the Trustee an amount sufficient to pay and discharge the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on all outstanding Notes and any other sums due on the stated maturity date or redemption date, as the case may be); (b) we have paid all other sums payable by us under the Indenture; and (c) we have delivered an officers’ certificate and opinion of counsel confirming that all conditions precedent with respect to the satisfaction and discharge of the Indenture have been satisfied.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
The Indenture provides that we may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person, and we may not permit any other person to consolidate with or merge into us or to convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its properties and assets to us, unless:

we are the surviving person or the successor person (if not us), is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any United States domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes, by a supplemental indenture, our obligations on the Notes and under the Indenture;

immediately after giving effect to such transaction, and treating any indebtedness that becomes an obligation of ours or our subsidiaries as a result of such transaction as having been incurred by us or such subsidiary at the effective date of such transaction, no default or event of default under the Indenture will have occurred; and

we have complied with our obligations to deliver certain documentation to the Trustee, including an officers’ certificate and opinion of counsel each stating that such proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with the Indenture.
Further Issues
If no event of default has occurred and is continuing with respect to the Notes, we may, from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of the Notes, create and issue additional notes ranking equally with the Notes and with identical terms in all respects (or in all respects except for the offering price, the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further notes or except for the first payment of interest following the issue date of such additional notes) in order that such additional notes may be consolidated and form a single series with the Notes and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the Notes, subject to the procedures of the DTC; provided however, that a separate CUSIP number will be issued for any such additional notes unless such additional notes are fungible with the Notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
The Trustee may conclusively rely upon officers’ certificates, opinions or other documents furnished to it under the Indenture and will have no responsibility to confirm or investigate the accuracy of mathematical calculations or other facts stated therein. The Trustee will have no responsibility for monitoring our compliance with any of its covenants under the Indenture.
Effect of Benchmark Transition Event
If the calculation agent determines that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred on or prior to the Reference Time in respect of any floating rate interest period during the floating rate period, then the Benchmark Replacement will replace the then-current Benchmark for all purposes relating to the Notes during such floating rate interest period and all subsequent floating rate interest periods. In connection with the implementation of a Benchmark Replacement, the calculation agent will have the right to make Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes from time to time.
As used herein:
“Benchmark Replacement” means the Interpolated Benchmark with respect to the then-current Benchmark, plus the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment for such Benchmark; provided that if (i) the calculation agent cannot determine the Interpolated Benchmark as of the Benchmark Replacement Date or (ii) the then-current Benchmark is Three-Month Term SOFR and a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR (in which event no
 
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Interpolated Benchmark with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR will be determined), then “Benchmark Replacement” means the first alternative set forth in the order below that can be determined by the calculation agent as of the Benchmark Replacement Date:
1)
Compounded SOFR;
2)
the sum of: (a) the alternate rate that has been selected or recommended by the Relevant Governmental Body as the replacement for the then-current Benchmark for the applicable Corresponding Tenor and (b) the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment;
3)
the sum of: (a) the ISDA Fallback Rate and (b) the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment; and
4)
the sum of: (a) the alternate rate that has been selected by the calculation agent as the replacement for the then-current Benchmark for the applicable Corresponding Tenor, giving due consideration to any industry-accepted rate as a replacement for the then-current Benchmark for U.S. dollar-denominated floating rate securities at such time, and (b) the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment.
“Benchmark Replacement Adjustment” means the first alternative set forth in the order below that can be determined by the calculation agent as of the Benchmark Replacement Date:
1)
the spread adjustment, or method for calculating or determining such spread adjustment (which may be a positive or negative value or zero), that has been selected or recommended by the Relevant Governmental Body for the applicable Unadjusted Benchmark Replacement;
2)
if the applicable Unadjusted Benchmark Replacement is equivalent to the ISDA Fallback Rate, then the ISDA Fallback Adjustment; and
3)
the spread adjustment (which may be a positive or negative value or zero) that has been selected by the calculation agent, giving due consideration to any industry-accepted spread adjustment or method for calculating or determining such spread adjustment, for the replacement of the then-current Benchmark with the applicable Unadjusted Benchmark Replacement for U.S. dollar-denominated floating rate securities at such time.
“Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes” means, with respect to any Benchmark Replacement, any technical, administrative, or operational changes (including, without limitation, changes to the definition of “floating rate interest period,” timing and frequency of determining rates with respect to each floating rate interest period and making payments of interest, rounding of amounts or tenors, and other administrative matters) that the calculation agent determines may be appropriate to reflect the adoption of such Benchmark Replacement in a manner substantially consistent with market practice (or, if the calculation agent determines that adoption of any portion of such market practice is not administratively feasible or if the calculation agent determines that no market practice for use of the Benchmark Replacement exists, in such other manner as the calculation agent determines is reasonably necessary).
“Benchmark Replacement Date” means the earliest to occur of the following events with respect to the then-current Benchmark:
1)
in the case of clause (1) of the definition of “Benchmark Transition Event,” the relevant Reference Time in respect of any determination;
2)
in the case of clause (2) or (3) of the definition of “Benchmark Transition Event,” the later of (a) the date of the public statement or publication of information referenced therein and (b) the date on which the administrator of the Benchmark permanently or indefinitely ceases to provide the Benchmark; or
3)
in the case of clause (4) of the definition of “Benchmark Transition Event,” the date of the public statement or publication of information referenced therein.
For the avoidance of doubt, if the event giving rise to the Benchmark Replacement Date occurs on the same day as, but earlier than, the Reference Time in respect of any determination, the Benchmark Replacement Date will be deemed to have occurred prior to the Reference Time for such determination.
“Benchmark Transition Event” means the occurrence of one or more of the following events with respect to the then-current Benchmark:
 
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1)
if the Benchmark is Three-Month Term SOFR, (a) the Relevant Governmental Body has not selected or recommended a forward-looking term rate for a tenor of three months based on SOFR, (b) the development of a forward-looking term rate for a tenor of three months based on SOFR that has been recommended or selected by the Relevant Governmental Body is not complete or (c) we determine that the use of a forward-looking rate for a tenor of three months based on SOFR is not administratively feasible;
2)
a public statement or publication of information by or on behalf of the administrator of the Benchmark announcing that such administrator has ceased or will cease to provide the Benchmark, permanently or indefinitely, provided that, at the time of such statement or publication, there is no successor administrator that will continue to provide the Benchmark;
3)
a public statement or publication of information by the regulatory supervisor for the administrator of the Benchmark, the central bank for the currency of the Benchmark, an insolvency official with jurisdiction over the administrator for the Benchmark, a resolution authority with jurisdiction over the administrator for the Benchmark or a court or an entity with similar insolvency or resolution authority over the administrator for the Benchmark, which states that the administrator of the Benchmark has ceased or will cease to provide the Benchmark permanently or indefinitely, provided that, at the time of such statement or publication, there is no successor administrator that will continue to provide the Benchmark; or
4)
a public statement or publication of information by the regulatory supervisor for the administrator of the Benchmark announcing that the Benchmark is no longer representative.
“Compounded SOFR” means the compounded average of SOFRs for the applicable Corresponding Tenor, with the rate, or methodology for this rate, and conventions for this rate being established by the calculation agent in accordance with:
1)
the rate, or methodology for this rate, and conventions for this rate selected or recommended by the Relevant Governmental Body for determining Compounded SOFR; provided that:
2)
if, and to the extent that, the calculation agent determines that Compounded SOFR cannot be determined in accordance with clause (1) above, then the rate, or methodology for this rate, and conventions for this rate that have been selected by the calculation agent giving due consideration to any industry-accepted market practice for U.S. dollar-denominated floating rate securities at such time.
For the avoidance of doubt, the calculation of Compounded SOFR will exclude the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment and the spread specified above.
“Interpolated Benchmark” with respect to the Benchmark means the rate determined by the calculation agent for the Corresponding Tenor by interpolating on a linear basis between: (i) the Benchmark for the longest period (for which the Benchmark is available) that is shorter than the Corresponding Tenor, and (ii) the Benchmark for the shortest period (for which the Benchmark is available) that is longer than the Corresponding Tenor.
“ISDA” means the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. or any successor.
“ISDA Definitions” means the 2006 ISDA Definitions published by ISDA, as amended or supplemented from time to time, or any successor definitional booklet for interest rate derivatives published from time to time.
“ISDA Fallback Adjustment” means the spread adjustment (which may be a positive or negative value or zero) that would apply for derivatives transactions referencing the ISDA Definitions to be determined upon the occurrence of an index cessation event with respect to the Benchmark for the applicable tenor.
“ISDA Fallback Rate” means the rate that would apply for derivatives transactions referencing the ISDA Definitions to be effective upon the occurrence of an index cessation date with respect to the Benchmark for the applicable tenor excluding the applicable ISDA Fallback Adjustment.
“Unadjusted Benchmark Replacement” means the Benchmark Replacement excluding the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment.
 
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The terms “Corresponding Tenor,” “FRBNY’s Website,” “Reference Time,” “Relevant Governmental Body,” “SOFR” and “Term SOFR” have the meanings set forth under the heading “— Floating Rate Period” above.
Determinations and Decisions
We and the calculation agent are expressly authorized to make certain determinations, decisions, and elections under the terms of the Notes, including with respect to the use of Three-Month Term SOFR as the Benchmark for the floating rate period and under the benchmark transition provisions. Any determination, decision, or election that may be made by us or by the calculation agent under the terms of the Notes, including any determination with respect to a tenor, rate, or adjustment or of the occurrence or non-occurrence of an event, circumstance, or date and any decision to take or refrain from taking any action or any selection:

will be conclusive and binding on the holders of the Notes, us (if we are not also making the decision) and the Trustee absent manifest error;

if made by us, will be made in our sole discretion;

if made by a calculation agent other than us, will be made after consultation with us, and the calculation agent will not make any such determination, decision, or election to which we reasonably object; and

notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the Indenture or the Notes, will become effective without consent from the holders of the Notes or the Trustee or any other person.
If the calculation agent fails to make any determination, decision, or election that it is required to make under the terms of the applicable Notes, then we will make such determination, decision, or election on the same basis as described above. In connection with such determination, decision, or election, the Company will be treated as the calculation agent for all purposes under the terms of the Indenture. The Indenture will provide that the Trustee will have no liability relating to any delay caused by the calculation agent’s failure to timely or appropriately determine the rate of interest borne by the Notes.
Modification of the Indenture
The Indenture provides that we and the Trustee may amend or supplement the Indenture or the Notes with, or, in certain cases, without the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Notes; provided, that any amendment or waiver may not, without the consent of the holder of each outstanding Note affected thereby:

extend the fixed maturity of any notes, or reduce the principal amount thereof or premium, if any, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, without the consent of the holder of each note so affected,

reduce the percentage of notes, the consent of the holders of which is required for any such supplemental indenture, without the consent of the holders of all notes then outstanding,

modify the subordination provisions in a manner adverse to the holders of such notes, or

modify any of the above provisions.
In addition, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Notes may, on behalf of all holders of Notes, waive compliance by us with certain terms, conditions and provisions of the Indenture, as well as any past default and/or the consequences of default, other than (i) any default in the payment of principal of or interest on any Note (provided that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Notes may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration) or (ii) any breach in respect of a covenant or provision that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding Note.
In addition, we and the Trustee may modify and amend the Indenture without the consent of any holders of Notes for any of the following purposes:

to evidence the succession of another person to FFIC as obligor under the Indenture and the assumption by any such successor of the covenants and obligations of FFIC in the Indenture and in the Notes;
 
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to add to the covenants of FFIC such further covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions shall be for the protection of the holders of the Notes and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any of such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default permitting the enforcement of all or any of the several remedies provided in the Indenture, with such period of grace, if any, and subject to such conditions as such supplemental indenture may provide;

to establish the form of the Notes and to provide for the issuance of any other series of notes under the Indenture;

to add any additional Events of Default with respect to all or any series of notes;

to establish the form of the Notes and to provide for the issuance of any other series of notes under the Indenture;

to supplement any of the provisions of the Indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance, covenant defeasance and/or satisfaction and discharge of any series of notes pursuant to Article 14 of the Indenture, provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of any holder of a note of such series or any other nots in any material respect

to add or change any of the provisions of the Indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the issuance of notes in uncertificated or global form;

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations or restrictions on issue, authentication and delivery of notes of any series;

to modify, eliminate or add to the provisions of the Indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to effect the qualification of the Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act, or under any similar federal statute hereafter enacted, and to add to the Indenture such other provisions as may be expressly permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, excluding certain provisions thereof;

to modify, eliminate or add to the provisions of the Indenture, if the change or elimination (i) becomes effective only when there are no debt securities outstanding of any series created prior to the change or elimination that are entitled to the benefit of the changed or eliminated provision or (ii) shall not apply to the any debt securities outstanding at the time of such change or elimination;

to conform the Indenture or the Notes to the description thereof in the related prospectus, offering memorandum or disclosure document (as provided in an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee);

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the Indenture which may be defective or inconsistent with any other provisions contained in the Indenture;

to add guarantees with respect to, or to secure, any series of notes;

to evidence and provide for the acceptance and appointment hereunder by a successor trustee with respect to the Notes of one or more series and to add or change any provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee; or

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of notes of any series issued under the Indenture, including provisions necessary or desirable to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts thereunder.
The Trustee shall be entitled to receive an officer’s certificate and opinion of counsel confirming that all conditions precedent are satisfied with respect to any supplemental indenture, that such supplemental indenture is authorized and permitted and that such supplemental indenture is the legal, valid and binding obligation of FFIC, enforceable against it in accordance with its terms.
Calculation Agent
We will appoint a calculation agent for the Notes (which may be us or an affiliate) prior to the commencement of the floating rate period. We will act as the initial calculation agent. We may remove the calculation agent at any time. If the calculation agent is unable or unwilling to act as calculation agent or is removed by us, we will promptly appoint a replacement calculation agent. If at any time there is no calculation agent appointed by us, then we will be the calculation agent.
 
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Clearance and Settlement
DTC or any successor depositary will act as securities depositary for the Notes. The Notes will be issued initially in the form of one or more fully registered global notes (each such global note, a “global note”), registered in the name of DTC or its nominee and deposited with DTC or its designated custodian or such other depositary as any officer of the Company may designate. No holder of any beneficial interest in any global note held on its behalf by a depositary will have any rights under the indenture with respect to such global note, and such depositary may be treated by the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee as the owner of such global note for all purposes whatsoever. Beneficial interests in the global notes will be represented through book-entry accounts of financial institutions acting on behalf of beneficial owners as direct and indirect participants in DTC. Investors may not elect to receive a certificate representing their Notes while the Notes are held by a depositary. Investors may elect to hold interests in the global notes through DTC either directly if they are participants in DTC or indirectly through organizations that are participants in DTC.
The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. These laws may impair the ability to transfer beneficial interests in the Notes, so long as global notes represent the corresponding securities.
DTC has advised us that it is a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law, a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law, a member of the Federal Reserve System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code and a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act. DTC holds securities that its direct participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the post-trade settlement among participants of sales and other securities transactions in deposited securities, through electronic computerized book-entry transfers and pledges between participants’ accounts. This eliminates the need for physical movement of securities certificates. Direct participants include both U.S. and non-U.S. securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations. DTC is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, which, in turn, is owned by a number of direct participants of DTC. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, referred to as indirect participants, such as both U.S. and non-U.S. securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies and clearing corporations that clear through or maintain a direct or indirect custodial relationship with a direct participant. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.
Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants in DTC, who will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of each beneficial owner of securities will be recorded on the direct or indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchase. Beneficial owners are, however, expected to receive written confirmations providing details of the transaction, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participant through which the beneficial owner entered into the transaction. Under a book-entry format, holders may experience some delay in their receipt of payments made with respect to the Notes, as such, the paying agent for the Notes will forward payments to Cede & Co., as nominee for DTC. DTC will forward the payments to its participants, who will then forward them to indirect participants or holders. Beneficial owners of securities other than DTC or its nominees will not be recognized by the relevant registrar, transfer agent, paying agent or trustee as registered holders of the Notes entitled to the benefits of the Indenture. Beneficial owners that are not participants will be permitted to exercise their rights only indirectly through and according to the procedures of participants and, if applicable, indirect participants.
To facilitate subsequent transfers, all securities deposited by direct participants with DTC are registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other DTC nominee do not result in any change in beneficial ownership of those securities. DTC does not have, and is not anticipated to have, any knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the Notes, as DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the Notes are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The direct and indirect participants will remain responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.
Conveyance of redemption notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants, and by direct and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be
 
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governed by arrangements among them, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect from time to time. If less than all of the securities of any class are being redeemed, DTC will determine the amount of the interest of each direct participant to be redeemed in accordance with its then current procedures.
Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (nor any other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to any securities unless authorized by a direct participant in accordance with DTC’s procedures. Under its usual procedures, DTC mails an omnibus proxy to the issuer as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns Cede & Co.’s consenting or voting rights to those direct participants to whose accounts securities are credited on the record date (identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy).
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the Notes at any time by giving reasonable notice to the issuer or its agent. Under these circumstances, in the event that a successor securities depositary is not obtained, certificates for the Notes are required to be printed and delivered. We may decide to discontinue the use of the system of book-entry-only transfers through DTC (or a successor securities depositary). In that event, certificates for the Notes will be printed and delivered to DTC.
As long as DTC or its nominee is the registered owner of the global note representing the Notes, DTC or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner and holder of that global note and all Notes represented by that global note for all purposes under the instruments governing the rights and obligations of holders of such securities. Except in the limited circumstances referred to in the accompanying prospectus, owners of beneficial interests in the global note:

will not be entitled to have such global note or the Notes represented by that global note registered in their names;

will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of securities certificates in exchange for beneficial interests; and

will not be considered to be owners or holders of that global note or any Notes represented by that global note for any purpose under the instruments governing the rights and obligations of holders of such securities.
Payment of redemption proceeds and payments of principal of, and interest on, the Notes represented by the global note and all transfers and deliveries of such global note will be made to DTC or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered holder of the global note. DTC’s practice is to credit its direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from the issuer or its agent, on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC’s records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners of the Notes will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices of those participants, as is the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of that participant and not of DTC, the depositary, the issuer, the Trustee, the paying agent or any of their respective agents, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds and payments of principal of, or interest on, the Notes to Cede & Co. (or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC) are the responsibility of the issuer or its agent, disbursement of such payments to direct participants will be the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of such payments to the beneficial owners of the Notes will be the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.
Ownership of beneficial interests in the global note will be limited to participants or persons that may hold beneficial interests through institutions that have accounts with DTC or its nominee. Ownership of beneficial interests in the global note will be shown only on, and the transfer of those ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC or its nominee, with respect to participants’ interests, or any participant, with respect to interests of persons held by the participant on their behalf. Payments, transfers, deliveries, exchanges, redemptions and other matters relating to beneficial interests in the global note may be subject to various policies and procedures adopted by DTC from time to time. None of the Company, the Trustee or any agent for any of them will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of DTC’s or any direct or indirect participant’s records relating to, or for payments made on account of, beneficial interests in the global note, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any of DTC’s records or any direct or indirect participant’s records relating to these beneficial ownership interests.
 
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Although DTC has agreed to the foregoing procedures in order to facilitate transfer of interests in the global note among participants, DTC is under no obligation to perform or continue to perform these procedures, and these procedures may be discontinued at any time. Neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any agent for either of them will have any responsibility for the performance by DTC or its direct participants or indirect participants under the rules and procedures governing DTC or the standby instructions or customary procedures of the participants.
Because DTC can act only on behalf of direct participants, who in turn act only on behalf of direct or indirect participants, and certain banks, trust companies and other persons approved by it, the ability of a beneficial owner of the Notes to pledge them to persons or entities that do not participate in the DTC system may be limited due to the unavailability of physical certificates for the Notes.
DTC has advised us that it will take any action permitted to be taken by a registered holder of any securities under the Indenture only at the direction of one or more participants to whose accounts with DTC the relevant securities are credited.
The information in this section concerning DTC and its book-entry system has been obtained from sources that we believe to be accurate, but we assume no responsibility for the accuracy thereof.
Trustee
Wilmington Trust, National Association, will act as Trustee under the Indenture. The Trustee has all of the duties and responsibilities specified under the Trust Indenture Act. The Trustee is not obligated to exercise any of its rights or powers under the Indenture at the request or direction of the holders of the Notes, unless the holders have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to the Trustee. From time to time, we, and one or more of our subsidiaries, may maintain deposit accounts and conduct other banking transactions, including lending transactions, with Wilmington Trust, National Association in the ordinary course of business. Additionally, we maintain banking relationships with Wilmington Trust, National Association and its affiliates in the ordinary course of business. These banking relationships include Wilmington Trust, National Association serving as trustee under indentures involving certain of our trust preferred securities and our outstanding subordinated notes.
Governing Law
The Notes and the Indenture pursuant to which such notes will be issued are governed by, and will be construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.
Notices
Notwithstanding any other provision of the Indenture or any Note, where the Indenture or any Note provides for notice of any event or any other communication (including any notice of redemption or repurchase) to a holder of a Note (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice will be sufficiently given if given to DTC (or its designee) pursuant to the applicable procedures from DTC or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with accepted practices at DTC.
 
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CERTAIN ERISA CONSIDERATIONS
The following is a summary of certain considerations associated with the purchase and holding of the Notes by (1) employee benefit plans subject to Title I of the U.S. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, which we refer to as “ERISA”, (2) plans, individual retirement accounts and other arrangements subject to Section 4975 of the Code, (3) plans subject to any federal, state, local, non-U.S. or other laws or regulations that are similar to Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, which we collectively refer to as “Similar Laws”, and (4) entities whose underlying assets are considered to include “plan assets” of such employee benefit plans, plans or arrangements (each of which we call a “Plan”).
Each fiduciary of a Plan should consider the fiduciary standards of ERISA, to the extent applicable, or any applicable Similar Laws in the context of the Plan’s particular circumstances before authorizing an investment in the Notes. Accordingly, among other factors, the fiduciary should consider whether the investment would satisfy the prudence and diversification requirements of ERISA, to the extent applicable, or any applicable Similar Laws and would be consistent with the documents and instruments governing the Plan.
In addition, Section 406 of ERISA and Section 4975 of the Code prohibit Plans subject to such provisions, which we call “ERISA Plans”, from engaging in certain transactions involving “plan assets” with persons that are “parties in interest” under ERISA or “disqualified persons” under Section 4975 of the Code with respect to the ERISA Plan. A violation of these “prohibited transaction” rules may result in an excise tax for such persons or other liabilities under ERISA and/or Section 4975 of the Code, unless exemptive relief is available under an applicable statutory or administrative exemption. Employee benefit plans that are governmental plans (as defined in Section 3(32) of ERISA), certain church plans (as defined in Section 3(33) of ERISA) and non-U.S. plans (as described in Section 4(b)(4) of ERISA) are not subject to the requirements of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, but may be subject to Similar Laws.
As a result of our business, we and certain of our affiliates may be considered parties in interest or disqualified persons with respect to many ERISA Plans. Prohibited transactions within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code could arise if the Notes were acquired by an ERISA Plan with respect to which an underwriter or we or our affiliate is a party in interest or a disqualified person. For example, if any underwriter or we are a party in interest or disqualified person with respect to an investing ERISA Plan (either directly or, in our case, by reason of our ownership of our subsidiaries), the purchase of any Notes by an ERISA Plan could result in a sale or exchange that is prohibited by Section 406(a)(1)(A) of ERISA and Section 4975(c)(1)(A) of the Code or lending of money or other extension of credit that is prohibited by Section 406(a)(1)(B) of ERISA and Section 4975(c)(1)(B) of the Code, unless exemptive relief were available under an applicable exemption (see below).
The U.S. Department of Labor has issued prohibited transaction class exemptions, or PTCEs, that may provide exemptive relief for direct or indirect prohibited transactions resulting from the purchase, holding or disposition of the Notes. Those class exemptions include:

PTCE 96-23 — for certain transactions determined by in-house asset managers;

PTCE 95-60 — for certain transactions involving insurance company general accounts;

PTCE 91-38 — for certain transactions involving bank collective investment funds;

PTCE 90-1 — for certain transactions involving insurance company pooled accounts; and

PTCE 84-14 — for certain transactions determined by independent qualified professional asset managers.
In addition, ERISA Section 408(b)(17) and Section 4975(d)(20) of the Code provides an exemption for transactions between an ERISA Plan and a party in interest or disqualified person, provided that the party in interest or disqualified person is not a fiduciary (or an affiliate) who has or exercises any discretionary authority or control with respect to the investment of the ERISA Plan assets involved in the transaction or renders investment advice with respect to those assets, and is a party in interest or disqualified person solely by reason of being a service provider to the ERISA Plan or having a relationship to a service provider to the ERISA Plan and provided, further that the ERISA Plan pays no more, nor receives no less, than adequate consideration in connection with the transaction (the so-called “service provider exemption”). No assurance
 
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can be made that any such exemptions will be available, or that all of the conditions of any such exemptions will be satisfied, with respect to transactions involving the Notes.
Because of the possibility that direct or indirect prohibited transactions or violations of Similar Laws could occur as a result of the purchase, holding or disposition of the Notes by a Plan, the Notes may not be purchased by any Plan, or any person investing the assets of any Plan, unless its purchase, holding and disposition of the Notes will not constitute or result in a non-exempt prohibited transaction under ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code or a violation of any Similar Laws. Any purchaser or holder of the Notes or any interest in the Notes will be deemed to have represented by its purchase and holding of the Notes that either:

it is not a Plan and is not purchasing the Notes or interest in the Notes on behalf of or with the assets of any Plan; or

its purchase, holding and disposition of the Notes or interest in the Notes will not constitute or result in a non-exempt prohibited transaction under ERISA or the Code or a violation of any Similar Laws.
Due to the complexity of these rules and the penalties imposed upon persons involved in non-exempt prohibited transactions, it is important that any person considering the purchase of the Notes on behalf of or with the assets of any Plan consult with its counsel regarding the consequences under ERISA, the Code and any applicable Similar Laws of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of the Notes, whether any exemption would be applicable, and whether all conditions of such exemption would be satisfied such that the acquisition and holding of the Notes by the Plan would be entitled to full exemptive relief thereunder.
Nothing herein will be construed as, and the sale of the Notes to a Plan is in no respect, a representation or advice by us or the underwriters (or any of our or their affiliates) as to whether any investment in the Notes would meet any or all of the relevant legal requirements with respect to investment by, or is appropriate for, Plans generally or any particular Plan. The foregoing discussion is merely a summary and should not be construed as legal advice or as complete in all relevant respects.
 
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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
This section describes the material U.S. federal income tax considerations of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of the Notes we are offering. It is not a complete analysis of all the potential tax considerations relating to the Notes. This summary is based upon the provisions of the Code, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and currently effective administrative rulings and judicial decisions. These authorities may be changed, perhaps with retroactive effect, so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those set forth below.
This summary is limited to beneficial owners (referred to in this summary as holders) of the Notes that purchase the Notes upon their initial issuance at their “issue price” ​(i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the Notes is sold for cash to investors (excluding sales to bond houses, brokers or similar persons or organizations acting in the capacity as underwriters, placement agents or wholesalers)) and that will hold the Notes as capital assets within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This summary does not address the tax considerations arising under the laws of any foreign, state or local jurisdiction. In addition, this discussion does not address any alternative minimum or Medicare contribution tax considerations, nor does it address all U.S. federal income tax considerations that may be applicable to holders’ particular circumstances or to holders that may be subject to special tax rules, such as, for example:

banks, insurance companies, or other financial institutions;

real estate investment trusts;

regulated investment companies;

controlled foreign corporations and their shareholders;

passive foreign investment companies and their shareholders;

tax-exempt organizations;

qualified retirement plans, individual retirement accounts and other deferred compensation arrangements;

governmental entities;

brokers and dealers in securities;

certain U.S. expatriates;

traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings;

U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

holders subject to the special tax accounting rules under Section 451 of the Code;

persons that will hold the Notes as a position in a hedging transaction, wash sale, straddle, conversion transaction or other risk reduction or synthetic transaction; and

entities or arrangements classified as partnerships or S corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes or other pass-through entities, or investors in such entities.
If an entity or arrangement classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds the Notes, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are an entity or arrangement classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes that will hold Notes or a partner of such a partnership, you are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of holding the Notes to you.
This summary of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations is for general information only and is not tax advice. You are urged to consult your tax advisor with respect to the application of U.S. federal income tax laws to your particular situation as well as any tax considerations arising under other U.S. federal tax laws (such as the estate or gift tax laws) or under the laws of any state, local, foreign or other taxing jurisdiction or under any applicable tax treaty.
 
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U.S. Holders
This subsection describes the tax considerations for a “U.S. holder.” You are a “U.S. holder” if you are a beneficial owner of a Note and you are:

an individual citizen or resident of the United States;

a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

a trust that (1) is subject to the supervision of a court within the United States if one or more “United States persons” ​(as defined in the Code) have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust, or (2) has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a “United States person.”
Payments of interest and original discount on the Notes.   The Notes will initially bear interest at a fixed annual rate. Subsequent to the fixed rate period, the Notes will bear interest at the Benchmark Rate, which is expected to be the Three-Month Term SOFR, plus a fixed spread. The Notes should be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as variable rate debt instruments that provide for a single fixed rate followed by a single “qualified floating rate.” A qualified floating rate is any variable rate where variations in the value of such rate can reasonably be expected to measure contemporaneous variations in the cost of newly borrowed funds in the currency in which the debt instrument is denominated. Under this characterization, payments treated as qualified stated interest on the Notes generally will be taxable to U.S. holders as ordinary interest income at the time such interest payments are accrued or received, depending on the U.S. holder’s regular method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Qualified stated interest generally means stated interest that is unconditionally payable in cash at least annually at a single fixed rate, but as discussed below, special rules are applicable to a variable rate debt instrument.
For U.S. federal income tax purposes, original issue discount is the excess of the stated redemption price at maturity of a debt instrument over its issue price (as defined above) if such excess equals or exceeds a specified de minimis amount (generally 1/4 of 1% of the debt instrument’s stated redemption price at maturity multiplied by the number of complete years to maturity of such debt instrument). The stated redemption price at maturity of a debt instrument is the sum of all payments provided by the debt instrument other than payments of qualified stated interest. A U.S. holder (regardless of its method of tax accounting) will be required to include original issue discount in ordinary income as it accrues in accordance with a constant yield method based on a compounding of interest. Any amounts included in income as original issue discount with respect to a Note will increase a U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in the Note.
Under applicable Treasury Regulations, to determine the amount of qualified stated interest and original issue discount in respect of variable rate debt instruments such as the Notes, an equivalent fixed rate debt instrument must be constructed. The equivalent fixed rate debt instrument is a hypothetical instrument that has terms that are identical to those of the Notes, except that the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument provides for fixed rate substitutes in lieu of the actual rates on the Notes. The equivalent fixed rate debt instrument for the Notes is constructed in the following fashion: (1) first, the initial fixed rate is replaced with a qualified floating rate such that the fair market value of the Notes as of the Notes’ issue date would be approximately the same as the fair market value of an otherwise identical debt instrument that provides for the replacement qualified floating rate rather than the fixed rate, and (2) second, each qualified floating rate (including the qualified floating rate determined under (1) above) is converted into a fixed rate substitute (which, in each case, generally will be the value of each qualified floating rate as of the issue date of the Notes).
After the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument has been constructed pursuant to the foregoing rules, the amount of qualified stated interest and original issue discount, if any, are determined for the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument by applying the general original issue discount rules to the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument, and a U.S. holder of the Notes will account for such original issue discount, if any, and qualified stated interest as if the U.S. holder held the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument. For each accrual period, appropriate adjustments will be made to the amount of qualified state interest or original issue discount
 
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assumed to have been accrued or paid with respect to the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument in the event that such amounts differ from the actual amount of interest accrued or paid on the Notes during the accrual period.
The Treasury Regulations provide special rules for determining the yield and maturity of a debt instrument, such as the Notes, that provide an issuer with an unconditional option to redeem the instrument at specified times. The Treasury Regulations generally deem an issuer to exercise a redemption option in a manner that minimizes the yield on the debt instrument for purposes of determining whether a debt instrument is issued with original issue discount. If, as of the issue date, the initial fixed rate substitute on the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument (as determined in the manner described above) is equal to or greater than the fixed rate substitute of the floating rate (as determined in the manner described above), the Notes will be presumed not to be redeemed, and the qualified stated interest and original issue discount with respect to the Notes will be calculated as described above. Under such circumstances, the Notes may be issued with original issue discount. If, however, as of the issue date, the initial fixed rate substitute on the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument (as determined in the manner described above) is less than the fixed rate substitute of the floating rate (as determined in the manner described above), the yield on the Notes will be minimized if the Notes are redeemed immediately before the change in the interest rate at the end of the fixed rate period, and, therefore, the Notes will be treated as maturing on such date and issued without original issue discount. This presumption is made solely for purposes of determining whether the Notes are issued with original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes and is not an indication of our intention to redeem or not to redeem the Notes at any time. If, contrary to this presumption, the Notes are not redeemed prior to the change in the interest rate at the end of the fixed rate period, then, solely for original issue discount purposes, the Notes will be deemed to be reissued at their adjusted issue price on the date that they are not redeemed, and therefore as issued without original issue discount. This deemed reissuance should not give rise to taxable gain or loss to U.S. holders.
Sale, exchange, retirement or other taxable disposition.   Upon the sale, exchange, retirement or other taxable disposition of a Note, a U.S. holder will recognize taxable gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized on such disposition (except to the extent any amount realized is attributable to accrued but unpaid interest, which will be treated as a payment of interest) and the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the Note. U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in a Note generally will be its cost increased by the amounts of any original issue discount previously included in income by the U.S. holder with respect to the Note and decreased by any payments (other than amounts treated as qualified stated interest received) on the Note. Gain or loss recognized on the disposition of a Note generally will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if, at the time of the disposition, the U.S. holder’s holding period for the Note is more than one year. Long-term capital gains of non-corporate taxpayers are generally eligible for preferential rates of taxation. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to certain limitations.
Information reporting and backup withholding.   Information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with payments on the Notes and proceeds received from a sale or other disposition of the Notes unless the U.S. holder is an exempt recipient. U.S. holder may also be subject to backup withholding on these payments in respect of the U.S. holder’s Notes unless the U.S. holder provides a taxpayer identification number and otherwise complies with applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules or the U.S. holder provides proof of an applicable exemption. Amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules are not additional taxes and may be refunded or credited against the U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Non-U.S. Holders
This subsection describes the tax considerations for a “non-U.S. holder.” You are a “non-U.S. holder” if you are the beneficial owner of a Note that is not an entity or arrangement classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes (which, as indicated above, we do not address herein) and is:

a nonresident alien individual;

a foreign corporation; or

an estate or trust that in either case is not subject to United States federal income tax on a net income basis on income or gain from the Notes.
 
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Payments of interest. Subject to the discussion under “— Information reporting and backup withholding” and “— FATCA” below, payments of principal and interest on the Notes to a non-U.S. holder generally will be exempt from U.S. federal income or withholding tax if, in the case of the payments of interest:

the non-U.S. holder does not own, actually or constructively, 10% or more of the combined voting power of all classes of our stock entitled to vote;
��

the non-U.S. holder is not a “controlled foreign corporation” for U.S. federal income tax purposes that is related to us through stock ownership;

the non-U.S. holder certifies under penalties of perjury on IRS Form W-8BEN or, if applicable, W-8BEN-E that the non-U.S. holder is not a United States person (or, in the case of Notes held by a foreign intermediary (other than a “qualified intermediary”), the foreign intermediary provides IRS Form W-8IMY with the required attachments, including an appropriate certification by each beneficial owner of Notes); and

the non-U.S. holder is not receiving such interest as income effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States.
If a non-U.S. holder cannot satisfy one of the first three requirements described above and interest on the Notes is not exempt from withholding because it is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is attributable to the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. permanent establishment or fixed base), as described below, payments of interest on the Notes will be subject to withholding tax at a rate of 30%, or the rate specified by an applicable treaty.
Sale, exchange or other taxable disposition.   Subject to the discussions of FATCA and information reporting and backup withholding below, a non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax on gain realized on a sale, redemption or other taxable disposition of Notes, unless the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is attributable to the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. permanent establishment or fixed base), as described below. However, any proceeds attributable to accrued interest will be treated as described in “— Payments of interest” above.
Income or gain effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business.   If interest or gain on the Notes is effectively connected with a non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment or fixed base maintained by a non-U.S. holder), a non-U.S. holder will generally be taxed in the same manner as a U.S. holder. In this case, a non-U.S. holder will be exempt from the withholding tax on interest discussed above, although a non-U.S. holder will be required to provide a properly executed IRS Form W-8ECI in order to claim an exemption from withholding. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors with respect to other U.S. tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of Notes, including the possible imposition of a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or a lower treaty rate) if the non-U.S. holder is a corporation.
Information reporting and backup withholding.   Information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with payments of interest on the Notes. Unless the non-U.S. holder complies with certification procedures to establish that the non-U.S. holder is not a United States person, information returns may also be filed with the IRS in connection with the proceeds from a sale or other disposition of a note. A non-U.S. holder may be subject to backup withholding on payments on the Notes or on the proceeds from a sale or other disposition of the Notes unless the non-U.S. holder complies with certification procedures to establish that a non-U.S. holder is not a United States person or otherwise establish an exemption. The certification procedures required to claim the exemption from withholding tax on interest described above will satisfy the certification requirements necessary to avoid backup withholding as well.
Amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules are not additional taxes and may be refunded or credited against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
FATCA.   Provisions commonly referred to as “FATCA” impose withholding of 30% on payments of interest on the Notes and on payments of gross proceeds of sales or redemptions of the Notes to “foreign financial institutions” ​(which is broadly defined for this purpose and in general includes investment vehicles
 
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and financial intermediaries) and certain other non-U.S. entities unless various U.S. information reporting and due diligence requirements (generally relating to ownership by U.S. persons of interests in or accounts with those entities) have been satisfied, or an exemption applies. However, proposed Treasury Regulations (the preamble to which specifies that taxpayers are permitted to rely on them pending finalization) eliminate the withholding requirement on payments of gross proceeds of a taxable disposition (other than any amount treated as interest). Holders are encouraged to consult with their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of FATCA on their investment in the Notes.
The discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations set forth above is included for general information only and may not be applicable depending upon a holder’s particular situation. Prospective purchasers of the Notes are urged to consult their own tax advisors with respect to the tax consequences to them of the purchase, ownership and disposition of Notes, including the tax consequences under state, local, estate, foreign and other tax laws and the possible effects of changes in U.S. or other tax laws.
 
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UNDERWRITING
We have entered into an underwriting agreement with Piper Sandler & Co., D.A. Davidson & Co. and RBC Capital Markets, LLC (collectively, the “underwriters”) with respect to the Notes being offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement. Subject to certain conditions, each underwriter has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase the aggregate principal amount of Notes set forth next to its name in the following table.
Underwriters
Principal Amount
of Notes
Piper Sandler & Co.$      
D.A. Davidson & Co.$
RBC Capital Markets, LLC$
Total$
The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the underwriters are subject to certain conditions precedent such as the receipt by the underwriters of officers’ certificates and legal opinions and approval of certain legal matters by its counsel. The underwriting agreement provides that the underwriters have agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase all of the Notes offered hereby if any of them are purchased. If an underwriter defaults, the underwriting agreement provides that the purchase commitments of the non-defaulting underwriters may be increased or the underwriting agreement may be terminated under certain circumstances. We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and to contribute to payments that the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.
The Notes will constitute a new class of securities with no established trading market. The underwriters have advised us that, following the completion of this offering, they currently intend to make a market in the Notes as permitted by applicable laws and regulations. However, the underwriters are not obligated to do so, and the underwriters may discontinue any market-making activities at any time without notice in their sole discretion. Accordingly, no assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for the Notes, that you will be able to sell any of the Notes held by you at a particular time or that the prices that you receive when you sell will be favorable.
The underwriters are offering the Notes offered hereby subject to their acceptance of such Notes from us and subject to prior sale. The underwriters reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part.
Commission and Expenses
Notes sold by the underwriters to the public will be offered at the public offering price set forth on the cover of this prospectus supplement. Any Notes sold by the underwriters to securities dealers may be sold at a discount from the initial public offering price not to exceed    % of the principal amount of the Notes. If all of the Notes are not sold at their applicable initial offering prices, the underwriters may change the offering prices and the other selling terms. The offering of the Notes by the underwriters is subject to receipt and acceptance and subject to the underwriters’ right to reject any order in whole or in part.
The following table shows the public offering price, the underwriting discounts and commissions that we are to pay the underwriters and the proceeds, before expenses, to us in connection with this offering (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount of the Notes offered hereby).
Per NoteTotal
Public offering price(1)
    %$    
Underwriting discounts and commissions paid by us(2)
%$
Proceeds to us, before expenses%$
(1)
Plus accrued interest, if any, from the original issue date.
(2)
We have agreed to reimburse the underwriters up to $200,000 for certain legal expenses in connection with this offering. Such reimbursement is deemed underwriter compensation by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”).
We estimate expenses payable by us in connection with this offering, other than, in each case, underwriting discounts and commissions, will be approximately $      .
 
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We expect that delivery of the Notes will be made against payment therefor on or about           , 2021, which will be the           business day following the date of pricing of the Notes, or “T+      .”  Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the Notes prior to the delivery of the Notes will be required, by virtue of the fact that the Notes initially settle in T+      , to specify an alternate settlement arrangement at the time of any such trade to prevent a failed settlement. Purchasers of the Notes who wish to trade the Notes prior to their date of delivery hereunder should consult their advisors.
No Listing
The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange or included in any automated quotation system.
No Sale of Similar Securities
We have agreed with the underwriters that for a period from the date of the underwriting agreement through and including the closing date of the offering, we and our subsidiaries will not, without the prior consent of Piper Sandler & Co., offer, sell, contract to sell or otherwise dispose of any debt securities issued or guaranteed by us or any of our subsidiaries.
Stabilization
In connection with this offering of the Notes, the underwriters may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions and syndicate covering transactions. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position for the underwriters. Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase the Notes in the open market for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the Notes. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the Notes in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover short positions. Stabilizing transactions and syndicate covering transactions may cause the price of the Notes to be higher than it would otherwise be in the absence of those transactions. If the underwriters engage in stabilizing or syndicate covering transactions, they may discontinue such activities at any time without notice.
Neither we nor any of the underwriters makes any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of the Notes. In addition, neither we nor any of the underwriters makes any representation that the underwriters will engage in these transactions or that these transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.
Other Activities and Relationships
The underwriters and certain of their affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. The underwriters or their affiliates have, from time to time, performed, and may in the future perform, various commercial and investment banking and financial advisory services for us and our affiliates, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses.
In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and certain of their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investment and securities activities may involve securities or instruments issued by us and our affiliates. If the underwriters or their affiliates have a lending relationship with us, they routinely hedge their credit exposure to us consistent with their customary risk management policies. The underwriters and their affiliates may hedge such exposure by entering into transactions which consist of either the purchase of credit default swaps or the creation of short positions in our securities or the securities of our affiliates, including potentially the Notes offered hereby. Any such short positions could adversely affect future trading prices of the Notes offered hereby. The underwriters and their affiliates may also communicate independent investment recommendations, market color or trading ideas or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long or short positions in such securities and instruments.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the Notes offered hereby will be passed upon for FFIC by Holland & Knight LLP, Washington, D.C. Certain legal matters related to the offering will be passed upon for the Underwriters by Covington & Burling LLP, New York, NY.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2020 and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, have been audited by BDO USA LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report appearing in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference. Such financial statements have been so incorporated in the reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
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PROSPECTUS
FLUSHING FINANCIAL CORPORATION
$400,000,000
Debt Securities
Preferred Stock
Depository Shares
Common Stock
Warrants
Units
These securities may be offered and sold from time to time by us in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $400,000,000 (or the equivalent in foreign currency or currency units). We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in these securities. This prospectus may not be used to sell securities unless accompanied by the applicable prospectus supplement and a pricing supplement, if any.
Flushing Financial Corporation’s common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “FFIC.”
Investing in the securities involves certain risks. See “ Risk Factors “ beginning on page 4 of this prospectus and on page 44 of our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated herein by reference, as well as any risk factors included in, or incorporated by reference into, the applicable prospectus supplement, to read about factors you should consider before buying any of our securities.
These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission or any state securities commission nor have these organizations determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
We may offer and sell the securities directly, through agents, dealers or underwriters as designated from time to time, or through a combination of these methods.
These securities are not savings accounts, deposits or other obligations of any bank. These securities are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental agency.
The date of this prospectus is November 12, 2021.

 
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In this prospectus, unless the context indicates otherwise, references to the “Holding Company” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to the activities and the assets and liabilities of Flushing Financial Corporation, including its subsidiaries.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This prospectus and other publicly available documents, including the documents incorporated herein by reference, may include and our representatives may from time to time make projections and statements which may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our business and management’s beliefs and assumptions. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by words such as “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “target,” “estimate,” “continue,” “positions,” “projections,” “goals,” “prospects” or “potential,” by future conditional verbs such as “will,” “would,” “should,” “could,” or “may,” or by variations of such words or by similar expressions. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions (“Future Factors”) which are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed or forecasted in such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made and we assume no duty to update forward-looking statements.
Future Factors include that:

the COVID-19 pandemic may significantly impact our financial condition and results of operations;

changes in interest rates may significantly impact our financial condition and results of operations;

our lending activities involve risks that may be exacerbated depending on the mix of loan types;

failure to effectively manage our liquidity could significantly impact our financial condition and results of operations;

our ability to obtain brokered deposits as an additional funding source could be limited

the markets in which we operate are highly competitive;

our results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in national and/or local economic conditions;

changes in laws and regulations could adversely affect our business;

current conditions in, and regulation of, the banking industry may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations;

a failure in or breach of our operational or security systems or infrastructure, or those of our third party vendors and other service providers, including as a result of cyberattacks, could disrupt our business, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses;

we may experience increased delays in foreclosure proceedings;

our inability to hire or retain key personnel could adversely affect our business;

we are not required to pay dividends on our common stock;

uncertainty surrounding the elimination of LIBOR and the proposed transition to SOFR may adversely affect our business; and

the ultimate success of integrating Empire Bancorp, Inc. (“Empire”) into our operations cannot be assured and the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the merger with Empire may not be fully realized.
These are representative of the Future Factors that could affect the outcome of the forward-looking statements. In addition, such statements could be affected by general industry and market conditions and growth rates, general economic and political conditions, either nationally or in the states in which Flushing
 
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and its subsidiaries do business, including interest rate and currency exchange rate fluctuations, changes and trends in the securities markets, and other Future Factors.
ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) utilizing a “shelf” registration process. The prospectus does not contain all information included in the registration statement. You may review a copy of the registration statement at the SEC’s Public Reference Room as well as through the SEC’s internet site, as described below. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer and sell the securities identified in this prospectus. Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain information about the terms of the offering and the securities being offered and, if necessary, a pricing supplement that will contain the specific terms of your securities. The prospectus supplement and, if necessary, the pricing supplement, may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. Any information contained in this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded by any inconsistent information contained in a prospectus supplement or a pricing supplement. You should read carefully this prospectus and any prospectus supplement and pricing supplement, together with the additional information described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov.
In this prospectus, as permitted by law, we “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with the SEC. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus and should be read with the same care. When we update the information contained in documents that have been incorporated by reference by making future filings with the SEC, the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus is considered to be automatically updated and superseded. In other words, in case of a conflict or inconsistency between information contained in this prospectus and information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, you should rely on the information contained in the document that was filed later.
We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any documents we file with the SEC in the future under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (other than those portions that may be “furnished” and not filed with the SEC) until our offering is completed:


Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2021, June 30, 2021 and September 30, 2021;

Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 5, 2021, April 1, 2021, May 19, 2021 (with respect to Item 5.07 therein), July 1, 2021 and October 4, 2021;


You may request a copy of any of these filings, other than an exhibit to a filing unless that exhibit is specifically incorporated by reference into that filing, at no cost, by writing to or telephoning us at the following address:
Flushing Financial Corporation
220 RXR Plaza
Uniondale, New York 11556
(718) 961-5400
ABOUT FLUSHING FINANCIAL CORPORATION
Flushing Financial Corporation is a Delaware corporation and is registered as a financial holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended. The principal executive offices of Flushing are located at 220 RXR Plaza, Uniondale, New York 11556. The telephone number for Flushing is (718) 961-5400.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves certain risks. Before you invest in any of our securities, in addition to the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus, you should carefully consider the risk factors contained in Item 1 under the caption “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated into this prospectus by reference, as updated by our annual or quarterly reports for subsequent fiscal years or fiscal quarters that we file with the SEC and that are so incorporated. See “Where You Can Find More Information” for information about how to obtain a copy of these documents. You should also carefully consider the risks and other information that may be contained in, or incorporated by reference into, any prospectus supplement relating to specific offerings of securities.
USE OF PROCEEDS
We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following summary discusses the material terms of our capital stock. This description is a summary only and not meant to be complete, but is qualified in its entirety by reference to the relevant provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”), charter and amended and restated bylaws. For more detailed information, you should refer to our charter and amended and restated bylaws, which we have filed with the SEC and are incorporating by reference herein, and the DGCL.
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 105,000,000 shares of capital stock, consisting of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. There were 30,676,195 shares of our common stock outstanding as of October 31, 2021. There currently are no other classes or series of preferred stock authorized or outstanding.
We are a Delaware corporation governed by the DGCL. Under Delaware law, stockholders generally are not responsible for a corporation’s debts or obligations.
DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
Each stockholder is entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. There is no cumulative voting for election of directors. In uncontested elections, director nominees must be elected by the majority of votes cast at the annual meeting of stockholders. Incumbent directors who fail to receive a majority of votes — and who would otherwise remain in office until a successor is elected under Delaware law — are required to offer a letter of resignation for consideration by the Board of Directors. Plurality voting applies if the number of nominees exceeds the number of open director positions.
Holders of our common stock vote together as a single class, except as otherwise provided by law. Holders of shares of our common stock have no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. All shares of common stock will, when issued, be fully paid and non-assessable.
Dividends
Subject to the DGCL and the rights of holders of any outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share dividends equally, share for share.
Certain Effects of Authorized but Unissued Stock
We have shares of common stock and preferred stock available for future issuance without stockholder approval. We may utilize these additional shares for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings to raise additional capital, facilitating corporate acquisitions or paying a dividend on the capital stock.
The existence of unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock may enable the Board of Directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management or to issue preferred stock with terms that could render more difficult or discourage a third party attempt to obtain control of our company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, thereby protecting the continuity of our management. In addition, if we issue preferred stock, the issuance could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation.
Certain Provisions Affecting Change in Control
Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, the Bank’s New York State charter and bylaws, certain federal regulations and provisions of Delaware corporation law, and certain provisions of remuneration plans and agreements applicable to employees and officers of the Bank may have anti-takeover effects by discouraging potential proxy contests and other takeover attempts, particularly those which have not been negotiated with the Board of Directors. Applicable regulatory restrictions may also prevent or inhibit the acquisition of a controlling position in our common stock and may prevent or inhibit takeover attempts that certain stockholders may deem to be in their or other stockholders’ interest or in
 
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our interest, or in which stockholders may receive a substantial premium for their shares over then current market prices. These provisions may also increase the cost of, and thus discourage, any such future acquisition or attempted acquisition, and would render the removal of our current Board of Directors or management more difficult.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
Computershare Trust Company, N.A., P.O. Box 30170, College Station, TX 77842-3170, is the transfer agent and registrar of our common stock.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
The following summary contains a description of the general terms of the preferred stock that we may issue. The specific terms of any series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series of preferred stock. The terms of any series of preferred stock may differ from the terms described below. Certain provisions of the preferred stock described below and in any prospectus supplement are not complete. You should refer to the amendment to our Certificate of Incorporation or the Certificate of Designation, with respect to the establishment of a series of preferred stock which would be filed with the SEC in connection with the offering of such series of preferred stock.
Our Certificate of Incorporation permits our board of directors to authorize the issuance of up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01, in one or more series, without stockholder action. The board of directors can fix the voting powers (if any) and designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or of the special rights of each series. Therefore, without stockholder approval, our board of directors can authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting, dividend, liquidation and conversion and other rights that could dilute the voting power of the common stock and may assist management in impeding any unfriendly takeover or attempted change in control. No preferred stock is currently outstanding.
The preferred stock has the terms described below unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of the preferred stock. You should read the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of the preferred stock being offered for specific terms, including:

the designation and stated value per share of the preferred stock and the number of shares offered;

the amount of the liquidation preference per share;

the price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

the dividend rate or method of calculation, the dates on which dividends will be payable, whether dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends will commence to accumulate;

any redemption or sinking fund provisions;

any conversion provisions;

the voting rights (if any) of holders of shares of the preferred stock;
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whether we have elected to offer depositary shares as described under “Description of Depositary Shares”; and

any other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions on the preferred stock.
The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and non-assessable. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of the preferred stock will rank equally as to dividends and liquidation rights in all respects with each other series of preferred stock. The rights of holders of shares of each series of preferred stock will be subordinate to those of our general creditors.
As described under “Description of Depositary Shares,” we may, at our option, with respect to any series of the preferred stock, elect to offer fractional interests in shares of preferred stock, and provide for
 
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the issuance of depositary receipts representing depositary shares, each of which will represent a fractional interest in a share of the series of the preferred stock. The fractional interest will be specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of the preferred stock.
Rank
Any series of the preferred stock will, with respect to the priority of the payment of dividends and the priority of payments upon liquidation, winding up, and dissolution, rank:

senior to all classes of common stock and all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that the equity securities will rank junior to the preferred stock (the “junior securities”);

equally with all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that the equity securities will rank equally with the preferred stock (the “parity securities”); and

junior to all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that the equity securities will rank senior to the preferred stock.
Dividends
Holders of the preferred stock of each series will be entitled to receive, when, as, and if declared by our board of directors, cash dividends at such rates and on such dates described, if any, in the prospectus supplement. Different series of preferred stock may be entitled to dividends at different rates or based on different methods of calculation. The dividend rate may be fixed or variable or both. Dividends will be payable to the holders of record as they appear on our stock books on record dates fixed by our board of directors, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Dividends on any series of the preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If our board of directors does not declare a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series of noncumulative preferred stock, then the holders of that noncumulative preferred stock will have no right to receive a dividend for that dividend payment date, and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for that period, whether or not dividends on that series are declared payable on any future dividend payment dates. Dividends on any series of cumulative preferred stock will accrue from the date we initially issue shares of such series or such other date specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Our ability to pay dividends on our preferred stock is subject to policies established by the Federal Reserve Board.
Rights Upon Liquidation
If we dissolve, liquidate, or wind up our affairs, either voluntarily or involuntarily, the holders of each series of preferred stock will be entitled to receive, before any payment or distribution of assets is made to holders of
junior securities, liquidating distributions in the amount described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series of the preferred stock. If the amounts payable with respect to the preferred stock of any series and any other parity securities are not paid in full, the holders of the preferred stock of that series and of the parity securities will share proportionately in the distribution of our assets in proportion to the full liquidation preferences to which they are entitled. After the holders of preferred stock and the parity securities are paid in full, they will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets.
Because we are a bank holding company, our rights, the rights of our creditors and of our stockholders, including the holders of the preferred stock offered by this prospectus, to participate in the assets of any subsidiary upon the subsidiary’s liquidation or recapitalization may be subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors except to the extent that we may ourselves be a creditor with recognized claims against the subsidiary.
 
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Redemption
We may provide that a series of the preferred stock may be redeemable, in whole or in part, at our option, with prior Federal Reserve Board approval, if required. In addition, a series of preferred stock may be subject to mandatory redemption pursuant to a sinking fund or otherwise. The redemption provisions that may apply to a series of preferred stock, including the redemption dates and the redemption prices for that series, will be described in the prospectus supplement.
In the event of partial redemptions of preferred stock, whether by mandatory or optional redemption, our board of directors will determine the method for selecting the shares to be redeemed, which may be by lot or pro rata or by any other method determined to be equitable.
On or after a redemption date, unless we default on the payment of the redemption price, dividends will cease to accrue on shares of preferred stock called for redemption. In addition, all rights of holders of the shares will terminate except for the right to receive the redemption price.
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement for any series of preferred stock, if any dividends on any other series of preferred stock ranking equally as to payment of dividends and liquidation rights with such series of preferred stock are in arrears, no shares of any such series of preferred stock may be redeemed, whether by mandatory or optional redemption, unless all shares of preferred stock are redeemed, and we will not purchase any shares of such series of preferred stock. This requirement, however, will not prevent us from acquiring such shares pursuant to a purchase or exchange offer made on the same terms to holders of all such shares outstanding.
Under current regulations, bank holding companies, except in certain narrowly defined circumstances, may not exercise any option to redeem shares of preferred stock included as Tier 1 capital without the prior approval of the Federal Reserve Board. Ordinarily, the Federal Reserve Board would not permit such a redemption unless (1) the shares are redeemed with the proceeds of a sale by the bank holding company of common stock or perpetual preferred stock, or (2) the Federal Reserve Board determines that the bank holding company’s condition and circumstances warrant the reduction of a source of permanent capital.
Voting Rights
Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the preferred stock will have no voting rights except as otherwise required by law or in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
Under regulations adopted by the Federal Reserve Board, if the holders of any series of the preferred stock are or become entitled to vote for the election of directors, such series may then be deemed a “class of voting
securities” and a holder of 25% or more of such series, or a holder of 5% or more if it otherwise exercises a “controlling influence” over us, may then be subject to regulation as a bank holding company in accordance with the Bank Holding Company Act. In addition, at such time as such series is deemed a class of voting securities, (a) any other bank holding company may be required to obtain the approval of the Federal Reserve Board to acquire or retain 5% or more of that series; and (b) any person other than a bank holding company may be required to obtain the approval of the Federal Reserve Board to acquire or retain 10% or more of that series.
Exchangeability
We may provide that the holders of shares of preferred stock of any series may be required at any time or at maturity to exchange those shares for our debt securities. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify the terms of any such exchange.
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
We may offer unsecured debt securities which may be senior, subordinated or junior subordinated, and which may be convertible. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, our debt securities will be issued in one or more series under one of two separate indentures. We have filed the form
 
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of subordinated indenture between us and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee, as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The subordinated indenture and any other indenture under which we may issue debt securities are sometimes referred to in this prospectus individually as an “indenture” and collectively as the “indenture.” We may issue debt securities under a separate new indenture. If that occurs, we will describe any differences in the terms of any such indenture in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The following description briefly sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities and does not purport to be complete. The particular terms of the debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement and the extent, if any, to which these general provisions may apply to the debt securities, will be described in the related prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of a particular issue of debt securities, you must refer to both the related prospectus supplement and to the following description. If any particular terms of such debt securities described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms of the debt securities generally described in this prospectus, then the terms described in the applicable prospectus supplement will supersede the terms described in this prospectus.
Debt Securities
The debt securities may be issued in one or more series as may be authorized from time to time. Reference is made to the applicable indenture and prospectus supplement for the following terms of the debt securities (if applicable):

title and aggregate principal amount;

whether the securities will be senior, subordinated or junior subordinated;

applicable subordination provisions, if any;

conversion or exchange into other securities;

percentage or percentages of principal amount at which such securities will be issued;

maturity date(s);

interest rate(s) or the method for determining the interest rate(s) and the method of computation of interest rate(s);

dates on which interest will accrue or the method for determining dates on which interest will accrue and dates on which interest will be payable;

redemption or early repayment provisions;

authorized denominations;

form of debt security;

amount of discount or premium, if any, with which such securities will be issued;

whether such securities will be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities;

identity of the depositary for global securities;

whether a temporary security is to be issued with respect to such series and whether any interest payable prior to the issuance of definitive securities of the series will be credited to the account of the persons entitled thereto;

the terms upon which beneficial interests in a temporary global security may be exchanged in whole or in part for beneficial interests in a definitive global security or for individual definitive securities;

any covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued;

any defaults and events of default applicable to the particular debt securities being issued;

currency, currencies or currency units in which the purchase price for, the principal of and any premium and any interest on, such securities will be payable;
 
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time period within which, the manner in which and the terms and conditions upon which the purchaser of the securities can select the payment currency;

securities exchange(s) on which the securities will be listed, if any;

whether any underwriter(s) will act as market maker(s) for the securities;

extent to which a secondary market for the securities is expected to develop;

our obligation or right to redeem, purchase or repay securities under a sinking fund, amortization or analogous provision;

provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture; and

additional terms not inconsistent with the provisions of the indenture.
General
One or more series of debt securities may be sold at a substantial discount below their stated principal amount, bearing no interest or interest at a rate which at the time of issuance is below market rates. One or more series of debt securities may be variable rate debt securities that may be exchanged for fixed rate debt securities.
We will describe the U.S. federal income tax consequences and special considerations, if any, applicable to any such series in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Debt securities may be issued where the amount of principal and/or interest payable is determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity indices or other factors. Holders of such securities may receive a principal amount or a payment of interest that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending upon the value of the applicable currencies, commodities, equity indices or other factors. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest, if any, payable on any date, the currencies, commodities, equity indices or other factors to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain additional U.S. federal income tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The term “debt securities” includes debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars or, if specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, in any other freely transferable currency or units based on or relating to foreign currencies.
Subject to the limitations provided in the indenture and in the prospectus supplement, you may transfer or exchange debt securities that we issue in registered form at our corporate office or the principal corporate trust office of the trustee, without the payment of any service charge, other than any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith.
Global Securities
We may issue the debt securities of a series in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that we will deposit with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. We will issue global securities in registered form and in either temporary or definitive form. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for the individual debt securities, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary for such global security to a nominee of such depositary or by a nominee of such depositary to such depositary or another nominee of such depositary or by such depositary, or any such nominee to a successor of such depositary or a nominee of such successor. We will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any debt securities of a series and the rights of and limitations upon owners of beneficial interests in a global security in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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Payment and Paying Agents
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, payment of interest on a debt security on any interest payment date will be made to the person in whose name such debt security (or one or more predecessor debt securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest.
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series will be payable at the office of a paying agent or paying agents as we may designate for such purpose from time to time, except that at our option payment of any interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the person entitled to such interest as such address appears in the security register. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee in the United States as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. Any other paying agents initially designated by us for the debt securities of a particular series will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may at any time designate debt securities additional paying agents or rescind the designation of any paying agent or approve a change in the office through which any paying agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All moneys or United States government obligations (including proceeds thereof) deposited by us with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt security which remain unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and after repayment to us, you are entitled to seek payment only from us as a general unsecured creditor.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
The indenture will provide that we will not consolidate with or merge into any other person or convey, transfer or lease substantially all of our properties to any person, and no person may consolidate with or merge into us unless (a) the successor is organized under the laws of the United States or any state or the District of Columbia, and the successor expressly assumes our obligations under the indenture and the debt securities, (b) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time, or both would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing, and (c) certain other conditions as prescribed in the indenture are met.
The general provisions of the indenture do not afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event of a highly leveraged or other transaction that we may become involved in that may adversely affect holders of the debt securities.
Events of Default
Each of the following will constitute an event of default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of any series:
(a) our failure (i) to pay the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any debt securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise or (ii) to make any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series;
(b) our failure to pay any interest upon any debt securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days;
(c) our failure to observe or perform any other of the covenants or agreements in the debt securities or the applicable indenture for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring us to remedy the same, shall have been given to us by the trustee, or to us and the trustee by the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of that series at the time outstanding;
(d) a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the us or our material subsidiary (as identified in the applicable indenture) in an involuntary case under any
 
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applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee, sequestrator (or similar official) of us or such material subsidiary or for any substantial part of our or its respective property, or ordering the winding-up or liquidation of our or its affairs and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 60 consecutive days;
(e) we or such material subsidiary shall commence a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or shall consent to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or shall consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, custodian, sequestrator (or similar official) of us or such material subsidiary or for any substantial part of our or its respective property, or shall make any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or
(f) any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt of that series;
then, if an Event of Default described in clause (a), (b), (c), or (f) shall have occurred and be continuing, and in each and every such case, unless the principal amount of all the debt securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of that series then outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by securityholders) may declare the principal amount of all the debt securities (or, with respect to original issue discount securities, such lesser amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable, anything in the applicable indenture or in the debt securities of such series contained to the contrary notwithstanding; or, if an Event of Default described in clause (d) or (e) shall have occurred and be continuing, and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all the debt securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of all the debt securities of that series then outstanding thereunder, by notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by securityholders), may declare the principal of all the debt securities (or, with respect to original issue discount securities, such lesser amount as may be specified in the terms of such debt securities) to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable, anything in the applicable indenture or in the securities contained to the contrary notwithstanding.
Limitation on Suits
No holder of any debt security of any series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the applicable indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy thereunder, unless:

such holder has previously given written notice to the trustee of a continuing Event of Default;

the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series shall have made written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as trustee under the applicable indenture;

such holder or holders have offered to the trustee indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;

the trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceedings; and

no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the trustee during such 60-day period by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities.
Waiver and Modification
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of each series at the time outstanding may, on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of that series, waive any past default hereunder and its consequences, except a default:

in the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, or any interest on any debt security; or
 
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in respect of a covenant or provision hereof that pursuant to the express terms of the applicable indenture cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security affected.
Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any Default or Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of such indenture, but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.
Without the consent of any holders of debt securities, we and the trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date of the execution thereof) for one or more of the following purposes:

to evidence a successions of another corporation to us, or successive successions, pursuant to the express provisions of such indenture, and the assumption by the successor corporation of the covenants, agreements and obligations of us therein and in the debt securities;

to add to our covenants such further covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions as we shall consider to be for the protection of the holders of debt securities, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any of such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default permitting the enforcement of all or any of the several remedies provided in such indenture as therein set forth, with such period of grace, if any, and subject to such conditions as such supplemental indenture may provide;

to establish any series of debt securities and the form or terms of certain such, including any subordination provisions and any conversion or exchange provisions applicable to debt securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, and any deletions from or additions or changes to such indenture in connection therewith (provided that any such deletions, additions and changes shall not be applicable to any other series of debt securities then outstanding);

to add any additional Events of Default with respect to all or any series of debt securities (as shall be specified in such supplemental indenture);

to supplement any of the provisions of such indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance, covenant defeasance and/or satisfaction and discharge of any series of debt securities as expressly provided in such indenture, provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of any holder of a debt security of such series or any other debt security in any material respect;

to add to or change any of the provisions of such indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the issuance of debt securities, registrable or not registrable as to principal;

to make provisions with respect to conversion or exchange rights of holders of debt securities of any series;

in the case of any series of debt securities which are convertible into or exchangeable for commodities or for our securities to safeguard or provide for the conversion or exchange rights, as the case may be, of such debt securities in the event of any reclassification or change of outstanding securities or any merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or combination of us with or into another person or any sale, lease, assignment, transfer, disposition or other conveyance of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of us to any other person or other similar transactions, if expressly required by the terms of such series of debt securities established pursuant to the express provisions of such indenture;

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations or restrictions on issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities of any series;

to modify, eliminate or add to the provisions of such indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to effect the qualification of such indenture under the Trust Indenture Act, or under any similar federal statute hereafter enacted, and to add to such indenture such other provisions as may be expressly permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, excluding however, the provisions referred to in
 
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Section 316(a)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act or any corresponding provision in any similar federal statute hereafter enacted;

to modify, eliminate or add to any of the provisions of such indenture, provided that any such change or elimination (i) shall become effective only when there is no debt security of any series outstanding and created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture that is entitled to the benefit of such provision or (ii) shall not apply to any debt security outstanding;

to conform the indenture or the debt securities to the description thereof in the related prospectus, offering memorandum or disclosure document;

to cure any ambiguity or to correct or supplement any provision contained therein or in any supplemental indenture which may be defective or inconsistent with any other provisions contained herein or in any supplemental indenture;

to add guarantees with respect to, or to secure, any series of debt securities;

to evidence and provide for the acceptance and appointment hereunder by a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of one or more series and to add or change any provisions of such indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, pursuant to the express provisions of such indenture; and

to make any change to the debt securities of any series or to make any other provisions in regard to matters or questions arising under such indenture that does not adversely affect the legal rights under such indenture of any holder of debt securities of any series issued under such indenture, including provisions necessary or desirable to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts thereunder.
The trustee may join with us in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained and to accept the conveyance, transfer, assignment, mortgage or pledge of any property thereunder, but the trustee will not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which adversely affects the trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under such indenture or otherwise.
Action by Holders
In determining whether the holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of any or all series have taken any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), (i) the principal amount of any original issue discount security that may be counted in making such determination and that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be equal to the amount of the principal thereof that could be declared to be due and payable upon an Event of Default pursuant to the terms of such original issue discount security at the time the taking of such of such action is evidenced to the trustee, and (ii) the principal amount of a debt security denominated in a foreign currency or currency unit shall be the U.S. dollar equivalent, determined as of the date of original issuance of such debt security in accordance with the express provisions of such indenture, of the principal amount of such debt securities.
Record Date
We may, but will not be obligated to, set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of holders of debt securities of any series entitled to vote or consent to any action by vote or consent or to otherwise take any action under an indenture authorized or permitted by the provisions of such indenture. Such record date shall be the later of (i) the date 20 days prior to the first solicitation of such consent or vote or other action and (ii) the date of the most recent list of holders of such debt securities delivered to the principal corporate trust office of the trustee pursuant to such indenture prior to such solicitation. If such a record date is fixed, those persons who were holders of such debt securities at the close of business on such record date shall be entitled to vote or consent or take such other action, or to revoke any such action, whether or not such persons continue to be holders after such record date, and for that purpose the outstanding debt securities shall be computed as of such record date.
 
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Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance
If and to the extent indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may elect, at our option at any time, to have provisions relating to defeasance and discharge of indebtedness or relating to defeasance of certain restrictive covenants applied to the debt securities of any series, or to any specified part of a series.
Defeasance and Discharge. The indenture may provide that upon our exercise of our option (if any) we will be discharged from all our obligations (and, if applicable, provisions relating to subordination will cease to be effective) with respect to debt securities (except for certain obligations to exchange or register the transfer of debt securities, to replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities, to maintain paying agencies and to hold moneys for payment in trust) upon the deposit in trust for the benefit of the holders of such debt securities of money or United States government obligations, or both, which, through the payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of and any premium and interest on such debt securities on the respective stated maturities in accordance with the terms of the indenture and such debt securities. Such defeasance or discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or there has been a change in tax law, in either case to the effect that holders of such debt securities will not recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge were not to occur.
Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture also may provide that, upon our exercise of our option (if any) we may omit to comply with certain restrictive covenants of the indenture and any that may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, and the occurrence of certain Events of Default, which are described above in clause (d) under “Events of Default” and any that may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, will be deemed not to be or result in an Event of Default, in each case with respect to such debt securities. We, in order to exercise such option, will be required to deposit, in trust for the benefit of the holders of such debt securities, money or United States government obligations, or both, which, through the payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of and any premium and interest on such debt securities on the respective stated maturities in accordance with the terms of the indenture and such debt securities. We will also be required, among other things, to deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that holders of such debt securities will not recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and defeasance of certain obligations and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance were not to occur. In the event we exercised this option with respect to any debt securities and such debt securities were declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of money and United States government obligations so deposited in trust would be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of their respective stated maturities but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities upon any acceleration resulting from such Event of Default. In such case, we would remain liable for such payments.
DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES
General
We may, at our option, elect to offer fractional shares of preferred stock, which we call depositary shares, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we do, we will issue public receipts, called depositary receipts, for depositary shares, each of which will represent a fraction, to be described in the prospectus supplement, of a share of a particular series of preferred stock.
The shares of any series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares will be deposited with a depositary named in the prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable fractional interest in a share of preferred stock represented by the depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred
 
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stock represented by the depositary share. Those rights include dividend, voting, redemption, conversion and liquidation rights.
Dividends and Other Distributions
The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received in respect of the preferred stock to the record holders of depositary shares in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares owned by those holders.
If there is a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary shares, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution. If this occurs, the depositary may, with our approval, sell the property and distribute the net proceeds from the sale to the holders.
Withdrawal of Stock
Unless the related depositary shares have been previously called for redemption, upon surrender of the depositary receipts at the office of the depositary, the holder of the depositary shares will be entitled to delivery, at the office of the depositary, or upon his or her order, of the number of whole shares of the preferred stock and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to the holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares. In no event will the depositary deliver fractional shares of preferred stock upon surrender of depositary receipts.
Redemption of Depositary Shares
Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing shares of the preferred stock so redeemed, so long as we have paid in full to the depositary the redemption price of the preferred stock to be redeemed, plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends on the preferred stock to the date fixed for redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the redemption price and any other amounts per share payable on the preferred stock multiplied by the fraction of a share of preferred stock represented by one depositary share. If fewer than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or pro rata or by any other equitable method as may be determined by the depositary.
After the date fixed for redemption, depositary shares called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of depositary shares will cease, except the right to receive the moneys payable upon redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of the depositary shares were entitled upon redemption upon surrender to the depositary of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares.
Voting the Preferred Stock
Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the preferred stock are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts relating to that preferred stock. The record date for the depositary receipts relating to the preferred stock will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock. Each record holder of the depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock represented by that holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the number of shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares in accordance with those instructions, and we will agree to take all action which may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will not vote any shares of preferred stock except to the extent that it receives specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares representing that number of shares of preferred stock.
 
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Charges of Depositary
We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and any redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary receipts will pay other transfer and other taxes and governmental charges and such other charges as are expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts.
Resignation and Removal of Depositary
The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may remove the depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal of the depositary will take effect upon our appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. The successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000.
Notices
The depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and other communications, including proxy solicitation materials received from us, that are delivered to the depositary and that we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock.
Limitation of Liability
Neither we nor the depositary will be liable if either of us is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond our control in performing our obligations. Our obligations and those of the depositary will be limited to performance in good faith of our and their duties thereunder. We and the depositary will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the depositary may rely, upon written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed to be competent and on documents believed to be genuine.
Inspection of Books
Any record holder of depositary shares who has been a holder for at least six months or who holds at least five percent of our outstanding shares of capital stock will be entitled to inspect the transfer books relating to the depositary shares and the list of record holders of depositary shares upon certification to the depositary that the holder is acting in good faith and that the inspection is for a proper purpose.
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants to purchase debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the appropriate prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the warrants’ expiration date. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Further terms of the warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement.
The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;
 
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any applicable anti-dilution provisions;

any applicable redemption or call provisions;

the circumstances under which the warrant exercise price may be adjusted;

whether the warrants will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

any applicable material United States federal income tax consequences;

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

the designation and terms of the preferred stock or common stock purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of the debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock will be separately transferable;

the number of shares of preferred stock, the number of depositary shares or the number of shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

any redemption or call provisions;

whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units; and

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. We may issue units consisting of two or more other constituent securities. These units may be issuable as, and for a specified period of time may be transferable only as a single security, rather than as the separate constituent securities comprising such units. While the features we have summarized below will generally apply to any units we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any units that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The specific terms of any units may differ from the description provided below as a result of negotiations with third parties in connection with the issuance of those units, as well as for other reasons. Because the terms of any units we offer under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, you should rely solely on information in the applicable prospectus supplement if that summary is different from the summary in this prospectus.
We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the specific units being offered, as well as the complete instruments that contain the terms of the securities that comprise those units. Certain
 
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of those instruments, or forms of those instruments, have been or will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplements to those instruments or forms may be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part from reports we file with the Commission.
If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

the title of the series of units;

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may offer and sell these securities in any one or more of the following ways:

to the public through a group of underwriters managed or co-managed by one or more underwriters, or through dealers;

through one or more agents;

directly to purchasers; or

through a combination of such methods of sale.
The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price, or prices which may be changed from time to time;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

at prices related to those prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.
Each time we sell securities, a prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.
The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

the name or names of any agents, dealers or underwriters included in the offer and sale of the securities;

the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agents or underwriters;

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.
We may agree to enter into an agreement to indemnify the agents and the several underwriters against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or to contribute to payments the agents or the underwriters may be required to make.
If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase debt securities from us
 
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pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to those contracts will be equal to, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with which the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but will in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions, except that:

the purchase by an institution of the debt securities covered under that contract will not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

if the debt securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters will have purchased those debt securities not sold for delayed delivery.
The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.
If underwriters or dealers are used in the sale, the securities will be acquired by the underwriters or dealers for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, or at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, or at prices related to such prevailing market prices, or at negotiated prices. The securities may be offered to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more of such firms. Unless otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of underwriters or dealers to purchase the securities offered will be subject to certain conditions precedent, and the underwriters or dealers will be obligated
to purchase all the offered securities if any are purchased. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid by underwriters or dealers to other dealers may be changed from time to time.
The securities may be sold directly by us or through agents designated by us from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered will be named, and any commission payable by us to such agent will be set forth, in the prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment.
To the extent that we make sales to or through one or more underwriters or agents in at-the-market offerings, we will do so pursuant to the terms of a distribution agreement between us and the underwriters or agents. If we engage in at-the-market sales pursuant to a distribution agreement, we will issue and sell shares of our common stock to or through one or more underwriters or agents, which may act on an agency basis or on a principal basis. During the term of any such agreement, we may sell shares on a daily basis in exchange transactions or otherwise as we agree with the underwriters or agents. The distribution agreement will provide that any shares of our common stock sold will be sold at prices related to the then prevailing market prices for our common stock. Therefore, exact figures regarding proceeds that will be raised or commissions to be paid cannot be determined at this time and will be described in a prospectus supplement. Pursuant to the terms of the distribution agreement, we also may agree to sell, and the relevant underwriters or agents may agree to solicit offers to purchase, blocks of our common stock or other securities. The terms of each such distribution agreement will be set forth in more detail in a prospectus supplement to this prospectus. In the event that any underwriter or agent acts as principal, or broker-dealer acts as underwriter, it may engage in certain transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of our securities. We will describe any such activities in the prospectus supplement relating to the transaction.
Offers to purchase the securities offered by this prospectus may be solicited, and sales of the securities may be made, by us of those securities directly to institutional investors or others, who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any resales of the securities. The terms of any offer made in this manner will be included in the prospectus supplement relating to the offer.
 
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If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers by certain institutional investors to purchase securities from us pursuant to contracts providing for payment and delivery at a future date. Institutional investors with which these contracts may be made include, among others:

commercial and savings banks;

insurance companies;

pension funds;

investment companies; and

educational and charitable institutions.
In all cases, these purchasers must be approved by us. Unless otherwise set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, the obligations of any purchaser under any of these contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that (a) the purchase of the securities must not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction to which that purchaser is subject, and (b) if the securities are also being sold to underwriters, we must have sold to these underwriters the securities not subject to delayed delivery. Underwriters and other agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of these contracts.
Subject to any restrictions relating to debt securities in bearer form, any securities initially sold outside the United States may be resold in the United States through underwriters, dealers or otherwise.
Each series of securities other than common stock will be a new issue of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters to whom offered securities are sold by us for public offering and sale may make a market in such securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time.
The anticipated date of delivery of the securities offered by this prospectus will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the offering. The securities offered by this prospectus may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange or a foreign securities exchange. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity or activity of any trading in the offered securities.
If more than 10% of the net proceeds of any offering of securities made under this prospectus will be received by Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) members participating in the offering or affiliates or associated persons of such FINRA members, the offering will be conducted in accordance with FINRA Conduct Rule 2710.
We may enter into derivative or other hedging transactions with financial institutions. These financial institutions may in turn engage in sales of our common stock to hedge their positions, deliver this prospectus in connection with some or all of those sales, and use the shares covered by this prospectus to close out any short position created in connection with those sales. We may also sell shares of our common stock short using this prospectus and deliver our common stock covered by this prospectus to close out such short positions, or loan or pledge our common stock to financial institutions that in turn may sell the shares of our common stock using this prospectus. We may pledge or grant a security interest in some or all of our common stock covered by this prospectus to support a derivative or hedging position or other obligations and, if we default in the performance of our obligations, the pledges or secured parties may offer and sell our common stock from time to time pursuant to this prospectus.
We also may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or
 
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other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.
Certain of the underwriters and their associates and affiliates may in the ordinary course of business be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for, us or one or more of our affiliates.
VALIDITY OF SECURITIES
The validity of the securities may be passed upon for us by Hughes Hubbard & Reed LLP, or by counsel named in the applicable prospectus supplement, and for any underwriters or agents by counsel selected by such underwriters or agents.
 
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EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Flushing Financial Corporation as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020 and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020 incorporated by reference in this prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the reports of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
 
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$
% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Subordinated Notes due 2031
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
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Lead Bookrunning Manager
Piper Sandler
Co-Managers
D.A. Davidson & Co.RBC Capital Markets
                 , 2021