ACGL Arch Capital
Filed: 26 Feb 21, 2:22pm
|SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION|
|Washington, D.C. 20549|
|☒||ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|☐||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|For the Fiscal Year Ended||December 31, 2020||Commission File No.||001-16209|
ARCH CAPITAL GROUP LTD.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
|Waterloo House, Ground Floor|
|100 Pitts Bay Road,||Pembroke||HM 08,||Bermuda||(441)||278-9250|
|(Address of principal executive offices)||(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol (s)||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Common Shares, $0.0011 par value per share||ACGL||NASDAQ||Stock Market|
|Depositary shares, each representing a 1/1,000th interest in a 5.25% Series E preferred share||ACGLP||NASDAQ||Stock Market|
|Depositary shares, each representing a 1/1,000th interest in a 5.45% Series F preferred share||ACGLO||NASDAQ||Stock Market|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
Yes ☐ No ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated Filer ☑ Accelerated Filer ☐ Non-accelerated Filer ☐ Smaller reporting company ☐ Emerging Growth Company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness
of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered
public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☑
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates, computed by reference to the closing price as reported by the NASDAQ Stock Market as of the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $11.3 billion.
As of February 19, 2021, there were 403,014,515 of the registrant’s common shares outstanding.
|DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE|
Portions of Part III and Part IV incorporate by reference our definitive proxy statement for the 2021 annual meeting of shareholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after December 31, 2020.
|ARCH CAPITAL GROUP LTD.|
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (“PSLRA”) provides a “safe harbor” for forward-looking statements. This report or any other written or oral statements made by or on behalf of us may include forward-looking statements, which reflect our current views with respect to future events and financial performance. All statements other than statements of historical fact included in or incorporated by reference in this report are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements, for purposes of the PSLRA or otherwise, can generally be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “intend,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “believe” or “continue” and similar statements of a future or forward-looking nature or their negative or variations or similar terminology.
Forward-looking statements involve our current assessment of risks and uncertainties. Actual events and results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements. Important factors that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from those indicated in such statements are discussed below and elsewhere in this report and in our periodic reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), and include:
•our ability to successfully implement our business strategy during “soft” as well as “hard” markets;
•acceptance of our business strategy, security and financial condition by rating agencies and regulators, as well as by brokers and our insureds and reinsureds;
•our ability to consummate acquisitions and integrate the business we have acquired or may acquire into our existing operations;
•our ability to maintain or improve our ratings, which may be affected by our ability to raise additional equity or debt financings, by ratings agencies’ existing or new policies and practices, as well as other factors described herein;
•general economic and market conditions (including inflation, interest rates, unemployment, housing prices, foreign currency exchange rates, prevailing credit terms and the depth and duration of a recession, including those resulting from COVID-19) and conditions specific to the reinsurance and insurance markets in which we operate;
•competition, including increased competition, on the basis of pricing, capacity (including alternative sources of capital), coverage terms, or other factors;
•developments in the world’s financial and capital markets and our access to such markets;
•our ability to successfully enhance, integrate and maintain operating procedures (including information technology) to effectively support our current and new business;
•the loss of key personnel;
•material differences between actual and expected assessments for guaranty funds and mandatory pooling arrangements;
•accuracy of those estimates and judgments utilized in the preparation of our financial statements, including those related to revenue recognition, insurance and other reserves, reinsurance recoverables, investment valuations, intangible assets, bad debts, income taxes, contingencies and litigation, and any determination to use the deposit method of accounting;
•greater than expected loss ratios on business written by us and adverse development on claim and/or claim expense liabilities related to business written by our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries;
•the adequacy of the Company’s loss reserves;
•severity and/or frequency of losses;
• greater frequency or severity of unpredictable natural and man-made catastrophic events;
•claims for natural or man-made catastrophic events or severe economic events in our insurance, reinsurance and mortgage businesses could cause large losses and substantial volatility in our results of operations;
•the effect of climate change on our business;
•the effect of contagious diseases (including COVID-19) on our business;
•acts of terrorism, political unrest and other hostilities or other unforecasted and unpredictable events;
•availability to us of reinsurance to manage our gross and net exposures and the cost of such reinsurance;
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•the failure of reinsurers, managing general agents, third party administrators or others to meet their obligations to us;
•the timing of loss payments being faster or the receipt of reinsurance recoverables being slower than anticipated by us;
•our investment performance, including legislative or regulatory developments that may adversely affect the fair value of our investments;
•changes in general economic conditions, including sovereign debt concerns or downgrades of U.S. securities by credit rating agencies, which could affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
•changes in the method for determining the London Inter-bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) and the potential replacement of LIBOR;
•the volatility of our shareholders’ equity from foreign currency fluctuations, which could increase due to us not matching portions of our projected liabilities in foreign currencies with investments in the same currencies;
•changes in accounting principles or policies or in our application of such accounting principles or policies;
•changes in the political environment of certain countries in which we operate or underwrite business;
•a disruption caused by cyber-attacks or other technology breaches or failures on us or our business partners and service providers, which could negatively impact our business and/or expose us to litigation;
•statutory or regulatory developments, including as to tax matters and insurance and other regulatory matters such as the adoption of proposed legislation that would affect Bermuda-headquartered companies and/or Bermuda-based insurers or reinsurers and/or changes in regulations or tax laws applicable to us, our subsidiaries, brokers or customers, including the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017; and
•the other matters set forth under Item 1A “Risk Factors,” Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as the other factors set forth in Arch Capital Group Ltd.’s other documents on file with the SEC, and management’s response to any of the aforementioned factors.
All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements. The foregoing review of important factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with other cautionary statements that are included herein or elsewhere. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
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ITEM 1. BUSINESS
As used in this report, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Arch” or the “Company” refer to the consolidated operations of Arch Capital Group Ltd. (“Arch Capital”) and its subsidiaries. Tabular amounts are in U.S. Dollars in thousands, except share amounts, unless otherwise noted. We refer you to Item 1A “Risk Factors” for a discussion of risk factors relating to our business.
Arch Capital, a publicly listed Bermuda exempted company with $15.8 billion in capital at December 31, 2020, provides insurance, reinsurance and mortgage insurance on a worldwide basis through its wholly owned subsidiaries. While we are positioned to provide a full range of property, casualty and mortgage insurance and reinsurance lines, we focus on writing specialty lines of insurance and reinsurance. For 2020, we wrote $7.4 billion of net premiums and reported net income available to Arch common shareholders of $1.4 billion. Book value per share was $30.31 at December 31, 2020, compared to $26.42 per share at December 31, 2019.
Arch Capital’s registered office is located at Clarendon House, 2 Church Street, Hamilton HM 11, Bermuda (telephone number: (441) 295-1422), and its principal executive offices are located at Waterloo House, Ground Floor, 100 Pitts Bay Road, Pembroke HM 08, Bermuda (telephone number: (441) 278-9250). Arch Capital makes available free of charge through its website, located at www.archcapgroup.com, its annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC (such as Arch Capital) and the address of that site is www.sec.gov.
Arch Capital was formed in September 2000 and became the sole shareholder of Arch Capital Group (U.S.) Inc. (“Arch-U.S.”) pursuant to an internal reorganization transaction completed in November 2000. In October 2001, Arch Capital launched an underwriting initiative to meet current and future
demand in the global insurance and reinsurance markets that included the recruitment of new management teams and an equity capital infusion of $763.2 million which created a strong capital base that was unencumbered by significant pre-2002 risks. Since then, we have attracted a proven management team with extensive industry experience and continued to build our global underwriting platform for our insurance, reinsurance and mortgage insurance and reinsurance businesses.
Our insurance underwriting platform initially consisted of our Bermuda and U.S. operations, followed by the establishment of our United Kingdom-based carrier, Arch Insurance (UK) Limited (“Arch Insurance (U.K.)”) in 2004 and Canadian operations in 2005. In 2009, we established a managing agency and syndicate at Lloyd’s of London (“Lloyd’s”) and significantly expanded our U.K. presence in 2019 through the acquisition of Barbican Group Holdings Limited (“Barbican Holdings”) and its subsidiaries (collectively, “Barbican”). Our U.S. platform has grown with the 2018 acquisition of McNeil & Company, Inc. (“McNeil”), a U.S. nationwide leader in specialized risk management and program administration. See “Operations—Insurance Operations” for further details on our insurance operations.
Our reinsurance underwriting platform initially consisted of Arch Reinsurance Ltd. in Bermuda (“Arch Re Bermuda”) and Arch Reinsurance Company (“Arch Re U.S.”), our U.S.-licensed reinsurer. Our reinsurance operations in Europe began in 2006 in offices in Zurich, Switzerland and the formation of a Danish underwriting agency in 2007. In addition to the U.S. reinsurance treaty activities of Arch Re U.S., we launched our property facultative reinsurance underwriting operations in 2007, which underwrite in the U.S., Canada and Europe. In 2008, we formed Arch Reinsurance Europe Designated Activity Company (“Arch Re Europe”), our Ireland-based reinsurance company headquartered in Ireland with offices in Switzerland and the U.K. The acquisition of Barbican in November 2019 also contributed to our reinsurance operations. See “Operations—Reinsurance Operations” for further details on our reinsurance operations.
Our mortgage operations include U.S. and international mortgage insurance and reinsurance operations, as well as participation in government sponsored enterprise (“GSE”) credit risk-sharing transactions.
The U.S. mortgage platform was established in 2014 and expanded greatly in 2016 through the acquisition of United
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Guaranty Corporation (“UGC”) and its subsidiaries from American International Group, Inc. (“AIG”). Our U.S. primary mortgage operations provide mortgage insurance products and services to the U.S. market. These operations include providers that are also approved as eligible mortgage insurers by Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), each a GSE. The mortgage operations also include participation in GSE credit risk-sharing transactions and direct mortgage insurance to U.S. mortgage lenders with respect to mortgages that lenders intend to retain in portfolio or include in non-agency securitizations along with mortgage reinsurance on a global basis. Our European business is written through our Ireland-based carrier, Arch Insurance (EU) Designated Activity Company (“Arch Insurance (EU)”), which commenced in 2014 providing mortgage insurance products and services to the European and U.K. markets. In January 2019, Arch LMI Pty Ltd. (“Arch LMI”) was authorized by the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (“APRA”) to write lenders’ mortgage insurance on a direct basis in Australia. See “Operations—Mortgage Operations” for further details on our mortgage operations.
It is our belief that our underwriting platform, our experienced management team and our strong capital base have enabled us to establish a strong presence in the markets we participate in.
In 2014 we acquired approximately 11% of Watford Holdings Ltd. Watford Holdings Ltd. is the parent of Watford Re Ltd., a multi-line Bermuda reinsurance company (together with Watford Holdings Ltd., “Watford”). In 2017, we acquired approximately 25% of Premia Holdings Ltd. Premia Holdings Ltd. is the parent of Premia Reinsurance Ltd., a multi-line Bermuda reinsurance company (together with Premia Holdings Ltd., “Premia”). In the 2020 fourth quarter, we entered into agreements pursuant to which we, together with certain investment funds managed by Kelso & Company and certain investment funds managed by Warburg Pincus LLC, expect to acquire all of the common shares of Watford Holdings Ltd. in transactions expected to close in the first half of 2021, subject to customary closing conditions including regulatory and shareholder approval. See “Operations—Other Operations” for further details on Watford and Premia.
The board of directors of Arch Capital (the “Board”) has authorized the investment in Arch Capital’s common shares through a share repurchase program. Repurchases under the share repurchase program may be effected from time to time in open market or privately negotiated transactions through December 31, 2021. Since the inception of the share repurchase program in February 2007 through December 31, 2020, Arch Capital has repurchased 389.2 million common shares for an aggregate purchase price of $4.1 billion. At December 31, 2020, the total remaining authorization under
the share repurchase program was $916.5 million. The timing and amount of the repurchase transactions under this program will depend on a variety of factors, including market conditions and corporate and regulatory considerations. Depending upon results of operations, market conditions and the development of the economy, as well as other factors, generally we will consider share repurchases on an opportunistic basis from time to time. During the 2020 fiscal year, we repurchased 2,850,102 shares for an aggregate amount of $83.5 million under our share repurchase program.
We classify our businesses into three underwriting segments– insurance, reinsurance and mortgage–and two other operating segments–‘other’ and corporate (non-underwriting). For an analysis of our underwriting results by segment, see note 4, “Segment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Results of Operations.”
The global pandemic resulting from the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) has disrupted the global economy, causing a significant slowdown in economic activity around the world. Businesses around the world, including ours, have been impacted by the restrictions on travel, some business activities and non-essential services and the reverberations of severe curtailment of normal activities. We have taken proactive steps to ensure the health and safety of our employees with the majority of our 4,500 employees working from home to maintain business continuity. Our employees and businesses have adapted to the changing needs of our clients, customers and business partners. We remain committed to continuing to carrying on our business activities without interruption during these challenging times.
Our insurance operations are conducted in Bermuda, the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe, Canada, and Australia. Our insurance operations in Bermuda are conducted through Arch Insurance (Bermuda), a division of Arch Re Bermuda, and Alternative Re Limited.
In the U.S., our insurance group’s principal insurance subsidiaries are Arch Insurance Company (“Arch Insurance”), Arch Specialty Insurance Company, Arch Indemnity and Arch Property & Casualty Insurance Company (“Arch P&C”). Arch Insurance is an admitted insurer in 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Guam. Arch Specialty is an approved excess and surplus lines insurer in 50 states, the District of
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Columbia, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands and an authorized insurer in one state. Arch Indemnity is an admitted insurer in 49 states and the District of Columbia. Arch P&C, which is not currently writing business, is an admitted insurer in 36 states and the District of Columbia. Our insurance group also operates McNeil, a specialized risk manager and a program administrator based in Cortland, New York. The headquarters for our insurance group’s U.S. support operations (excluding underwriting units) are in Jersey City, New Jersey. The insurance group has offices throughout the U.S., including five regional offices located in Alpharetta, Georgia, Chicago, Illinois, New York, New York, San Francisco, California, Dallas, Texas and additional branch offices.
Our insurance operations in Canada are conducted through Arch Insurance Canada Ltd., a Canada domestic company which is authorized in all Canadian provinces and territories. Arch Insurance Canada is headquartered in Toronto, Ontario.
In 2019, Arch Insurance (EU), based in Dublin, Ireland, received authorization from the Central Bank of Ireland (“CBOI”) to expand its classes of business as part of our plan to address the U.K.’s departure from the European Union (“Brexit”). As of January 2020, all of the insurance business in the European Union (“EU”) previously written by Arch Insurance (U.K.) is now written through Arch Insurance (EU). Arch Insurance (EU) has branches in the EU in Denmark and Italy and outside the EU in the U.K. At the end of December 2020, Arch Insurance (U.K.) received court approval in the U.K. to transfer its legacy book of business written in the European Economic Area (“EEA”) to Arch Insurance (EU) under Part VII of the U.K. Financial Services and Markets Act 2000.
We conduct insurance operations on several platforms in the U.K., including Arch Insurance (U.K.), Lloyd’s syndicates: Arch Syndicate 2012 (“Arch Syndicate 2012”) and Arch Syndicate 1955 (“Arch Syndicate 1955”). Arch Managing Agency Limited (“AMAL”) is the managing agent of Arch Syndicate 2012 and Arch Syndicate 1955. Our Lloyd’s syndicates provide us access to Lloyd’s extensive distribution network and worldwide licenses. AMAL also acts as managing agent for third party members of Arch Syndicate 1955, which generates fee income. Arch Underwriting at Lloyd’s (Australia) Pty Ltd, based in Sydney, Australia, is a Lloyd’s services company which underwrites exclusively for our Lloyd’s syndicates. With the Barbican acquisition, we also acquired Castel Underwriting Agencies Limited (“Castel”) in the U.K. and Castel Underwriting Europe BV in the Netherlands, giving us additional underwriting intermediary capabilities for our underwriting platforms. Collectively, the U.K. insurance operations are referred to as “Arch U.K.”. Arch U.K. conducts its operations from London and other locations in the U.K. Arch Insurance
(U.K.) will be winding down branch offices in other member states of the EEA following Brexit and the expiration of the transition period negotiated between the U.K. and the EU from January 31, 2020 to December 31, 2020.
Strategy. Our insurance group’s strategy is to operate in lines of business in which underwriting expertise can make a meaningful difference in operating results. The insurance group focuses on talent-intensive rather than labor-intensive business and seeks to operate profitably (on both a gross and net basis) across all of its product lines. To achieve these objectives, our insurance group’s operating principles are to:
•Capitalize on profitable underwriting opportunities. Our insurance group believes that its experienced management and underwriting teams are positioned to locate and identify business with attractive risk/reward characteristics. As profitable underwriting opportunities are identified, our insurance group will continue to seek to make additions to its product portfolio in order to take advantage of market trends. This includes adding underwriting and other professionals with specific expertise in specialty lines of insurance.
• Centralize responsibility for underwriting. Our insurance group consists of a range of product lines. The underwriting executive in charge of each product line oversees all aspects of the underwriting product development process within such product line. Our insurance group believes that centralizing the control of such product line with the respective underwriting executive allows for close management of underwriting and creates clear accountability for results. Our U.S. insurance group has four regional offices, and the executive in charge of each region is primarily responsible for all aspects of the marketing and distribution of our insurance group’s products, including the management of broker and other producer relationships in such executive’s respective region. In our non-U.S. offices, a similar philosophy is observed, with responsibility for the management of each product line residing with the senior underwriting executive in charge of such product line.
• Maintain a disciplined underwriting philosophy. Our insurance group’s underwriting philosophy is to generate an underwriting profit through prudent risk selection and proper pricing. Our insurance group believes that the key to this approach is adherence to uniform underwriting standards across all types of business. Our insurance group’s senior management closely monitors the underwriting process.
• Focus on providing superior claims management. Our insurance group believes that claims handling is an integral component of credibility in the market for
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insurance products. Therefore, our insurance group believes that its ability to handle claims expeditiously and satisfactorily is a key to its success. Our insurance group employs experienced claims professionals and also utilizes experienced external claims managers (third party administrators) where appropriate.
• Promote and utilize an efficient distribution system. Our insurance group believes that promoting and utilizing a multi-channel distribution system, provides efficient access to its broad customer base. Our insurance group works with select international, national and regional retail and wholesale brokers and leading managing general agencies, including McNeil, to distribute our insurance products. The Arch U.K. Regional Division expanded our retail distribution network in the U.K.
•Grow strategic partnerships in stable and niche areas. Our insurance group aims to build more integrated long-term alignment with strategic partners offering superior access to niche opportunities, quality scalable businesses, or lines with reliable defensive qualities.
Our insurance group writes business on both an admitted and non-admitted basis. Our insurance group focuses on various specialty lines, as described in note 4, “Segment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
Underwriting Philosophy. Our insurance group’s underwriting philosophy is to generate an underwriting profit (on both a gross and net basis) through prudent risk selection and proper pricing across all types of business. One key to this philosophy is the adherence to uniform underwriting standards across each product line that focuses on the following:
• risk selection;
• desired attachment point;
• limits and retention management;
• due diligence, including financial condition, claims history, management, and product, class and territorial exposure;
• underwriting authority and appropriate approvals; and
• collaborative decision making.
Marketing. Our insurance group’s products are marketed principally through a group of licensed independent retail and wholesale brokers. Clients (insureds) are referred to our insurance group through a large number of international, national and regional brokers and captive managers who receive from the insured or insurer a set fee or brokerage commission usually equal to a percentage of gross premiums. In the past, our insurance group also entered into contingent
commission arrangements with some brokers that provided for the payment of additional commissions based on volume or profitability of business. Currently, some of our contracts with brokers provide for additional commissions based on volume. We have also entered into service agreements with select international brokers that provide access to their proprietary industry analytics. In general, our insurance group has no implied or explicit commitments to accept business from any particular broker and neither brokers nor any other third parties have the authority to bind our insurance group, except in the case where underwriting authority may be delegated contractually to select program administrators. Such administrators are subject to a due diligence financial and operational review prior to any such delegation of authority and ongoing reviews and audits are carried out as deemed necessary by our insurance group to assure the continuing integrity of underwriting and related business operations. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—We could be materially adversely affected to the extent that important third parties with whom we do business do not adequately or appropriately manage their risks, commit fraud or otherwise breach obligation owed to us.” For information on major brokers, see note 18, “Commitments and Contingencies—Concentrations of Credit Risk,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
Risk Management and Reinsurance. In the normal course of business, our insurance group may cede a portion of its premium on a quota share or excess of loss basis through treaty or facultative reinsurance agreements. Reinsurance arrangements do not relieve our insurance group from its primary obligations to insureds. Reinsurance recoverables are recorded as assets, predicated on the reinsurers’ ability to meet their obligations under the reinsurance agreements. If the reinsurers are unable to satisfy their obligations under the agreements, our insurance subsidiaries would be liable for such defaulted amounts. Our principal insurance subsidiaries, with oversight by a group-wide reinsurance steering committee (“RSC”), are selective with regard to reinsurers, seeking to place reinsurance with only those reinsurers which meet and maintain specific standards of established criteria for financial strength. The RSC evaluates the financial viability of its reinsurers through financial analysis, research and review of rating agencies’ reports and also monitors reinsurance recoverables and collateral with unauthorized reinsurers. The financial analysis includes ongoing qualitative and quantitative assessments of reinsurers, including a review of the financial stability, appropriate licensing, reputation, claims paying ability and underwriting philosophy of each reinsurer. Our insurance group will continue to evaluate its reinsurance requirements. See note 8, “Reinsurance,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
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For catastrophe-exposed insurance business, our insurance group seeks to limit the amount of exposure to catastrophic losses it assumes through a combination of managing aggregate limits, underwriting guidelines and reinsurance. For a discussion of our risk management policies, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Recent Accounting Pronouncements—Ceded Reinsurance” and “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—The failure of any of the loss limitation methods we employ could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.”
Claims Management. Our insurance group’s claims management function is performed by claims professionals, as well as experienced external claims managers (third party administrators), where appropriate. In addition to investigating, evaluating and resolving claims, members of our insurance group’s claims departments work with underwriting professionals as functional teams in order to develop products and services desired by the group’s clients.
Our reinsurance operations are conducted on a worldwide basis through our reinsurance subsidiaries, Arch Re Bermuda, Arch Re U.S., Arch Syndicate 2012, Arch Syndicate 1955 and Arch Re Europe. Arch Re Bermuda is a registered Class 4 general business insurer and Class C long-term insurer and is headquartered in Hamilton, Bermuda. Arch Re U.S. is licensed or is an accredited or otherwise approved reinsurer in 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, the provinces of Ontario and Quebec in Canada with its principal U.S. offices in Morristown, New Jersey. Treaty operations in Canada are conducted through the Canadian branch of Arch Re U.S. (“Arch Re Canada”). Arch Re U.S. is also an admitted insurer in Guam. Our property facultative reinsurance operations are conducted primarily through Arch Re U.S. The property facultative reinsurance operations have offices throughout the U.S., Canada, Europe and the U.K. Arch Re Europe, licensed and authorized as a non-life reinsurer and a life reinsurer, is headquartered in Dublin, Ireland with branch offices outside the EEA in Zurich and London. AMAL is the managing agent for the reinsurance operations of Arch Syndicate 1955.
Strategy. Our reinsurance group’s strategy is to capitalize on our financial capacity, experienced management and operational flexibility to offer multiple products through our operations. The reinsurance group’s operating principles are to:
•Actively select and manage risks. Our reinsurance group only underwrites business that meets certain profitability criteria, and it emphasizes disciplined underwriting over
premium growth. To this end, our reinsurance group maintains centralized control over reinsurance underwriting guidelines and authorities.
•Maintain flexibility and respond to changing market conditions. Our reinsurance group’s organizational structure and philosophy allows it to take advantage of increases or changes in demand or favorable pricing trends. Our reinsurance group believes that its existing platforms in Bermuda, the U.S., U.K., Europe and Canada, broad underwriting expertise and substantial capital facilitate adjustments to its mix of business geographically and by line and type of coverage. Our reinsurance group believes that this flexibility allows it to participate in those market opportunities that provide the greatest potential for underwriting profitability.
•Maintain a low cost structure. Our reinsurance group believes that maintaining tight control over its staffing level and operating primarily as a broker market reinsurer permits it to maintain low operating costs relative to its capital and premiums.
Our reinsurance group writes business on both a proportional and non-proportional basis and writes both treaty and facultative business. In a proportional reinsurance arrangement (also known as pro rata reinsurance, quota share reinsurance or participating reinsurance), the reinsurer shares a proportional part of the original premiums and losses of the reinsured. The reinsurer pays the cedent a commission which is generally based on the cedent’s cost of acquiring the business being reinsured (including commissions, premium taxes, assessments and miscellaneous administrative expenses) and may also include a profit factor. Non-proportional (or excess of loss) reinsurance indemnifies the reinsured against all or a specified portion of losses on underlying insurance policies in excess of a specified amount, which is called a “retention.” Non-proportional business is written in layers and a reinsurer or group of reinsurers accepts a band of coverage up to a specified amount. The total coverage purchased by the cedent is referred to as a “program.” Any liability exceeding the upper limit of the program reverts to the cedent.
The reinsurance group’s treaty operations generally seek to write significant lines on less commoditized classes of coverage, such as specialty property and casualty reinsurance treaties. However, with respect to other classes of coverage, such as property catastrophe and casualty clash, the reinsurance group’s treaty operations participate in a relatively large number of treaties where they believe that they can underwrite and process the business efficiently. The reinsurance group’s property facultative operations write reinsurance on a facultative basis whereby they assume part of the risk under primarily single insurance contracts. Facultative reinsurance is typically purchased by ceding
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companies for individual risks not covered by their reinsurance treaties, for unusual risks or for amounts in excess of the limits on their reinsurance treaties.
Our reinsurance group focuses on various specialty lines, as described in note 4, “Segment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
Underwriting Philosophy. Our reinsurance group employs a disciplined, analytical approach to underwriting reinsurance risks that is designed to specify an adequate premium for a given exposure commensurate with the amount of capital it anticipates placing at risk. A number of our reinsurance group’s underwriters are also actuaries. It is our reinsurance group’s belief that employing actuaries on the front-end of the underwriting process gives it an advantage in evaluating risks and constructing a high quality book of business.
As part of the underwriting process, our reinsurance group typically assesses a variety of factors, including:
•adequacy of underlying rates for a specific class of business and territory;
•the reputation of the proposed cedent and the likelihood of establishing a long-term relationship with the cedent, the geographic area in which the cedent does business, together with its catastrophe exposures, and our aggregate exposures in that area;
•historical loss data for the cedent and, where available, for the industry as a whole in the relevant regions, in order to compare the cedent’s historical loss experience to industry averages;
•projections of future loss frequency and severity; and
•the perceived financial strength of the cedent.
Marketing. Our reinsurance group generally markets its reinsurance products through brokers, except our property facultative reinsurance group, which generally deals directly with the ceding companies. Brokers do not have the authority to bind our reinsurance group with respect to reinsurance agreements, nor does our reinsurance group commit in advance to accept any portion of the business that brokers submit to them. Our reinsurance group generally pays brokerage fees to brokers based on negotiated percentages of the premiums written through such brokers. For information on major brokers, see note 18, “Commitments and Contingencies—Concentrations of Credit Risk,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
Risk Management and Retrocession. Our reinsurance group currently purchases a combination of per event excess of loss, per risk excess of loss, proportional retrocessional agreements and other structures that are available in the
market. Such arrangements reduce the effect of individual or aggregate losses on, and in certain cases may also increase the underwriting capacity of, our reinsurance group. Our reinsurance group will continue to evaluate its retrocessional requirements based on its net appetite for risk. See note 8, “Reinsurance,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
For catastrophe exposed reinsurance business, our reinsurance group seeks to limit the amount of exposure it assumes from any one reinsured and the amount of the aggregate exposure to catastrophe losses from a single event in any one geographic zone. For a discussion of our risk management policies, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Recent Accounting Pronouncements—Ceded Reinsurance” and “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—The failure of any of the loss limitation methods we employ could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.”
Claims Management. Claims management includes the receipt of initial loss reports, creation of claim files, determination of whether further investigation is required, establishment and adjustment of case reserves and payment of claims. Additionally, audits are conducted for both specific claims and overall claims procedures at the offices of selected ceding companies. Our reinsurance group makes use of outside consultants for claims work from time to time.
Our mortgage operations provide U.S. and international mortgage insurance and reinsurance operations as well as participation in GSE credit risk-sharing transactions. Our mortgage group includes direct mortgage insurance in the U.S. primarily through Arch Mortgage Insurance Company, United Guaranty Residential Insurance Company, and Arch Mortgage Guaranty Company (together, “Arch MI U.S.”); mortgage reinsurance primarily through Arch Re Bermuda to mortgage insurers on both a proportional and non-proportional basis globally; direct mortgage insurance in the EEA and U.K. through Arch Insurance (EU), in Australia through Arch LMI, and in Hong Kong through Arch MI Asia Limited (“Arch MI Asia”); and participation in various GSE credit risk-sharing products primarily through Arch Re Bermuda.
In 2014 we entered the U.S. mortgage insurance marketplace, underwriting on the Arch Mortgage Insurance Company platform. Arch Mortgage Insurance Company is licensed and operates in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. In December 2016, we completed the acquisition of UGC and its primary operating subsidiary, United Guaranty
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Residential Insurance Company, which is licensed and operates in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Arch Mortgage Insurance Company and United Guaranty Residential Insurance Company have each been approved as an eligible mortgage insurer by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, subject to maintaining certain ongoing requirements (“eligible mortgage insurer”). Arch Mortgage Guaranty Company offers direct mortgage insurance to U.S. mortgage lenders with respect to mortgages that lenders intend to retain in portfolio or include in non-agency securitizations. Arch Mortgage Guaranty Company, which is licensed in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, insures mortgages that are not intended to be sold to the GSEs, and it is therefore not approved by either GSE as an eligible mortgage insurer.
Arch Insurance (EU) was licensed and authorized by the CBOI in 2011 to operate on a pan-European basis under the EU’s freedom of establishment/freedom of services rules. Arch Underwriters Europe Limited (“Arch Underwriters Europe”), an Irish company authorized as an insurance and reinsurance intermediary by the CBOI, acts on behalf of Arch Insurance (EU) and Arch Re Europe with branch offices in the EEA in Italy and Finland and outside the EEA in Switzerland and the U.K. In January 2019, Arch LMI was authorized by APRA to write lenders’ mortgage insurance. Arch LMI is headquartered in Sydney, Australia and focuses on providing direct lenders’ mortgage insurance and reinsurance to the Australian market.
Strategy. The mortgage insurance market operates on a distinct underwriting cycle, with demand driven mainly by the housing market and general economic conditions. As a result, the creation of the mortgage group provides us with a more diverse revenue stream. Our mortgage group’s strategy is to capitalize on its financial capacity, mortgage insurance technology platform, operational flexibility and experienced management to offer mortgage insurance, reinsurance and other risk-sharing products in the U.S. and around the world.
Our mortgage group’s operating principles and goals are to:
•Capitalize on profitable underwriting opportunities. Our mortgage group believes that its experienced management, analytics and underwriting teams are positioned to identify and evaluate business with attractive risk/reward characteristics.
•Maintain a disciplined credit risk philosophy. Our mortgage group’s credit risk philosophy is to generate underwriting profit through disciplined credit risk analysis and proper pricing. Our mortgage group believes that the key to this approach is maintaining discipline across all phases of the applicable housing and mortgage lending cycles.
•Provide superior and innovative mortgage products and services. Our mortgage group believes that it can leverage its financial capacity, experience across insurance product lines and the mortgage finance industry, and its analytics and technology to provide innovative products and superior service. The mortgage group believes that its delivery of tailored products that meet the specific, evolving needs of its customers will be a key to the group’s success.
•Maintain our position as a leading provider of U.S. mortgage insurance business. Prior to our 2014 acquisition, Arch Mortgage Insurance Company was the leading provider of mortgage insurance products and services to credit unions in the U.S. We broadened our customer base into national and regional banks and mortgage originators while maintaining and increasing our share of the mortgage insurance credit union market. With the acquisition of UGC in 2016, a leading provider of mortgage insurance products and services to national and regional banks and mortgage originators, we became a leading provider of U.S. mortgage insurance.
Our mortgage group focuses on the following areas:
•Direct mortgage insurance in the United States. Under their monoline insurance licenses, each of Arch’s eligible mortgage insurers may only offer private mortgage insurance covering first lien, one-to-four family residential mortgages. Nearly all of our mortgage insurance written provides first loss protection on loans originated by mortgage lenders and sold to the GSEs. Each GSE’s Congressional charter generally prohibits it from purchasing a mortgage where the principal balance of the mortgage is in excess of 80% of the value of the property securing the mortgage unless the excess portion of the mortgage is protected against default by lender recourse, participation or by a qualified insurer. As a result, such “high loan-to-value mortgages” purchased by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac generally are insured with private mortgage insurance.
Mortgage insurance protects the insured lender, investor or GSE against loss in the event of a borrower’s default. If a borrower defaults on mortgage payments, private mortgage insurance reduces, and may eliminate, losses to the insured. Private mortgage insurance may also facilitate the sale of mortgage loans in the secondary mortgage market because of the credit enhancement it provides. Our primary U.S. mortgage insurance policies predominantly cover individual loans and are effective at the time the loan is originated. We also may enter into insurance transactions with lenders and investors, under which we insure a portfolio of loans at or after origination. Although not currently a significant product, we may offer mortgage insurance on a “pool” basis in
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the future. Under pool insurance, the mortgage insurer provides coverage on a group of specified loans, typically for 100% of all contractual or policy-defined losses on every loan in the portfolio, subject to an agreed aggregate loss limit. Pool insurance may be in a first loss position with respect to loans that do not have primary mortgage insurance policies, or it may be in a second loss position, covering losses in excess of those covered by the primary mortgage insurance policy.
•Direct mortgage insurance in Europe and other countries where we identify profitable underwriting opportunities. Since 2011, Arch Insurance (EU) has offered mortgage insurance to European mortgage lenders. Arch Insurance (EU)’s mortgage insurance is primarily purchased by European mortgage lenders in order to reduce lenders’ credit risk and regulatory capital requirements associated with the insured mortgages. In certain European countries, lenders purchase mortgage insurance to facilitate regulatory compliance with respect to high loan-to-value residential lending. Arch Insurance (EU) offers mortgage insurance on both a “flow” basis to cover new originations and through structured transactions to cover one or more portfolios of previously originated residential loans. In Australia, Arch LMI provides lenders’ mortgage insurance on a direct basis.
•Reinsurance. Arch Re Bermuda provides quota share reinsurance covering U.S. and international mortgages.
•Other credit risk-sharing products. In addition to providing traditional mortgage insurance and reinsurance, we offer various credit risk-sharing products to government agencies and mortgage lenders. The GSEs have reduced their exposure to mortgage risk by shifting it to the private sector, creating opportunities for insurers to assume additional mortgage risk. In 2013, Arch Re Bermuda became the first (re)insurance company to participate in Freddie Mac’s program to transfer certain credit risk in its single-family portfolio to the private sector. Since that time, Arch Re Bermuda and its affiliates have regularly participated in both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac single family and multifamily risk sharing programs.
In 2015 we established Arch Mortgage Risk Transfer PCC Inc. (“Arch MRT”) a District of Columbia based protected cell captive insurer, licensed by District of Columbia Department of Insurance, Securities and Banking as a mortgage insurer. Arch MRT issues direct mortgage insurance to the GSEs through incorporated protected cells and cedes 100% of the risk to GSE approved reinsurers, including Arch Re U.S. Arch MRT entered into pilot transactions with both GSEs in 2018 that continued through 2020.
In 2019 we established Arch Credit Risk Services (Bermuda) (“ACRS”) Ltd. ACRS is licensed by the Bermuda Monetary Authority (“BMA”) as an insurance agent in Bermuda. ACRS offers mortgage credit assessment and underwriting advisory services with respect to participation in GSE credit risk transfer transactions.
Underwriting Philosophy. Our mortgage group believes in a disciplined, analytical approach to underwriting mortgage risks by utilizing proprietary and third party models, including forecasting delinquency and future home price movements with the goal of ensuring that premiums are adequate for the risk being insured. Experienced actuaries and statistical modelers are engaged in analytics to inform the underwriting process. As part of the underwriting process, our mortgage group typically assesses a variety of factors, including the:
•ability and willingness of the mortgage borrower to pay its obligations under the mortgage loan being insured;
•characteristics of the mortgage loan being insured and the value of the collateral securing the mortgage loan;
•financial strength, quality of operations and reputation of the lender originating the mortgage loan;
•expected future home price movements which vary by geography;
•projections of future loss frequency and severity; and
•adequacy of premium rates.
Sales and Distribution. We employ a sales force located throughout the U.S. to directly sell mortgage insurance products and services to our customers, which include mortgage originators such as mortgage bankers, mortgage brokers, commercial banks, savings institutions, credit unions and community banks. Our largest single mortgage insurance customer (including branches and affiliates) accounted for 5.4% and 4.0% of our gross premiums written for the years ending December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. No other customer accounted for greater than 3.2% and 3.3% of the gross premiums written for the years ending December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The percentage of gross premiums written on our top 10 customers was 22% and 20.8% as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In Europe, Asia, Bermuda and Australia, our products and services are/or will be distributed on a direct basis and through brokers. Each country represents a unique set of opportunities and challenges that require knowledge of market conditions and client needs to develop effective solutions.
Risk Management. Exposure to mortgage risk is monitored globally and managed through underwriting guidelines,
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pricing, reinsurance, utilization of proprietary risk models, concentration limits and limits on net probable loss resulting from a severe economic downturn in the housing market. For a discussion of our risk management policies, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Recent Accounting Pronouncements—Ceded Reinsurance” and “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—The failure of any of the loss limitation methods we employ could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.”
Our mortgage group has ceded a portion of its premium on a quota share basis through certain reinsurance agreements and through aggregate excess of loss reinsurance agreements which provide reinsurance coverage for delinquencies on portfolios of in-force policies issued between certain periods. See note 8, “Reinsurance,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further details.
Reinsurance arrangements do not relieve our mortgage group from its primary obligations to insured parties. Reinsurance recoverables are recorded as assets, predicated on the reinsurers’ ability to meet their obligations under the reinsurance agreements. If the reinsurers are unable to satisfy their obligations under the agreements, our mortgage subsidiaries would be liable for such defaulted amounts. For our U.S. mortgage insurance business, in addition to utilizing reinsurance, we have developed a proprietary risk model that simulates the maximum loss resulting from severe economic events impacting the housing market. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Catastrophic Events and Severe Economic Events.”
Claims Management. With respect to our direct mortgage insurance business, the claims process generally begins with notification by the insured or servicer to us of a default on an insured loan. The insured is generally required to notify us of a default after the borrower misses two consecutive monthly payments. Borrowers default for a variety of reasons, including a reduction of income, unemployment, divorce, illness, inability to manage credit, rising interest rate levels and declining home prices. Upon notice of a default, in certain cases we may coordinate with loan servicers to facilitate and enhance retention workouts on insured loans. Retention workouts include payment forbearance, loan modifications and other loan repayment options, which may enable borrowers to cure mortgage defaults and retain ownership of their homes. If a retention workout is not viable for a borrower, our loss on a loan may be mitigated through a liquidation workout option, including a pre-foreclosure sale or a deed-in-lieu of foreclosure.
In the U.S., our master policies generally provide that within 60 days of the perfection of a primary insurance claim, we have the option of:
•paying the insurance coverage percentage specified in the certificate of insurance multiplied by the loss amount;
•in the event the property is sold pursuant to an approved prearranged sale, paying the lesser of (i) 100% of the loss amount less the proceeds of sale of the property, or (ii) the specified coverage percentage multiplied by the loss amount; or
•paying 100% of the loss amount in exchange for the insured’s conveyance to us of good and marketable title to the property, with us then selling the property for our own account.
While we select the claim settlement option that best mitigates the amount of our claim payment, in the U.S. we generally pay the coverage percentage multiplied by the loss amount.
In 2014 we and HPS Investment Partners, LLC (formerly Highbridge Principal Strategies, LLC) (“HPS”), sponsored the formation of Watford. Arch Re Bermuda invested $100.0 million in Watford common equity and, as of February 16, 2021, Arch Re Bermuda owned approximately 10.3% of Watford’s common equity. We also own $35.0 million in aggregate principal amount of Watford Holdings Ltd’s 6.5% senior notes and approximately 6.6% of Watford’s preference shares. Watford’s strategy is to combine a diversified reinsurance and insurance business with a disciplined investment strategy comprised primarily of non-investment grade credit assets. Watford’s own management and board of directors are responsible for its results and profitability. Arch Re Bermuda has appointed two directors to serve on the eight person board of directors of Watford. In the 2020, fourth quarter Arch Capital, Watford Holdings Ltd. and Greysbridge Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Arch Capital, entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (as amended, the “Merger Agreement”) pursuant to which, among other things, Arch Capital agreed to acquire all of the common shares of Watford Holdings Ltd. not owned by Arch for a cash purchase price of $35.00 per common share. The transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2021, subject to customary closing conditions including regulatory and shareholder approval. Arch Capital has assigned its rights under the Merger Agreement to Greysbridge Holdings Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Arch Capital (“Greysbridge”). Upon closing of the transaction, Watford will be wholly owned by Greysbridge and Greysbridge will be owned 40% by Arch Re Bermuda, 30% by certain investment funds
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managed by Kelso & Company and 30% by certain investment funds managed by Warburg Pincus LLC. See note 12, “Variable Interest Entity and Noncontrolling Interests,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further details.
In 2017 we and Kelso & Company (“Kelso”) sponsored the formation of Premia. Premia’s strategy is to reinsure or acquire companies or reserve portfolios in the non-life property and casualty insurance and reinsurance run-off market. Arch Re Bermuda and certain Arch co-investors invested $100.0 million and acquired approximately 25% of Premia as well as warrants to purchase additional common equity. Arch Re Bermuda is providing a 25% quota share reinsurance treaty on certain business written by Premia, and subsidiaries of Arch Capital are providing certain administrative and support services to Premia, in each case pursuant to separate multi-year agreements. Arch Re Bermuda has appointed two directors to serve on the seven person board of directors of Premia. In the 2019 fourth quarter, Barbican entered into certain reinsurance and related transactions with Premia pursuant to which Premia assumed a transfer of liability for the 2018 and prior years of account of Barbican as of July 1, 2019. See note 16, “Transactions with Related Parties,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further details.
We have a results-driven culture which relies on our dedicated, engaged and talented employees. Our business strategy is focused on delivering specialty products and solutions to our customers in each of our operating segments, and our short- and long-term success depends on employee performance. Therefore, helping our people excel by creating a meaningful, challenging and fulfilling employee experience is of paramount importance. Through the global pandemic, a spirit of agility allowed us to transition virtually overnight to a home-based employee population. We successfully kept business operations up and running through effective collaboration, communication and resilience. As of February 15, 2021, we had just over 4,500 employees globally, compared to 4,300 last year, which directly speaks to our ability to grow and retain our talent in spite of the challenges we all faced with the pandemic. We have approximately 2,970 employees in North America (U.S., Canada and Bermuda), 810 employees in Europe and the U.K. and 730 employees in the Philippines and the rest of the world.
Our People and Culture. With colleagues in over 15 countries, we are driven by our common purpose of “Enabling Possibility” for our customers, our communities and our fellow employees. Our values of embracing teamwork, working hard and smart, continually pursuing innovation and improvement, striving to make a difference,
and exhibiting honesty and integrity in all that we do unite us in our unrelenting focus on providing service and solutions that make us a trusted and valued business partner. We use clearly defined policy and procedural supports such as our Code of Business Conduct and Compliance and Ethics training programs to ensure that we are unwavering in our attention to living our values.
A key aspect in top performance is enhancing our overall diversity while ensuring that we behave inclusively. By better reflecting the demographics in the markets in which we operate and embracing a culture of inclusion, we can leverage all of the best contributions and thinking across our Company. We are committed to positively impacting our employees and culture by integrating diversity and inclusion principles in our operations. In 2020, we launched six employee networks to offer employees from various demographic backgrounds a forum to share ideas, build a sense of community and give voice to topics of interest and contribute meaningfully to business outcomes.
Talent Acquisition, Development, Rewards and Retention. Our employees are our greatest asset, and we maintain a sharp focus on continuously improving the ways we attract, develop and retain our high-performing talent. We provide unique career growth opportunities through a combination of on-the-job experiences, exposure to top-notch colleagues and education and training programs designed to accelerate learning and applying new skills and behaviors. We offer competitive compensation and comprehensive benefits packages, including an employee share purchase plan, parental leave, generous contributions to retirement savings plans and corporate discounts and programs to support employee mental and physical well-being. Our Arch Achieve program has recognized over 360 employees for excellence since its inception in 2009, with each recipient of this distinction receiving shares of our common stock as recognition of their accomplishments.
We also encourage employees to continue their educational and professional development through student loan payback assistance and tuition reimbursement plans. To attract the best talent to our industry, we also offer internship programs and an Early Career Program with an Underwriting Track which provides participants with a robust introduction and real technical skills to build a successful career at Arch. In addition, we have targeted programs to attract talent that will diversify our workforce. Experienced professionals at Arch may participate in manager and leadership development programs and, for our mortgage insurance segment employees, we offer the opportunity to seek a Mortgage Bankers Association Certified Banker designation.
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Reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses (“Loss Reserves”) represent estimates of what the insurer or reinsurer ultimately expects to pay on claims at a given time, based on facts and circumstances then known, and it is probable that the ultimate liability may exceed or be less than such estimates. Even actuarially sound methods can lead to subsequent adjustments to reserves that are both significant and irregular due to the nature of the risks written. Loss Reserves are inherently subject to uncertainty.
For detail on our Loss Reserves by segment and potential variability in the reserving process, see the Loss Reserves section of “Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in Item 7. For an analysis of losses and loss adjustment expenses and a reconciliation of the beginning and ending Loss Reserves and information about prior year reserve development, see note 5, “Reserve for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8. For information on our reserving process, see note 6, “Short Duration Contracts,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
Unpaid and paid losses and loss adjustment expenses recoverable were approximately $4.5 billion at December 31, 2020. For detail on our unpaid and paid losses and loss adjustment expenses, see the Reinsurance Recoverables section of “Financial Condition, Reinsurance Recoverables” in Item 7.
At December 31, 2020, total investable assets held by Arch were $26.9 billion, excluding the $2.7 billion included in the ‘other’ segment (i.e., attributable to Watford). Our current investment guidelines and approach stress preservation of capital, market liquidity and diversification of risk. Our investments are subject to market-wide risks and fluctuations, as well as to risks inherent in particular securities. While maintaining our emphasis on preservation of capital and liquidity, we expect our portfolio to become more diversified and, as a result, we may in the future expand into areas which are not part of our current investment strategy. For detail on our investments, see the Investable Assets Held by Arch section of “Financial Condition” in Item 7 and note 9, “Investment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
Our ability to underwrite business is affected by the quality of our claims paying ability and financial strength ratings as evaluated by independent agencies. Such ratings from third party internationally recognized statistical rating organizations or agencies are instrumental in establishing the financial security of companies in our industry. We believe that the primary users of such ratings include commercial and investment banks, policyholders, brokers, ceding companies and investors. Insurance ratings are also used by insurance and reinsurance intermediaries as an important means of assessing the financial strength and quality of insurers and reinsurers, and are often an important factor in the decision by an insured or intermediary of whether to place business with a particular insurance or reinsurance provider.
The financial strength ratings of our operating insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to periodic review as rating agencies evaluate us to confirm that we continue to meet their criteria for ratings they have assigned to us. Such ratings may be revised or revoked at the discretion of such ratings agencies in response to a variety of factors, including capital adequacy, management, earnings, forms of capitalization and risk profile. A.M. Best Company (“A.M. Best”), Fitch Ratings (“Fitch”), Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”) and Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) are ratings agencies which have assigned financial strength and/or issuer ratings to Arch Capital and/or one or more of its subsidiaries.
The ratings issued on our companies by these agencies are announced publicly and are available directly from the agencies. Our website (www.archcapgroup.com (Investor Relations-Credit Ratings) contains information about our ratings, but such information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this report.
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The worldwide reinsurance and insurance businesses are highly competitive. We compete, and will continue to compete, with major U.S. and non-U.S. insurers and reinsurers, some of which have greater financial, marketing and management resources than we have and longer-term relationships with insureds and brokers than we have had. We compete with other insurers and reinsurers primarily on the basis of overall financial strength, ratings assigned by independent rating agencies, geographic scope of business, strength of client relationships, premiums charged, contract terms and conditions, products and services offered, speed of claims payment, reputation, employee experience, and qualifications and local presence. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—“We operate in a highly competitive environment, and we may not be able to compete successfully in our industry.”
In our property casualty insurance and reinsurance businesses, we compete with insurers and reinsurers that provide specialty property and casualty lines of insurance, including Alleghany Corporation, American Financial Group, Inc., American International Group, Inc., AXA XL, AXIS Capital Holdings Limited, Berkshire Hathaway, Inc., Chubb Limited, CNA Financial Corp., Everest Re Group Ltd., Fairfax Financial Holdings Limited, Hannover Rück SE, The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc., Liberty Mutual Group, Lloyd’s, Markel Corporation, Munich Re Group, PartnerRe Ltd., RenaissanceRe Holdings Ltd., RLI Corp., SCOR, Sompo International, Swiss Reinsurance Company, Tokio Marine HCC, The Travelers Companies, Inc., W.R. Berkley Corp. and Zurich Insurance Group.
In our U.S. mortgage business, we compete with five active U.S. mortgage insurers, which include the mortgage insurance subsidiaries of Essent Group Ltd., Genworth Financial Inc., MGIC Investment Corporation, NMI Holdings Inc. and Radian Group Inc. The private mortgage insurance industry is highly competitive. Private mortgage insurers generally compete on the basis of underwriting guidelines, pricing, terms and conditions, financial strength, product and service offerings, customer relationships, reputation, the strength of management, technology, and innovation in the delivery and servicing of insurance products. Arch MI U.S. and other private mortgage insurers compete with federal and state government agencies that sponsor their own mortgage insurance programs. The private mortgage insurers’ principal government competitor is the Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”) and, to a lesser degree, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (“VA”). Future changes to the FHA program, including any reduction to premiums charged may impact the demand for private mortgage insurance.
Arch MI U.S. and other private mortgage insurers increasingly compete with multi-line reinsurers and capital markets alternatives to private mortgage insurance. The GSEs continued their respective mortgage credit risk transfer (“CRT”) programs including the use of front and back-end transactions with multiline reinsurers. These transactions continue to create opportunities for multiline property casualty reinsurance groups and capital markets participants.
For other U.S. risk sharing products and non-U.S. mortgage insurance opportunities, we have also seen increased competition from well capitalized and highly rated multiline reinsurers. It is our expectation that the depth and capacity of competitors from this segment will continue to increase over the next several years as more residential mortgage credit risk is borne by private capital.
ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT
General. Enterprise Risk Management (“ERM”) is a key element in our philosophy, strategy and culture. We employ an ERM framework that includes underwriting, reserving, investment, credit and operational risks. Risk appetite and exposure limits are set by our executive management team, reviewed with the Board and its committees and routinely discussed with business unit management. These limits are articulated in our risk appetite statement, which details risk appetite, tolerances and limits for each major risk category, and are integrated into our operating guidelines. Exposures are aggregated and monitored periodically by our corporate risk management team. The reporting, review and approval of risk management information is integrated into our annual planning process, capital modeling and allocation, reinsurance purchasing strategy and reviewed at insurance business reviews, reinsurance underwriting meetings and board level committees.
Risk Management Process and Procedures. The following narrative provides an overview of our risk management framework and our methodology for identifying, measuring, managing and reporting on the key risks affecting us. It outlines our approach to risk identification and assessment and provides an overview of our risk appetite and tolerance for each of the following major risks: underwriting (insurance) risk including pricing, reserving and catastrophe; investment including market and liquidity risks; strategic risk; group risk including governance and capital market risk; credit risk; and operational risk, including regulatory, investor relations (reputational risk), rating agency and outsourcing risks.
The framework includes details of our risk philosophy and policies to address the material risks confronting us; and compliance, approach and procedures to control and or mitigate these risks. The actions and policies implemented to
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meet our business management and regulatory obligations form the core of this framework. We have adopted a holistic approach to risk management by analyzing risk from both a top-down and bottom-up perspective.
Risk Identification and Assessment. The Finance, Investment and Risk Committee (“FIR Committee”), Audit Committee and Underwriting Oversight Committee of the Board oversee the top-down and bottom-up review of our risks. Given the nature and scale of our operations, these committees consider all aforementioned risks within the scope of the assessment. Arch Capital’s Chief Risk Officer (“CRO”) assists these committees in the identification and assessment of all key risks. The CRO is responsible for maintaining Arch Capital’s risk register and continually reviewing and challenging risk assessments, including the impact of emerging risks and significant business developments. Board approval is required for any new high level risks or change in inherent or residual designations.
Risk Monitoring and Control. Arch Capital’s risk management framework requires risk owners to monitor key risks on a continuous basis. The highest residual risks are actively managed by the FIR Committee. The remaining risks are managed and monitored at a process level by the risk owners and/or the CRO. Risk owners have ultimate responsibility for the day-to-day management of each designated risk, reporting to the CRO on the satisfactory management and control of the risk and timely escalation of significant issues that may arise in relation to that risk. The CRO is responsible for overseeing the monitoring of all risks across the business and for communicating to the relevant risk owners if she becomes aware of issues, or potential and actual breaches of risk appetite, relevant to the assigned risks. A key element of these monitoring activities is the evaluation of our position relative to risk tolerances and limits approved by the Board.
Risk Reporting. Quarterly, the CRO compiles the results of the key risk review process into a report to the FIR Committee for review and discussion at their quarterly meeting. The report includes an overview of selected key risks; a risk dashboard that depicts the status of risk limit and tolerance metrics; changes in the rating of high level risks in the Arch Capital risk register; and summaries of our largest exposures and reinsurance recoverables. If necessary, risk management matters reviewed at the FIR Committee meeting are presented for discussion by the Board. The CRO is responsible for immediately escalating any significant risk matters to executive management, the FIR Committee and/or the Board for approval of the required remediation. As part of our corporate governance, the Board and certain of its committees hold regular executive sessions with members of our management team. These sessions are intended to ensure an open and frank dialogue exists about various forms of risk across the organization.
Implementation and Integration. We believe that an integrated approach to developing, measuring and reporting our Own Risk and Solvency Assessment (“ORSA”) is an integral part of the risk management framework. The ORSA process provides the link between Arch Capital’s risk profile, its board-approved risk appetite including approved risk tolerances and limits, its business strategy and its overall solvency requirements. The ORSA is the entirety of the processes and procedures employed to identify, assess, monitor, manage, and report the short- and long-term risks we face or may face and to determine the capital necessary to ensure that our overall solvency needs are met at all times. The ORSA also makes the link between actual reported results and the capital assessment.
The ORSA is the basis for risk reporting to the Board and its committees and acts as a mechanism to embed the risk management framework within our decision making processes and operations. The Board has delegated responsibility for supervision and oversight of the ORSA to the FIR Committee. This oversight includes regular reviews of the ORSA process and output. An ORSA report is produced at least annually and the results of each assessment are reported to the Board. The Board actively participates in the ORSA process by steering how the assessment is performed and challenging its results. This assessment is also taken into account when formulating strategic decisions.
The ORSA process and reporting are integral parts of our business strategy, tailored specifically to fit into our organizational structure and risk management system with the appropriate techniques in place to assess our overall solvency needs, taking into consideration the nature, scale and complexity of the risks inherent in the business.
We also take the results of the ORSA into account for our system of governance, including long-term capital management, business planning and new product development. The results of the ORSA also contributes to various strategic decision-making including how best to optimize capital management, establishing the most appropriate premium levels and deciding whether to retain or transfer risks.
For further discussion of our risk management policies, see the Ceded Reinsurance section of “Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in Item 7.
Our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to varying degrees of regulation and supervision in the various jurisdictions in which they operate. We are subject to
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extensive regulation under applicable statutes in these countries and any other jurisdictions in which we operate. The current material regulations under which we operate are described below. We may become subject in the future to regulation in new jurisdictions or to additional regulations in existing jurisdictions.
General. Our Bermuda insurance operating subsidiary, Arch Re Bermuda, is a Class 4 general business insurer and a Class C long-term insurer, and is subject to the Insurance Act 1978 of Bermuda and related regulations, as amended (“Insurance Act”). Among other matters, the Insurance Act imposes certain solvency and liquidity standards, auditing and reporting requirements, the submission of certain period examinations of its financial conditions and grants the BMA powers to supervise, investigate, require information and demand the production of documents and intervene in the affairs of insurance companies. Significant requirements include the appointment of an independent auditor, the appointment of a loss reserve specialist, the appointment of a principal representative in Bermuda, the filing of annual Statutory Financial Returns, the filing of annual financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), the filing of an annual capital and solvency return, compliance with minimum and enhanced capital requirements, compliance with certain restrictions on reductions of capital and the payment of dividends and distributions, compliance with group solvency and supervision rules, if applicable, and compliance with the Insurance Code of Conduct (relating to corporate governance, risk management and internal controls).
Arch Re Bermuda must also comply with a minimum liquidity ratio and minimum solvency margin in respect of its general business. The minimum liquidity ratio requires that the value of relevant assets must not be less than 75% of the amount of relevant liabilities. The minimum solvency margin, which varies depending on the class of the insurer, is determined as a percentage of either net reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses (“LAE”) or premiums or pursuant to a risk-based capital measure. Arch Re Bermuda is also subject to an enhanced capital requirement (“ECR”) which is established by reference to either the Bermuda Solvency Capital Requirement model (“BSCR”) or an approved internal capital model. The BSCR model is a risk-based capital model which provides a method for determining an insurer’s capital requirements (statutory capital and surplus) by taking into account the risk characteristics of different aspects of the insurer’s business. The BMA has established a target capital level for each Class 4 insurer equal to 120% of its ECR. While a Class 4 insurer is not currently required to maintain its available statutory economic capital and surplus at this level, the target capital level serves as an early warning tool for the BMA, and failure
to maintain statutory capital at least equal to the target capital level will likely result in increased regulatory oversight. As a Class C insurer, Arch Re Bermuda is also required to maintain available statutory economic capital and surplus in respect of its long-term business at a level equal to or in excess of its long-term enhanced capital requirement which is established by reference to either the Class C BSCR model or an approved internal capital model.
Arch Re Bermuda is prohibited from declaring or paying any dividends during any financial year if it is in breach of its general business or long-term business enhanced capital requirements, minimum solvency margins or its general business minimum liquidity ratio or if the declaration or payment of such dividends would cause such a breach. If it has failed to meet its minimum solvency margins or minimum liquidity ratio on the last day of any financial year, Arch Re Bermuda will be prohibited, without the approval of the BMA, from declaring or paying any dividends during the next financial year. In addition, Arch Re Bermuda is prohibited from declaring or paying in any financial year dividends of more than 25% of its total statutory capital and surplus (as shown on its previous financial year’s statutory balance sheet) unless it files (at least seven days before payment of such dividends) with the BMA an affidavit stating that it will continue to meet the required margins. Without the approval of the BMA, Arch Re Bermuda is prohibited from reducing by 15% or more its total statutory capital as set out in its previous year’s financial statements and any application for such approval must include an affidavit stating that it will continue to meet the required margins. Without the approval of the BMA, Arch Re Bermuda is prohibited from reducing by 15% or more its total statutory capital as set out in its previous year’s financial statements and any application for such approval must include an affidavit stating that it will continue to meet the required margins. Where such an affidavit is filed, it shall be available for public inspection at the offices of the BMA. Under the Bermuda Companies Act of 1981, as amended, Arch Re Bermuda may declare or pay a dividend out of distributable reserves only if it has reasonable grounds for believing that it is, or would after the payment be, able to pay its liabilities as they become due and if the realizable value of its assets would thereby not be less than its liabilities. The Insurance Amendment (No. 2) Act 2018 amended the Insurance Act to provide for the prior payment of policyholders’ liabilities ahead of general unsecured creditors in the event of the liquidation or winding up of an insurer. The amendments provide inter alia that, subject to certain statutorily preferred debts, the insurance debts of an insurer must be paid in priority to all other unsecured debts of the insurer. Insurance debt is defined as a debt to which an insurer is or may become liable pursuant to an insurance contract excluding debts owed to an insurer under an insurance contract where the insurer is the person insured.
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Group Supervision. The BMA acts as group supervisor of our group of insurance and reinsurance companies (“Group”) and has designated Arch Re Bermuda as the designated insurer (“Designated Insurer”). As our Group supervisor, the BMA performs a number of functions including: (i) coordinating the gathering and dissemination of relevant or essential information for going concerns and emergency situations, including the dissemination of information which is of importance for the supervisory task of other competent authorities; (ii) carrying out supervisory reviews and assessments of our Group; (iii) carrying out assessments of our Group's compliance with the rules on solvency, risk concentration, intra-group transactions and good governance procedures; (iv) planning and coordinating through regular meetings held at least annually (or by other appropriate means) with other competent authorities, supervisory activities in respect of our Group; both as a going concern and in emergency situations (v) coordinating any enforcement action that may need to be taken against our Group or any Group members; and (vi) planning and coordinating meetings of colleges of supervisors in order to facilitate the carrying out of these functions. As Designated Insurer, Arch Re Bermuda is required to facilitate compliance by our Group with the group insurance solvency and supervision rules.
On an annual basis, the Group is required to file Group statutory financial statements, a Group statutory financial return, a Group capital and solvency return, audited Group financial statements, a Group Solvency Self-Assessment (“GSSA”), and a financial condition report with the BMA. The GSSA is designed to document our perspective on the capital resources necessary to achieve our business strategies and remain solvent, and to provide the BMA with insights on our risk management, governance procedures and documentation related to this process. In addition, the Designated Insurer is required to file quarterly group financial returns with the BMA. The Group is also required to maintain available Group statutory economic capital and surplus in an amount that is at least equal to the group enhanced capital requirement (“Group ECR”) and the BMA has established a group target capital level equal to 120% of the Group ECR.
The BMA maintains supervision over the controllers of all Bermuda registered insurers, and accordingly, any person who, directly or indirectly, becomes a holder of at least 10%, 20%, 33% or 50% of our ordinary shares must notify the BMA in writing within 45 days of becoming such a holder (or ceasing to be such a holder). The BMA may object to such a person and require the holder to reduce its holding of ordinary shares and direct, among other things, that voting rights attaching to the ordinary shares shall not be exercisable.
Economic Substance Act. During 2017, the EU’s Economic and Financial Affairs Council released a list of non-cooperative jurisdictions for tax purposes. The stated purpose of this list, and accompanying report, was to promote good governance worldwide in order to maximize efforts to prevent tax fraud and tax evasion. Bermuda was not on the list of non-cooperative jurisdictions, but was referenced in the report (along with approximately 40 other jurisdictions) as having committed to address concerns relating to economic substance by December 31, 2018. In accordance with that commitment, Bermuda enacted the Economic Substance Act 2018 (as amended) of Bermuda and its related regulations (together, the “ES Act”). The ES Act came into force on January 1, 2019, and provides that a registered entity other than an entity which is resident for tax purposes in certain jurisdictions outside Bermuda (“non-resident entity”) that carries on as a business any one or more of the “relevant activities” referred to in the ES Act must comply with economic substance requirements. The list of “relevant activities” includes carrying on any one or more of the following activities: banking, insurance, fund management, financing, leasing, headquarters, shipping, distribution and service center, intellectual property and holding entities. Under the ES Act, if a company is engaged in one or more “relevant activities”, it is required to maintain a substantial economic presence in Bermuda and to comply with the economic substance requirements set forth in the ES Act. A company will comply with those economic substance requirements if it: (a) is managed and directed in Bermuda; (b) undertakes “core income generating activities” (as may be prescribed under the ES Act) in Bermuda in respect of the relevant activity; (c) maintains adequate physical presence in Bermuda; (d) has adequate full time employees in Bermuda with suitable qualifications; and (e) incurs adequate operating expenditure in Bermuda in relation to the relevant activity undertaken by it.
Companies that are licensed to and carry on insurance as a relevant activity are generally considered to operate in Bermuda with adequate substance, with respect to their insurance business, if they comply with the existing provisions of (a) the Companies Act 1981 relating to corporate governance; and (b) the Insurance Act 1978, that are applicable to the economic substance requirements, and the Registrar will have regard to such companies’ compliance with the Insurance Act 1978 (in addition to compliance with the Companies Act 1981) in his assessment of compliance with the economic substance requirements. That being said, such companies are still required to complete and file a Declaration Form, with the Bermuda Registrar of Companies and the Registrar will also have regard to the information provided in that Declaration Form in making his assessment of compliance with the ES Act.
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General. Our U.S. based insurance operating subsidiaries are subject to extensive governmental regulation and supervision by the states and jurisdictions in which they are domiciled, licensed and/or approved to conduct business. The insurance laws and regulations of the state of domicile have the most significant impact on operations. We currently have U.S. insurance and/or reinsurance subsidiaries domiciled in Delaware, North Carolina, Missouri, Wisconsin, Kansas and the District of Columbia and we may acquire insurers domiciled in other states in the future. State insurance regulation and supervision is designed to protect policyholders rather than investors. Generally, state regulatory authorities have broad regulatory powers over such matters as licenses, standards of solvency, premium rates, policy forms, marketing practices, claims practices, investments, methods of accounting, form and content of financial statements, certain aspects of governance, ERM, amounts we are required to hold as reserves for future payments, minimum capital and surplus requirements, annual and other report filings and transactions among affiliates. Our U.S. based subsidiaries are required to file detailed quarterly and audited annual statutory financial statements with state insurance regulators. In addition, regulatory authorities conduct periodic financial, claims and market conduct examinations. Certain insurance regulatory requirements are highlighted below. In addition to regulation applicable generally to U.S. insurance and reinsurance companies, our U.S. mortgage insurance operations are affected by federal and state regulation relating to mortgage insurers, mortgage lenders, and the origination, purchase and sale of residential mortgages. Arch Insurance (U.K.) is also subject to certain governmental regulation and supervision in the states where it writes excess and surplus lines insurance.
Holding Company Regulation. All states have enacted legislation that regulates insurance holding company systems. These regulations generally provide that each insurance company in the system is required to register with the insurance department of its state of domicile and furnish information concerning the operations of companies within the holding company system which may materially affect the operations, management or financial condition of the insurers within the system. Notice to the state insurance departments is required prior to the consummation of certain material transactions between an insurer and any entity in its holding company system and certain transactions may not be consummated without the applicable insurance department’s prior approval or non-disapproval after receiving notice. The holding company acts also prohibit any person from directly or indirectly acquiring control of a U.S. insurance or reinsurance company unless that person has filed an application with specified information with such company’s domiciliary commissioner and has obtained the commissioner’s prior approval. Under most states’ statutes
acquiring 10% or more of the voting securities of an insurance company or its parent company is presumptively considered an acquisition of control of the insurance company, although such presumption may be rebutted.
State holding company acts and regulations also impose extensive informational requirements on parents and other affiliates of licensed insurers or reinsurers with the purpose of protecting them from enterprise risk, including requiring an annual enterprise risk report by the ultimate controlling person identifying the material risks within the insurance holding company system that could pose enterprise risk to the licensed companies and requiring a person divesting its controlling interest to make a confidential advance notice filing.
In December 2020, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) adopted amendments to the NAIC Insurance Holding Company System Model Act and Model Regulation that, when adopted by states, will require the ultimate controlling person of an insurance holding company system to file an annual group capital calculation, unless the ultimate controlling person or its insurance holding company system is exempt from the filing requirement. The group capital calculation is designed to assist state insurance regulators in understanding the financial condition of non-insurance entities that are part of an insurance holding company system and the degree to which insurance companies are supporting those non-insurance entities.
Regulation of Dividends and Other Payments from Insurance Subsidiaries. The ability of an insurer to pay dividends or make other distributions is subject to insurance regulatory limitations of the insurer’s state of domicile. Such laws generally limit the payment of dividends or other distributions above a specified level. Dividends or other distributions in excess of such thresholds are “extraordinary” and are subject to prior notice and approval, or non-disapproval after receiving notice. In April 2015, the GSEs published comprehensive, revised requirements, known as the Private Mortgage Insurer Eligibility Requirements or “PMIERs.” Arch MI U.S.’ ability to pay dividends is subject to prior notification and approval through June 30, 2021, pursuant to the PMIERs guidance related to COVID-19.
Credit for Reinsurance. Arch Re U.S. is subject to insurance regulation and supervision that is similar to the regulation of licensed primary insurers. However, except for certain mandated provisions that must be included in order for a ceding company to obtain credit for reinsurance ceded, the terms and conditions of reinsurance agreements generally are not subject to regulation by any governmental authority.
A primary insurer ordinarily will enter into a reinsurance agreement to obtain credit for the reinsurance ceded on its U.S. statutory-basis financial statements. As a result of the
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requirements relating to the provision of credit for reinsurance, Arch Re U.S. and Arch Re Bermuda are indirectly subject to certain regulatory requirements imposed by jurisdictions in which ceding companies are domiciled.
In general, credit for reinsurance is allowed if the reinsurer is licensed or “accredited” in the state in which the primary insurer is domiciled; or if none of the above applies, to the extent that the reinsurance obligations of the reinsurer are collateralized appropriately, typically through the posting of a letter of credit for the benefit of the primary insurer or the deposit of assets into a trust fund established for the benefit of the primary insurer. Most states have adopted provisions of the NAIC Credit for Reinsurance Model Law and Regulation that allow full credit to U.S. ceding insurers for reinsurance ceded to reinsurers that have been approved as “certified reinsurers” based upon less than 100% collateralization. As of February 2, 2021 Arch Re Bermuda is approved as a “certified reinsurer” in 39 states.
In April 2018, the U.S. and the EU entered into the Bilateral Agreement between the United States of America and the European Union on Prudential Matters Regarding Insurance and Reinsurance (the “EU-US Covered Agreement”) that, among other things, would eliminate reinsurance collateral requirements for qualified U.S. reinsurers operating in the EU insurance market, and eliminate reinsurance collateral requirements under U.S. state insurance law for qualified reinsurers having their head office or domiciled in an EU member state. In December 2018, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and the U.S. Trade Representative announced that they had reached agreement with the U.K. on a covered agreement (“U.K. Covered Agreement”) with terms nearly identical to the EU Covered Agreement for insurers and reinsurers operating in the U.K. In 2019, the NAIC adopted amendments to the Credit for Reinsurance Model Law and Regulation that would implement the EU-US Covered Agreement and the U.K. Covered Agreement and eliminate reinsurance collateral requirements for qualified reinsurers having their head office or domiciled in other jurisdictions deemed “Reciprocal Jurisdictions” by the NAIC (although individual states may reject a Reciprocal Jurisdiction designation). The NAIC list of Reciprocal Jurisdictions includes Bermuda, Japan and Switzerland. As of February 23, 2021, the NAIC reports that eighteen states have adopted the 2019 amendments to the Credit for Reinsurance Model Law with an additional 18 considering amendments.
Risk Management and ORSA. The NAIC Risk Management and Own Risk Solvency Assessment Model Act (“ORSA Model Act”) provides that domestic insurers, or their insurance group, must regularly conduct an ORSA consistent with a process comparable to the ORSA Guidance Manual process. The ORSA Model Act also provides that, no more than once a year, an insurer’s domiciliary regulator may request that an insurer submit an ORSA summary report, or
any combination of reports that together contain the information described in the ORSA Guidance Manual, with respect to the insurer and/or the insurance group of which it is a member. States may impose additional internal review and regulatory filing requirements on licensed insurers and their parent companies. Nearly all states have enacted the ORSA Model Act or substantially similar legislation.
Cybersecurity and Privacy. The NAIC has adopted an Insurance Data Security Model Law, which, when adopted by the states, will require insurers, insurance producers and other entities required to be licensed under state insurance laws to comply with certain requirements under state insurance laws, such as developing and maintaining a written information security program, conducting risk assessments and overseeing the data security practices of third-party vendors. A number of states have already adopted versions of this model law, with more expected to follow. In addition, certain state insurance regulators are developing or have developed regulations that may impose regulatory requirements relating to cybersecurity on insurance and reinsurance companies (potentially including insurance and reinsurance companies that are not domiciled, but are licensed, in the relevant state). Privacy legislation and regulation has also become an issue of increasing focus of the federal government and in many states. In addition, California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”), which also applies to us, came into effect on January 1, 2020, and grants California consumers certain rights to, among other things, access and delete data about them subject to certain exceptions, as well as a private right of action related to cybersecurity breaches with statutory penalties. Additionally, a California ballot initiative known as the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”) passed as part of the November 2020 ballot and will become fully effective on January 1, 2023. The CPRA will apply to us and will substantially amend the CCPA, providing for additional consumer privacy rights, additional regulatory obligations, and creating a new privacy focused California regulatory agency with enforcement authority. A range of new cybersecurity and privacy laws are also under consideration in other states, as well as by the federal government.
Risk-Based Capital Requirements. Licensed U.S. property and casualty insurance and reinsurance companies are subject to risk-based capital requirements that are designed to assess capital adequacy and to raise the level of protection that statutory surplus provides for policyholder obligations. The risk-based capital model for property and casualty insurance companies measures three major areas of risk facing property and casualty insurers: underwriting, which encompasses the risk of adverse loss developments and inadequate pricing; declines in asset values arising from credit risk; and declines in asset values arising from investment risks. An insurer will be subject to varying degrees of regulatory action depending on how its statutory surplus compares to its risk-based capital
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calculation. Under the approved formula, an insurer’s total adjusted capital is compared to its authorized control level risk-based capital. If this ratio is above a minimum threshold, no company or regulatory action is necessary. Below this threshold are four distinct action levels at which an insurer’s domiciliary state regulator can intervene with increasing degrees of authority over an insurer as the ratio of surplus to risk-based capital requirement decreases. The mildest regulatory action requires an insurer to submit a plan for corrective action; the most severe requires an insurer to be rehabilitated or liquidated.
Our mortgage insurance operations are not currently subject to state risk-based capital requirements, but rather are subject to state risk to capital or minimum policyholder position requirements. The NAIC has established a Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Working Group which is engaged in developing changes to the Mortgage Guaranty Insurers Model Act, including the development of a risk based capital model unique to mortgage guaranty insurers.
Guaranty Funds. Most states require all admitted insurance companies to participate in their respective guaranty funds which cover certain claims against insolvent insurers. Solvent insurers licensed in these states are required to cover the losses paid on behalf of insolvent insurers by the guaranty funds and are generally subject to annual assessments in the states by the guaranty funds to cover these losses. Mortgage guaranty insurance, among other lines of business, is typically exempt from participation in guaranty funds.
Federal Regulation. Although state regulation is the dominant form of regulation for insurance and reinsurance business, a number of federal laws affect and apply to the insurance industry. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank”) created the Federal Insurance Office (“FIO”) within the Department of Treasury, which is not a federal regulator or supervisor of insurance, but monitors the insurance industry for systemic risk, administers the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program (“TRIP”), consults with the states regarding insurance matters and develops federal policy on aspects of international insurance matters. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—We could face unanticipated losses from war, terrorism, cyber-attacks, pandemics and political instability, and these or other unanticipated losses could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations” for more information on TRIP. In addition, FIO is authorized to assist the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury in negotiating “covered agreements” between the U.S. and one or more foreign governments or regulatory authorities that address insurance prudential measures.
Certain other federal laws also directly or indirectly impact mortgage insurers, including the Real Estate Settlement
Procedures Act of 1974 (“RESPA”), the Homeowners Protection Act of 1998 (“HOPA”), the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Truth In Lending Act (“TILA”), the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970 (“FCRA”), and the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act. Among other things, these laws and their implementing regulations prohibit payments for referrals of settlement service business, require fairness and non-discrimination in granting or facilitating the granting of credit, govern the circumstances under which companies may obtain and use consumer credit information, define the manner in which companies may pursue collection activities, and require disclosures of the cost of credit and provide for other consumer protections.
GSE Eligible Mortgage Insurer Requirements. GSEs impose requirements on private mortgage insurers so that they may be eligible to insure loans sold to the GSEs, known as the PMIERs. The PMIERs apply to our eligible mortgage insurers, but do not apply to Arch Mortgage Guaranty Company, which is not GSE-approved. The PMIERs impose limitations on the type of risk insured, the forms and insurance policies issued, standards for the geographic and customer diversification of risk, procedures for claims handling, acceptable underwriting practices, standards for certain reinsurance cessions and financial requirements, among other things. The financial requirements require an eligible mortgage insurer’s available assets, which generally include only the most liquid assets of an insurer, to meet or exceed “minimum required assets” as of each quarter end. Minimum required assets are calculated from PMIERs tables with several risk dimensions (including origination year, original loan-to-value, original credit score of performing loans, and the delinquency status of non-performing loans). Our eligible mortgage insurers satisfied the PMIERs’ financial requirements as of December 31, 2020.
Arch Insurance Canada and Arch Re Canada are subject to federal, as well as provincial and territorial, regulation in Canada in the provinces and territories in which they underwrite insurance/reinsurance. The Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (“OSFI”) is the federal regulatory body that, under the Insurance Companies Act (Canada), prudentially regulates federal Canadian and non-Canadian insurance and reinsurance companies operating in Canada. Arch Insurance Canada is licensed to carry on insurance business by OSFI and in each province and territory. Arch Re Canada is licensed to carry on reinsurance business by OSFI and in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Under the Insurance Companies Act (Canada), Arch Insurance Canada is required to maintain an adequate amount of capital in Canada, calculated in accordance with a test
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promulgated by OSFI called the Minimum Capital Test, and Arch Re Canada is required to maintain an adequate margin of assets over liabilities in Canada, calculated in accordance with a test promulgated by OSFI called the Branch Adequacy of Assets Test. OSFI has implemented a risk-based methodology for assessing insurance/reinsurance companies operating in Canada known as its “Supervisory Framework.” In applying the Supervisory Framework, OSFI considers the inherent risks of the business and the quality of risk management for each significant activity of each operating entity. Under the Insurance Companies Act (Canada), approval of the Minister of Finance (Canada) is required in connection with certain acquisitions of shares of, or control of, Canadian insurance companies such as Arch Insurance Canada, and notice to and/or approval of OSFI is required in connection with the payment of dividends by or redemption of shares by Canadian insurance companies such as Arch Insurance Canada.
General. The Prudential Regulation Authority (“PRA”) and the Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) regulate insurance and reinsurance companies and the FCA regulates firms carrying on insurance mediation activities operating in the U.K. both under the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (the “FSMA”). In May 2004, Arch Insurance (U.K.) was granted the relevant permissions for the classes of insurance business which it underwrites in the U.K. AMAL currently manages Arch Syndicate 2012 and Arch Syndicate 1955 pursuant to its authorizations by the U.K. regulator and the Lloyd’s Franchise Board. All U.K. companies are also subject to a range of statutory provisions, including the laws and regulations of the Companies Act 2006 (as amended) (the “U.K. Companies Act”).
The objectives of the PRA are to promote the safety and soundness of all firms it supervises and to secure an appropriate degree of protection for policyholders. The objectives of the FCA are to ensure customers receive financial services and products that meet their needs, to promote sound financial systems and markets and to ensure that firms are stable and resilient with transparent pricing information and which compete effectively and have the interests of their customers and the integrity of the market at the heart of how they run their business. The PRA has responsibility for the prudential regulation of banks and insurers, while the FCA has responsibility for the conduct of business regulation in the wholesale and retail markets. The PRA and the FCA adopt separate methods of assessing regulated firms on a periodic basis. Arch Insurance (U.K.) and AMAL are subject to periodic assessment by the PRA along with all regulated firms. Arch Insurance (U.K.) and AMAL are subject to regulation by both the PRA and FCA. Castel is authorized and regulated by the FCA and is subject to periodic assessment and review by the FCA.
Lloyd’s Supervision. The operations of AMAL (as managing agent of Arch Syndicate 2012 and Arch Syndicate 1955) and each syndicate’s respective corporate members, are subject to the byelaws and regulations made by (or on behalf of) the Council of Lloyd’s, and requirements made under those byelaws. The Council of Lloyd’s, established in 1982 by Lloyd’s Act 1982, has overall responsibility and control of Lloyd’s. Those byelaws, regulations and requirements provide a framework for the regulation of the Lloyd’s market, including specifying conditions in relation to underwriting and claims operations of Lloyd’s participants. Lloyd’s is also subject to the provisions of the FSMA. Lloyd's is authorized by the PRA and regulated by the PRA and FCA. Those entities acting within the Lloyd’s market are required to comply with the requirements of the FSMA and provisions of the PRA’s or FCA's rules, although the PRA has delegated certain of its powers, including some of those relating to prudential requirements, to Lloyd’s. Each corporate member of Lloyd’s is required to contribute a percentage of the member’s premium income for each year of account to the Lloyd’s central fund. The Lloyd’s central fund is available if members of Lloyd’s assets are not sufficient to meet claims for which the member is liable. Each corporate member of Lloyd’s, may also be required to contribute to the central fund by way of a supplement to a callable layer of up to 3% of the corresponding member’s premium income limit for the relevant year of account.
Financial Resources. The European solvency framework and prudential regime for insurers and reinsurers, the Solvency II Directive 2009/138/EC (“Solvency II”), took effect in full on January 1, 2016. See “European Union—Insurance and Reinsurance Regulatory Regime” below for additional details.
Arch Insurance (U.K.), and the corporate members of Arch Syndicate 2012 and Arch Syndicate 1955 are currently required to meet economic risk-based solvency requirements imposed under Solvency II. Solvency II, together with European Commission “delegated acts” and guidance issued by the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (“EIOPA”) sets out classification and eligibility requirements, including the features which capital must display in order to qualify as regulatory capital. Currently, the European Commission is undertaking a review of Solvency II to ensure that the regime remains fit for purpose of calling upon EIOPA to provide technical advice with EIOPA publishing its Opinion on December 17, 2020. The European Commission’s proposal on the review is expected in the 2021 third quarter.
On January 31, 2020, the U.K. withdrew from the EU with the terms of Brexit set forth in the Withdrawal Agreement agreed by the U.K. Parliament and the EU Parliament. At the expiration of the transition period from January 31, 2020 until December 31, 2020 (the “Transition Period”), during
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which time the U.K. remained in the EU customs union and single market, the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, as amended, has transposed all applicable direct EU legislation into domestic U.K. law, thus ensuring the continuing application of Solvency II under the U.K.’s financial services regulatory regime.
In June 2020, the U.K. government revealed plans to review Solvency II to ensure that it is properly tailored to take account the structural features of the U.K. insurance sector, with HM Treasury publishing a ‘Call for Evidence’ in October 2020, outlining the motives behind the review and inviting feedback on various areas, including, amongst others, the standard formula for capital requirements, the risk margin, the matching adjustment and reporting requirements. The results of the review are not expected to be published until later in 2021.
Financial Services Compensation Scheme. The Financial Services Compensation Scheme (“FSCS”) is a scheme established under FSMA to compensate eligible policyholders of insurance companies who may become insolvent. The FSCS is funded by the levies that it has the power to impose on all insurers. Arch Insurance (U.K.) could be required to pay levies to the FSCS.
Restrictions on Acquisition of Control. Under FSMA, the prior consent of the PRA or FCA, as applicable, is required, before any person can become a controller or increase its control over any regulated company, including Arch Insurance (U.K.), or over the parent undertaking of any regulated company. Therefore, the PRA's or FCA's prior consent, as applicable, is required before any person can become a controller of Arch Capital. Prior consent is also required from Lloyd’s before any person can become a controller or increase its control over a corporate member or a managing agent or a parent undertaking of a corporate member or managing agent. A controller is defined for these purposes as a person who holds (either alone or in concert with others) 10% or more of the shares or voting power in the relevant company or its parent undertaking.
Restrictions on Payment of Dividends. Under English law, all companies are restricted from declaring a dividend to their shareholders unless they have “profits available for distribution.” The calculation as to whether a company has sufficient profits is based on its accumulated realized profits minus its accumulated realized losses. U.K. insurance regulatory laws do not prohibit the payment of dividends, but the PRA or FCA, as applicable, requires that insurance companies, insurance intermediaries and other regulated entities maintain certain solvency margins and may restrict the payment of a dividend by Arch Insurance (U.K.), AMAL or Castel, for example.
European Union Considerations. During the Transition Period, there was no change in passporting rights for financial institutions in the U.K. Under our Brexit plan, since January 2020 nearly all of the EEA insurance business of Arch Insurance (U.K.) has been conducted by Arch Insurance (EU). As part of our Brexit planning, and in advance of the Transition Period expiring, a transfer of the EEA legacy business (excluding inwards reinsurance) from Arch Insurance (U.K.) to Arch Insurance (EU) was completed under Part VII of the U.K. Financial Services and Market Act 2000 at the end of December 2020 (“Part VII Transfer”).
The U.K. government established a Temporary Permissions Regime (“TPR”) which came into force with effect from January 1, 2021, which allows EEA firms such as Arch Re Europe and Arch Insurance (EU), covered by a passport prior to that date, who wish to continue carrying out business in the U.K. in the longer term, to operate in the U.K. for a limited period while they seek authorization or recognition from the U.K. regulators. However, no TPR-equivalent regime is in place for U.K. firms who wish to continue carrying out business in the EEA. In the absence of a TPR-equivalent regime for U.K. firms, the ability of U.K. firms (including, Arch Insurance (U.K.), AMAL and Castel) to continue doing business in the EEA depends on applicable EEA state local law and regulation. Similarly, there has been no decision yet made by the European Commission on whether or not the U.K.’s financial services regulatory regime will be granted third-country equivalence for the purposes of reinsurance, solvency calculation and/or group supervision under Solvency II. In the absence of such declarations, EEA firms (and their respective groups) carrying out business with U.K. firms will be subject to a stricter, more complex, set of regulatory and supervisory requirements. U.K. firms will also be subject to more stringent requirements in carrying out reinsurance business with EEA firms.
The long-term implications of Brexit on the Solvency II framework in the U.K. remain uncertain in relation to the arrangements that will allow U.K. and EU-established firms to continue to effectively transact business with each other and how the future relationship between the two parties will adversely affected regulated entities. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—The U.K.’s Withdrawal from the EU could adversely affect us.”
On December 24, 2020, the EU and the U.K. agreed the EU-UK Trade Cooperation Agreement (the “TCA”) which details the terms of the future cooperation between the U.K. and the EU. The TCA was signed by both the EU and U.K. on December 30, 2020, with a provisional effective date of January 1, 2021. The TCA does not preserve the status of financial services and as a result, under the provisions of the TCA, EEA financial institutions (including our Irish
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operating subsidiaries) have lost their passporting rights into the U.K. Absent any future agreement between the U.K. and the EU on the provision of financial services by U.K. financial institutions into the EU, the post-Brexit status and rules applicable to U.K. branches of EEA financial institutions will be primarily driven by U.K. law and regulation. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—The U.K.’s Withdrawal from the EU could adversely affect us.”
General. The CBOI regulates insurance and reinsurance companies and intermediaries authorized in Ireland. Our three Irish operating subsidiaries are Arch Re Europe, Arch Insurance (EU) and Arch Underwriters Europe. Arch Re Europe was licensed and authorized by the CBOI as a non-life reinsurer in October 2008 and as a life reinsurer in November 2009. Arch Insurance (EU) was licensed and authorized by the CBOI as a non-life insurer in December 2011. As part of our Brexit plan, Arch Insurance (EU) received approval from the CBOI to expand the nature of its business in 2019 commenced writing expanded insurance lines in the EEA in 2020, and the Part VII Transfer was completed at the end of December 2020. Arch Underwriters Europe was registered by the CBOI as an insurance and reinsurance intermediary in July 2014. Arch Re Europe, Arch Insurance (EU) and Arch Underwriters Europe are subject to the supervision of the CBOI and must comply with Irish insurance acts and regulations as well as with directions and guidance issued by the CBOI.
Arch Re Europe and Arch Insurance (EU) are required to comply with Solvency II requirements. See “European Union —Insurance and Reinsurance Regulatory Regime” below for additional details. As an intermediary, Arch Underwriters Europe is subject to a different regulatory regime and is not subject to solvency capital rules, but must comply with requirements such as to maintain professional indemnity insurance and to have directors that are fit and proper. Our Irish subsidiaries are also subject to the general body of Irish company laws and regulations including the provisions of the Companies Act 2014.
Financial Resources. Arch Re Europe and Arch Insurance (EU) are required to meet economic risk-based solvency requirements imposed under Solvency II. Solvency II, together with European Commission “delegated acts” and guidance issued by EIOPA sets out classification and eligibility requirements, including the features which capital must display in order to qualify as regulatory capital.
Restrictions on Acquisitions. Under Irish law, the prior consent of the CBOI is required before any person can acquire or increase a qualifying holding in an Irish insurer or reinsurer, including Arch Insurance (EU) and Arch Re
Europe, or their parent undertakings. A qualifying holding is defined for these purposes as a direct or indirect holding that represents 10% or more of the capital of, or voting rights, in the undertaking or makes it possible to exercise a significant influence over the management of the undertaking.
Restrictions on Payment of Dividends. Under Irish company law, Arch Re Europe, Arch Insurance (EU) and Arch Underwriters Europe are permitted to make distributions only out of profits available for distribution. A company’s profits available for distribution are its accumulated, realized profits, so far as not previously utilized by distribution or capitalization, less its accumulated, realized losses, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital duly made. Further, the CBOI has powers to intervene if a dividend payment were to lead to a breach of regulatory capital requirements.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, EIOPA issued a statement in April 2020 urging (re)insurers to temporarily suspend all discretionary dividend distributions and share buy backs aimed at remunerating shareholders, and recommended a similar prudent approach should be applied to variable remuneration policies. In December 2020, EIOPA reiterated, in light of its previous statement in April 2020, the importance of extreme caution and prudence in relation to insurance firm's capital management.
On the basis of EIOPA's statement, the CBOI issued guidance in April 2020 that insurance firms postpone any payment of dividend distributions or similar transactions until they can forecast their costs and future revenues with a greater degree of certainty. The CBOI's position is that if the board of an insurance firm forms the view that a high level of certainty has been reached and wishes to make a distribution, the CBOI expects the firm to engage with their local supervision team before proceeding with the distribution, demonstrating satisfactory forward looking solvency, liquidity and operational resilience positions in light of the current environment. Additionally, the CBOI advised in the same guidance that insurance firms are expected to exercise similar prudence in respect of any variable remuneration policies and should consider whether the postponement of any payments under such variable remuneration policies would be appropriate in light of the current environment. In February 2021, the CBOI reiterated its expectations in relation to distributions by insurance firms, confirming that between January 1, 2021 and at least until September 30, 2021, it expects that total dividends, share buy-backs and variable remuneration for material risk-takers of significant insurance firms should not result in a reduction in solvency ratio of more than 15 percentage points from the pre-distribution solvency ratio, and overall distributions should be significantly lower than in years prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.
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European Union Considerations. As Arch Re Europe, Arch Insurance (EU) and Arch Underwriters Europe are authorized by the CBOI in Ireland, a Member State of the EU, those authorizations are recognized throughout the EEA. Subject only to certain notification and application requirements, Arch Re Europe, Arch Insurance (EU) and Arch Underwriters Europe can provide services, or establish a branch, in any other Member State of the EEA. Although, in doing so, they may be subject to the laws of such Member States with respect to the conduct of business in such Member State, company law registrations and other matters, they will remain subject to financial and operational supervision by the CBOI only. Arch Insurance (EU) has branches in the following EU countries: Italy and Denmark. Arch Insurance (EU) also has a branch outside of the EU in the U.K. Arch Re Underwriting ApS in Denmark (“Arch Re Denmark”) is an underwriting agency underwriting accident and health and other reinsurance business for Arch Re Europe. Arch Re Europe also has two branches outside the EU in the U.K. and in Switzerland (“Arch Re Europe Swiss Branch”).
From January 1, 2021, under the provisions of the TCA our Irish regulated entities have lost their passporting rights into the U.K. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—The U.K.’s Withdrawal from the EU could adversely affect us.”
Insurance and Reinsurance Regulatory Regime. Solvency II took effect in full on January 1, 2016. Solvency II imposes economic risk-based solvency requirements across all EU Member States and consists of three pillars: Pillar I-quantitative capital requirements, based on a valuation of the entire balance sheet; Pillar II-qualitative regulatory review, which includes governance, internal controls, enterprise risk management and supervisory review process; and Pillar III-market discipline, which is accomplished through reporting of the insurer’s financial condition to regulators and the public. Solvency II is supplemented by European Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/35 (the “Delegated Regulation”), other European Commission “delegated acts” and binding technical standards, and guidelines issued by EIOPA. The Delegated Regulation sets out more detailed requirements for individual insurance and reinsurance undertakings, as well as for groups, based on the overarching provisions of Solvency II, which together make up the core of the single prudential rulebook for insurance and reinsurance undertakings in the EU.
In December 2020, EIOPA provided an opinion to the European Commission in relation to the review of the Solvency II regime. This review was initiated by the European Commission to determine if the Solvency II regime remains fit for purpose. In its opinion, EIOPA confirms that
the overall Solvency II framework is working well from a prudential perspective, suggesting that there are no fundamental changes needed but that a number of amendments are required to ensure the regime continues as a well-functioning risk-based regime. The European Commission will review EIOPA's opinion over the coming months.
Following entry into the TCA by the U.K. and the EU, and the U.K.’s withdrawal from the EU under the provisions of the TCA, U.K. financial institutions have lost their passporting rights into the EU. It is envisaged that there will be a level of cooperation in relation to financial services, reflected in a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.K. and the EU and this is currently expected to be in place by March 2021. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—The U.K.’s Withdrawal from the EU could adversely affect us.”
Arch Re Europe and Arch Insurance (EU), being established in Ireland and authorized by the CBOI are able, subject to similar regulatory notifications and there being no objection from the CBOI and the Member States concerned, to establish branches and provide reinsurance services, and, in respect of Arch Insurance (EU), insurance services in all EEA states.
Solvency II does not prohibit EEA insurers from obtaining reinsurance from reinsurers licensed outside the EEA, such as Arch Re Bermuda. As such, and subject to the specific rules in each Member State, Arch Re Bermuda may do business from Bermuda with insurers in EEA Member States, but it may not directly operate its reinsurance business within the EEA. Article 172 of Solvency II provides that reinsurance contracts concluded by insurance undertakings in the EEA with reinsurers having their head office in a country whose solvency regime has been determined to be equivalent to Solvency II shall be treated in the same manner as reinsurance contracts with undertakings in the EEA authorized under Solvency II. From January 1, 2016, Bermuda was deemed by the European Commission to be equivalent for Solvency II purposes. Solvency II also includes specific measures providing for the supervision of insurance and reinsurance groups. However, as a consequence of the above determination of equivalence, pursuant to Article 260 of Solvency II, regulators within the EEA are required to rely on the worldwide group supervision exercised by the BMA. EIOPA has also indicated that, on a case by case basis, groups subject to this worldwide supervision may be exempted from any EEA sub-group supervision, where this results in more efficient supervision of the group and does not impair EEA supervisors in respect of their individual responsibilities.
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The Insurance Distribution Directive (“IDD”) was published in February 2016. EEA Member States were required to transpose the IDD by October 1, 2018. It replaces the existing Insurance Mediation Directive. The IDD applies to all distributors of insurance and reinsurance products (including insurers and reinsurers selling directly to customers) and strengthens the regulatory regime applicable to distribution activities through increased transparency, information and conduct requirements. The principal impact of the IDD is on the insurance market, however, requirements that apply across insurance and reinsurance include more specific conditions regarding knowledge and continuing professional development requirements for those involved in distribution of (re)insurance products. The IDD continues the existing ability for intermediaries established in a Member State of the EU to establish branches and provide services to all EEA states. Arch Underwriters Europe, being established in Ireland and authorized by the CBOI, is able, subject to regulatory notifications and there being no objection from the CBOI, to establish branches and provide services in all EEA states.
Privacy. The European General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) came into effect on May 25, 2018. The GDPR aims to introduce consistent data protection rules across the EU and EEA, and its scope extends to certain entities not established in the EEA if they process personal data or offer goods or services to, or monitor the behavior of, EEA data subjects. The GDPR contains a number of requirements regarding the processing of personal data about individuals, including mandatory security breach reporting, new and strengthened individual rights, evidenced data controller accountability for compliance with the GDPR principles (including fairness and transparency), maintenance of data processing activity records and the implementation of “privacy by design,” including through the completion of mandatory Data Protection Impact Assessments in connection with higher risk data processing activities. Following the end of the Transition Period on December 31, 2020, GDPR was entered into force in the U.K. (the “U.K. GDPR”). The requirements of the U.K. GDPR are virtually identical to those of the EU GDPR. After the expiration of the Transition Period, transfers of personal data from the U.K. to the EEA are unrestricted and do not require additional safeguards. Data flows from the EU to the U.K. remain unrestricted for a six month interim basis from January 1, 2021, provided the U.K. makes no substantive changes to its data protection laws. The interim period is intended to give the European Commission time to carry out its adequacy assessment of U.K. data protection laws to determine whether they offer an ‘essentially equivalent’ level of data protection to that afforded in the EU. If the European Commission were to grant the U.K. an ‘adequacy decision’ transfers of personal data from the EEA to the U.K. would continue unrestricted and would not require any additional
safeguards, unless the decision was revoked by the European Commission. On February 19, 2021, the European Commission published a first draft of its "adequacy decision" and officially launched the process towards the adoption of the adequacy decision for transfers of personal data to the United Kingdom from the EU.
In December 2008, Arch Re Europe opened Arch Re Europe Swiss Branch as a branch office. As Arch Re Europe is domiciled outside of Switzerland and its activities are limited to reinsurance, the Arch Re Europe Swiss Branch in Switzerland is not required to be licensed by the Swiss insurance regulatory authorities.
In August 2014, Arch Underwriters Europe opened a branch office in Zurich (“Arch Underwriters Europe Swiss Branch”) to render reinsurance advisory services to certain group companies. Arch Underwriters Europe Swiss Branch is registered with the commercial register of the Canton of Zurich. Since its activities are limited to advisory services for reinsurance matters, the Arch Underwriters Europe Swiss Branch is not required to be licensed by the Swiss insurance regulatory authorities.
APRA is an independent statutory authority responsible for prudential supervision of institutions across banking, insurance and superannuation and promotes financial stability in Australia. Arch LMI was authorized by APRA in January 2019 to conduct monoline lenders’ mortgage insurance business in Australia. Major regulatory requirements that are applicable to Arch LMI as an insurance provider in Australia include requirements on minimum capital levels and compliance with corporate governance standards, including the risk management strategy for our Australian mortgage insurance business.
The insurance industry is regulated by Hong Kong Insurance Authority (“HKIA”), whose principal function is to regulate and supervise the insurance industry for the promotion of the general stability of the insurance industry and for the protection of existing and potential policyholders. Arch MI Asia is authorized to carry on general business Class 14 (Credit) and Class 16 (Miscellaneous Financial Loss), in or from Hong Kong.
Major regulatory requirements that are applicable to Arch MI Asia as a general business insurer include requirements on minimum paid-up capital, minimum solvency margin and maintenance of assets in Hong Kong.
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The following summary of the taxation of Arch Capital and the taxation of our shareholders is based upon current law and is for general information only. Legislative, judicial or administrative changes may be forthcoming that could affect this summary.
The following legal discussion (including and subject to the matters and qualifications set forth in such summary) of certain tax considerations (a) under “—Taxation of Arch Capital—Bermuda” and “—Taxation of Shareholders—Bermuda” is based upon the advice of Conyers Dill & Pearman Limited, Hamilton, Bermuda and (b) under “—Taxation of Arch Capital-United States,” “—Taxation of Shareholders-United States Taxation,” “—Taxation of Our U.S. Shareholders” and “—United States Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders” is based upon the advice of Cahill Gordon & Reindel LLP, New York, New York (the advice of such firms does not include accounting matters, determinations or conclusions relating to the business or activities of Arch Capital). The summary is based upon current law and is for general information only. The tax treatment of a holder of our common or preferred shares, or of a person treated as a holder of our shares for U.S. federal income, state, local or non-U.S. tax purposes, may vary depending on the holder’s particular tax situation. Legislative, judicial or administrative changes or interpretations may be forthcoming that could be retroactive and could affect the tax consequences to us or to holders of our shares.
Taxation of Arch Capital
Bermuda. Under current Bermuda law, Arch Capital is not subject to tax on income or profits, withholding, capital gains or capital transfers. Arch Capital has obtained from the Minister of Finance under the Exempted Undertakings Tax Protection Act 1966 of Bermuda an assurance that, in the event that Bermuda enacts legislation imposing tax computed on profits, income, any capital asset, gain or appreciation, or any tax in the nature of estate duty or inheritance, the imposition of any such tax shall not be applicable to Arch Capital or to any of our operations or our shares, debentures or other obligations until March 31, 2035. We could be subject to taxes in Bermuda after that date. This assurance will be subject to the proviso that it is not to be construed so as to prevent the application of any tax or duty to such persons as are ordinarily resident in Bermuda (we are not so currently affected) or to prevent the application of any tax payable in accordance with the provisions of the Land Tax Act 1967 of Bermuda or otherwise payable in relation to any property leased to us or our insurance subsidiary. We pay annual Bermuda government fees, and our Bermuda insurance and reinsurance subsidiary pays annual insurance
license fees. In addition, all entities employing individuals in Bermuda are required to pay a payroll tax and other sundry taxes payable, directly or indirectly, to the Bermuda government.
United States. Arch Capital and its non-U.S. subsidiaries intend to conduct their operations in a manner that will not cause them to be treated as engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. and, therefore, will not be required to pay U.S. federal income taxes (other than U.S. excise taxes on insurance and reinsurance premium and withholding taxes on dividends and certain other U.S. source investment income). However, because definitive identification of activities which constitute being engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. is not provided by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), or regulations or court decisions, there can be no assurance that the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) will not contend successfully that Arch Capital or its non-U.S. subsidiaries are or have been engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. A foreign corporation deemed to be so engaged would be subject to U.S. federal income tax, as well as the branch profits tax, on its income, which is treated as effectively connected with the conduct of that trade or business unless the corporation is entitled to relief under the permanent establishment provisions of a tax treaty. Such income tax, if imposed, would be based on effectively connected income computed in a manner generally analogous to that applied to the income of a domestic corporation, except that deductions and credits generally are not permitted unless the foreign corporation has timely filed a U.S. federal income tax return in accordance with applicable regulations. Penalties may be assessed for failure to file tax returns. The 30% branch profits tax is imposed on net income after subtracting the regular corporate tax and making certain other adjustments.
Under the income tax treaty between Bermuda and the U.S. (the “Treaty”), Arch Capital's Bermuda insurance subsidiaries will be subject to U.S. income tax on any insurance premium income found to be effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business only if that trade or business is conducted through a permanent establishment in the U.S. No regulations interpreting the Treaty have been issued. While there can be no assurances, Arch Capital does not believe that any of its Bermuda insurance subsidiaries has a permanent establishment in the U.S. Such subsidiaries would not be entitled to the benefits of the Treaty if (i) 50% or less of Arch Capital's shares were beneficially owned, directly or indirectly, by Bermuda residents or U.S. citizens or residents, or (ii) any such subsidiary's income were used in substantial part to make disproportionate distributions to, or to meet certain liabilities to, persons who are not Bermuda residents or U.S. citizens or residents. While there can be no assurances, Arch Capital believes that its Bermuda insurance subsidiaries are eligible for Treaty benefits.
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The Treaty clearly applies to premium income, but may be construed as not protecting investment income. If Arch Capital’s Bermuda insurance subsidiaries were considered to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business and were entitled to the benefits of the Treaty in general, but the Treaty were not found to protect investment income, a portion of such subsidiaries’ investment income could be subject to U.S. federal income tax.
Non-U.S. insurance companies carrying on an insurance business within the U.S. have a certain minimum amount of effectively connected net investment income, determined in accordance with a formula that depends, in part, on the amount of U.S. risk insured or reinsured by such companies. If any of Arch Capital's non-U.S. insurance subsidiaries is considered to be engaged in the conduct of an insurance business in the U.S., a significant portion of such company's investment income could be subject to U.S. federal income tax.
Non-U.S. corporations not engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. are nonetheless subject to U.S. income tax on certain “fixed or determinable annual or periodic gains, profits and income” derived from sources within the U.S. as enumerated in Section 881(a) of the Code (such as dividends and certain interest on investments), subject to exemption under the Code or reduction by applicable treaties.
The U.S. also imposes an excise tax on insurance and reinsurance premiums paid to non-U.S. insurers or reinsurers with respect to risks located in the U.S. The rates of tax, unless reduced by an applicable U.S. tax treaty, are 4% for non-life insurance premiums and 1% for life insurance and all reinsurance premiums.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Cuts Act”) was signed into law by the President of the United States in 2017. For taxable years beginning after 2017, the Tax Cuts Act imposes a 10% minimum base erosion and anti-abuse tax (increased to 12.5% for the 2026 taxable year and the subsequent taxable years) on the “modified taxable income” of a U.S. corporation (or a non-U.S. corporation engaged in a U.S. trade or business) over such corporation’s regular U.S. federal income tax, reduced by certain tax credits. The “modified taxable income” of a corporation is determined without deduction for certain payments by such corporation to its non-U.S. affiliates (including reinsurance premiums). Final regulations interpreting the base erosion and anti-abuse tax were issued in December 2019.
United Kingdom. Our U.K. subsidiaries are companies incorporated and have their central management and control in the U.K., and are therefore resident in the U.K. for corporation tax purposes. As a result, they will be subject to U.K. corporation tax on their respective profits. The U.K. branches of Arch Re Europe and Arch Insurance (EU) will be
subject to U.K. corporation tax on the profits (both income profits and chargeable gains) attributable to each branch. The rate of U.K. corporation tax for the financial year is 19% on profits.
Canada. Arch Insurance Canada, a Canadian federal insurance company, commenced underwriting in 2013. Arch Re U.S., through a branch, commenced underwriting reinsurance in Canada in January 2015. Arch Insurance Canada is taxed on its worldwide income. Arch Re U.S. is taxed on its net business income earned in Canada. The general federal corporate income tax rate in Canada is currently 15%. Provincial and territorial corporate income tax rates are added to the general federal corporate income tax rate and generally vary between 8% and 16%.
Ireland. Each of Arch Re Europe, Arch Insurance (EU) and Arch Underwriters Europe is incorporated and resident in Ireland for corporation tax purposes and will be subject to Irish corporate tax on its worldwide profits, including the profits of the branches of Arch Re Europe, Arch Insurance (EU) and Arch Underwriters Europe. Any creditable foreign tax payable will be creditable against Arch Re Europe’s Irish corporate tax liability on the results of Arch Re Europe’s branches with the same principle applied to Arch Insurance (EU)’s branches and Arch Underwriters Europe’s branches. The current rate of Irish corporation tax applicable to such trading profits is 12.5%.
Switzerland. Arch Re Europe Swiss Branch and Arch Underwriters Europe Swiss Branch are subject to Swiss corporation tax on the profit which is allocated to the branch. The effective tax rate is approximately 21.15% for Swiss federal, cantonal and communal corporation taxes on the profit. The effective tax rate of the annual cantonal and communal capital taxes on the equity which is allocated to Arch Re Europe Swiss Branch and Arch Underwriters Europe Swiss Branch is approximately 0.17%.
Denmark. Arch Re Denmark, established as a subsidiary of Arch Re Bermuda, is subject to Danish corporation taxes on its profits at a rate of 22% for 2016 and onwards.
Hong Kong. Arch MI Asia is subject to Hong Kong corporate tax on its assessable profits at a rate of 16.5%. Assessable profits are the net profits for the basis period, arising in or derived from Hong Kong.
Australia. Arch LMI, an Australian incorporated and tax resident company, is subject to Australian corporate tax on its worldwide profits. The current rate of Australian corporation tax applicable to such profits is 30%.
Taxation of Shareholders
Bermuda. Currently, there is no Bermuda withholding tax on dividends paid by us.
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United States—General. The following summary sets forth certain U.S. federal income tax considerations related to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common shares and our non-cumulative preferred shares (“preferred shares”). Unless otherwise stated, this summary deals only with shareholders (“U.S. holders”) that are U.S. Persons (as defined below) who hold their common shares and preferred shares as capital assets and as beneficial owners. The following discussion is only a general summary of the U.S. federal income tax matters described herein and does not purport to address all of the U.S. federal income tax consequences that may be relevant to a particular shareholder in light of such shareholder’s specific circumstances. In addition, the following summary does not describe the U.S. federal income tax consequences that may be relevant to certain types of shareholders, such as banks, insurance companies, regulated investment companies, real estate investment trusts, financial asset securitization investment trusts, dealers in securities or traders that adopt a mark-to-market method of tax accounting, tax exempt entities, expatriates, U.S. holders that hold our common shares or preferred shares through a non-U.S. broker or other non-U.S. intermediary, persons who hold the common shares or preferred shares as part of a hedging or conversion transaction or as part of a straddle, who may be subject to special rules or treatment under the Code or persons required for U.S. federal income tax purposed to recognize income no later than such income is reported on such persons’ applicable financial statements. This discussion is based upon the Code, the Treasury regulations promulgated there under and any relevant administrative rulings or pronouncements or judicial decisions, all as in effect on the date of this annual report and as currently interpreted, and does not take into account possible changes in such tax laws or interpretations thereof, which may apply retroactively. This discussion does not include any description of the tax laws of any state or local governments within the U.S., or of any foreign government, that may be applicable to our common shares or preferred shares or the shareholders. Persons considering making an investment in the common shares or preferred shares should consult their own tax advisors concerning the application of the U.S. federal tax laws to their particular situations as well as any tax consequences arising under the laws of any state, local or foreign taxing jurisdiction prior to making such investment.
If an entity that is treated as a partnership holds our common shares or preferred shares, the tax treatment of a partner will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership holding our common shares or preferred shares, you should consult your tax advisor.
For purposes of this discussion, the term “U.S. Person” means:
•an individual who is a citizen or resident of the U.S.;
•a corporation or entity treated as a corporation created or organized under the laws of the U.S., any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;
•an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source;
•a trust if either (i) a court within the U.S. is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of such trust or (ii) the trust has a valid election in effect to be treated as a U.S. person for U.S. federal income tax purposes; or
•any other person or entity that is treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as if it were one of the foregoing.
United States—Taxation of Dividends. The preferred shares should be properly classified as equity rather than debt for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Subject to the discussions below relating to the potential application of the controlled foreign corporation (“CFC”), “related person insurance income” (“RPII”) and passive foreign investment companies (“PFIC”) rules, as defined below, cash distributions, if any, made with respect to our common shares or preferred shares will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (as computed using U.S. tax principles). If a U.S. holder of our common shares or our preferred shares is an individual or other non-corporate holder, dividends paid, if any, to that holder that constitute qualified dividend income generally will be taxable at the rate applicable for long-term capital gains (generally up to 20%), provided that such person meets a holding period requirement. Generally in order to meet the holding period requirement, the U.S. Person must hold the common shares for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the ex-dividend date and must hold preferred shares for more than 90 days during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before the ex-dividend date. Dividends paid, if any, with respect to common shares or preferred shares generally will be qualified dividend income, provided the common shares or preferred shares are readily tradable on an established securities market in the U.S. in the year in which the shareholder receives the dividend (which should be the case for shares that are listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market or the New York Stock Exchange) and Arch Capital is not considered to be a passive foreign investment company in either the year of the distribution or the preceding taxable year. No assurance can be given that the preferred shares will be considered readily tradable on an established securities market in the U.S. See “—Taxation of Our U.S. Shareholders” below.
A U.S. holder that is an individual, estate or a trust that does not fall into a special class of trusts that is exempt from such
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tax, will be subject to a 3.8% tax on the lesser of (1) the U.S. holder’s “net investment income” for the relevant taxable year and (2) the excess of the U.S. holder’s modified adjusted gross income for the taxable year over a certain threshold (which in the case of individual will be between $125,000 and $250,000, depending on the individual’s circumstances). A U.S. holder’s net investment income will generally include its dividend income and its net gains from the disposition of our common shares and preferred shares, unless such dividend income or net gains are derived in the ordinary course of the conduct of a trade or business (other than a trade or business that consists of certain passive or trading activities).
Distributions with respect to the common shares and the preferred shares will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction allowed to U.S. corporations under the Code. To the extent distributions on our common shares and preferred shares exceed our earnings and profits, they will be treated first as a return of the U.S. holder's basis in our common shares and our preferred shares to the extent thereof, and then as gain from the sale of a capital asset.
United States—Sale, Exchange or Other Disposition. Subject to the discussions below relating to the potential application of the CFC, RPII and PFIC rules, holders of common shares and preferred shares generally will recognize capital gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes on the sale, exchange or disposition of common shares or preferred shares, as applicable.
United States—Redemption of Preferred Shares. A redemption of the preferred shares will be treated under section 302 of the Code as a dividend if we have sufficient earnings and profits, unless the redemption satisfies one of the tests set forth in section 302(b) of the Code enabling the redemption to be treated as a sale or exchange, subject to the discussion herein relating to the potential application of the CFC, RPII and PFIC rules. Under the relevant Code section 302(b) tests, the redemption should be treated as a sale or exchange only if it (1) is substantially disproportionate, (2) constitutes a complete termination of the holder's stock interest in us or (3) is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend.” In determining whether any of these tests are met, shares considered to be owned by the holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares actually owned, must generally be taken into account. It may be more difficult for a U.S. Person who owns, actually or constructively by operation of the attribution rules, any of our other shares to satisfy any of the above requirements. The determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of section 302(b) of the Code is satisfied with respect to a particular holder of the preference shares depends on the facts and circumstances as of the time the determination is made.
Taxation of Our U.S. Shareholders
Controlled Foreign Corporation Rules. We or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries will be treated as a CFC with respect to any taxable year if at any time during such taxable year, one or more “10% Shareholders” (as defined below) collectively own more than 50% of us or such non-U.S. subsidiary (as applicable) by vote or value (taking into account shares actually owned by such U.S. holder as well as shares attributed to such U.S. holder under the Code or the regulations thereunder). For taxable years beginning on or before December 31, 2017, a 10% Shareholder means any shareholder who was considered to own, actually or constructively, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of our shares or those of our non-U.S. subsidiaries (as applicable). Under the Tax Cuts Act, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, a 10% Shareholder also includes any shareholder who is considered to own, actually or constructively, 10% or more of the value of our shares or those of our non-U.S. subsidiaries (as applicable). As a result, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, the voting cut-back limitation contained in our bye-laws that limits the votes conferred by the Controlled Shares (as defined in our bye-laws) of any U.S. Person to 9.9% of the total voting power of all our shares entitled to vote will not prevent any U.S. holder from being treated as a 10% Shareholder. Due to the repeal of section 958(b)(4) under the Tax Cuts Act, all non-U.S. subsidiaries directly or indirectly owned by Arch Capital are treated as constructively owned by its US subsidiaries, and therefore are treated as CFCs.
Status as a CFC would not cause us or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries to be subject to U.S. federal income tax. Such status also would have no adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences for any U.S. holder that is not a 10% Shareholder with respect to us or any of such non-U.S. subsidiaries (as applicable). If we or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries are or were a CFC with respect to any taxable year, a U.S. holder that is considered a 10% U.S. Shareholder would be subject to current U.S. federal income taxation (at ordinary income tax rates) to the extent of all or a portion of the undistributed earnings and profits of Arch Capital and our subsidiaries attributable to “subpart F income” (including certain insurance premium income and investment income) or global intangible low-taxed income and may be taxable at ordinary income tax rates on any gain recognized on a sale or other disposition (including by way of repurchase or liquidation) of our common shares or preferred shares to the extent of the current and accumulated earnings and profits attributable to such common shares or preferred shares. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, a helpful limitation, which provides that a U.S. shareholder would not be subject to the current inclusion rules of Subpart F for a taxable year unless the non-U.S. corporation was a CFC for an uninterrupted period of 30 days or more during such taxable year, will no longer apply.
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Related Person Insurance Income Rules. Generally, we do not expect the gross RPII of any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries to equal or exceed 20% of its gross insurance income in any taxable year for the foreseeable future (the “RPII 20% gross income exception”). Consequently, we do not expect any U.S. person owning common shares or preferred shares to be required to include in gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes RPII income, but there can be no assurance that this will be the case.
Section 953(c)(7) of the Code generally provides that Section 1248 of the Code (which generally would require a U.S. holder to treat certain gains attributable to the sale, exchange or disposition of common shares or preferred shares as a dividend) will apply to the sale or exchange by a U.S. shareholder of shares in a foreign corporation that is characterized as a CFC under the RPII rules if the foreign corporation would be taxed as an insurance company if it were a domestic corporation, regardless of whether the U.S. shareholder is a 10% U.S. Shareholder or whether the corporation qualifies for the RPII 20% gross income exception. Although existing U.S. Treasury Department (“Treasury”) regulations do not address the question, proposed Treasury regulations issued in April 1991 create some ambiguity as to whether Section 1248 and the requirement to file Form 5471 would apply when the foreign corporation has a foreign insurance subsidiary that is a CFC for RPII purposes and that would be taxed as an insurance company if it were a domestic corporation. We believe that Section 1248 and the requirement to file Form 5471 will not apply to a less than 10% U.S. Shareholder because Arch Capital is not directly engaged in the insurance business. There can be no assurance, however, that the IRS will interpret the proposed regulations in this manner or that the Treasury will not take the position that Section 1248 and the requirement to file Form 5471 will apply to dispositions of our common shares or our preferred shares.
If the IRS or Treasury were to make Section 1248 and the Form 5471 filing requirement applicable to the sale of our shares, we would notify shareholders that Section 1248 of the Code and the requirement to file Form 5471 will apply to dispositions of our shares. Thereafter, we would send a notice after the end of each calendar year to all persons who were shareholders during the year notifying them that Section 1248 and the requirement to file Form 5471 apply to dispositions of our shares by U.S. holders. We would attach to this notice a copy of Form 5471 completed with all our information and instructions for completing the shareholder information.
Tax-Exempt Shareholders. Tax-exempt entities may be required to treat certain Subpart F insurance income, including RPII, that is includible in income by the tax-exempt entity as unrelated business taxable income. Prospective investors that are tax exempt entities are urged to consult
their own tax advisors as to the potential impact of the unrelated business taxable income provisions of the Code.
Passive Foreign Investment Companies. Sections 1291 through 1298 of the Code contain special rules applicable with respect to foreign corporations that are PFICs. In general, a foreign corporation will be a PFIC if 75% or more of its income constitutes “passive income” or 50% or more of its assets produce passive income. If we were to be characterized as a PFIC, U.S. holders would be subject to a penalty tax at the time of their sale of (or receipt of an “excess distribution” with respect to) their common shares or preferred shares. In general, a shareholder receives an “excess distribution” if the amount of the distribution is more than 125% of the average distribution with respect to the shares during the three preceding taxable years (or shorter period during which the taxpayer held the stock). In general, the penalty tax is equivalent to an interest charge on taxes that are deemed due during the period the shareholder owned the shares, computed by assuming that the excess distribution or gain (in the case of a sale) with respect to the shares was taxable in equal portions throughout the holder’s period of ownership. The interest charge is equal to the applicable rate imposed on underpayments of U.S. federal income tax for such period. A U.S. shareholder may avoid some of the adverse tax consequences of owning shares in a PFIC by making a qualified electing fund (“QEF”) election. A QEF election is revocable only with the consent of the IRS and has the following consequences to a shareholder:
•For any year in which Arch Capital is not a PFIC, no income tax consequences would result.
•For any year in which Arch Capital is a PFIC, the shareholder would include in its taxable income a proportionate share of the net ordinary income and net capital gains of Arch Capital and certain of its non-U.S. subsidiaries.
For taxable years beginning on or before December 31, 2017, the determination of whether the active insurance company exception applies to an insurance company was made on a case-by-case basis and the analysis was inherently subjective. Under the Tax Cuts Act, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, the active insurance company exception applies only if (i) the company would be taxed as an insurance company were it a U.S. corporation and (ii) either (A) loss and loss adjustment expense and certain reserves constitute more than 25% of the company’s gross assets for the relevant year or (B) loss and loss adjustment expenses and certain reserves constitute more than 10% of the company’s gross assets for the relevant year and, based on the applicable facts and circumstances, the company is predominantly engaged in an insurance business and the failure of the company to satisfy the preceding 25% test is due solely to run-off related or other specified circumstances
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involving the insurance business. The PFIC statutory provisions contain a look-through rule that states that, for purposes of determining whether a foreign corporation is a PFIC, such foreign corporation shall be treated as if it “received directly its proportionate share of the income” and as if it “held its proportionate share of the assets” of any other corporation in which it owns at least 25% of the stock. We believe that we were not a PFIC for any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 2017, or any subsequent taxable year ending on or before December 31, 2020, and we currently are not expecting to become a PFIC for any subsequent taxable year. However, due to the complexity and uncertainty of the PFIC rules and the limited guidance interpreting them, there can be no assurance that we have not been a PFIC to date or that we will not become a PFIC at some time in the future.
On December 4, 2020, the IRS issued certain final regulations (the “2020 final PFIC insurance regulations”) and revised proposed regulations (the “2020 proposed PFIC insurance regulations”) regarding the application of the insurance company exception. While we believe that the 2020 final PFIC insurance regulations and the 2020 proposed PFIC insurance regulations should not adversely impact the our ability to satisfy the insurance company exception and avoid being treated as a PFIC, there can be no assurance that such exception will in fact apply and/or will continue to apply at all times in the future. Each U.S. holder should consult its own tax advisor as to the effects of these rules.
United States Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders
Taxation of Dividends. Cash distributions, if any, made with respect to common shares or preferred shares held by shareholders who are not U.S. Persons (“Non-U.S. holders”) generally will not be subject to U.S. withholding tax.
Sale, Exchange or Other Disposition. Non-U.S. holders of common shares or preferred shares generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax with respect to gain realized upon the sale, exchange or other disposition of such shares unless such gain is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the Non-U.S. holder in the U.S. or such person is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more in the taxable year the gain is realized and certain other requirements are satisfied.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding. Non-U.S. holders of common shares or preferred shares will not be subject to U.S. information reporting or backup withholding with respect to dispositions of common shares effected through a non-U.S. office of a broker, unless the broker has certain connections to the U.S. or is a U.S. person. No U.S. backup withholding will apply to payments of dividends, if any, on our common shares or our preferred shares.
FATCA Withholding. Sections 1471 through 1474 to the Code, known as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”), impose a withholding tax of 30% on U.S.-source interest, dividends and certain other types of income, which is received by a foreign financial institution (“FFI”), unless such FFI enters into an agreement with the IRS to obtain certain information as to the identity of the direct and indirect owners of accounts in such institution. In addition, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on the above payments to certain non-financial foreign entities which do not (i) certify to each respective withholding agent that they have no “substantial U.S. owners” (i.e., a U.S. 10% direct or indirect shareholder), or (ii) provide such withholding agent with the certain information as to the identity of such substantial U.S. owners. The U.S. has entered into intergovernmental agreements to implement FATCA (“IGAs”) with a number of jurisdictions. Bermuda has signed an IGA with the U.S. Different rules than those described above may apply under such an IGA.
Although dividends with respect to our common shares or preferred shares will generally be treated as foreign source for U.S. federal withholding tax purposes, it is unclear whether, for FATCA purposes, some or all of our dividends may be recharacterized as U.S. source dividends. Treasury regulations addressing this topic have not yet been issued.
Prospective investors are urged to consult their own tax advisors as to the filing and information requirements that may be imposed on them in respect of their ownership of our common share or preferred shares.
Other Tax Laws. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisors with respect to the applicability to them of the tax laws of other jurisdictions.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Set forth below are risk factors relating to our business. These risks and uncertainties are not the only ones we face. There may be additional risks that we currently consider not to be material or of which we are not currently aware, and any of these risks could cause our actual results to differ materially from historical or anticipated results. You should carefully consider these risks along with the other information provided in this report, including our “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our accompanying consolidated financial statements, as well as the information under the heading “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” before investing in any of our securities. We may amend, supplement or add to the risk factors described below from time to time in future reports filed with the SEC.
Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations
We operate in a highly competitive environment, and we may not be able to compete successfully in our industry.
The insurance and reinsurance industry is highly competitive. We compete on an international and regional basis with major U.S. and non-U.S. insurers and reinsurers, many of which have greater financial, marketing and management resources than we do. See “Competition” in Item 1 for details on our competitors in each of the major segments we operate in. There has been significant consolidation in the insurance and reinsurance sector in recent years and we may experience increased competition as a result of that consolidation, with consolidated entities having enhanced market power. These consolidated entities may use their enhanced market power and broader capital base to negotiate price reductions for products and services that compete with ours, and we may experience rate declines and possibly write less business. Any failure by us to effectively compete could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
The insurance and reinsurance industry is highly cyclical, and we may at times experience periods characterized by excess underwriting capacity and unfavorable premium rates.
Historically, insurers and reinsurers have experienced significant fluctuations in operating results due to competition, frequency of occurrence or severity of catastrophic events, levels of capacity, general economic conditions, changes in equity, debt and other investment markets, changes in legislation, case law and prevailing concepts of liability and other factors. Demand for reinsurance is influenced significantly by the underwriting
results of primary insurers and prevailing general economic conditions. The supply of insurance and reinsurance is related to prevailing prices and levels of surplus capacity that, in turn, may fluctuate in response to changes in rates of return being realized in the insurance and reinsurance industry on both underwriting and investment sides. As a result, the insurance and reinsurance business historically has been a cyclical industry characterized by periods of intense price competition due to excessive underwriting capacity as well as periods when shortages of capacity permitted favorable premium levels and changes in terms and conditions. Until recently, the supply of insurance and reinsurance had increased over the past several years, and may again in the future, either as a result of capital provided by new entrants or by the commitment of additional capital by existing insurers or reinsurers. Continued increases in the supply of insurance and reinsurance may have consequences for us, including fewer contracts written, lower premium rates, increased expenses for customer acquisition and retention, and less favorable policy terms and conditions.
Claims for natural and man-made catastrophic events could cause large losses and substantial volatility in our results of operations and could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
We have large aggregate exposures to natural and man-made catastrophic events. Natural catastrophes can be caused by various events, including hurricanes, floods, wildfires, tsunamis, windstorms, earthquakes, hailstorms, tornadoes, explosions, severe winter weather, fires, droughts and other natural disasters. The frequency and severity of natural catastrophe activity, including hurricanes, tsunamis, tornadoes, floods and droughts, has also been greater in recent years. Man-made catastrophic events may include acts of war, acts of terrorism and political instability. Catastrophes can also cause losses in non-property business such as workers’ compensation or general liability. In addition to the nature of the property business, we believe that economic and geographic trends affecting insured property, including inflation, property value appreciation and geographic concentration tend to generally increase the size of losses from catastrophic events over time. Actual losses from future catastrophic events may vary materially from estimates due to the inherent uncertainties in making such determinations resulting from several factors, including the potential inaccuracies and inadequacies in the data provided by clients, brokers and ceding companies, the modeling techniques and the application of such techniques, the contingent nature of business interruption exposures, the effects of any resultant demand surge on claims activity and attendant coverage issues.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related risks could materially affect our results of operations, financial position and/or liquidity.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a global slowdown of economic activity, and the magnitude of the impact of the pandemic and the duration of the disruption and resulting decline in business activity is still highly uncertain. A prolonged COVID-19 pandemic could materially and adversely impact our own employees and operations, as well as the business operations of third parties with whom we interact. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our results of operations and could have a significant effect on our business, results of operations and future financial performance. We may experience higher levels of loss and claims activity in certain lines of business, and our premiums written and earned could also be adversely affected by a suppression of global commercial activity that results in a reduction in insurable assets and other exposure. Conditions of the financial markets resulting from the virus may also have a negative effect on the performance of our investment portfolio. Certain lines of our business may require additional forms of collateral in the event of a decline in the fair value of securities and benchmarks to which those repayment mechanisms are linked. The impact of the pandemic on the financial markets may also adversely affect our ability to fund through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, and through other means at acceptable terms.
Governmental, regulatory and rating actions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic may adversely affect our financial performance and our ability to conduct our businesses as we have in the past.
Actions of the federal, state and local government in the U.S. and other countries where we do business, to address and mitigate the impact of COVID-19, may adversely affect us. For example, we are potentially subject to legislative and/or regulatory action that seeks to retroactively mandate coverage for losses which our insurance policies were not designed or priced to cover. There is proposed legislation in some states to require insurers to cover business interruption claims retroactively irrespective of terms, exclusions or other conditions included in the policies that would otherwise preclude coverage. Some proposed bills would require policies providing business interruption coverage to cover losses prospectively for pandemic-related losses. Insurance regulators in some states will not approve policy exclusions for losses from COVID-19, viruses or pandemics. In addition, a number of states have instituted, and other states are considering instituting, changes designed to effectively expand workers' compensation coverage by creating presumptions of compensability of claims for certain types of workers. Regulatory restrictions or requirements could also impact pricing, risk selection and our rights and obligations with respect to our policies and insureds, including our ability to cancel policies, our ability to increase rates or our right to collect premiums. Some state regulators have issued orders to review insurers’ rates to determine whether
premium refunds are required, and regulators in other states could take similar actions. Many insurers, including us, have also voluntarily provided, and may further provide, premium refunds to their customers. It is also possible that changes in economic conditions and steps taken by federal, state and local governments in response to COVID-19 could require an increase in taxes at the federal, state and local levels, which would adversely impact our results of operations.
We expect that certain mortgage loans may default or enter forbearance programs that allow borrowers to defer mortgage payments as borrowers face challenges related to COVID-19. Defaults related to the pandemic, if not cured, could remain in our defaulted loan inventory for a protracted period of time including due to foreclosure moratoria, potentially resulting in higher frequency (claim rate) and severity (amount of the claim) for those loans that ultimately result in a claim. Accordingly, extended or extensive forbearance programs, foreclosure moratoria and other changes in regulations or laws may adversely impact our mortgage insurance operations.
Under the GSEs’ PMIERs financial requirements, eligible insurers are required to hold additional risk-based required assets for delinquent mortgages. However, this amount is reduced for mortgages backed by a property located in a FEMA Declared Major Disaster Area, among other requirements. On June 30, 2020, as amended on September 29, 2020, and December 4, 2020, the GSEs published guidance clarifying the applicability of the reduced delinquent loan charges on loans with their first missed payments occurring between March 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021 in response to a hardship related to COVID-19. Additionally, through June 30, 2021, the GSEs have temporarily required eligible insurers to obtain prior approval of dividends or entering into any new arrangements or altering any existing arrangements under tax sharing and intercompany expense-sharing agreements. In addition, the rating agencies continually review the financial strength ratings assigned to the Company and its subsidiaries, and the ratings are subject to change. The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on financial results and condition, could cause one or more of the rating agencies to downgrade the ratings assigned to the Company and its subsidiaries. We expect the pandemic to result in a material increase in new defaults as borrowers fail to make timely payments on their mortgages, including as a result of increases in unemployment and entering mortgage forbearance programs that allow borrowers to defer mortgage payments, which may have an adverse impact on our results or operations. In addition, defaults related to the pandemic, if not cured, could remain in our defaulted loan inventory for a protracted period of time including due to foreclosure moratoria, potentially resulting in higher frequency (claim rate) and severity (amount of the claim) for those loans that ultimately result in a claim. Accordingly, extended or extensive forbearance programs,
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foreclosure moratoria and other changes in regulations or laws may adversely impact our mortgage insurance segment.
Climate change, as well as increasing regulation in the area of climate change, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changing weather patterns and climatic conditions, such as global warming, have added to the unpredictability and frequency of natural disasters in certain parts of the world and created additional uncertainty as to future trends and exposures. Although the loss experience of catastrophe insurers and reinsurers has historically been characterized as low frequency, there is a growing consensus today that climate change increases the frequency and severity of extreme weather events and, in recent years, the frequency of major catastrophes appears to have increased, and may continue to increase in the future.
Claims for catastrophic events, or an unusual frequency of smaller losses in a particular period, could expose us to large losses, cause substantial volatility in our results of operations and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to write new business if we are not able to adequately assess and reserve for the increased frequency and severity of catastrophes resulting from these environmental factors. Additionally, catastrophic events could result in increased credit exposure to reinsurers and other counterparties we transact business with, declines in the value of investments we hold and significant disruptions to our physical infrastructure, systems and operations. Climate change-related risks may also specifically adversely impact the value of the securities that we hold. The effects of climate change could also lead to increased credit risk of other counterparties we transact business with, including reinsurers.
Changes in security asset prices may impact the value of our fixed income, real estate and commercial mortgage investments, resulting in realized or unrealized losses on our invested assets. These risks are not limited to, but can include: (i) changes in supply/demand characteristics for fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas); (ii) advances in low-carbon technology and renewable energy development; and (iii) effects of extreme weather events on the physical and operational exposure of industries and issuers, and the transition that these companies make towards addressing climate risk in their own businesses.
However, we cannot predict how legal, regulatory and/or social responses to concerns around global climate change may impact our business. We attempt to manage our exposure to such events through the use of underwriting controls, risk models, and the purchase of third-party reinsurance. Underwriting controls can include more restrictive underwriting criteria such as higher premiums and deductibles, or losses retained, and more specifically
excluded policy risks. Our deductible in connection with a catastrophic event is determined by market capacity, pricing conditions and surplus preservation. There can be no assurance that our reinsurance coverage and other measures taken will be sufficient to mitigate losses resulting from one or more catastrophic events. As a result, the occurrence of one or more catastrophic events and the continuation and worsening of recent trends could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Environmental, Social and Governance and sustainability have become major topics that encompass a wide range of issues, including climate change and other environmental risks. We are also subject to complex and changing laws, regulation and public policy debates relating to climate change which are difficult to predict and quantify and may have an adverse impact on our business. Changes in regulations relating to climate change or our own leadership decisions implemented as a result of assessing the impact of climate change on our business may result in an increase in the cost of doing business or a decrease in premiums in certain lines of business.
We could face unanticipated losses from war, terrorism, cyber-attacks, pandemics and political instability, and these or other unanticipated losses could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We have substantial exposure to unexpected, large losses resulting from future man-made catastrophic events, such as acts of war, acts of terrorism, pandemics similar to the COVID-19 pandemic and political instability. These risks are inherently unpredictable. It is difficult to predict the timing of such events with statistical certainty or estimate the amount of loss any given occurrence will generate. In certain instances, we specifically insure and reinsure risks resulting from acts of terrorism. We may also insure against risk related to cybersecurity and cyber-attacks. In addition, our exposure to cyber-attacks includes exposure to ‘silent cyber’ risks, meaning risks and potential losses associated with policies where cyber risk is not specifically included nor excluded in the policies. Even in cases where we attempt to exclude losses from terrorism, cybersecurity and certain other similar risks from some coverages written by us, we may not be successful in doing so. Moreover, irrespective of the clarity and inclusiveness of policy language, there can be no assurance that a court or arbitration panel will not limit enforceability of policy language or otherwise issue a ruling adverse to us. Accordingly, while we believe our reinsurance programs, together with the coverage provided under the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002, as amended (“TRIP”) are sufficient to reasonably limit our net losses relating to potential future terrorist attacks, we can offer no assurance that our available capital will be adequate to cover losses when they materialize. To the extent that an act of terrorism is certified by the Secretary of the Treasury and aggregate
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industry insured losses resulting from the act of terrorism exceeds the prescribed program trigger, our U.S. insurance operations may be covered under TRIP for up to 80% subject to a mandatory deductible of 20% of our prior year’s direct earned premium for covered property and liability coverages. The program trigger for calendar year 2020 and any program year thereafter is $200 million. If an act (or acts) of terrorism result in covered losses exceeding the $100 billion annual limit, insurers with losses exceeding their deductibles will not be responsible for additional losses. It is not possible to completely eliminate our exposure to unforecasted or unpredictable events, and to the extent that losses from such risks occur, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Underwriting risks and reserving for losses are based on probabilities and related modeling, which are subject to inherent uncertainties.
Our success is dependent upon our ability to assess accurately the risks associated with the businesses that we insure and reinsure. We establish reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses which represent estimates based on actuarial and statistical projections, at a given point in time, of our expectations of the ultimate future settlement and administration costs of losses incurred. We utilize actuarial models as well as available historical insurance industry loss ratio experience and loss development patterns to assist in the establishment of loss reserves. Most or all of these factors are not directly quantifiable, particularly on a prospective basis, and the effects of these and unforeseen factors could negatively impact our ability to accurately assess the risks of the policies that we write. Changes in the assumptions used by these models or by management could lead to an increase in our estimate of ultimate losses in the future. In addition, there may be significant reporting lags between the occurrence of the insured event and the time it is reported to the insurer and additional lags between the time of reporting and final settlement of claims. In addition, the estimation of loss reserves is more difficult during times of adverse economic and market conditions due to unexpected changes in behavior of claimants and policyholders, including an increase in fraudulent reporting of exposures and/or losses, reduced maintenance of insured properties or increased frequency of small claims. Changes in the level of inflation also result in an increased level of uncertainty in our estimation of loss reserves. As a result, actual losses and loss adjustment expenses paid can deviate, perhaps substantially, from the reserve estimates reflected in our financial statements.
If our loss reserves are determined to be inadequate, we will be required to increase loss reserves at the time of such determination with a corresponding reduction in our net income in the period when the deficiency becomes known. It is possible that claims in respect of events that have occurred
could exceed our claim reserves and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, in a particular period, or our financial condition in general. As a compounding factor, although most insurance contracts have policy limits, the nature of property and casualty insurance and reinsurance is such that losses and the associated expenses can exceed policy limits for a variety of reasons and could significantly exceed the premiums received on the underlying policies, thereby further adversely affecting our financial condition.
As of December 31, 2020, our consolidated reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net of unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses recoverable, were approximately $12.2 billion. Such reserves were established in accordance with applicable insurance laws and GAAP. Loss reserves are inherently subject to uncertainty. In establishing the reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses, we have made various assumptions relating to the pricing of our reinsurance contracts and insurance policies and have also considered available historical industry experience and current industry conditions. Any estimates and assumptions made as part of the reserving process could prove to be inaccurate due to several factors, including the fact that for certain lines of business relatively limited historical information has been reported to us through December 31, 2020.
The failure of any of the loss limitation methods we employ could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
We seek to limit our loss exposure by writing a number of our reinsurance contracts on an excess of loss basis, adhering to maximum limitations on reinsurance written in defined geographical zones, limiting program size for each client and prudent underwriting of each program written. In the case of proportional treaties, we may seek per occurrence limitations or loss ratio caps to limit the impact of losses from any one or series of events. In our insurance operations, we seek to limit our exposure through the purchase of reinsurance. For our U.S. mortgage insurance business, in addition to utilizing reinsurance, we have developed a proprietary risk model that simulates the maximum loss resulting from a severe economic event impacting the housing market. We also seek to limit our loss exposure by geographic diversification. Geographic zone limitations involve significant underwriting judgments, including the determination of the area of the zones and the inclusion of a particular policy within a particular zone’s limits. Various provisions of our policies, negotiated to limit our risk, such as limitations or exclusions from coverage or choice of forum, may not be enforceable in the manner we intend, as it is possible that a court or regulatory authority could nullify or void an exclusion or limitation, or legislation could be enacted modifying or barring the use of these exclusions and limitations. Disputes relating to coverage and choice of legal forum may also arise.
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Underwriting is inherently a matter of judgment, involving important assumptions about matters that are inherently unpredictable and beyond our control, and for which historical experience and probability analysis may not provide sufficient guidance. One or more catastrophic events or severe economic events could result in claims that substantially exceed our expectations, or the protections set forth in our policies could be voided, which, in either case, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or our results of operations, possibly to the extent of eliminating our shareholders’ equity. In addition, factors such as global climate change limit the value of historical experience and therefore further limit the effectiveness of our loss limitation methods. See “Catastrophic Events and Severe Economic Events” in Item 7 for further details. Depending on business opportunities and the mix of business that may comprise our insurance, reinsurance and mortgage insurance portfolio, we may seek to adjust our self-imposed limitations on probable maximum pre-tax loss for catastrophe exposed business and mortgage default exposed business.
The availability of reinsurance, retrocessional coverage and capital market transactions to limit our exposure to risks may be limited, and counterparty credit and other risks associated with our reinsurance arrangements may result in losses which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We manage risk using reinsurance, retrocessional coverage and capital markets transactions. Our insurance subsidiaries typically cede a portion of their premiums through pro rata, excess of loss and facultative reinsurance agreements. Our reinsurance subsidiaries purchase a limited amount of retrocessional coverage as part of their aggregate risk management program. In addition, our reinsurance subsidiaries participate in “common account” retrocessional arrangements for certain pro rata treaties. Such arrangements reduce the effect of individual or aggregate losses to all companies participating on such treaties, including the reinsurers, such as our reinsurance subsidiaries, and the ceding company. Economic conditions could also have a material impact on our ability to manage our risk aggregations through reinsurance or capital markets transactions. The availability and cost of reinsurance and retrocessional protection is subject to market conditions. As a result of these factors, we may not be able to successfully mitigate risk through reinsurance and retrocessional arrangements.
Further, we are subject to credit risk with respect to our reinsurance and retrocessions because the ceding of risk to reinsurers and retrocessionaires does not relieve us of our liability to the clients or companies we insure or reinsure. We monitor the financial condition of our reinsurers and attempt to place coverages only with carriers we view as substantial and financially sound. An inability of our reinsurers or
retrocessionaires to meet their obligations to us could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Our losses for a given event or occurrence may increase if our reinsurers or retrocessionaires dispute or fail to meet their obligations to us or the reinsurance or retrocessional protections purchased by us are exhausted or are otherwise unavailable for any reason. In certain instances, we also require collateral to mitigate our credit risk to our reinsurers or retrocessionaires. We are at risk that losses could exceed the collateral we have obtained. Our failure to establish adequate reinsurance or retrocessional arrangements or the failure of our existing reinsurance or retrocessional arrangements to protect us from overly concentrated risk exposure could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We could be materially adversely affected to the extent that important third parties with whom we do business do not adequately or appropriately manage their risks, commit fraud or otherwise breach obligations owed to us.
For certain lines of our insurance business, we authorize managing general agents, general agents and other producers to write business on our behalf within underwriting authorities prescribed by us. In addition, our mortgage group delegates the underwriting of a significant percentage of its primary new insurance written to certain mortgage lenders. Under this delegated underwriting program, the approved customer may determine whether mortgage loans meet our mortgage insurance program guidelines and commit us to issue mortgage insurance. We rely on the underwriting controls of these agents to write business within the underwriting authorities provided by us. Although we have contractual protections in some instances and we monitor such business on an ongoing basis, our monitoring efforts may not be adequate or our agents may exceed their underwriting authorities or otherwise breach obligations owed to us. In addition, our agents, our insureds or other third parties may commit fraud or otherwise breach their obligations to us. Our financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any one of these issues.
While we conduct underwriting, financial, claims and information technology due diligence reviews and apply rigorous standards in the selection of these counterparties, there is no assurance they have provided us accurate or complete information to assess their risk or that they can manage effectively their own risks. Consequently, we assume a degree of credit and operational risk of those parties, and a material failure of their risks may result in material losses or damage to us.
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Emerging claim and coverage issues, including issues relating to the COVID-19 pandemic, may adversely affect our business.
As industry practices and legal, social and other environmental conditions change, unexpected and unintended issues related to claims and coverage may emerge, including new or expanded theories of liability. These or other changes could impose new financial obligations on us by extending coverage beyond our underwriting intent or otherwise require us to make unplanned modifications to the products and services that we provide, or cause the delay or cancellation of products and services that we provide. In some instances, these changes may not become apparent until sometime after we have issued insurance or reinsurance contracts that are affected by the changes. As a result, the full extent of liability under our insurance or reinsurance contracts may not be known for many years after a contract is issued. The effects of unforeseen developments or substantial government intervention could adversely impact us.
We have exposure to a number of lines of business, such as trade credit, travel, workers compensation and property that do not contain a specific pandemic exclusion and/or explicitly afford business interruption coverage under a pandemic such as COVID-19. In May 2020, FCA commenced court proceedings against a number of insurance companies, including Arch Insurance (U.K.), to test how certain business interruption insurance policies respond to claims arising from COVID-19. The High Court in September 2020 handed down its judgment which, found in favor of policyholders on the majority of the key coverage issues in the representative sample of policies submitted by the defendants. Appeals were filed by six insurers, including Arch Insurance (U.K.), and in January 2021, the Supreme Court in the U.K. broadly confirmed the High Court’s rulings on the business wordings. The impact of this case on Arch Insurance (U.K.)’s results of operations has been modest, but the larger impact of this “test case” and other litigation which may flow from it in the U.K. or other jurisdictions where we offer business interruption cover, cannot be quantified or predicted with certainty at this time. A prolonged COVID-19 pandemic could trigger further litigation on coverage and claims issues and potentially result in material and adverse outcomes and impact our business results. See “Risks Relating to Our Mortgage Operations” for further details on our mortgage operations.
Acquisitions, the addition of new lines of insurance or reinsurance business, expansion into new geographic regions and/or entering into joint ventures or partnerships expose us to risks.
We may seek, from time to time, to acquire other companies, acquire selected blocks of business, expand our business lines, expand into new geographic regions and/or enter into
joint ventures or partnerships. Such activities expose us to challenges and risks, including: integrating financial and operational reporting systems; establishing satisfactory budgetary and other financial controls; funding increased capital needs, overhead expenses or cash flow shortages that may occur if anticipated sales and revenues are not realized or are delayed, whether by general economic or market conditions or unforeseen internal difficulties; obtaining management personnel required for expanded operations; obtaining necessary regulatory permissions; and establishing adequate reserves for any acquired book of business. In addition, the value of assets acquired may be lower than expected or may diminish due to credit defaults or changes in interest rates; the liabilities assumed may be greater than expected; and assets and liabilities acquired may be subject to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuation. We may also be subject to financial exposures in the event that the sellers of the entities or business we acquire are unable or unwilling to meet their indemnification, reinsurance and other contractual obligations to us. Our failure to manage successfully any of the foregoing challenges and risks may adversely impact our results of operations.
The U.K.’s Withdrawal from the EU could adversely affect us.
The U.K. ceased to be a member state of the European Union in January 2020. Although the EU and U.K. reached a limited agreement in relation to certain matters, U.K. insurers and reinsurers no longer have automatic access to EU markets and vice versa. Our U.K. domiciled entities and our Lloyd’s syndicates, may no longer “passport” within the EU and. are now part of the U.K. temporary permissions regime which allows firms to operate in the U.K. for a limited period while they seek authorization from the U.K. regulators. While we have implemented changes in our operations to accommodate Brexit, the full extent to which our business, operations and financial condition could be adversely affected by Brexit is uncertain. The impact of the U.K.’s withdrawal on the U.K. and European economies and the broader global economy could be significant, resulting in increased volatility and potentially lower economic growth and instability in the financial and foreign exchange markets.
Our information technology systems may be unable to meet the demands of customers and our workforce.
Our information technology systems service our insurance portfolios. Accordingly, we are highly dependent on the effective operation of these systems. While we believe that the systems are adequate to service our insurance portfolios, there can be no assurance that they will operate in all manners in which we intend or possess all of the functionality required by customers currently or in the future.
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Our customers, especially our mortgage insurance customers, require that we conduct our business in a secure manner, electronically via the Internet or via electronic data transmission. We must continually invest significant resources in establishing and maintaining electronic connectivity with customers. In order to integrate electronically with customers in the mortgage insurance industry, we require electronic connections between our systems and those of the industry's largest mortgage servicing systems and leading loan origination systems. Our mortgage group currently possesses connectivity with certain of these external systems, but there is no assurance that such connectivity is sufficient and we are continually undertaking new electronic integration efforts with third-party loan servicing and origination systems. We also rely on electronic integrations in our insurance operations with third parties and customers. Our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected if we do not possess or timely acquire the requisite set of electronic integrations necessary to keep pace with the technological demands of customers.
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed increased and unanticipated demands on our IT systems in use by our customers and our workforce as much of the general workforce continues to work remotely. Remote working may increase the risk of cyber security attacks or other data security incidents. There is no assurance that we will be able to respond effectively to all of the increased and varied demands on our IT systems during a prolonged pandemic.
Technology breaches or failures, including, but not limited to, those resulting from a malicious cyber attack on us or our business partners and service providers, could disrupt or otherwise negatively impact our business and/or expose us to litigation.
We rely on information technology systems to process, transmit, store and protect the electronic information, financial data and proprietary models that are critical to our business. Furthermore, a significant portion of the communications between our employees and our business partners and service providers depends on information technology and electronic information exchange. Like all companies, our information technology systems are vulnerable to data breaches, interruptions or failures due to events that may be beyond our control, including, but not limited to, natural disasters, power outages, theft, terrorist attacks, computer viruses, hackers, errors in usage or through social engineering or phishing and general technology failures. Security breaches by third parties could expose us to the loss or misuse of our information, litigation, financial losses and potential liability. In addition, cyber incidents that impact the availability, reliability, speed, accuracy or other proper functioning of these systems could have a significant
negative impact on our operations and possibly our results. A cyber incident could also result in a violation of applicable privacy, data protection or other laws, damage our reputation, cause a loss of customers, adversely affect our stock price, cause us to incur remediation costs, increased insurance premiums, and/or give rise to monetary fines and penalties, any of which could adversely affect our business.
We outsource certain technology and business process functions to third parties and may continue do so in the future. This practice exposes us to increased risks related to data security, service disruptions or the effectiveness of our control system, which could result in monetary and reputational damage or harm to our competitive position.
A downgrade in our ratings or our inability to obtain a rating for our operating insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries may adversely affect our relationships with clients and brokers and negatively impact sales of our products.
Similar to our competitors, a ratings downgrade or the potential for such a downgrade, or failure to obtain a necessary rating, could adversely affect our relationships with agents, brokers, wholesalers, intermediaries, clients and other distributors of our existing and new products and services. Some of the reinsurance agreements assumed by our reinsurance operations include provisions that a ratings downgrade or other specified triggering event with respect to our reinsurance operations, such as a reduction in surplus by specified amounts during specified periods, provide our ceding company clients certain rights, including, the right to terminate the subject reinsurance agreement and/or to require us to post additional collateral. Any ratings downgrade or failure to obtain a necessary rating could adversely affect our ability to compete in our markets, could cause our premiums and earnings to decrease and could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, a downgrade in ratings of certain of our operating subsidiaries may constitute an event of default under our credit facilities.
We can offer no assurances that our ratings will remain at their current levels or that any of our ratings which are under review or watch by ratings agencies will remain unchanged. It is possible that rating agencies may heighten the level of scrutiny they apply when analyzing companies in our industry and may adjust upward the capital and other requirements employed in their models for maintenance of certain rating levels. We may need to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings. Any equity or debt financing, if available at all, may be on terms that are unfavorable to us. Equity financings could be dilutive to our existing shareholders and could result in the issuance of securities that have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of our outstanding securities. If we are not able to obtain adequate capital, our business, results of
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operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. See “Capital Resources” in Item 7 for further details.
For further information on our financial strength and/or issuer ratings, see “Ratings” in Item 1. For further information on our letter of credit facilities, see the Letter of Credit and Revolving Credit Facilities section of “Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments” in Item 7.
Our success will depend on our ability to maintain and enhance effective operating procedures and internal controls and our enterprise risk management (“ERM”) program.
We operate within an ERM framework designed to assess and monitor our risks. Operational risk and losses can result from, among other things, fraud, errors, failure to document transactions properly or to obtain proper internal authorization, failure to comply with regulatory requirements, information technology or information security failures and failure to train employees appropriately or adequately. We continuously enhance our operating procedures and internal controls to effectively support our business and our regulatory and reporting requirements. As a result of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within the company have been detected. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake or circumvention of controls. There can be no assurance that any control system will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions. Any ineffectiveness in our controls or procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business. For further information on our ERM framework, see “Enterprise Risk Management” in Item 1.
We are exposed to credit risk in certain of our business operations.
In addition to exposure to credit risk related to our investment portfolio, reinsurance recoverables and reliance on brokers and other agents, we are exposed to credit risk in other areas of our business related to policyholders. We are exposed to credit risk in our insurance group’s surety unit where we guarantee to a third party that our policyholder will satisfy certain performance or financial obligations. If our policyholder defaults, we may suffer losses and be unable to be reimbursed by our policyholder. We are also exposed to credit risk from policyholders on smaller deductibles in other insurance group lines, such as healthcare and excess and surplus casualty. Although we have not experienced any material credit losses to date, an increased inability of our policyholders to meet their obligations to us could have a
material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. See note 3, “Significant Accounting Policy.”
Our business is subject to applicable laws and regulations relating to economic trade sanctions and foreign bribery laws, the violation of which could adversely affect our operations.
We must comply with all applicable economic sanctions and anti-bribery laws and regulations of the U.S. and other foreign jurisdictions where we operate. U.S. laws and regulations applicable to us and others who provide insurance and reinsurance include the economic trade sanctions laws and regulations administered by the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control as well as certain laws administered by the U.S. Department of State. New sanction regimes may be initiated, or existing sanctions expanded, at any time, which can immediately impact our business activities. We are also subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-bribery laws such as the U.K. Bribery Act that generally bar corrupt payments or unreasonable gifts to foreign governments or officials. Although we have policies and controls in place designed to ensure compliance with these laws and regulations, it is possible that an employee or intermediary could fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations. In such event, we could be exposed to fines, criminal penalties and other sanctions. Such violations could limit our ability to conduct business and/or damage our reputation, resulting in a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Relating to Financial Markets and Investments
Adverse developments in the financial markets could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and our businesses, and may also limit our access to capital; our policyholders, reinsurers and retrocessionaires may also be affected by such developments, which could adversely affect their ability to meet their obligations to us.
Adverse developments in the financial markets, such as disruptions, uncertainty or volatility in the capital and credit markets, may result in realized and unrealized capital losses that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and our businesses, and may also limit our access to capital required to operate our business. Depending on market conditions, we could incur additional realized and unrealized losses on our investment portfolio in future periods, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and business. Economic conditions could also have a material impact on the frequency and severity of claims and therefore could negatively impact our underwriting returns. In addition, our policyholders, reinsurers and retrocessionaires may be affected by developments in the financial markets, which could adversely affect their ability
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to meet their obligations to us. The volatility in the financial markets could continue to significantly affect our investment returns, reported results and shareholders’ equity.
The capital requirements of our businesses depend on many factors, including regulatory and rating agency requirements, the performance of our investment portfolio, our ability to write new business successfully, the frequency and severity of catastrophe events and our ability to establish premium rates and reserves at levels sufficient to cover losses.
Disruption to the financial markets and the general economic downturn resulting from COVID-19 may adversely and materially impact our investments, financial condition and results of operation.
Disruption in the financial markets and the downturn in global economic activity resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic could adversely and materially affect the performance of our investment portfolio. Significant, continued volatility in financial markets, changes in interest rates, increases in credit spreads, a lack of pricing transparency, decreased market liquidity, declines in equity prices and the strengthening or weakening of foreign currencies against the U.S. Dollar, individually or in tandem, could have a material adverse effect on our results through realized losses, impairments and changes in unrealized positions in our investment portfolio. Furthermore, issuers of the investments we hold under the equity method of accounting report their financial information to us one month to three months following the end of the reporting period. Accordingly, the adverse impact of any disruptions in global financial markets on equity method income from these investments would likely not be reflected in our current quarter results and would instead be reported in the subsequent quarter.
Our operating results depend in part on the performance of our investment portfolio. A significant portion of cash and invested assets held by Arch consists of fixed maturities (69.9% as of December 31, 2020). Although our current investment guidelines and approach stress preservation of capital, market liquidity and diversification of risk, our investments are subject to market-wide risks and fluctuations. In addition, we are subject to risks inherent in particular securities or types of securities, as well as sector concentrations. We may not be able to realize our investment objectives, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. In the event that we are unsuccessful in correlating our investment portfolio with our expected insurance and reinsurance liabilities, we may be forced to liquidate our investments at times and prices that are not optimal, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and ability to conduct our business.
Foreign currency exchange rate fluctuation may adversely affect our financial results.
We write business on a worldwide basis, and our results of operations may be affected by fluctuations in the value of currencies other than the U.S. Dollar. The primary foreign currencies in which we operate are the Euro, the British Pound Sterling, the Australian Dollar and the Canadian Dollar. In order to minimize the possibility of losses we may suffer as a result of our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations in our net insurance liabilities, we invest in securities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar. In addition, we may replicate investment positions in foreign currencies using derivative financial instruments. Changes in the value of investments due to foreign currency rate movements are reflected as a direct increase or decrease to shareholders' equity and are not included in the statement of income.
Uncertainty relating to the determination of LIBOR and the potential phasing out and replacement of LIBOR after 2021 may adversely affect our cost of capital, net investment income and mortgage reinsurance costs.
On July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it intends to end the use of LIBOR after 2021 as the benchmark rate that many banks and issuers use to set interests in loan documents. Recognizing the need to replace LIBOR, authorities in the United States convened the Alternative Reference Rates Committee (“ARRC”) in 2014 to identify a replacement for LIBOR. In 2017, the ARRC identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) - a combination of certain overnight repo rates, as its preferred alternative to LIBOR, and in April 2018, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York began publishing the SOFR rate. Because SOFR is an overnight risk-free rate, versus LIBOR which has various terms and an embedded credit charge, the transition from LIBOR to SOFR will require adjustments. The uncertainty of these adjustments, and the timing of when the transition will occur may adversely affect the value of and trading market for LIBOR-based securities. Moreover, the transition to SOFR from LIBOR may adversely affect the performance of our investment portfolio, our cost of capital and our cost of issuing Bellemeade mortgage risk transfer securities. While we have an internal committee focused on managing the replacement of LIBOR for our investments and operations, we do not believe that it is possible to predict how markets will respond to the transition to SOFR, or any other rate, from LIBOR on new or existing financial instruments or quantify the potential effect of any such event on us at this time.
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Our reinsurance subsidiaries may be required to provide collateral to ceding companies, by applicable regulators, their contracts or other commercial considerations. Their ability to conduct business could be significantly and negatively affected if they are unable to do so.
Arch Re Bermuda is a registered Bermuda insurance company and is not licensed or admitted as an insurer in any jurisdiction in the U.S., although Arch Re Bermuda has been approved as a “certified reinsurer” in certain U.S. states that allow reduced collateral for reinsurance ceded to such reinsurers. Arch Re Bermuda's contracts generally require it to post a letter of credit or provide other security, even in U.S. states where it has been approved for reduced collateral. State credit for reinsurance rules also generally provide that certified reinsurers such as Arch Re Bermuda must provide 100% collateral in the event their certified status is “terminated” or upon the entry of an order of rehabilitation, liquidation or conservation against a ceding insurer.
Although, to date, Arch Re Bermuda has not experienced any difficulties in providing collateral when required, if we are unable to post security in the form of letters of credit or trust funds when required, the operations of Arch Re Bermuda could be significantly and negatively affected.
Risks Relating to Our Mortgage Operations
The ultimate performance of the Arch MI U.S. mortgage insurance portfolio remains uncertain.
The mix of business in our insured loan portfolio may affect losses. The presence of multiple higher-risk characteristics in a loan materially increases the likelihood of a claim on such a loan unless there are other characteristics to mitigate the risk. The geographic mix of Arch MI U.S.’s business could increase losses and harm our financial performance.
Generally, we cannot cancel mortgage insurance coverage or adjust renewal premiums during the life of a mortgage insurance policy. As a result, higher than anticipated claims generally cannot be offset by premium increases on policies in force or mitigated by our non-renewal or cancellation of insurance coverage. The premiums charged, and the associated investment income, may not be adequate to compensate us for the risks and costs associated with the insurance coverage provided to customers. An increase in the number or size of claims, compared to what we anticipate, could adversely affect Arch MI U.S.’s results of operations and financial condition.
The frequency and severity of claims we incur is uncertain and will depend largely on general economic factors outside of our control, including, among others, changes in unemployment, home prices and interest rates in the U.S. Deteriorating economic conditions in the U.S., potentially
due to prolonged recessionary conditions related to COVID-19, could adversely affect the performance of our U.S. mortgage insurance portfolio and could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
If the volume of low down payment mortgage originations declines, or if other government housing policies, practices or regulations change, the amount of mortgage insurance we write in the U.S. could decline, which would reduce our mortgage insurance revenues.
The size of the U.S. mortgage insurance market depends in large part upon the volume of low down payment home mortgage originations. Factors affecting the volume of low down payment mortgage originations include, among others: restrictions on mortgage credit due to stringent underwriting standards and liquidity issues affecting lenders; changes in mortgage interest rates and home prices, and other economic conditions in the U.S. and regional economies; population trends, including the rate of household formation; and U.S. government housing policy.
Most recently, on December 10, 2020, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) issued its final rule amending the general qualified mortgage (“QM”) definition and eliminated the exception that all GSEs loans were deemed QM. The General QM definition in the final rule differs from the definition of QM applicable to loans sold to FHA, creating incentives for originators to originate loans under the FHA program rather than sell loans to the GSEs. On January 14, 2021, the FHFA as conservator of the GSEs and the Department of Treasury entered into a letter agreement that further amended the senior preferred stock purchase arrangement (“PSPA”). This letter agreement, among other provisions, imposed restrictions on the amount of high risk loans that can be purchased by the GSEs. A decline in the volume of low-down payment home mortgage originations or purchases by the GSEs could decrease demand for mortgage insurance, decrease our U.S. new insurance written and reduce mortgage insurance revenues.
Changes to the role of the GSEs in the U.S. housing market or to GSE eligibility requirements for mortgage insurers could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition, or reduce our operating flexibility.
Substantially all of Arch MI U.S.’s insurance written has been for loans sold to the GSEs. The charters of the GSEs require credit enhancement for low down payment mortgages in order for such loans to be eligible for purchase or guarantee by the GSEs. If the charters of the GSEs were amended to change or eliminate the acceptability of private mortgage insurance, our mortgage insurance business could decline significantly.
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The PMIERs apply to Arch Mortgage Insurance Company and United Guaranty Residential Insurance Company, which are GSE-approved mortgage insurers (“eligible mortgage insurers”). The PMIERs impose limitations on the type of risk insured, the forms and insurance policies issued, standards for the geographic and customer diversification of risk, procedures for claims handling, acceptable underwriting practices, quality assurance, loss mitigation, claims handling, standards for certain reinsurance cessions and financial requirements, among other things. The financial requirements require a mortgage insurer’s available assets, which generally include only the most liquid assets of an insurer, to meet or exceed “minimum required assets” as of each quarter end. Arch MI U.S.’s minimum required assets under the PMIERs will be determined, in part, by the particular risk profiles of the loans it insures. If, absent other changes, Arch MI U.S.’s mix of business changes to include more loans with higher loan-to-value ratios or lower credit scores, it will have a higher minimum required asset amount under the PMIERs and, accordingly, be required to hold more capital in order to maintain GSE eligibility. Our eligible mortgage insurers each satisfied the PMIERs’ financial requirements as of December 31, 2020. While we intend to continue to comply with these requirements, there can be no assurance that the GSEs will not change the PMIERs or that Arch Mortgage Insurance Company or United Guaranty Residential Insurance Company will continue as eligible mortgage insurers. If either or both of the GSEs were to cease to consider Arch Mortgage Insurance Company or United Guaranty Residential Insurance Company as eligible mortgage insurers and, therefore, cease accepting our mortgage insurance products, our results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected.
The implementation of the Basel III Capital Accord and FHFA’s Enterprise Capital Rule may adversely affect the use of mortgage insurance and CRT opportunities.
With certain exceptions, the Basel III Rules became effective on January 1, 2014. In December 2017, the Basel Committee published final revisions to the Basel Capital Accord which is informally denominated in the U.S. as “Basel IV.” The Basel Committee expects the new rules to be fully implemented by January 2027. Under the revised Basel rules, banks using the standardized approach for credit risk management will determine the risk-weight for residential mortgages based on the loan-to-value ratio at loan origination, without consideration of mortgage insurance. The U.S. regulatory agencies have not proposed adopting the Basel IV rules on mortgage capital requirements and could determine that current U.S. rules are “at least as stringent” as the Basel IV provisions, and therefore do not need to be modified. However, if the U.S. regulators decide to adopt the Basel IV approach, the capital relief benefits of MI would be diminished, which could adversely affect the demand for mortgage insurance.
Further, a new “Basel-like” risk-based capital rule for the GSEs was adopted by the FHFA in 2020. The rule requires the GSEs to hold the greater of the risk-based capital amount or the leverage ratio. The rule limits the reduction in capital for CRTs to third parties under the risk-based capital calculation and disallows any reduction for CRT to the leverage ratio. By its terms, this rule will become fully effective only if the GSEs are released from conservatorship, though the PSPA letter agreement contractually requires compliance sooner.
If the Enterprise Capital Rule becomes fully implemented without revision, significantly higher capital requirements for the GSEs would be mandated and the opportunity for participating in CRT transactions could be reduced. This, along with the cap on certain high-risk loans in the PSPA letter agreement with Treasury, could result in higher GSE fees and potentially smaller market share for the Enterprises and could adversely impact the demand for MI policies. Additionally, the GSEs may amend PMIERs to align the capital requirements and reduce the recognition of CRT for eligible insurers. Such changes could require us to contribute additional capital to Arch MI U.S. in the future and could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
Risk Relating to Our Company and Our Shares
Some of the provisions of our bye-laws and our shareholders agreement may have the effect of hindering, delaying or preventing third party takeovers or changes in management initiated by shareholders. These provisions may also prevent our shareholders from receiving premium prices for their shares in an unsolicited takeover.
Some provisions of our bye-laws could have the effect of discouraging unsolicited takeover bids from third parties or changes in management initiated by shareholders. These provisions may encourage companies interested in acquiring us to negotiate in advance with our board of directors, since the board has the authority to overrule the operation of several of the limitations.
Among other things, our bye-laws provide: for a classified board of directors, in which the directors of the class elected at each annual general meeting holds office for a term of three years, with the term of each class expiring at successive annual general meetings of shareholders; that the number of directors is determined by the board from time to time by a vote of the majority of our board; that directors may only be removed for cause, and cause removal shall be deemed to exist only if the director whose removal is proposed has been convicted of a felony or been found by a court to be liable for gross negligence or misconduct in the performance of his or her duties; that our board has the right to fill vacancies, including vacancies created by an expansion of the board;
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and for limitations on a shareholder’s right to raise proposals or nominate directors at general meetings. Our bye-laws provide that certain provisions which may have anti-takeover effects may be repealed or altered only with prior board approval and upon the affirmative vote of holders of shares representing at least 65% of the total voting power of our shares entitled generally to vote at an election of directors.
The bye-laws also contain a provision limiting the rights of any U.S. person (as defined in section 7701(a)(30) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”)) that owns shares of Arch Capital, directly, indirectly or constructively (within the meaning of section 958 of the Code), representing more than 9.9% of the voting power of all shares entitled to vote generally at an election of directors. The votes conferred by such shares of such U.S. person will be reduced by whatever amount is necessary so that after any such reduction the votes conferred by the shares of such person will constitute 9.9% of the total voting power of all shares entitled to vote generally at an election of directors. Notwithstanding this provision, the board may make such final adjustments to the aggregate number of votes conferred by the shares of any U.S. person that the board considers fair and reasonable in all circumstances to ensure that such votes represent 9.9% of the aggregate voting power of the votes conferred by all shares of Arch Capital entitled to vote generally at an election of directors. Arch Capital will assume that all shareholders (other than specified persons) are U.S. persons unless we receive assurance satisfactory to us that they are not U.S. persons.
The bye-laws also provide that the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting power of our shares (excluding shares owned by any person (and such person’s affiliates and associates) that is the owner of 15% or more (a “15% Holder”) of our outstanding voting shares) shall be required for various corporate actions, including: merger or consolidation of the company into a 15% Holder; sale of any or all of our assets to a 15% Holder; the issuance of voting securities to a 15% Holder; or amendment of these provisions; provided, however, the super majority vote will not apply to any transaction approved by the board.
The provisions described above may have the effect of making more difficult or discouraging unsolicited takeover bids from third parties. To the extent that these effects occur, shareholders could be deprived of opportunities to realize takeover premiums for their shares and the market price of their shares could be depressed. In addition, these provisions could also result in the entrenchment of incumbent management.
There are regulatory limitations on the ownership and transfer of our common shares.
The jurisdictions where we operate have laws and regulations
that require regulatory approval of a change in control of an insurer or an insurer's holding company. Where such laws apply to us, there can be no effective change in our control unless the person seeking to acquire control has filed a statement with the regulators and obtained prior approval for the proposed change. Certain regulators may at any time, by written notice, object to a person holding shares in an insurer or an insurer's holding company if it appears to the regulator that the person is not or is no longer fit and proper to be such a holder. The regulator may require the shareholder to reduce its holding in the insurer or an insurer's holding company and direct, among other things, that such shareholder’s voting rights attaching to the shares in an insurer or an insurer's holding company shall not be exercisable.
Arch Capital is a holding company and is dependent on dividends and other distributions from its operating subsidiaries.
Arch Capital is a holding company whose assets primarily consist of the shares in our subsidiaries. Generally, Arch Capital depends on its available cash resources, liquid investments and dividends or other distributions from subsidiaries to make payments, including the payment of debt service obligations and operating expenses it may incur and any payments of dividends, redemption amounts or liquidation amounts with respect to our preferred shares and common shares, and to fund the share repurchase program. The ability of our regulated insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries to pay dividends or make distributions is subject to legislative constraints and dependent on their ability to meet applicable regulatory standards. In addition, the ability of our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries to pay dividends to Arch Capital and to intermediate parent companies owned by Arch Capital could be constrained by our dependence on financial strength ratings from independent rating agencies. Our ratings from these agencies depend to a large extent on the capitalization levels of our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries.
General market conditions and unpredictable factors could adversely affect market prices for our outstanding preferred shares.
There can be no assurance about the market prices for our series of preferred shares that are traded publicly. Several factors, many of which are beyond our control, will influence the fair value of our preferred shares, including, but not limited to:
•whether dividends have been declared and are likely to be declared on any series of our preferred shares from time to time;
•our creditworthiness, financial condition, performance and prospects;
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•whether the ratings on any series of our preferred shares provided by any ratings agency have changed;
•the market for similar securities; and
•economic, financial, geopolitical, regulatory or judicial events that affect us and/or the insurance or financial markets generally.
Dividends on our preferred shares are non-cumulative.
Dividends on our preferred shares are non-cumulative and payable only out of lawfully available funds of Arch Capital under Bermuda law. Consequently, if Arch Capital's board of directors (or a duly authorized committee of the board) does not authorize and declare a dividend for any dividend period with respect to any series of our preferred shares, holders of such preferred shares would not be entitled to receive any such dividend, and such unpaid dividend will not accrue and will never be payable. Arch Capital will have no obligation to pay dividends for a dividend period on or after the dividend payment date for such period if its board of directors (or a duly authorized committee of the board) has not declared such dividend before the related dividend payment date; if dividends on our series E or series F preferred shares are authorized and declared with respect to any subsequent dividend period, Arch Capital will be free to pay dividends on any other series of preferred shares and/or our common shares. In the past, we have not paid dividends on our common shares.
Our preferred shares are equity and are subordinate to our existing and future indebtedness.
Our preferred shares are equity interests and do not constitute indebtedness. As such, these preferred shares will rank junior to all of our indebtedness and other non-equity claims with respect to assets available to satisfy our claims, including in our liquidation. Our existing and future indebtedness may restrict payments of dividends on our preferred shares. Additionally, unlike indebtedness, where principal and interest would customarily be payable on specified due dates, in the case of preferred shares, (1) dividends are payable only if declared by the board of directors of Arch Capital (or a duly authorized committee of the board) and (2) as described under “Risks Relating to Our Company—Arch Capital is a holding company and is dependent on dividends and other distributions from its operating subsidiaries,” we are subject to certain regulatory and other constraints affecting our ability to pay dividends and make other payments.
We may issue additional securities that rank equally with or senior to our series E and series F preferred shares without limitation. The issuance of securities ranking equally with or senior to our preferred shares may reduce the amount available for dividends and the amount recoverable by
holders of such series in the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of Arch Capital.
The voting rights of holders of our preferred shares are limited.
Holders of our preferred shares have no voting rights with respect to matters that generally require the approval of voting shareholders. The limited voting rights of holders of our preferred shares include the right to vote as a class on certain fundamental matters that affect the preference or special rights of our preferred shares as set forth in the certificate of designations relating to each series of preferred shares. In addition, if dividends on our series E or series F preferred shares have not been declared or paid for the equivalent of six dividend payments, whether or not for consecutive dividend periods, holders of the outstanding series E or series F preferred shares will be entitled to vote for the election of two additional directors to our board of directors subject to the terms and to the limited extent as set forth in the certificate of designations relating to such series of preferred shares.
Risks Relating to Taxation
We and our non-U.S. subsidiaries may become subject to U.S. federal income taxation and/or the U.S. federal income tax liabilities of our U.S. subsidiaries may increase, including as a result of changes in tax law.
Arch Capital and its non-U.S. subsidiaries intend to operate their business in a manner that will not cause them to be treated as engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. and, thus, will not be required to pay U.S. federal income taxes (other than U.S. excise taxes on insurance and reinsurance premiums and withholding taxes on certain U.S. source investment income) on their income. However, because there is uncertainty as to the activities which constitute being engaged in a trade or business in the U.S., there can be no assurances that the IRS will not contend successfully that Arch Capital or its non-U.S. subsidiaries are engaged in a trade or business in the U.S., in which case our shareholders' equity and earnings could be adversely affected.
Congress has been considering several legislative proposals intended to eliminate certain perceived tax advantages of Bermuda and other non-U.S. insurance companies. There is no assurance that any such legislative proposal will not be enacted into law and any such enacted law which could materially increase our income tax liabilities or those of our subsidiaries.
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The enactment and implementation of the Tax Cuts Act may have a material and adverse impact on our operations and financial condition.
Certain provisions in the Tax Cuts Act could have a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and business operation. One such provision imposes a 10% minimum base erosion and anti-abuse tax (increased to 12.5% for the 2026 taxable year and the subsequent taxable years) on the “modified taxable income” of a U.S. corporation (or a non-U.S. corporation engaged in a U.S. trade or business) over such corporation’s regular U.S. federal income tax, reduced by certain tax credits. The “modified taxable income” of a corporation is determined without deduction for certain payments by such corporation to its non-U.S. affiliates (including reinsurance premiums). Other provisions of the Tax Cuts Act that could have a material and adverse impact on us include a provision that defers or disallows a U.S. corporation’s deduction of interest expense to the extent such interest expense exceeds a specified percentage of such U.S. corporation’s “adjusted taxable income” and a provision that adjusts the manner in which a U.S. property and casualty insurance company computes its loss reserve.
In addition, there is no assurance that subsequent changes in tax laws or regulations will not materially and adversely affect our operations and financial condition.
We may become subject to taxes in Bermuda after March 31, 2035, which may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Under current Bermuda law, we are not subject to tax on income, profits, withholding, capital gains or capital transfers. Furthermore, we have obtained from the Minister of Finance of Bermuda under the Exempted Undertakings Tax Protection Act 1966 of Bermuda, an assurance that, in the event that Bermuda enacts legislation imposing tax computed on profits, income, any capital asset, gain or appreciation, or any tax in the nature of estate duty or inheritance tax, then the imposition of the tax will not be applicable to us or our operations until March 31, 2035. Given the limited duration of the Minister of Finance's assurance we cannot be certain that we will not be subject to any Bermuda tax after that date, which may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. This assurance does not, however, prevent the imposition of taxes on any person ordinarily resident in Bermuda or any company in respect of its ownership of real property or leasehold interests in Bermuda.
The impact of Bermuda's letter of commitment to the OECD to eliminate harmful tax practices is uncertain and could adversely affect our tax status in Bermuda
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) has published reports and launched a global initiative among member and non-member countries on measures to limit harmful tax competition. These measures are largely directed at counteracting the effects of tax havens and preferential tax regimes in countries around the world. Bermuda was not listed in the most recent report as an uncooperative tax haven jurisdiction because it had previously committed to eliminate harmful tax practices, to embrace international tax standards for transparency, to exchange information and to eliminate an environment that attracts business with no substantial domestic activity. We are not able to predict what changes will arise from the commitment or whether such changes will subject us to additional taxes.
The impact of commitments made by the government of Bermuda in order to avoid being named on the EU’s list of non-cooperative tax jurisdictions is uncertain and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
On December 5, 2017 the Council of the European Union published its list of non-cooperative jurisdictions for tax purposes (the “EU Blacklist”). Bermuda was not named on the EU Blacklist due to commitments made by its government to improve certain “substance requirement” deficiencies that were identified by the EU during the screening process. This commitment led to the passing of the Economic Substance Act 2018 (as amended) of Bermuda (the “ES Act”) in December 2018, which came into force on 1 January 2019. While the the legislation remains subject to further clarification and interpretation, it is not currently possible to ascertain the steps required to ensure our continued compliance with the ES Act and makes it difficult to predict its future impact. Any entity found to be lacking adequate economic substance may be fined or ordered by a court to take action to remedy such failure (or face being struck off the companies register). As a result, there is a risk that non-compliance with its economic substance requirements under the ES Act could require Arch to enhance its infrastructure in Bermuda, and this may result in some additional operational expenditures, increased tax liabilities and/or compliance costs for Arch.
We may become subject to increased taxation in Bermuda and other countries as a result of the OECD's plan on “Base erosion and profit shifting.”
The OECD, with the support of the G20, initiated the “base erosion and profit shifting” (“BEPS”) project in 2013 in response to concerns that changes are needed to international tax laws to address situations where multinationals may pay little or no tax in certain jurisdictions by shifting profits away from jurisdictions where the activities creating those profits may take place. In November 2015, “final reports” were approved for adoption by the G20 finance ministers. The final reports provide the basis for international standards for
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corporate taxation that are designed to prevent, among other things, the artificial shifting of income to tax havens and low-tax jurisdictions, the erosion of the tax base through interest deductions on intercompany debt and the artificial avoidance of permanent establishments (i.e., tax nexus with a jurisdiction).
Legislation to adopt and implement these standards, including country by country reporting, has been enacted or is currently under consideration in a number of jurisdictions. As a result, our income may be taxed in jurisdictions where it is not currently taxed and at higher rates of tax than currently taxed, which may substantially increase our effective tax rate. Also, the continued adoption of these standards may increase the complexity and costs associated with tax compliance and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.
In May 2019, the OECD published a “Programme of Work,” divided into two pillars, which is designed to address the tax challenges created by an increasing digitalized economy. Pillar One addresses the broader challenge of a digitalized economy and focuses on the allocation of group profits among taxing jurisdictions based on a market-based concept rather than historical “permanent establishment” concepts. Pillar Two addresses the remaining BEPS risk of profit shifting to entities in low tax jurisdictions by introducing a global minimum tax and a proposed tax on base eroding payments, which would operate through a denial of a deduction or imposition of source-based taxation (including withholding tax) on certain payments. In January 2020, the OECD released a statement excluding most financial services activities, including insurance activities, from the scope of the profit reallocation mechanism in Pillar I. The OECD statement cited the presence of commercial (rather than consumer) customers as grounds for the carve-out, but also acknowledged that a “compelling case” could be made that the consumer-facing business lines of insurance companies should be excluded from the scope of Pillar I given the impact of regulations and licensing requirements that typically ensure that residual profits are largely realized in local customer markets. However, the OECD noted that the proper scope for Pillar I as applied to “unregulated elements of the financial services sector” may require further consideration. To date, the proposal has been written broadly enough to potentially apply to our activities, and we are unable to determine at this time when such measures would be implemented and if so, whether they will be in a form that whether it would have a material adverse impact on our operations and results.
The EU’s review of harmful tax competition could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations
During 2017, the EU Economic and Financial Affairs Council (“ECOFIN”) released a list of noncooperative jurisdictions for tax purposes. The stated aim of this list, and accompanying report, was to promote good governance worldwide in order to maximize efforts to prevent tax fraud and tax evasion. Bermuda was not on the list of non-cooperative jurisdictions, but did feature in the report (along with approximately 40 other jurisdictions) as having committed to address concerns relating to economic substance by December 31, 2018. In accordance with that commitment, Bermuda has enacted the ES Act that came into force on 1 January 2019, that requires a registered entity other than an entity which is resident for tax purposes in certain jurisdictions outside Bermuda (“non-resident entity”) that carries on as a business any one or more of the “relevant activities” referred to in the ES Act, , which includes carrying on an insurance business, to maintain a substantial economic presence in Bermuda and to satisfy economic substance requirements. Any entity that must satisfy economic substance requirements but fails to do so could face automatic disclosure to competent authorities in the EU of the information filed by the entity with the Bermuda Registrar of Companies in connection with the economic substance requirements and may also face financial penalties, restriction or regulation of its business activities and/or may be struck off as a registered entity in Bermuda.
At present, the impact of these new economic substance requirements is unclear, and it is impossible to predict the nature and effect of these requirements on us. As the legislation is new and remains subject to further clarification and interpretation, it is not currently possible to ascertain the precise impact of the ES Act. Compliance with economic substance requirements may increase the complexity and costs of carrying on our business and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Application of the EU Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives
As part of the BEPS project, the EU Council adopted on 12 July 2016 Council Directive (EU) 2016/1164 (“ATAD I”), as amended by Council Directive (EU) 2017/952 (“ATAD II”, together with ATAD I, “ATAD”), to provide for minimum standard across EU Member States for tackling aggressive tax planning involving hybrid tax mismatches and interest deductibility. ATAD I was required to be transposed into domestic Member State law with effect from January 1, 2019, whilst ATAD II was required to be transposed into domestic Member State law with effect from January 1, 2020 (with an exception in respect of reverse hybrid mismatch provisions, which will take effect on January 1, 2022). The full impact of the application of ATAD is not yet clear. However, ATAD could result in increased tax liabilities and/or compliance costs and administrative burden for us.
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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We lease office space in Bermuda where our principal offices are located. Our insurance group leases space for offices in the U.S., Canada, Bermuda, U.K., Europe and Australia. Our reinsurance group leases space for offices in the U.S., Bermuda, U.K., Europe, Canada and Dubai. Our mortgage group leases space for offices in the U.S., Hong Kong and Australia. We believe that the above described office space is adequate for our needs. However, as we continue to develop our business, we may open additional office locations in 2021.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We, in common with the insurance industry in general, are subject to litigation and arbitration in the normal course of our business. As of December 31, 2020, we were not a party to any litigation or arbitration which is expected by management to have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition and liquidity.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
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ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
As of February 19, 2021, and based on information provided to us by our transfer agent and proxy solicitor, there were 893 holders of record of our common shares (NASDAQ: ACGL) and approximately 86,000 beneficial holders of our common shares.
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The following table summarizes our purchases of common shares for the 2020 fourth quarter:
|Issuer Purchases of Common Shares|
|Period||Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)||Average Price Paid per Share||Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs||Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plan or Programs (2)|
(1) Includes repurchases by Arch Capital of shares, from time to time, from employees in order to facilitate the payment of withholding taxes on restricted shares granted and the exercise of stock appreciation rights. We purchased these shares at their fair market value, as determined by reference to the closing price of our common shares on the day the restricted shares vested or the stock appreciation rights were exercised.
(2) Remaining amount available at December 31, 2020 under Arch Capital’s share repurchase authorization, under which repurchases may be effected from time to time in open market or privately negotiated transactions through December 31, 2021.
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The following graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our common shares for each of the last five years through December 31, 2020 to the cumulative total return, assuming reinvestment of dividends, of (1) S&P 500 Composite Stock Index (“S&P 500 Index”) and (2) the S&P 500 Property & Casualty Insurance Index. The share price performance presented below is not necessarily indicative of future results.
CUMULATIVE TOTAL SHAREHOLDER RETURN (1)(2)(3)
|l||Arch Capital Group Ltd.||$100.00||$123.71||$130.14||$114.92||$184.47||$155.14|
|n||S&P 500 Index||$100.00||$111.96||$136.40||$130.42||$171.49||$203.04|
|p||S&P 500 Property & Casualty Insurance Index||$100.00||$115.71||$141.61||$134.97||$169.88||$181.70|
(1) Stock price appreciation plus dividends.
(2) The above graph assumes that the value of the investment was $100 on December 31, 2015.
(3) This graph is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed filed with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference in any filing by us under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Part II, Item 6 is no longer required as the Company has adopted certain provisions within the amendments to Regulation S-K that eliminate Item 301.
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following is a discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. Comparisons between 2019 and 2018 have been omitted from this Form 10-K, but may be found in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, Item 7 of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements which involve inherent risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. These statements are based on our current assessment of risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements and, therefore, undue reliance should not be placed on them. Important factors that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from those indicated in such statements are discussed in this report, including the sections entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” and “Risk Factors.”
This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto presented under Item 8. Tabular amounts are in U.S. Dollars in thousands, except share amounts, unless otherwise noted.
Arch Capital Group Ltd. (“Arch Capital” and, together with its subsidiaries, “we” or “us”) is a publicly listed Bermuda exempted company with approximately $15.8 billion in capital at December 31, 2020 and, through operations in Bermuda, the United States, United Kingdom, Europe, Canada, Australia and Hong Kong, writes specialty lines of property and casualty insurance and reinsurance, as well as mortgage insurance and reinsurance, on a worldwide basis. It is our belief that our underwriting platform, our experienced management team and our strong capital base have enabled us to establish a strong presence in the insurance and reinsurance markets.
The worldwide property casualty insurance and reinsurance industry is highly competitive and has traditionally been subject to an underwriting cycle in which a hard market (high premium rates, restrictive underwriting standards, as well as terms and conditions, and underwriting gains) is eventually followed by a soft market (low premium rates, relaxed
underwriting standards, as well as broader terms and conditions, and underwriting losses). Property casualty market conditions may affect, among other things, the demand for our products, our ability to increase premium rates, the terms and conditions of the insurance policies we write, changes in the products offered by us or changes in our business strategy.
The financial results of the property casualty insurance and reinsurance industry are influenced by factors such as the frequency and/or severity of claims and losses, including natural disasters or other catastrophic events, variations in interest rates and financial markets, changes in the legal, regulatory and judicial environments, inflationary pressures and general economic conditions. These factors influence, among other things, the demand for insurance or reinsurance, the supply of which is generally related to the total capital of competitors in the market.
Mortgage insurance and reinsurance is subject to similar cycles to property casualty except that they have historically been more dependent on macroeconomic conditions.
In keeping with our longstanding underwriting approach, we look for acceptable books of business to underwrite without sacrificing discipline. We continue to write a portion of our overall book in catastrophe-exposed business, which has the potential to increase the volatility of our operating results. From an operating perspective, our 2020 results reflected the benefits of rate improvements as all three of our underwriting segments are seeing attractive opportunities to grow at acceptable rates of return. We know from experience that this is an opportune time to significantly expand our participation into this hardening market. As such, we raised an additional $1.0 billion of capital in the form of long-term senior notes at the end of June 2020 and continue to deploy capital to those lines that provide the best expected returns.
Rate improvements in 2020 have enabled us to continue to expand writings in our property casualty segments as risk adjusted returns are increasingly achieved. In the insurance segment, our renewal rate changes increased approximately 12% in the 2020 fourth quarter and we believe that this trend of increasing rates will continue through 2021.
COVID-19 has continued to significantly impact social and economic activity in the U.S. and global markets. We are committed to the safety of our employees, including
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restricting travel and instituting an extensive work from home policy. These actions have helped prevent a major disruption to our clients and operations. The impact of the spread of COVID-19 has changed some of our outlook for 2021, but we are navigating this period with a strong capital base. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our business, results of operations and financial results depends on numerous evolving factors including, but not limited to, the magnitude and duration of COVID-19, the extent to which it will impact macroeconomic conditions, the speed of the anticipated recovery and governmental, business and individual reactions to the pandemic. Given the continuing evolution of the COVID-19 outbreak and the response to curb its spread including the release of vaccines, we continue to not be able to estimate the future effects of the COVID-19 outbreak to our results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
For the 2020 period, we recorded $272 million for COVID-19 losses across our property casualty segments. We continue to have limited information to accurately quantify our potential exposure to the pandemic in certain areas but have established IBNR reserves for occurrences based on policy terms and conditions including limits, sub-limits, and deductibles. These reserves were recorded across a number of lines of business, such as trade credit, travel, workers compensation and property where we have limited exposure to policies that do not contain a specific pandemic exclusion and/or explicitly afford business interruption coverage under a pandemic. Given the unusual circumstances and breadth of the pandemic, we have classified COVID-19 losses as a catastrophe.
For our U.S. primary mortgage operations, reported delinquencies were 4.19% at December 31, 2020, compared to 4.69% at September 30, 2020. Delinquencies continue to be better than our expectations at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, delinquency rates remain at elevated levels, reflecting the impact of the recession and forbearance programs under the CARES Act (including any extensions) to borrowers experiencing a hardship during COVID-19. Forbearance allows for mortgage payments to be suspended for up to 18 months along with a suspension of foreclosures and evictions. See “Results of Operations—Mortgage Segment” for further details on our mortgage operations.
Record mortgage originations fueled by low mortgage rates are continuing to create surges in both purchase and refinancing activity. There remains significant uncertainty on the economy’s health and the lack of a full understanding on how COVID-19 may impact individual borrowers and, as such, caution is warranted on predicting how this will ultimately affect our results of operations.
We believe that delinquency rates could increase in the future from the current level, as additional borrowers may request
forbearance on their mortgage loans under the CARES Act. We would record loss reserves on these delinquencies which would result in elevated levels of incurred losses over the coming quarters. Over time, we would expect many of these delinquencies to cure and revert back to performing loans as the economy returns to a less-stressed state. At this time, we do not have enough visibility to predictably forecast the rate at which forbearance delinquencies will be reported to us, cure or ultimately turn into claims on an annual, let alone a quarterly basis. We are cautiously optimistic that delinquencies will continue to cure as vaccines enable economies to reopen. Record home purchases in the U.S. in 2020 supported a 5% price appreciation nationwide while historically low interest rates accelerated housing and refinancing demand. Our outlook for continued growth in 2021 remains positive. For further discussion of the potential impacts of COVID-19, see “ITEM 1A—Risk Factors”.
We remain committed to providing solutions across many offerings as the marketplace evolves, including the mortgage credit risk transfer programs initiated by government sponsored enterprises, or “GSEs.” In addition, we enter into aggregate excess of loss mortgage reinsurance agreements with various special purpose reinsurance companies domiciled in Bermuda (the Bellemeade Agreements) and issue mortgage insurance linked notes, increasing our protection for mortgage tail risk. The Bellemeade structures provide approximately $4.0 billion of aggregate reinsurance coverage.
Management uses the following three key financial indicators in evaluating our performance and measuring the overall growth in value generated for Arch Capital’s common shareholders:
Book Value per Share
Book value per share represents total common shareholders’ equity available to Arch divided by the number of common shares and common share equivalents outstanding. Management uses growth in book value per share as a key measure of the value generated for our common shareholders each period and believes that book value per share is the key driver of Arch Capital’s share price over time. Book value per share is impacted by, among other factors, our underwriting results, investment returns and share repurchase activity, which has an accretive or dilutive impact on book value per share depending on the purchase price. Book value per share was $30.31 at December 31, 2020, a 14.7% increase from $26.42 at December 31, 2019. The growth in 2020 reflected strong underwriting results and investment returns.
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Operating Return on Average Common Equity
Operating return on average common equity (“Operating ROAE”) represents annualized after-tax operating income available to Arch common shareholders divided by average common shareholders’ equity available to Arch during the period. After-tax operating income available to Arch common shareholders, a “non-GAAP measure” as defined in the SEC rules, represents net income available to Arch common shareholders, excluding net realized gains or losses, equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method, net foreign exchange gains or losses and transaction costs and other, net of income taxes. Management uses Operating ROAE as a key measure of the return generated to Arch common shareholders. See “Comment on Non-GAAP Financial Measures.” Our Operating ROAE was 4.8% for 2020, compared to 12.0% for 2019. The lower Operating ROAE for 2020 reflected impact of elevated catastrophic activity including COVID-19 on underwriting results and lower investment income than in the 2019 periods.
Total Return on Investments
Total return on investments includes investment income, equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method, net realized gains and losses and the change in unrealized gains and losses generated by Arch’s investment portfolio. Total return is calculated on a pre-tax basis and before investment expenses excluding amounts reflected in the ‘other’ segment, and reflects the effect of financial market conditions along with foreign currency fluctuations. Management uses total return on investments as a key measure of the return generated to Arch common shareholders on the capital held in the business, and compares the return generated by our investment portfolio against benchmark returns which we measured our portfolio against during the periods.
The following table summarizes the pre-tax total return (before investment expenses) of investment held by Arch compared to the benchmark return (both based in U.S. Dollars) against which we measured our portfolio during the periods:
|Pre-tax total return (before investment expenses):|
|Year Ended December 31, 2020||7.77||%||7.16||%|
|Year Ended December 31, 2019||7.30||%||7.39||%|
(1) Our investment expenses were approximately 0.31% and 0.33%, respectively, of average invested assets in 2020 and 2019.
Total return for our investment portfolio outperformed the benchmark return index in 2020 and reflected the impact of
lower interest rates on our fixed income portfolio. The duration of our investment portfolio decreased to 3.01 years at year-end, reflecting our ongoing positioning of the portfolio towards shorter-term and high credit opportunities, as we expect the yield curve may steepen over the coming quarters.
The benchmark return index is a customized combination of indices intended to approximate a target portfolio by asset mix and average credit quality while also matching the approximate estimated duration and currency mix of our insurance and reinsurance liabilities. Although the estimated duration and average credit quality of this index will move as the duration and rating of its constituent securities change, generally we do not adjust the composition of the benchmark return index except to incorporate changes to the mix of liability currencies and durations noted above. The benchmark return index should not be interpreted as expressing a preference for or aversion to any particular sector or sector weight. The index is intended solely to provide, unlike many master indices that change based on the size of their constituent indices, a relatively stable basket of investable indices. At December 31, 2020, the benchmark return index had an average credit quality of “Aa3” by Moody’s, an estimated duration of 3.02 years.
The benchmark return index included weightings to the following indices:
|ICE BoAML 1-10 Year A - AAA U.S. Corporate Index||21.00||%|
|ICE BoAML 1-5 Year U.S. Treasury Index||15.00|
|MSCI ACWI Net Total Return USD Index||8.60|
|ICE BoAML 3-5 Year Fixed Rate Asset Backed Securities Index||7.00|
|S&P Leveraged Loan Total Return Index||5.20|
|Bloomberg Barclays CMBS Invest Grade Aaa Total Return Index||5.00|
|ICE BoAML 1-10 Year BBB U.S. Corporate Index||4.00|
|ICE BoAML U.S. Mortgage Backed Securities Index||4.00|
|ICE BoAML 1-5 Year U.K. Gilt Index||4.00|
|ICE BoAML German Government 1-10 Year Index||3.50|
|ICE BoAML 0-3 Month U.S. Treasury Bill Index||3.25|
|ICE BoAML 1-10 Year U.S. Municipal Securities Index||3.00|
|ICE BoAML 5-10 Year U.S. Treasury Index||3.00|
|ICE BoAML 1-5 Year Australia Government Index||2.75|
|ICE BoAML U.S. High Yield Constrained Index||2.50|
|ICE BoAML 1-5 Year Canada Government Index||2.00|
|Bloomberg Barclays Global High Yield Total Return Index||1.50|
|Hedge Fund Research HFRX ED Distressed Restructuring Index (Flagship Funds)||1.50|
|Dow Jones Global ex-US Select Real Estate Securities Total Return Net Index||0.90|
|FTSE Nareit All Mortgage Capped Index Total Return USD||0.90|
|Bloomberg Barclays CMBS: Erisa Eligible Unhedged USD||0.90|
|ICE BoAML 20+ Year Canada Government Index||0.50|
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COMMENT ON NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
Throughout this filing, we present our operations in the way we believe will be the most meaningful and useful to investors, analysts, rating agencies and others who use our financial information in evaluating the performance of our company. This presentation includes the use of after-tax operating income available to Arch common shareholders, which is defined as net income available to Arch common shareholders, excluding net realized gains or losses, equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method, net foreign exchange gains or losses, transaction costs and other and income taxes, and the use of annualized operating return on average common equity. The presentation of after-tax operating income available to Arch common shareholders and annualized operating return on average common equity are non-GAAP financial measures as defined in Regulation G. The reconciliation of such measures to net income available to Arch common shareholders and annualized return on average common equity (the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures) in accordance with Regulation G is included under “Results of Operations” below.
We believe that net realized gains or losses, equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method, net foreign exchange gains or losses and transaction costs and other in any particular period are not indicative of the performance of, or trends in, our business. Although net realized gains or losses, equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method and net foreign exchange gains or losses are an integral part of our operations, the decision to realize investment gains or losses, the recognition of the change in the carrying value of investments accounted for using the fair value option in net realized gains or losses, the recognition of net impairment losses, the recognition of equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method and the recognition of foreign exchange gains or losses are independent of the insurance underwriting process and result, in large part, from general economic and financial market conditions. Furthermore, certain users of our financial information believe that, for many companies, the timing of the realization of investment gains or losses is largely opportunistic. In addition, changes in allowance for credit losses and net impairment losses recognized in earnings on the Company’s investments represent other-than-temporary declines in expected recovery values on securities without actual realization. The use of the equity method on certain of our investments in certain funds that invest in fixed maturity securities is driven by the ownership structure of such funds (either limited partnerships or limited liability companies). In applying the equity method, these investments are initially recorded at cost and are subsequently adjusted based on our proportionate share of the net income or loss of the funds
(which include changes in the market value of the underlying securities in the funds). This method of accounting is different from the way we account for our other fixed maturity securities and the timing of the recognition of equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method may differ from gains or losses in the future upon sale or maturity of such investments. Transaction costs and other include advisory, financing, legal, severance, incentive compensation and other transaction costs related to acquisitions. We believe that transaction costs and other, due to their non-recurring nature, are not indicative of the performance of, or trends in, our business performance. Due to these reasons, we exclude net realized gains or losses, equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method, net foreign exchange gains or losses and transaction costs and other from the calculation of after-tax operating income available to Arch common shareholders.
We believe that showing net income available to Arch common shareholders exclusive of the items referred to above reflects the underlying fundamentals of our business since we evaluate the performance of and manage our business to produce an underwriting profit. In addition to presenting net income available to Arch common shareholders, we believe that this presentation enables investors and other users of our financial information to analyze our performance in a manner similar to how management analyzes performance. We also believe that this measure follows industry practice and, therefore, allows the users of financial information to compare our performance with our industry peer group. We believe that the equity analysts and certain rating agencies which follow us and the insurance industry as a whole generally exclude these items from their analyses for the same reasons.
Our segment information includes the presentation of consolidated underwriting income or loss and a subtotal of underwriting income or loss before the contribution from the ‘other’ segment. Such measures represent the pre-tax profitability of our underwriting operations and include net premiums earned plus other underwriting income, less losses and loss adjustment expenses, acquisition expenses and other operating expenses. Other operating expenses include those operating expenses that are incremental and/or directly attributable to our individual underwriting operations. Underwriting income or loss does not incorporate items included in our corporate (non-underwriting) segment. While these measures are presented in note 4, “Segment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8, they are considered non-GAAP financial measures when presented elsewhere on a consolidated basis. The reconciliations of underwriting income or loss to income before income taxes (the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure) on a consolidated basis and a subtotal before the contribution from the ‘other’ segment, in
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accordance with Regulation G, is shown in note 4, “Segment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
We measure segment performance for our three underwriting segments based on underwriting income or loss. We do not manage our assets by underwriting segment, with the exception of goodwill and intangible assets, and, accordingly, investment income and other non-underwriting related items are not allocated to each underwriting segment. For the ‘other’ segment, performance is measured based on net income or loss.
Along with consolidated underwriting income, we provide a subtotal of underwriting income or loss before the contribution from the ‘other’ segment. Pursuant to generally accepted accounting principles, Watford is considered a variable interest entity and we concluded that we are the primary beneficiary of Watford. As such, we consolidate the results of Watford in our consolidated financial statements, although we only own approximately 13% of Watford’s common equity as of December 31, 2020. Watford has its own management and board of directors that is responsible for its results and profitability. In addition, we do not guarantee or provide credit support for Watford. Since Watford is an independent company, the assets of Watford can be used only to settle obligations of Watford and Watford is solely responsible for its own liabilities and commitments. Our financial exposure to Watford is limited to our investment in Watford’s senior notes, common and preferred shares and counterparty credit risk (mitigated by collateral) arising from reinsurance transactions. We believe that presenting certain information excluding the ‘other’ segment enables investors and other users of our financial information to analyze our performance in a manner similar to how our management analyzes performance.
Our presentation of segment information includes the use of a current year loss ratio which excludes favorable or adverse development in prior year loss reserves. This ratio is a non-GAAP financial measure as defined in Regulation G. The reconciliation of such measure to the loss ratio (the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure) in accordance with Regulation G is shown on the individual segment pages. Management utilizes the current year loss ratio in its analysis of the underwriting performance of each of our underwriting segments.
Total return on investments includes investment income, equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method, net realized gains and losses and the change in unrealized gains and losses generated by Arch’s investment portfolio. Total return is calculated on a pre-tax basis and before investment expenses, excludes amounts reflected in the ‘other’ segment, and reflects the effect of financial market conditions along with foreign currency
fluctuations. In addition, total return incorporates the timing of investment returns during the periods. There is no directly comparable GAAP financial measure for total return. Management uses total return on investments as a key measure of the return generated to Arch common shareholders on the capital held in the business, and compares the return generated by our investment portfolio against benchmark returns which we measured our portfolio against during the periods.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table summarizes our consolidated financial data, including a reconciliation of net income available to Arch common shareholders to after-tax operating income available to Arch common shareholders. Each line item reflects the impact of our percentage ownership of Watford’s common equity during such period.
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Net income available to Arch common shareholders||$||1,363,909||$||1,594,707|
|Net realized (gains) losses||(814,808)||(349,848)|
|Equity in net (income) loss of investments accounted for using the equity method||(146,693)||(123,672)|
|Net foreign exchange (gains) losses||80,591||10,732|
|Transaction costs and other||9,964||14,444|
|Income tax expense (benefit) (1)||64,145||16,276|
|After-tax operating income available to Arch common shareholders||$||557,108||$||1,162,639|
|Beginning common shareholders’ equity||$||10,717,371||$||8,659,827|
|Ending common shareholders’ equity||12,325,886||10,717,371|
|Average common shareholders’ equity||$||11,521,629||$||9,688,599|
|Annualized return on average common equity %||11.8||16.5|
|Annualized operating return on average common equity %||4.8||12.0|
(1)Income tax on net realized gains or losses, equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method, net foreign exchange gains or losses and transaction costs and other reflects the relative mix reported by jurisdiction and the varying tax rates in each jurisdiction.
Results in all periods presented reflected the impact of current insurance and reinsurance market conditions and the impact of low interest yields on our investment portfolio.
We classify our businesses into three underwriting segments — insurance, reinsurance and mortgage — and two other operating segments — corporate (non-underwriting) and ‘other.’ Our insurance, reinsurance and mortgage segments each have managers who are responsible for the overall
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profitability of their respective segments and who are directly accountable to our chief operating decision makers, the Chief Executive Officer of Arch Capital, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer of Arch Capital and the President and Chief Underwriting Officer of Arch Capital. The chief operating decision makers do not assess performance, measure return on equity or make resource allocation decisions on a line of business basis. Management measures segment performance for our three underwriting segments based on underwriting income or loss. We do not manage our assets by underwriting segment, with the exception of goodwill and intangible assets, and, accordingly, investment income is not allocated to each underwriting segment.
We determined our reportable segments using the management approach described in accounting guidance regarding disclosures about segments of an enterprise and related information. The accounting policies of the segments are the same as those used for the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. Intersegment business is allocated to the segment accountable for the underwriting results.
The following tables set forth our insurance segment’s underwriting results:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Gross premiums written||$||4,688,562||$||3,907,993||20.0|
|Net premiums written||3,162,907||2,641,726||19.7|
|Change in unearned premiums||(291,487)||(244,646)|
|Net premiums earned||2,871,420||2,397,080||19.8|
|Other underwriting income||(31)||—|
|Losses and loss adjustment expenses||(2,092,453)||(1,615,475)|
|Other operating expenses||(489,153)||(454,770)|
|Underwriting income (loss)||$||(128,700)||$||(34,779)||(270.1)|
|Underwriting Ratios||% Point Change|
|Acquisition expense ratio||14.6||%||15.1||%||(0.5)|
|Other operating expense ratio||17.0||%||19.0||%||(2.0)|
The insurance segment consists of our insurance underwriting units which offer specialty product lines on a worldwide basis, as described in note 4, “Segment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
The following tables set forth our insurance segment’s net premiums written by major line of business:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Property, energy, marine and aviation||$||619,034||19.6||$||368,120||13.9|
|Construction and national accounts||364,104||11.5||369,202||14.0|
|Excess and surplus casualty||297,330||9.4||228,023||8.6|
|Travel, accident and health||212,974||6.7||305,170||11.6|
Net premiums written by the insurance segment were 19.7% higher in 2020 than in 2019. The higher level of net premiums written reflected increases across most lines of business, due in part to new business opportunities, rate increases and growth in existing accounts, partially offset by a decrease in travel business, reflecting the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic.
Net Premiums Earned.
The following tables set forth our insurance segment’s net premiums earned by major line of business:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Property, energy, marine and aviation||$||517,247||18.0||$||298,966||12.5|
|Construction and national accounts||387,934||13.5||325,687||13.6|
|Excess and surplus casualty||270,620||9.4||200,615||8.4|
|Travel, accident and health||190,944||6.6||305,085||12.7|
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Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses.
The table below shows the components of the insurance segment’s loss ratio:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Prior period reserve development||(0.3)||%||(0.7)||%|
Current Year Loss Ratio.
The insurance segment’s current year loss ratio was 5.1 points higher in 2020 than in 2019. The 2020 loss ratio included 9.5 points of current year catastrophic event activity, including 4.1 points for exposure related to COVID-19, compared to 1.4 points in 2019. The balance of the change in the 2020 loss ratio resulted, in part, from the effect of rate increases, changes in mix of business and the level of attritional losses.
Prior Period Reserve Development.
The insurance segment’s net favorable development was $7.8 million, or 0.3 points, for 2020, compared to $15.8 million, or 0.7 points, for 2019. See note 5, “Reserve for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for information about the insurance segment’s prior year reserve development.
The insurance segment’s underwriting expense ratio was 31.6% in 2020, compared to 34.1% in 2019, with the decrease primarily primarily due to growth in net premiums earned.
The following tables set forth our reinsurance segment’s underwriting results:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Gross premiums written||$||3,472,086||$||2,323,223||49.5|
|Net premiums written||2,457,370||1,602,723||53.3|
|Change in unearned premiums||(295,141)||(136,334)|
|Net premiums earned||2,162,229||1,466,389||47.5|
|Other underwriting income (loss)||4,454||6,444|
|Losses and loss adjustment expenses||(1,628,320)||(1,011,329)|
|Other operating expenses||(168,011)||(141,484)|
|Underwriting Ratios||% Point Change|
|Acquisition expense ratio||16.4||%||16.3||%||0.1|
|Other operating expense ratio||7.8||%||9.6||%||(1.8)|
The reinsurance segment consists of our reinsurance underwriting units which offer specialty product lines on a worldwide basis, as described in note 4, “Segment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
The following tables set forth our reinsurance segment’s net premiums written by major line of business:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Property excluding property catastrophe||$||697,086||28.4||$||403,320||25.2|
|Marine and aviation||141,414||5.8||53,679||3.3|
Gross premiums written by the reinsurance segment in 2020 were 49.5% higher than in 2019, while net premiums written were 53.3% higher than in 2019. The growth in net premiums written reflected increases in most lines of business, primarily due to growth in existing accounts, new business, and rate increases.
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Net Premiums Earned.
The following tables set forth our reinsurance segment’s net premiums earned by major line of business:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Property excluding property catastrophe||$||562,208||26.0||$||362,841||24.7|
|Marine and aviation||109,624||5.1||48,274||3.3|
Net premiums earned in 2020 were 47.5% higher than in 2019, reflecting changes in net premiums written over the previous five quarters, including the mix and type of business written.
Other Underwriting Income (Loss).
Other underwriting income in 2020 was $4.5 million, compared to $6.4 million in 2019.
Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses.
The table below shows the components of the reinsurance segment’s loss ratio:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Prior period reserve development||(6.2)||%||(3.2)||%|
Current Year Loss Ratio.
The reinsurance segment’s current year loss ratio was 9.3 points higher in 2020 than in 2019. The 2020 loss ratio included 20.1 points for current year catastrophic event activity, including 7.2 points for exposure related to COVID-19, compared to 5.7 points in 2019, primarily related to Hurricane Dorian and Typhoons Hagibis and Faxai. The balance of the change in the 2020 current year loss ratio resulted, in part, from the effect of rate increases, changes in mix of business and the level of attritional losses.
Prior Period Reserve Development.
The reinsurance segment’s net favorable development was $134.0 million, or 6.2 points, for 2020, compared to $46.4 million, or 3.2 points, for 2019, See note 5, “Reserve for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for information about the reinsurance segment’s prior year reserve development.
The underwriting expense ratio for the reinsurance segment was 24.2% in 2020, compared to 25.9% in 2019, reflecting growth in net premiums earned.
Our mortgage operations include U.S. and international mortgage insurance and reinsurance operations as well as participation in GSE credit risk-sharing transactions. Our mortgage group includes direct mortgage insurance in the U.S. primarily through Arch Mortgage Insurance Company, United Guaranty Residential Insurance Company and Arch Mortgage Guaranty Company (together, “Arch MI U.S.”); mortgage reinsurance through Arch Re Bermuda to mortgage insurers on both a proportional and non-proportional basis globally; direct mortgage insurance in Europe through Arch Insurance (EU) and in Hong Kong through Arch MI Asia; in Australia through Arch LMI; and participation in various GSE credit risk-sharing products primarily through Arch Re Bermuda.
The following tables set forth our mortgage segment’s underwriting results.
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Gross premiums written||$||1,473,999||$||1,466,265||0.5|
|Net premiums written||1,279,850||1,261,756||1.4|
|Change in unearned premiums||118,085||104,584|
|Net premiums earned||1,397,935||1,366,340||2.3|
|Other underwriting income||20,316||16,005|
|Losses and loss adjustment expenses||(528,344)||(53,513)|
|Other operating expenses||(162,202)||(153,092)|
|Underwriting Ratios||% Point Change|
|Acquisition expense ratio||9.6||%||9.8||%||(0.2)|
|Other operating expense ratio||11.6||%||11.2||%||0.4|
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The following table sets forth our mortgage segment’s net premiums written by underwriting location (i.e., where the business is underwritten):
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Net premiums written by underwriting location|
Gross premiums written by the mortgage segment in 2020 were 0.5% higher than in 2019. Net premiums written for 2020 were 1.4% higher than in the 2019 period primarily reflecting growth in Australian single premium mortgage insurance, partially offset by a lower level of U.S. primary mortgage insurance in force on monthly premium policies.
The persistency rate of the primary portfolio of mortgage loans of Arch MI U.S. was 58.7% at December 31, 2020 compared to 75.7% at December 31, 2019, with the decrease primarily reflecting a higher level of refinancing activity. The persistency rate represents the percentage of mortgage insurance in force at the beginning of a 12-month period that remains in force at the end of such period.
Net Premiums Earned.
The following table sets forth our mortgage segment’s net premiums earned by underwriting location (i.e., where the business is underwritten):
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Net premiums earned by underwriting location|
Net premiums earned for 2020 were 2.3% higher than in 2019, primarily reflecting a higher level of single premiums earned as a result of policy terminations due to mortgage refinance activity.
Other Underwriting Income.
Other underwriting income, which is due in part to GSE risk-sharing transactions receiving derivative accounting treatment was $20.3 million for 2020, compared to $16.0 million for 2019.
Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses.
The table below shows the components of the mortgage segment’s loss ratio:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Prior period reserve development||(1.4)||%||(9.2)||%|
Unlike property and casualty business for which we estimate ultimate losses on premiums earned, losses on mortgage insurance business are only recorded at the time a borrower is delinquent on their mortgage, in accordance with primary mortgage insurance industry practice. Because our primary mortgage insurance reserving process does not take into account the impact of future losses from loans that are not delinquent, mortgage insurance loss reserves are not an estimate of ultimate losses. In addition to establishing loss reserves for delinquent loans, under GAAP, we are required to establish a premium deficiency reserve for our mortgage insurance products if the amount of expected future losses and maintenance costs exceeds expected future premiums, existing reserves and the anticipated investment income for such product. We assess the need for a premium deficiency reserve on a quarterly basis and perform a full analysis annually. No such reserve was established during 2020 and 2019.
Current Year Loss Ratio.
The mortgage segment’s current year loss ratio was 26.1 points higher in 2020 compared to 2019. The percentage of loans in default on U.S. primary mortgage insurance increased from 1.54% at December 31, 2019 to 4.19% at December 31, 2020.
Incurred losses for the 2020 periods reflected elevated delinquency rates due, in part, to financial stress from the COVID-19 pandemic. Segregating estimated losses due to COVID-19 from the overall mortgage segment estimated losses would require knowledge of the number of delinquencies specifically attributable to COVID-19. As this exercise cannot be performed accurately, the Company is not reporting COVID-19 provisions separately from its overall loss provisions.
We insure mortgages for homes in areas that have been impacted by catastrophic events. Generally, mortgage insurance losses occur only when a credit event occurs and, following a physical damage event, when the home is restored to pre-storm condition. Our ultimate claims exposure will depend on the number of delinquency notices received and the ultimate claim rate related to such notices. In the event of natural disasters, cure rates are influenced by the
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adequacy of homeowners and flood insurance carried on a related property, and a borrower's access to aid from government entities and private organizations, in addition to other factors which generally impact cure rates in unaffected areas.
Prior Period Reserve Development.
The mortgage segment’s net favorable development was $19.0 million, or 1.4 points, for 2020, compared to $125.2 million, or 9.2 points, for 2019. See note 5, “Reserve for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for information about the mortgage segment’s prior year reserve development.
The underwriting expense ratio for the mortgage segment was 21.2% for 2020, in line with 21.0% for 2019.
Corporate (Non-Underwriting) Segment
The corporate (non-underwriting) segment results include net investment income, other income (loss), corporate expenses, transaction costs and other, amortization of intangible assets, interest expense, items related to our non-cumulative preferred shares, net realized gains or losses, equity in net income or loss of investments accounted for using the equity method, net foreign exchange gains or losses and income taxes. Such amounts exclude the results of the ‘other’ segment.
Net Investment Income.
The components of net investment income were derived from the following sources:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Gross investment income||471,335||555,361|
|Investment expenses (2)||(69,427)||(64,294)|
|Net investment income||$||401,908||$||491,067|
(1) Amounts include dividends and other distributions on investment funds, term loan investments, funds held balances, cash balances and other.
(2) Investment expenses were approximately 0.31% of average invested assets for 2020, compared to 0.33% for 2019.
The pre-tax investment income yield was 1.78% for 2020, compared to 2.52% for 2019. The lower level of net investment income for 2020 compared to 2019 reflected lower yields available in the financial markets. The pre-tax
investment income yields were calculated based on amortized cost. Yields on future investment income may vary based on financial market conditions, investment allocation decisions and other factors.
Corporate expenses were $68.5 million for 2020, compared to $65.7 million for 2019. Such amounts primarily represent certain holding company costs necessary to support our worldwide operations and costs associated with operating as a publicly traded company.
Transaction Costs and Other.
Transaction costs and other were $9.5 million for 2020, compared to $14.4 million for 2019. Amounts in both periods are primarily related to acquisition activity.
Amortization of Intangible Assets.
Amortization of intangible assets for 2020 was $69.0 million, compared to $82.1 million for 2019 . Amounts in 2020 and 2019 primarily related to amortization of finite-lived intangible assets related to our 2016 acquisition of United Guaranty Corporation.
Interest expense was $120.2 million for 2020, compared to $93.7 million for 2019. Interest expense primarily reflects amounts related to our outstanding senior notes. The higher level of interest expense mainly resulted from the issuance of $1.0 billion of 3.635% senior notes in June 2020.
Net Realized Gains (Losses).
We recorded net realized gains of $813.8 million for 2020, compared to net realized gains of $348.0 million for 2019. Currently, our portfolio is actively managed to maximize total return within certain guidelines. The effect of financial market movements on the investment portfolio will directly impact net realized gains and losses as the portfolio is adjusted and rebalanced. Net realized gains or losses from the sale of fixed maturities primarily results from our decisions to reduce credit exposure, to change duration targets, to rebalance our portfolios or due to relative value determinations.
Net realized gains or losses also include realized and unrealized contract gains and losses on our derivative instruments, changes in the fair value of assets accounted for using the fair value option and in the fair value of equities, along with changes in the allowance for credit losses on financial assets and net impairment losses recognized in earnings. See note 9, “Investment Information—Net Realized Gains (Losses),” to our consolidated financial statements for
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additional information. See note 9, “Investment Information—Allowance for Credit Losses,” to our consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Investments Accounted for Using the Equity Method.
We recorded $146.7 million of equity in net income related to investments accounted for using the equity method for 2020, compared to $123.7 million for 2019. Investments accounted for using the equity method totaled $2.0 billion at December 31, 2020, compared to $1.7 billion at December 31, 2019. See note 9, “Investment Information—Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Investments Accounted For Using the Equity Method,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.
Net Foreign Exchange Gains or Losses.
Net foreign exchange losses for 2020 were $80.2 million, compared to net foreign exchange losses for 2019 of $9.3 million. Amounts in such periods were primarily unrealized and resulted from the effects of revaluing our net insurance liabilities required to be settled in foreign currencies at each balance sheet date.
Income Tax Expense.
Our income tax provision on income before income taxes resulted in an expense of 7.4% for 2020, compared to an expense of 8.7% for 2019. Our effective tax rate fluctuates from year to year consistent with the relative mix of income or loss reported by jurisdiction and the varying tax rates in each jurisdiction.
See note 15, “Income Taxes,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for a reconciliation of the difference between the provision for income taxes and the expected tax provision at the weighted average statutory tax rate for 2020 and 2019.
The ‘other’ segment includes the results of Watford. Pursuant to generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), Watford is considered a variable interest entity and we concluded that we are the primary beneficiary of Watford. As such, we consolidate the results of Watford in our consolidated financial statements, although we only own approximately 13% of Watford’s common equity as of December 31, 2020. See note 12, “Variable Interest Entity and Noncontrolling Interests,” and note 4, “Segment Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES, ESTIMATES AND RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires us to make many estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities (including reserves), revenues and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent liabilities. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to revenue recognition, insurance and other reserves, reinsurance recoverables, allowance for current expected credit losses, investment valuations, goodwill and intangible assets, bad debts, income taxes, contingencies and litigation. We base our estimates on historical experience, where possible, and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, which form the basis for our judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results will differ from these estimates and such differences may be material. We believe that the following critical accounting policies affect significant estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
We are required by applicable insurance laws and regulations and GAAP to establish reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses, or Loss Reserves, that arise from the business we underwrite. Loss Reserves for our insurance, reinsurance and mortgage operations are balance sheet liabilities representing estimates of future amounts required to pay losses and loss adjustment expenses for insured or reinsured events which have occurred at or before the balance sheet date. Loss Reserves do not reflect contingency reserve allowances to account for future loss occurrences. Losses arising from future events will be estimated and recognized at the time the losses are incurred and could be substantial. See note 6, “Short Duration Contracts,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information on our reserving process.
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At December 31, 2020 and 2019, our Loss Reserves, net of unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses recoverable, by type and by operating segment were as follows:
|Total net reserves||5,941,463||5,004,678|
|Additional case reserves||280,472||166,251|
|Total net reserves||4,094,948||3,275,767|
|Total net reserves||903,623||423,742|
|Additional case reserves||32,321||29,059|
|Total net reserves||1,259,040||1,105,005|
|Additional case reserves||312,793||195,310|
|Total net reserves||$||12,199,074||$||9,809,192|
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the insurance segment’s Loss Reserves by major line of business, net of unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses recoverable, were as follows:
|Professional lines (1)||$||1,482,820||$||1,322,969|
|Construction and national accounts||1,395,067||1,248,750|
|Excess and surplus casualty (2)||816,495||564,254|
|Property, energy, marine and aviation||517,692||371,822|
|Travel, accident and health||98,910||109,613|
|Total net reserves||$||5,941,463||$||5,004,678|
(1) Includes professional liability, executive assurance and healthcare business.
(2) Includes casualty and contract binding business.
(3) Includes alternative markets, excess workers’ compensation and surety business.
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the reinsurance segment’s Loss Reserves by major line of business, net of unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses recoverable, were as follows:
|Other specialty (2)||917,178||649,309|
|Property excluding property catastrophe (3)||594,033||471,775|
|Marine and aviation||204,205||160,930|
|Total net reserves||$||4,094,948||$||3,275,767|
(1) Includes executive assurance, professional liability, workers’ compensation, excess motor, healthcare and other.
(2) Includes non-excess motor, surety, accident and health, workers’ compensation catastrophe, agriculture, trade credit and other.
(3) Includes property facultative business.
(4) Includes life, casualty clash and other.
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the mortgage segment’s Loss Reserves by major line of business, net of unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses recoverable, were as follows:
|U.S. primary mortgage insurance (1)||$||649,748||$||278,689|
|Total net reserves||$||903,623||$||423,742|
(1) At December 31, 2020, 27.7% of total net reserves represent policy years 2010 and prior and the remainder from later policy years. At December 31, 2019, 58.2% of total net reserves represent policy years 2010 and prior and the remainder from later policy years.
Potential Variability in Loss Reserves
The tables below summarize the effect of reasonably likely scenarios on the key actuarial assumptions used to estimate our Loss Reserves, net of unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses recoverable, at December 31, 2020 by underwriting segment (excluding the ‘other’ segment). The scenarios shown in the tables summarize the effect of (i) changes to the expected loss ratio selections used at December 31, 2020, which represent loss ratio point increases or decreases to the expected loss ratios used, and (ii) changes to the loss development patterns used in our reserving process at December 31, 2020, which represent claims reporting that is either slower or faster than the reporting patterns used. We believe that the illustrated sensitivities are indicative of the potential variability inherent in the estimation process of those parameters. The results show the impact of varying each key actuarial assumption using the chosen sensitivity on our IBNR reserves, on a net basis and across all accident years.
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|INSURANCE SEGMENT||Higher Expected Loss Ratios||Slower Loss Development Patterns|
|Reserving lines selected assumptions:|
|Property, energy, marine and aviation||5 points||3 months|
|Third party occurrence business||10||6|
|Third party claims-made business||10||6|
|Multi-line and other specialty||10||6|
|Increase (decrease) in Loss Reserves:|
|Property, energy, marine and aviation||$||36,369||$||51,268|
|Third party occurrence business||283,179||148,656|
|Third party claims-made business||120,367||135,996|
|Multi-line and other specialty||134,517||157,928|
|INSURANCE SEGMENT||Lower Expected Loss Ratios||Faster Loss Development Patterns|
|Reserving lines selected assumptions:|
|Property, energy, marine and aviation||(5) points||(3) months|
|Third party occurrence business||(10)||(6)|
|Third party claims-made business||(10)||(6)|
|Multi-line and other specialty||(10)||(6)|
|Increase (decrease) in Loss Reserves:|
|Property, energy, marine and aviation||$||(36,369)||$||(31,443)|
|Third party occurrence business||(282,830)||(130,607)|
|Third party claims-made business||(119,319)||(103,301)|
|Multi-line and other specialty||(131,395)||(114,712)|
|REINSURANCE SEGMENT||Higher Expected Loss Ratios||Slower Loss Development Patterns|
|Reserving lines selected assumptions:|
|Casualty||10 points||6 months|
|Property excluding property catastrophe||5||3|
|Marine and aviation||5||3|
|Increase (decrease) in Loss Reserves:|
|Property excluding property catastrophe||21,611||52,793|
|Marine and aviation||10,005||15,780|
|REINSURANCE SEGMENT||Lower Expected Loss Ratios||Faster Loss Development Patterns|
|Reserving lines selected assumptions:|
|Casualty||(10) points||(6) months|
|Property excluding property catastrophe||(5)||(3)|
|Marine and aviation||(5)||(3)|
|Increase (decrease) in Loss Reserves:|
|Property excluding property catastrophe||(21,611)||(48,999)|
|Marine and aviation||(10,043)||(15,519)|
It is not necessarily appropriate to sum the total impact for a specific factor or the total impact for a specific business category as the business categories are not perfectly correlated. In addition, the potential variability shown in the tables above are reasonably likely scenarios of changes in our key assumptions at December 31, 2020 and are not meant to be a “best case” or “worst case” series of outcomes and, therefore, it is possible that future variations may be more or less than the amounts set forth above.
For our mortgage segment, we considered the sensitivity of loss reserve estimates at December 31, 2020 by assessing the potential changes resulting from a parallel shift in severity and default to claim rate. For example, assuming all other factors remain constant, for every one percentage point change in primary claim severity (which we estimate to be 29% of the unpaid principal balance at December 31, 2020), we estimated that our loss reserves would change by approximately $30.0 million at December 31, 2020. For every one percentage point change in our primary net default to claim rate (which we estimate to be approximately 20% at December 31, 2020), we estimated a $45.0 million change in our loss reserves at December 31, 2020.
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In order to illustrate the potential volatility in our Loss Reserves, we used a Monte Carlo simulation approach to simulate a range of results based on various probabilities. Both the probabilities and related modeling are subject to inherent uncertainties. The simulation relies on a significant number of assumptions, such as the potential for multiple entities to react similarly to external events, and includes other statistical assumptions. The simulation results shown for each segment do not add to the total simulation results, as the individual segment simulation results do not reflect the diversification effects across our segments.
At December 31, 2020, our recorded Loss Reserves by underwriting segment, net of unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses recoverable, and the results of the simulation were as follows:
|Insurance Segment||Reinsurance Segment||Mortgage Segment||Total|
|90th percentile (2)||$7,181,065||$5,038,203||$1,081,713||$12,683,107|
|10th percentile (3)||$4,734,118||$3,251,451||$738,596||$9,246,934|
(1) Net of reinsurance recoverables. Excludes amounts reflected in the ‘other’ segment.
(2) Simulation results indicate that a 90% probability exists that the net reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses will not exceed the indicated amount.
(3) Simulation results indicate that a 10% probability exists that the net reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses will be at or below the indicated amount.
For informational purposes, based on the total simulation results, a change in our Loss Reserves to the amount indicated at the 90th percentile would result in a decrease in income before income taxes of approximately $1.7 billion, or $4.25 per diluted share, while a change in our Loss Reserves to the amount indicated at the 10th percentile would result in an increase in income before income taxes of approximately $1.7 billion, or $4.13 per diluted share. The simulation results noted above are informational only, and no assurance can be given that our ultimate losses will not be significantly different than the simulation results shown above, and such differences could directly and significantly impact earnings favorably or unfavorably in the period they are determined. We do not have significant exposure to pre-2002 liabilities, such as asbestos-related illnesses and other long-tail liabilities. It is difficult to provide meaningful trend information for certain liability/casualty coverages for which the claim-tail may be especially long, as claims are often reported and ultimately paid or settled years, or even decades,
after the related loss events occur. Any estimates and assumptions made as part of the reserving process could prove to be inaccurate due to several factors, including the fact that for certain lines of business relatively limited historical information has been reported to us through December 31, 2020.
Mortgage Operations Supplemental Information
The mortgage segment’s insurance in force (“IIF”) and risk in force (“RIF”) were as follows at December 31, 2020 and 2019:
|(U.S. Dollars in millions)||December 31,|
|Insurance In Force (IIF) (1):|
|U.S. primary mortgage insurance||$||280,579||66.2||$||287,150||68.7|
|Risk In Force (RIF) (3):|
|U.S. primary mortgage insurance||$||70,522||90.5||$||73,388||91.9|
(1) Represents the aggregate dollar amount of each insured mortgage loan’s current principal balance.
(2) Includes participation in GSE credit risk-sharing transactions and international insurance business.
(3) Represents the aggregate amount of each insured mortgage loan’s current principal balance multiplied by the insurance coverage percentage specified in the policy for insurance policies issued and after contract limits and/or loss ratio caps for credit risk-sharing or reinsurance transactions.
The insurance in force and risk in force for our U.S. primary mortgage insurance business by policy year were as follows at December 31, 2020:
|(U.S. Dollars in millions)||IIF||RIF||Delinquency|
|2010 and prior||$||13,684||4.9||$||3,088||4.4||11.78||%|
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(1)Represents the ending percentage of loans in default.
The insurance in force and risk in force for our U.S. primary mortgage insurance business by policy year were as follows at December 31, 2019:
|(U.S. Dollars in millions)||IIF||RIF||Delinquency|
|2010 and prior||$||17,251||6.0||$||3,990||5.4||8.79||%|
(1)Represents the ending percentage of loans in default.
The following tables provide supplemental disclosures on risk in force for our U.S. primary mortgage insurance business at December 31, 2020 and 2019:
|(U.S. Dollars in millions)||December 31,|
|Credit quality (FICO):|
|Weighted average FICO score||743||743|
|95.01% and above||$||8,643||12.3||$||9,064||12.4|
|90.01% to 95.00%||37,877||53.7||40,136||54.7|
|85.01% to 90.00%||20,013||28.4||20,890||28.5|
|85.00% and below||3,989||5.7||3,298||4.5|
|Weighted average LTV||92.8||%||93.0||%|
|Total RIF, net of external reinsurance||$||56,658||$||58,512|
|(U.S. Dollars in millions)||December 31,|
|Total RIF by State:|
The following table provides supplemental disclosures for our U.S. primary mortgage insurance business related to insured loans and loss metrics for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
|(U.S. Dollars in thousands, except loan and claim count)||Year Ended December 31,|
|Rollforward of insured loans in default:|
|Beginning delinquent number of loans||20,163||20,665|
|Ending delinquent number of loans (1)||52,234||20,163|
|Ending number of policies in force (1)||1,245,771||1,307,884|
|Delinquency rate (1)||4.19||%||1.54||%|
|Number of claims paid||1,562||2,918|
|Total paid claims||$||64,903||$||116,854|
|Average per claim||$||41.6||$||40.0|
|Average reserve per default (in thousands) (1)||$||12.6||$||13.3|
(1) Includes first lien primary and pool policies.
(2) Represents total paid claims divided by RIF of loans for which claims were paid.
The risk-to-capital ratio, which represents total current (non-delinquent) risk in force, net of reinsurance, divided by total statutory capital, for Arch MI U.S. was approximately 9.3 to 1 at December 31, 2020, compared to 12.0 to 1 at December 31, 2019.
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In the normal course of business, our insurance and mortgage insurance operations cede a portion of their premium on a quota share or excess of loss basis through treaty or facultative reinsurance agreements. Our reinsurance operations also obtain reinsurance whereby another reinsurer contractually agrees to indemnify it for all or a portion of the reinsurance risks underwritten by our reinsurance operations. Such arrangements, where one reinsurer provides reinsurance to another reinsurer, are usually referred to as “retrocessional reinsurance” arrangements. In addition, our reinsurance subsidiaries participate in “common account” retrocessional arrangements for certain pro rata treaties. Such arrangements reduce the effect of individual or aggregate losses to all companies participating on such treaties, including the reinsurers, such as our reinsurance operations, and the ceding company. Reinsurance recoverables are recorded as assets, predicated on the reinsurers’ ability to meet their obligations under the reinsurance agreements. If the reinsurers are unable to satisfy their obligations under the agreements, our insurance or reinsurance operations would be liable for such defaulted amounts.
The availability and cost of reinsurance and retrocessional protection is subject to market conditions, which are beyond our control. Although we believe that our insurance and reinsurance operations have been successful in obtaining adequate reinsurance and retrocessional protection, it is not certain that they will be able to continue to obtain adequate protection at cost effective levels. As a result of such market conditions and other factors, our insurance, reinsurance and mortgage operations may not be able to successfully mitigate risk through reinsurance and retrocessional arrangements and may lead to increased volatility in our results of operations in future periods. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—The failure of any of the loss limitation methods we employ could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.”
Effective January 1, 2021, our insurance operations had in effect a reinsurance program which provided coverage for certain property-catastrophe related losses equal to $276 million in excess of various retentions per occurrence.
For purposes of managing risk, we reinsure a portion of our exposures, paying to reinsurers a part of the premiums received on the policies we write, and we may also use retrocessional protection. On a consolidated basis, ceded premiums written represented 26.3% of gross premiums written for 2020, compared to 25.8% for 2019. We monitor the financial condition of our reinsurers and attempt to place coverages only with substantial, financially sound carriers. If the financial condition of our reinsurers or retrocessionaires deteriorates, resulting in an impairment of their ability to
make payments, we will provide for probable losses resulting from our inability to collect amounts due from such parties, as appropriate. We evaluate the credit worthiness of all the reinsurers to which we cede business. We report reinsurance recoverables net of an allowance for expected credit loss. The allowance is based upon our ongoing review of amounts outstanding, the financial condition of our reinsurers, amounts and form of collateral obtained and other relevant factors. A ratings based probability-of-default and loss-given-default methodology is used to estimate the allowance for expected credit loss. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations—We are exposed to credit risk in certain of our business operations” and “Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources” for further details.
Premium Revenues and Related Expenses
Insurance premiums written are generally recorded at the policy inception and are primarily earned on a pro rata basis over the terms of the policies for all products, usually 12 months. Premiums written include estimates in our insurance operations’ programs, specialty lines, collateral protection business and for participation in involuntary pools. Such premium estimates are derived from multiple sources which include the historical experience of the underlying business, similar business and available industry information. Unearned premium reserves represent the portion of premiums written that relates to the unexpired terms of in-force insurance policies.
Reinsurance premiums written include amounts reported by brokers and ceding companies, supplemented by our own estimates of premiums where reports have not been received. The determination of premium estimates requires a review of our experience with the ceding companies, familiarity with each market, the timing of the reported information, an analysis and understanding of the characteristics of each line of business, and management’s judgment of the impact of various factors, including premium or loss trends, on the volume of business written and ceded to us. On an ongoing basis, our underwriters review the amounts reported by these third parties for reasonableness based on their experience and knowledge of the subject class of business, taking into account our historical experience with the brokers or ceding companies. In addition, reinsurance contracts under which we assume business generally contain specific provisions which allow us to perform audits of the ceding company to ensure compliance with the terms and conditions of the contract, including accurate and timely reporting of information. Based on a review of all available information, management establishes premium estimates where reports have not been received. Premium estimates are updated when new information is received and differences between such estimates and actual amounts are recorded in the period in which estimates are changed or the actual amounts are
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determined. Premiums written are recorded based on the type of contracts we write. Premiums on our excess of loss and pro rata reinsurance contracts are estimated when the business is underwritten. For excess of loss contracts, premiums are recorded as written based on the terms of the contract. Estimates of premiums written under pro rata contracts are recorded in the period in which the underlying risks incept and are based on information provided by the brokers and the ceding companies. For multi-year reinsurance treaties which are payable in annual installments, generally, only the initial annual installment is included as premiums written at policy inception due to the ability of the reinsured to commute or cancel coverage during the term of the policy. The remaining annual installments are included as premiums written at each successive anniversary date within the multi-year term.
Reinstatement premiums for our insurance and reinsurance operations are recognized at the time a loss event occurs, where coverage limits for the remaining life of the contract are reinstated under pre-defined contract terms. Reinstatement premiums, if obligatory, are fully earned when recognized. The accrual of reinstatement premiums is based on an estimate of losses and loss adjustment expenses, which reflects management’s judgment, as described above in “—Loss Reserves.”
The amount of reinsurance premium estimates included in premiums receivable and the amount of related acquisition expenses by type of business were as follows at December 31, 2020:
|December 31, 2020|
|Gross Amount||Acquisition Expenses||Net|
|Property excluding property catastrophe||132,553||(42,272)||90,281|
|Marine and aviation||84,648||(22,297)||62,351|
Premium estimates are reviewed by management at least quarterly. Such review includes a comparison of actual reported premiums to expected ultimate premiums along with a review of the aging and collection of premium estimates. Based on management’s review, the appropriateness of the premium estimates is evaluated, and any adjustment to these estimates is recorded in the period in which it becomes known. Adjustments to premium estimates could be material and such adjustments could directly and significantly impact earnings favorably or unfavorably in the period they are determined because the estimated premium may be fully or substantially earned.
A significant portion of amounts included as premiums receivable, which represent estimated premiums written, net of commissions, are not currently due based on the terms of the underlying contracts. Based on currently available information, we report premiums receivable net of an allowance for expected credit loss. We monitor credit risk associated with premiums receivable through our ongoing review of amounts outstanding, aging of the receivable, historical data and counterparty financial strength measures.
Reinsurance premiums assumed, irrespective of the class of business, are generally earned on a pro rata basis over the terms of the underlying policies or reinsurance contracts. Contracts and policies written on a “losses occurring” basis cover claims that may occur during the term of the contract or policy, which is typically 12 months. Accordingly, the premium is earned evenly over the term. Contracts which are written on a “risks attaching” basis cover claims which attach to the underlying insurance policies written during the terms of such contracts. Premiums earned on such contracts usually extend beyond the original term of the reinsurance contract, typically resulting in recognition of premiums earned over a 24-month period.
Certain of our reinsurance contracts include provisions that adjust premiums or acquisition expenses based upon the experience under the contracts. Premiums written and earned, as well as related acquisition expenses, are recorded based upon the projected experience under such contracts.
Retroactive reinsurance reimburses a ceding company for liabilities incurred as a result of past insurable events covered by the underlying policies reinsured. In certain instances, reinsurance contracts cover losses both on a prospective basis and on a retroactive basis and, accordingly, we bifurcate the prospective and retrospective elements of these reinsurance contracts and accounts for each element separately where practical. Underwriting income generated in connection with retroactive reinsurance contracts is deferred and amortized into income over the settlement period while losses are charged to income immediately. Subsequent changes in estimated amount or timing of cash flows under such retroactive reinsurance contracts are accounted for by adjusting the previously deferred amount to the balance that would have existed had the revised estimate been available at the inception of the reinsurance transaction, with a corresponding charge or credit to income.
Mortgage guaranty insurance policies are contracts that are generally non-cancelable by the insurer, are renewable at a fixed price, and provide for payment of premiums on a monthly, annual or single basis. Upon renewal, we are not able to re-underwrite or re-price our policies. Consistent with industry accounting practices, premiums written on a monthly basis are earned as coverage is provided. Premiums written on an annual basis are amortized on a monthly pro
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rata basis over the year of coverage. Primary mortgage insurance premiums written on policies covering more than one year are referred to as single premiums. A portion of the revenue from single premiums is recognized in premiums earned in the current period, and the remaining portion is deferred as unearned premiums and earned over the estimated expiration of risk of the policy. If single premium policies related to insured loans are canceled for any reason and the policy is a non-refundable product, the remaining unearned premium related to each canceled policy is recognized as earned premium upon notification of the cancellation.
Unearned premiums represent the portion of premiums written that is applicable to the estimated unexpired risk of insured loans. A portion of premium payments may be refundable if the insured cancels coverage, which generally occurs when the loan is repaid, the loan amortizes to a sufficiently low amount to trigger a lender permitted or legally required cancellation, or the value of the property has increased sufficiently in accordance with the terms of the contract. Premium refunds reduce premiums earned in the consolidated statements of income. Generally, only unearned premiums are refundable.
Acquisition costs that are directly related and incremental to the successful acquisition or renewal of business are deferred and amortized based on the type of contract. For property and casualty insurance and reinsurance contracts, deferred acquisition costs are amortized over the period in which the related premiums are earned. Consistent with mortgage insurance industry accounting practice, amortization of acquisition costs related to the mortgage insurance contracts for each underwriting year’s book of business is recorded in proportion to estimated gross profits. Estimated gross profits are comprised of earned premiums and losses and loss adjustment expenses. For each underwriting year, we estimate the rate of amortization to reflect actual experience and any changes to persistency or loss development.
Acquisition expenses and other expenses related to our underwriting operations that vary with, and are directly related to, the successful acquisition or renewal of business are deferred and amortized based on the type of contract. Our insurance and reinsurance operations capitalize incremental direct external costs that result from acquiring a contract but do not capitalize salaries, benefits and other internal underwriting costs. For our mortgage insurance operations, which include a substantial direct sales force, both external and certain internal direct costs are deferred and amortized. Deferred acquisition costs are carried at their estimated realizable value and take into account anticipated losses and loss adjustment expenses, based on historical and current experience, and anticipated investment income.
A premium deficiency occurs if the sum of anticipated losses and loss adjustment expenses, unamortized acquisition costs
and maintenance costs and anticipated investment income exceed unearned premiums. A premium deficiency reserve (“PDR”) is recorded by charging any unamortized acquisition costs to expense to the extent required in order to eliminate the deficiency. If the premium deficiency exceeds unamortized acquisition costs then a liability is accrued for the excess deficiency.
To assess the need for a PDR on our mortgage exposures, we develop loss projections based on modeled loan defaults related to our current policies in force. This projection is based on recent trends in default experience, severity and rates of defaulted loans moving to claim, as well as recent trends in the rate at which loans are prepaid, and incorporates anticipated interest income. Evaluating the expected profitability of our existing mortgage insurance business and the need for a PDR for our mortgage business involves significant reliance upon assumptions and estimates with regard to the likelihood, magnitude and timing of potential losses and premium revenues. The models, assumptions and estimates we use to evaluate the need for a PDR may prove to be inaccurate, especially during an extended economic downturn or a period of extreme market volatility and uncertainty.
No premium deficiency charges were recorded by us during 2020 and 2019.
Fair Value Measurements
We review our securities measured at fair value and discuss the proper classification of such investments with investment advisors and others. See note 10, “Fair Value,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for a summary of our financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value at December 31, 2020 by valuation hierarchy.
We have reclassified the presentation of certain prior year information to conform to the current presentation. Such reclassifications had no effect on our net income, shareholders’ equity or cash flows.
Significant Accounting Pronouncements
For all other significant accounting policies see note 3, “Significant Accounting Policies” and note 3-(r), “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for disclosures concerning our companies significant accounting policies and recent accounting pronouncements.
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At December 31, 2020, total investable assets held by Arch were $26.9 billion, excluding the $2.7 billion included in the ‘other’ segment (i.e., attributable to Watford).
Investable Assets Held by Arch
The Finance, Investment and Risk Committee (“FIR”) of our board of directors establishes our investment policies and sets the parameters for creating guidelines for our investment managers. The FIR reviews the implementation of the investment strategy on a regular basis. Our current approach stresses preservation of capital, market liquidity and diversification of risk. While maintaining our emphasis on preservation of capital and liquidity, we expect our portfolio to become more diversified and, as a result, we may expand into areas which are not currently part of our investment strategy. Our Chief Investment Officer administers the investment portfolio, oversees our investment managers and formulates investment strategy in conjunction with the FIR.
The following table summarizes the fair value of investable assets held by Arch (i.e., excluding the ‘other’ segment):
|Investable assets (1):||Estimated|
|December 31, 2020|
|Fixed maturities (2)||$||18,771,296||69.9|
|Short-term investments (2)||2,063,240||7.7|
|Equity securities (2)||1,436,104||5.3|
|Other investable assets (3)||500,000||1.9|
|Investments accounted for using the equity method||2,047,889||7.6|
|Securities transactions entered into but not settled at the balance sheet date||(137,578)||(0.5)|
|Total investable assets held by Arch||$||26,856,295||100.0|
|Average effective duration (in years)||3.01|
|Average S&P/Moody’s credit ratings (4)||AA/Aa2|
|Embedded book yield (5)||1.56||%|
|December 31, 2019|
|Fixed maturities (2)||$||16,894,021||75.8|
|Short-term investments (2)||1,004,257||4.5|
|Equity securities (2)||827,842||3.7|
|Investments accounted for using the equity method||1,660,396||7.5|
|Securities transactions entered into but not settled at the balance sheet date||(61,553)||(0.3)|
|Total investable assets held by Arch||$||22,285,676||100.0|
|Average effective duration (in years)||3.40|
|Average S&P/Moody’s credit ratings (4)||AA/Aa2|
|Embedded book yield (5)||2.55||%|
(1)In securities lending transactions, we receive collateral in excess of the fair value of the securities pledged. For purposes of this table, we have excluded the collateral received under securities lending, at fair value and included the securities pledged under securities lending, at fair value.
(2)Includes investments carried as available for sale, at fair value and at fair value under the fair value option.
(3)Participation interests in a receivable of a reverse repurchase agreement.
(4)Average credit ratings on our investment portfolio on securities with ratings by Standard & Poor’s Rating Services (“S&P”) and Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”).
(5)Before investment expenses.
At December 31, 2020, approximately $19.2 billion, or 71%, of total investable assets held by Arch were internally managed, compared to $15.8 billion, or 71%, at December 31, 2019.
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The following table summarizes our fixed maturities and fixed maturities pledged under securities lending agreements (“Fixed Maturities”) by type:
|December 31, 2020|
|Mortgage backed securities||616,619||3.3|
|Commercial mortgage backed securities||390,990||2.1|
|U.S. government and government agencies||5,354,863||28.5|
|Non-U.S. government securities||2,310,157||12.3|
|Asset backed securities||1,566,188||8.3|
|December 31, 2019|
|Mortgage backed securities||541,800||3.2|
|Commercial mortgage backed securities||734,244||4.3|
|U.S. government and government agencies||4,632,947||27.4|
|Non-U.S. government securities||1,995,813||11.8|
|Asset backed securities||1,547,744||9.2|
The following table provides the credit quality distribution of our Fixed Maturities. For individual fixed maturities, S&P ratings are used. In the absence of an S&P rating, ratings from Moody’s are used, followed by ratings from Fitch Ratings.
|Estimated Fair Value||% of|
|December 31, 2020|
|U.S. government and gov’t agencies (1)||$||5,963,758||31.8|
|Lower than B||54,795||0.3|
|December 31, 2019|
|U.S. government and gov’t agencies (1)||$||5,215,489||30.9|
|Lower than B||56,865||0.3|
(1)Includes U.S. government-sponsored agency mortgage backed securities and agency commercial mortgage backed securities.
The following table provides information on the severity of the unrealized loss position as a percentage of amortized cost for all Fixed Maturities which were in an unrealized loss position:
|Severity of gross unrealized losses:||Estimated Fair Value||Gross|
|December 31, 2020|
|Greater than 30%||1,249||(1,785)||2.6|
|December 31, 2019|
|Greater than 30%||315||(363)||0.7|
The following table summarizes our top ten exposures to fixed income corporate issuers by fair value at December 31, 2020, excluding guaranteed amounts and covered bonds:
|Estimated Fair Value||Credit|
|Bank of America Corporation||$||323,808||A-/A2|
|JPMorgan Chase & Co.||275,040||A-/A2|
|Wells Fargo & Company||264,035||BBB+/A2|
|Johnson & Johnson||156,579||AAA/Aaa|
|The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.||129,030||BBB+/A3|
(1)Average credit ratings as assigned by S&P and Moody’s, respectively.
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The following table provides information on our structured securities, which include residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS), commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS) and asset backed securities (“ABS”):
|Agencies||Investment Grade||Below Investment Grade||Total|
|Dec. 31, 2020|
|Dec. 31, 2019|
The following table summarizes our equity securities, which include investments in exchange traded funds:
|Exchange traded funds|
|Fixed income (2)||341,139||7,237|
|Equity and other (3)||418,528||445,538|
(1)Primarily in consumer non-cyclical, consumer cyclical, technology, communications and industrial stocks at December 31, 2020.
(2)Primarily in corporate and MBS at December 31, 2020.
(3)Primarily in foreign equities, utilities, large and mid cap stocks at December 31, 2020.
The following table summarizes our other investments and other investable assets:
|Term loan investments||380,193||264,083|
|Credit related funds||90,780||123,020|
|Investment grade fixed income||138,646||151,594|
|Total fair value option||1,480,347||1,336,920|
|Other investable assets||500,000||—|
|Total other investments||$||1,980,347||$||1,336,920|
The following table summarizes our investments accounted for using the equity method, by strategy:
|Credit related funds||$||740,060||$||428,437|
Our investment strategy allows for the use of derivative instruments. We utilize various derivative instruments such as futures contracts to enhance investment performance, replicate investment positions or manage market exposures and duration risk that would be allowed under our investment guidelines if implemented in other ways. See note 11, “Derivative Instruments,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional disclosures concerning derivatives.
Accounting guidance regarding fair value measurements addresses how companies should measure fair value when they are required to use a fair value measure for recognition or disclosure purposes under GAAP and provides a common definition of fair value to be used throughout GAAP. See note 10, “Fair Value,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for a summary of our financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value at December 31, 2020 and 2019 segregated by level in the fair value hierarchy.
Investable Assets in the ‘Other’ Segment
Investable assets in the ‘other’ segment are managed by Watford. The board of directors of Watford establishes their investment policies and guidelines.
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The following table summarizes investable assets in the ‘other’ segment:
|Investments accounted for using the fair value option:|
|Fixed maturities available for sale, at fair value||613,503||706,875|
|Securities sold but not yet purchased||(21,679)||(66,257)|
|Securities transactions entered into but not settled at the balance sheet date||11,542||(1,893)|
|Total investable assets included in ‘other’ segment||$||2,657,612||$||2,704,589|
The following table details our reinsurance recoverables at December 31, 2020:
|% of Total||A.M. Best|
|Lloyd’s syndicates (2)||5.5||A|
|Hannover Rück SE||5.1||A+|
|Swiss Reinsurance America Corporation||4.9||A+|
|Everest Reinsurance Company||4.5||A+|
|Partner Reinsurance Company of the U.S.||3.4||A+|
|Liberty Mutual Insurance Company||3.2||A|
|Munich Reinsurance America, Inc.||3.1||A+|
|Berkley Insurance Company||2.5||A+|
|Transatlantic Reinsurance Company||2.5||A+|
|All other -- “A-” or better||24.0|
|All other -- not rated (3)||36.1|
(1) The financial strength ratings are as of February 11, 2021 and were assigned by A.M. Best based on its opinion of the insurer’s financial strength as of such date. An explanation of the ratings listed in the table follows: the rating of “A+” is designated “Superior”; and the “A” rating is designated “Excellent.”
(2) The A.M. Best group rating of “A” (Excellent) has been applied to all Lloyd’s syndicates.
(3) Over 94% of such amount is collateralized through reinsurance trusts, funds withheld arrangements, letters of credit or other.
See note 8, “Reinsurance,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further details.
Reserves for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
We establish reserves for losses and LAE (“Loss Reserves”) which represent estimates involving actuarial and statistical projections, at a given point in time, of our expectations of the ultimate settlement and administration costs of losses incurred. Estimating Loss Reserves is inherently difficult. We utilize actuarial models as well as available historical insurance industry loss ratio experience and loss development patterns to assist in the establishment of Loss Reserves. Actual losses and loss adjustment expenses paid will deviate, perhaps substantially, from the reserve estimates reflected in our financial statements. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Recent Accounting Pronouncements—Loss Reserves” and see Item 1“Business—Reserves” for further details.
Shareholders’ Equity and Book Value per Share
Total shareholders’ equity available to Arch was $13.1 billion at December 31, 2020, compared to $11.5 billion at December 31, 2019. The increase in 2020 primarily reflected the impact of investment returns, partially offset by the impact of a higher level of catastrophic activity (including COVID-19) on underwriting returns.
The following table presents the calculation of book value per share:
|(U.S. dollars in thousands, except share data)||December 31,|
|Total shareholders’ equity available to Arch||$||13,105,886||$||11,497,371|
|Less preferred shareholders’ equity||780,000||780,000|
|Common shareholders’ equity available to Arch||$||12,325,886||$||10,717,371|
|Common shares and common share equivalents outstanding, net of treasury shares (1)||406,720,642||405,619,201|
|Book value per share||$||30.31||$||26.42|
(1) Excludes the effects of 17,839,333 and 18,853,018 stock options and 1,153,784 and 1,586,779 restricted stock and performance units outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Our liquidity and capital resources were not materially impacted by COVID-19 during the 2020 period. We raised an additional $1.0 billion of capital in the form of long-term senior notes at the end of June 2020. For further discussion of our risks related to our potential future impacts of COVID-19 on our liquidity and capital resources, see “ITEM 1A—Risk Factors”.
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This section does not include information specific to Watford. We do not guarantee or provide credit support for Watford, and our financial exposure to Watford is limited to our investment in Watford’s senior notes, common and preferred shares and counterparty credit risk (mitigated by collateral) arising from reinsurance transactions with Watford.
Liquidity is a measure of our ability to access sufficient cash flows to meet the short-term and long-term cash requirements of our business operations.
Arch Capital is a holding company whose assets primarily consist of the shares in its subsidiaries. Generally, Arch Capital depends on its available cash resources, liquid investments and dividends or other distributions from its subsidiaries to make payments, including the payment of debt service obligations and operating expenses it may incur and any dividends or liquidation amounts with respect to our preferred and common shares.
In 2020, Arch Capital received dividends of $221.6 million from Arch Re Bermuda, our Bermuda-based reinsurer and insurer which can pay approximately $3.8 billion to Arch Capital in 2021 without providing an affidavit to the Bermuda Monetary Authority (“BMA”).
Our insurance and reinsurance operations provide liquidity in that premiums are received in advance, sometimes substantially in advance, of the time losses are paid. The period of time from the occurrence of a claim through the settlement of the liability may extend many years into the future. Sources of liquidity include cash flows from operations, financing arrangements or routine sales of investments.
As part of our investment strategy, we seek to establish a level of cash and highly liquid short-term and intermediate-term securities which, combined with expected cash flow, is believed by us to be adequate to meet our foreseeable payment obligations. However, due to the nature of our operations, cash flows are affected by claim payments that may comprise large payments on a limited number of claims and which can fluctuate from year to year. We believe that our liquid investments and cash flow will provide us with sufficient liquidity in order to meet our claim payment obligations. However, the timing and amounts of actual claim payments related to recorded Loss Reserves vary based on many factors, including large individual losses, changes in the legal environment, as well as general market conditions. The ultimate amount of the claim payments could differ materially from our estimated amounts. Certain lines of business written by us, such as excess casualty, have loss experience characterized as low frequency and high severity. The foregoing may result in significant variability in loss payment patterns. The impact of this variability can be
exacerbated by the fact that the timing of the receipt of reinsurance recoverables owed to us may be slower than anticipated by us. Therefore, the irregular timing of claim payments can create significant variations in cash flows from operations between periods and may require us to utilize other sources of liquidity to make these payments, which may include the sale of investments or utilization of existing or new credit facilities or capital market transactions. If the source of liquidity is the sale of investments, we may be forced to sell such investments at a loss, which may be material.
We expect that our liquidity needs, including our anticipated insurance obligations and operating and capital expenditure needs, for the next twelve months, at a minimum, will be met by funds generated from underwriting activities and investment income, as well as by our balance of cash, short-term investments, proceeds on the sale or maturity of our investments, and our credit facilities.
Arch Capital has no material restrictions on its ability to make distributions to shareholders. However, the ability of our regulated insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries to pay dividends or make distributions or other payments to us is limited by the applicable local laws and relevant regulations of the various countries and states in which we operate. See note 25, “Statutory Information,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information on dividend restrictions.
The payment of dividends from Arch Re Bermuda is, under certain circumstances, limited under Bermuda law, which requires our Bermuda operating subsidiary to maintain certain measures of solvency and liquidity.
Our U.S. insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to insurance laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which they operate. The ability of our regulated insurance subsidiaries to pay dividends or make distributions is dependent on their ability to meet applicable regulatory standards. These regulations include restrictions that limit the amount of dividends or other distributions, such as loans or cash advances, available to shareholders without prior approval of the insurance regulatory authorities. Each state requires prior regulatory approval of any payment of extraordinary dividends.
We also have insurance subsidiaries that are the parent company for other insurance subsidiaries, which means that dividends and other distributions will be subject to multiple layers of regulations in order for our insurance subsidiaries to be able to dividend funds to Arch Capital. The inability of the subsidiaries of Arch Capital to pay dividends and other permitted distributions could have a material adverse effect
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on Arch Capital’s cash requirements and our ability to make principal, interest and dividend payments on the senior notes, preferred shares and common shares.
In addition to meeting applicable regulatory standards, the ability of our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries to pay dividends is also constrained by our dependence on the financial strength ratings of our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries from independent rating agencies. The ratings from these agencies depend to a large extent on the capitalization levels of our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries. We believe that Arch Capital has sufficient cash resources and available dividend capacity to service its indebtedness and other current outstanding obligations.
Our insurance, reinsurance and mortgage insurance subsidiaries are required to maintain assets on deposit, which primarily consist of fixed maturities, with various regulatory authorities to support their operations. The assets on deposit are available to settle insurance and reinsurance liabilities to third parties. Our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries maintain assets in trust accounts as collateral for insurance and reinsurance transactions with affiliated companies and also have investments in segregated portfolios primarily to provide collateral or guarantees for letters of credit to third parties. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, such amounts approximated $7.7 billion and $6.8 billion, respectively, excluding amounts related to the ‘other’ segment.
Our investments in certain securities, including certain fixed income and structured securities, investments in funds accounted for using the equity method, other alternative investments and investments in ventures such as Watford and others may be illiquid due to contractual provisions or investment market conditions. If we require significant amounts of cash on short notice in excess of anticipated cash requirements, then we may have difficulty selling these investments in a timely manner or may be forced to sell or terminate them at unfavorable values. Our unfunded investment commitments totaled approximately $2.1 billion at December 31, 2020 and are callable by our investment managers. The timing of the funding of investment commitments is uncertain and may require us to access cash on short notice.
The following table summarizes our cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities, excluding amounts related to the ‘other’ segment:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Total cash provided by (used for):|
|Effects of exchange rate changes on foreign currency cash||17,822||16,063|
|Increase (decrease) in cash||$||277,831||$||140,146|
•Cash provided by operating activities for 2020 was higher than in 2019, primarily reflected a higher level of premiums collected than in the 2019 period.
•Cash used for investing activities for 2020 was higher than in 2019, reflecting a higher level of securities purchased, and the investing of proceeds from our issuance of senior notes.
•Cash provided by financing activities for 2020 was higher than in 2019, primarily reflected the issuance of $1.0 billion of senior notes. Cash flows also reflected $83.5 million of repurchases under our share repurchase program.
At December 31, 2020, our investable assets were $26.9 billion, excluding the $2.7 billion of investable assets related to the ‘other’ segment. The primary goals of our asset liability management process are to satisfy the insurance liabilities, manage the interest rate risk embedded in those insurance liabilities and maintain sufficient liquidity to cover fluctuations in projected liability cash flows, including debt service obligations. Generally, the expected principal and interest payments produced by our fixed income portfolio adequately fund the estimated runoff of our insurance reserves. Although this is not an exact cash flow match in each period, the substantial degree by which the fair value of the fixed income portfolio exceeds the expected present value of the net insurance liabilities, as well as the positive cash flow from newly sold policies and the large amount of high quality liquid bonds, provide assurance of our ability to fund the payment of claims and to service our outstanding debt without having to sell securities at distressed prices or access credit facilities. Please refer to Item 1A “Risk Factors” for a discussion of other risks relating to our business and investment portfolio.
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This section does not include information specific to Watford. We do not guarantee or provide credit support for Watford, and our financial exposure to Watford is limited to our investment in Watford’s senior notes, common and preferred shares and counterparty credit risk (mitigated by collateral) arising from reinsurance transactions with Watford.
The following table provides an analysis of our capital structure:
|(U.S. dollars in thousands, except |
|Shareholders’ equity available to Arch:|
|Series E non-cumulative preferred shares||450,000||450,000|
|Series F non-cumulative preferred shares||330,000||330,000|
|Common shareholders’ equity||12,325,886||10,717,371|
|Total capital available to Arch||$||15,829,309||$||13,231,580|
|Debt to total capital (%)||17.2||13.1|
|Preferred to total capital (%)||4.9||5.9|
|Debt and preferred to total capital (%)||22.1||19.0|
On June 30, 2020, Arch Capital issued $1.0 billion of 30 year senior notes. The net proceeds of the offering were contributed to Arch Re Bermuda to support our underwriting operations.
In November 2020, Arch Capital, Arch-U.S. and Arch Finance filed a universal shelf registration statement with the SEC. This registration statement allows for the possible future offer and sale by us of various types of securities, including unsecured debt securities, preference shares, common shares, warrants, share purchase contracts and units and depositary shares. The shelf registration statement enables us to efficiently access the public debt and/or equity capital markets in order to meet our future capital needs. The shelf registration statement also allows selling shareholders to resell common shares that they own in one or more offerings from time to time. We will not receive any proceeds from any shares offered by the selling shareholders.
We monitor our capital adequacy on a regular basis and will seek to adjust our capital base (up or down) according to the needs of our business. The future capital requirements of our business will depend on many factors, including our ability to write new business successfully and to establish premium rates and reserves at levels sufficient to cover losses. Our
ability to underwrite is largely dependent upon the quality of our claims paying and financial strength ratings as evaluated by independent rating agencies. In particular, we require (1) sufficient capital to maintain our financial strength ratings, as issued by several ratings agencies, at a level considered necessary by management to enable our key operating subsidiaries to compete; (2) sufficient capital to enable our underwriting subsidiaries to meet the capital adequacy tests performed by statutory agencies in the U.S. and other key markets; and (3) our non-U.S. operating companies are required to post letters of credit and other forms of collateral that are necessary for them to operate as they are “non-admitted” under U.S. state insurance regulations.
In addition, Arch MI U.S. is required to maintain compliance with the GSEs requirements, known as PMIERs. The financial requirements require an eligible mortgage insurer’s available assets, which generally include only the most liquid assets of an insurer, to meet or exceed “minimum required assets” as of each quarter end. Minimum required assets are calculated from PMIERs tables with several risk dimensions (including origination year, original loan-to-value and original credit score of performing loans, and the delinquency status of non-performing loans) and are subject to a minimum amount. Arch MI U.S. satisfied the PMIERs’ financial requirements as of December 31, 2020 with a PMIER sufficiency ratio of 173%, compared to 161% at December 31, 2019.
As part of our capital management program, we may seek to raise additional capital or may seek to return capital to our shareholders through share repurchases, cash dividends or other methods (or a combination of such methods). Any such determination will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will be dependent upon our profits, financial requirements and other factors, including legal restrictions, rating agency requirements and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant.
To the extent that our existing capital is insufficient to fund our future operating requirements or maintain such ratings, we may need to raise additional funds through financings or limit our growth. We can provide no assurance that, if needed, we would be able to obtain additional funds through financing on satisfactory terms or at all. Any adverse developments in the financial markets, such as disruptions, uncertainty or volatility in the capital and credit markets, may result in realized and unrealized capital losses that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and our businesses, and may also limit our access to capital required to operate our business. In addition to common share capital, we depend on external sources of finance to support our underwriting activities, which can be in the form (or any combination) of debt securities, preference shares, common equity and bank credit facilities providing loans and/or letters of credit.
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Arch Capital, through its subsidiaries, provides financial support to certain of its insurance subsidiaries and affiliates, through certain reinsurance arrangements beneficial to the ratings of such subsidiaries. Historically, our U.S.-based insurance, reinsurance and mortgage insurance subsidiaries have entered into separate reinsurance arrangements with Arch Re Bermuda covering individual lines of business. The reinsurance agreements between our U.S.-based property casualty insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries and Arch Re Bermuda were canceled on a cutoff basis as of January 1, 2018. As a result, the level of subject business ceded to Arch Re Bermuda was substantially lower beginning in 2018 than in prior periods. In 2019, certain reinsurance agreements between our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries were reinstated.
Except as described in the above paragraph, or where express reinsurance, guarantee or other financial support contractual arrangements are in place, each of Arch Capital’s subsidiaries or affiliates is solely responsible for its own liabilities and commitments (and no other Arch Capital subsidiary or affiliate is so responsible). Any reinsurance arrangements, guarantees or other financial support contractual arrangements that are in place are solely for the benefit of the Arch Capital subsidiary or affiliate involved and third parties (creditors or insureds of such entity) are not express beneficiaries of such arrangements.
Share Repurchase Program
The board of directors of Arch Capital has authorized the investment in Arch Capital’s common shares through a share repurchase program. Since the inception of the share repurchase program through December 31, 2020, Arch Capital has repurchased approximately 389.2 million common shares for an aggregate purchase price of $4.1 billion. At December 31, 2020, $916.5 million of share repurchases were available under the program. Repurchases under the program may be effected from time to time in open market or privately negotiated transactions through December 31, 2021. The timing and amount of the repurchase transactions under this program will depend on a variety of factors, including market conditions, the development of the economy, corporate and regulatory considerations. We will continue to monitor our share price and, depending upon results of operations, market conditions and the development of the economy, as well as other factors, we will consider share repurchases on an opportunistic basis. See note 27, “Subsequent Events”.
The below table provides a description of our senior notes payable at December 31, 2020, excluding amounts attributable to the ‘other’ segment (i.e., Watford):
|May 1, 2034||7.350||%||$||300,000||$||297,367|
|June 30, 2050||3.635||%||1,000,000||988,500|
|Nov. 1, 2043 (1)||5.144||%||500,000||494,944|
|Dec. 15, 2026 (1)||4.011||%||500,000||497,211|
|Dec. 15, 2046 (1)||5.031||%||450,000||445,402|
(1) Fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Arch Capital.
Our senior notes were issued by Arch Capital, Arch Capital Group (U.S.) Inc. (“Arch-U.S.”) and Arch Capital Finance LLC (“Arch Finance”). Arch-U.S. is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Arch Capital and Arch Finance is a wholly-owned finance subsidiary of Arch-U.S. Our 2034 senior notes and 2050 senior notes issued by Arch Capital are unsecured and unsubordinated obligations of Arch Capital and ranked equally with all of its existing and future unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness. The 2043 senior notes issued by Arch-U.S. are unsecured and unsubordinated obligations of Arch-U.S. and Arch Capital and rank equally and ratably with the other unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness of Arch-U.S. and Arch Capital. The 2026 senior notes and 2046 senior notes issued by Arch Finance are unsecured and unsubordinated obligations of Arch Finance and Arch Capital and rank equally and ratably with the other unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness of Arch Finance and Arch Capital.
Arch Capital and Arch-U.S. are each holding companies and, accordingly, they conduct substantially all of their operations through their operating subsidiaries. Arch Finance is a wholly owned subsidiary of Arch U.S. MI Holdings Inc., a U.S. holding company. As a result, Arch Capital, Arch-U.S. and Arch Finance's cash flows and their ability to service their debt depends upon the earnings of their operating subsidiaries and on their ability to distribute the earnings, loans or other payments from such subsidiaries to Arch Capital, Arch-U.S. and Arch Finance, respectively.
See note 19, “Debt and Financing Arrangements,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional disclosures concerning our senior notes and revolving credit agreement borrowings. For additional information on our preferred shares, see note 21, “Shareholders’ Equity,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
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During 2020 and 2019, we made interest payments of $110.5 million and $98.7 million respectively, related to our senior notes and other financing arrangements.
The following tables present condensed financial information for Arch Capital (parent guarantor) and Arch-U.S. (subsidiary issuer):
|December 31, 2020||December 31, 2019|
|Arch Capital||Arch-U.S.||Arch Capital||Arch-U.S.|
|Investments in subsidiaries||14,377,529||5,205,904||11,786,861||4,347,806|
|Due from subsidiaries and affiliates||—||201,515||17||200,635|
|Due to subsidiaries and affiliates||—||586,805||—||536,805|
|Total shareholders' equity available to Arch||13,105,886||4,726,114||11,497,371||4,262,849|
|Total shareholders' equity||13,105,886||4,726,114||11,497,371||4,262,849|
|Total liabilities and shareholders' equity||$||14,415,023||$||5,849,739||$||11,825,494||$||5,327,752|
|Year Ended||Year Ended|
|December 31, 2020||December 31, 2019|
|Arch Capital||Arch-U.S.||Arch Capital||Arch-U.S.|
|Net investment income||$||53||$||18,084||$||212||$||14,270|
|Net realized gains (losses)||(2,110)||26,096||—||25,313|
|Equity in net income (loss) of investments accounted for using the equity method||—||2,507||—||779|
|Other income (loss)||(437)||—||(762)||—|
|Net foreign exchange (gains) losses||3||—||1||—|
|Income (loss) before income taxes||(108,508)||(8,106)||(85,406)||(14,810)|
|Income tax (expense) benefit||—||2,689||—||3,696|
|Income (loss) before equity in net income of subsidiaries||(108,508)||(5,417)||(85,406)||(11,114)|
|Equity in net income of subsidiaries||1,514,029||330,589||1,721,725||564,657|
|Net income available to Arch||1,405,521||325,172||1,636,319||553,543|
|Net income available to Arch common shareholders||$||1,363,909||$||325,172||$||1,594,707||$||553,543|
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CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS AND COMMITMENTS
This section does not include information specific to Watford. We do not guarantee or provide credit support for Watford, and our financial exposure to Watford is limited to our investment in Watford’s senior notes, common and preferred shares and counterparty credit risk (mitigated by collateral) arising from reinsurance transactions with Watford.
The following table provides an analysis of our contractual commitments at December 31, 2020:
|Payment due by period|
|Total||2021||2022 and 2023||2024 and 2025||Thereafter|
|Estimated gross payments for losses and loss adjustment expenses (1)||$||14,994,345||$||4,068,858||$||4,785,334||$||2,322,283||$||3,817,870|
|Deposit accounting liabilities (2)||10,570||5,390||1,116||385||3,679|
|Contractholder payables (3)||1,995,562||634,430||685,990||277,803||397,339|
|Operating lease obligations||152,309||32,309||56,185||32,497||31,318|
|Unfunded investment commitments (4)||2,146,521||2,146,521||—||—||—|
|Securities lending payable (5)||301,089||301,089||—||—||—|
|Senior notes (including interest payments)||5,417,148||126,815||253,629||253,629||4,783,075|
|Financing lease obligations||2,016||2,016||—||—||—|
|Total contractual obligations and commitments||$||25,092,555||$||7,350,865||$||5,812,756||$||2,894,801||$||9,034,133|
(1)The estimated expected contractual commitments related to the reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses are presented on a gross basis (i.e., not reflecting any corresponding reinsurance recoverable amounts that would be due to us). It should be noted that until a claim has been presented to us, determined to be valid, quantified and settled, there is no known obligation on an individual transaction basis, and while estimable in the aggregate, the timing and amount contain significant uncertainty.
(2)The estimated expected contractual commitments related to deposit accounting liabilities have been estimated using projected cash flows from the underlying contracts. It should be noted that, due to the nature of such liabilities, the timing and amount contain significant uncertainty.
(3)Certain insurance policies written by our insurance operations feature large deductibles, primarily in construction and national accounts lines. Under such contracts, we are obligated to pay the claimant for the full amount of the claim and are subsequently reimbursed by the policyholder for the deductible amount. In the event we are unable to collect from the policyholder, we would be liable for such defaulted amounts.
(4)Unfunded investment commitments are callable by our investment managers. We have assumed that such investments will be funded in the next year but the funding may occur over a longer period of time, due to market conditions and other factors.
(5)As part of our securities lending program, we loan securities to third parties and receive collateral in the form of cash or securities. Such collateral is due back to the third parties at the close of the securities lending transactions, a majority of which is overnight and continuous by nature.
Letter of Credit and Revolving Credit Facilities
In the normal course of its operations, the Company enters into agreements with financial institutions to obtain secured and unsecured credit facilities.
On December 17, 2019 Arch Capital and certain of its subsidiaries entered into an $750.0 million five-year credit facility (the “Credit Facility”) with a syndication of lenders. The Credit Facility consists of a $250.0 million secured facility for letters of credit (the “Secured Facility”) and a $500.0 million unsecured facility for revolving loans and letters of credit (the “Unsecured Facility”). Obligations of each borrower under the Secured Facility for letters of credit are secured by cash and eligible securities of such borrower held in collateral accounts. Commitments under the Credit Facility may be increased up to, but not exceeding, an aggregate of $1.3 billion. Arch Capital has a one-time option
to convert any or all outstanding revolving loans of Arch Capital and/or Arch-U.S. to term loans with the same terms as the revolving loans except that any prepayments may not be re-borrowed. Arch-U.S. guarantees the obligations of Arch Capital, and Arch Capital guarantees the obligations of Arch-U.S. Borrowings of revolving loans may be made at a variable rate based on LIBOR or an alternative base rate at the option of Arch Capital. Arch Capital and its lenders may agree on a LIBOR successor rate at the appropriate time to address the replacement of LIBOR. Secured letters of credit are available for issuance on behalf of Arch Capital insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries. The Credit Facility is structured such that each party that requests a letter of credit or borrowing does so only for itself and for only its own obligations.
The Credit Facility contains certain restrictive covenants customary for facilities of this type, including restrictions on
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indebtedness, consolidated tangible net worth, minimum shareholders’ equity levels and minimum financial strength ratings. Arch Capital and its subsidiaries which are party to the agreement were in compliance with all covenants contained therein at December 31, 2020.
See note 19, “Debt and Financing Arrangements,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional disclosures concerning our senior notes and revolving credit agreement borrowings.
Our ability to underwrite business is affected by the quality of our claims paying ability and financial strength ratings as evaluated by independent agencies. Such ratings from third party internationally recognized statistical rating organizations or agencies are instrumental in establishing the financial security of companies in our industry. We believe that the primary users of such ratings include commercial and investment banks, policyholders, brokers, ceding companies and investors. Insurance ratings are also used by insurance and reinsurance intermediaries as an important means of assessing the financial strength and quality of insurers and reinsurers, and are often an important factor in the decision by an insured or intermediary of whether to place business with a particular insurance or reinsurance provider. Periodically, rating agencies evaluate us to confirm that we continue to meet their criteria for the ratings assigned to us by them. S&P, Moody’s, A.M. Best Company and Fitch Ratings are ratings agencies which have assigned financial strength ratings to one or more of Arch Capital’s subsidiaries.
If we are not able to obtain adequate capital, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected, which could include, among other things, the following possible outcomes: (1) potential downgrades in the financial strength ratings assigned by ratings agencies to our operating subsidiaries, which could place those operating subsidiaries at a competitive disadvantage compared to higher-rated competitors; (2) reductions in the amount of business that our operating subsidiaries are able to write in order to meet capital adequacy-based tests enforced by statutory agencies; and (3) any resultant ratings downgrades could, among other things, affect our ability to write business and increase the cost of bank credit and letters of credit. In addition, under certain of the reinsurance agreements assumed by our reinsurance operations, upon the occurrence of a ratings downgrade or other specified triggering event with respect to our reinsurance operations, such as a reduction in surplus by specified amounts during specified periods, our ceding company clients may be provided with certain rights, including, among other things, the right to terminate the subject reinsurance agreement and/or to require that our reinsurance operations post additional collateral.
The ratings issued on our companies by these agencies are announced publicly and are available directly from the agencies. Our Internet site (www.archcapgroup.com, under Credit Ratings) contains information about our ratings, but such information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this report.
CATASTROPHIC EVENTS AND SEVERE ECONOMIC EVENTS
We have large aggregate exposures to natural and man-made catastrophic events, pandemic events like COVID-19 and severe economic events. Natural catastrophes can be caused by various events, including hurricanes, floods, windstorms, earthquakes, hailstorms, tornadoes, explosions, severe winter weather, fires, droughts and other natural disasters. Catastrophes can also cause losses in non-property business such as mortgage insurance, workers’ compensation or general liability. In addition to the nature of property business, we believe that economic and geographic trends affecting insured property, including inflation, property value appreciation and geographic concentration, tend to generally increase the size of losses from catastrophic events over time.
We have substantial exposure to unexpected, large losses resulting from future man-made catastrophic events, such as acts of war, acts of terrorism and political instability. These risks are inherently unpredictable. It is difficult to predict the timing of such events with statistical certainty or estimate the amount of loss any given occurrence will generate. It is not possible to completely eliminate our exposure to unforecasted or unpredictable events and, to the extent that losses from such risks occur, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Therefore, claims for natural and man-made catastrophic events could expose us to large losses and cause substantial volatility in our results of operations, which could cause the value of our common shares to fluctuate widely. In certain instances, we specifically insure and reinsure risks resulting from terrorism. Even in cases where we attempt to exclude losses from terrorism and certain other similar risks from some coverages written by us, we may not be successful in doing so. Moreover, irrespective of the clarity and inclusiveness of policy language, there can be no assurance that a court or arbitration panel will limit enforceability of policy language or otherwise issue a ruling adverse to us.
We seek to limit our loss exposure by writing a number of our reinsurance contracts on an excess of loss basis, adhering to maximum limitations on reinsurance written in defined geographical zones, limiting program size for each client and prudent underwriting of each program written. In the case of proportional treaties, we may seek per occurrence limitations or loss ratio caps to limit the impact of losses from any one or series of events. In our insurance operations, we seek to limit
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our exposure through the purchase of reinsurance. We cannot be certain that any of these loss limitation methods will be effective. We also seek to limit our loss exposure by geographic diversification. Geographic zone limitations involve significant underwriting judgments, including the determination of the area of the zones and the inclusion of a particular policy within a particular zone's limits. There can be no assurance that various provisions of our policies, such as limitations or exclusions from coverage or choice of forum, will be enforceable in the manner we intend. Disputes relating to coverage and choice of legal forum may also arise. Underwriting is inherently a matter of judgment, involving important assumptions about matters that are inherently unpredictable and beyond our control, and for which historical experience and probability analysis may not provide sufficient guidance. One or more catastrophic or other events could result in claims that substantially exceed our expectations, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or our results of operations, possibly to the extent of eliminating our shareholders' equity.
For our natural catastrophe exposed business, we seek to limit the amount of exposure we will assume from any one insured or reinsured and the amount of the exposure to catastrophe losses from a single event in any geographic zone. We monitor our exposure to catastrophic events, including earthquake and wind and periodically reevaluate the estimated probable maximum pre-tax loss for such exposures. Our estimated probable maximum pre-tax loss is determined through the use of modeling techniques, but such estimate does not represent our total potential loss for such exposures.
Our models employ both proprietary and vendor-based systems and include cross-line correlations for property, marine, offshore energy, aviation, workers compensation and personal accident. We seek to limit the probable maximum pre-tax loss to a specific level for severe catastrophic events. Currently, we seek to limit our 1-in-250 year return period net probable maximum loss from a severe catastrophic event in any geographic zone to approximately 25% of tangible shareholders’ equity available to Arch (total shareholders’ equity available to Arch less goodwill and intangible assets). We reserve the right to change this threshold at any time.
Based on in-force exposure estimated as of January 1, 2021, our modeled peak zone catastrophe exposure is a windstorm affecting the Florida Tri-County, with a net probable maximum pre-tax loss of $860 million, followed by windstorms affecting Northeastern U.S. and the Gulf of Mexico with net probable maximum pre-tax losses of $775 million and $689 million, respectively. Our exposures to other perils, such as U.S. earthquake and international events, were less than the exposures arising from U.S. windstorms and hurricanes in both periods. As of January 1, 2021, our modeled peak zone earthquake exposure (San Francisco area
earthquake) represented approximately 65% of our peak zone catastrophe exposure, and our modeled peak zone international exposure (U.K. windstorm) was substantially less than both our peak zone windstorm and earthquake exposures.
We also have significant exposure to losses due to mortgage defaults resulting from severe economic events in the future. For our U.S. mortgage insurance business, we have developed a proprietary risk model (“Realistic Disaster Scenario” or “RDS”) that simulates the maximum loss resulting from a severe economic downturn impacting the housing market. The RDS models the collective impact of adverse conditions for key economic indicators, the most significant of which is a decline in home prices. The RDS model projects paths of future home prices, unemployment rates, income levels and interest rates and assumes correlation across states and geographic regions. The resulting future performance of our in-force portfolio is then estimated under the economic stress scenario, reflecting loan and borrower information.
Currently, we seek to limit our modeled RDS loss from a severe economic event to approximately 25% of total tangible shareholders’ equity available to Arch. We reserve the right to change this threshold at any time. Based on in-force exposure estimated as of January 1, 2021, our modeled RDS loss was 6% of tangible shareholders’ equity available to Arch.
Net probable maximum loss estimates are net of expected reinsurance recoveries, before income tax and before excess reinsurance reinstatement premiums. RDS loss estimates are net of expected reinsurance recoveries and before income tax. Catastrophe loss estimates are reflective of the zone indicated and not the entire portfolio. Since hurricanes and windstorms can affect more than one zone and make multiple landfalls, our catastrophe loss estimates include clash estimates from other zones. Our catastrophe loss estimates and RDS loss estimates do not represent our maximum exposures and it is highly likely that our actual incurred losses would vary materially from the modeled estimates. There can be no assurances that we will not suffer pre-tax losses greater than 25% of our tangible shareholders’ equity from one or more catastrophic events or severe economic events due to several factors, including the inherent uncertainties in estimating the frequency and severity of such events and the margin of error in making such determinations resulting from potential inaccuracies and inadequacies in the data provided by clients and brokers, the modeling techniques and the application of such techniques or as a result of a decision to change the percentage of shareholders' equity exposed to a single catastrophic event or severe economic event. In addition, actual losses may increase if our reinsurers fail to meet their obligations to us or the reinsurance protections purchased by us are exhausted or are otherwise unavailable. See “Risk
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Factors—Risks Relating to Our Industry, Business and Operations” Depending on business opportunities and the mix of business that may comprise our insurance, reinsurance and mortgage portfolios, we may seek to adjust our self-imposed limitations on probable maximum pre-tax loss for catastrophe exposed business and mortgage default exposed business. See “—Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Recent Accounting Pronouncements—Ceded Reinsurance” for a discussion of our catastrophe reinsurance programs.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
We have entered into various aggregate excess of loss reinsurance agreements with various special purpose reinsurance companies domiciled in Bermuda. These are special purpose variable interest entities that are not consolidated in our financial results because we do not have the unilateral power to direct those activities that are significant to its economic performance. As of December 31, 2020, our estimated off-balance sheet maximum exposure to loss from such entities was $56.3 million. See note 12, “Variable Interest Entity and Noncontrolling Interests,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.
MARKET SENSITIVE INSTRUMENTS AND RISK MANAGEMENT
Our investment results are subject to a variety of risks, including risks related to changes in the business, financial condition or results of operations of the entities in which we invest, as well as changes in general economic conditions and overall market conditions. We are also exposed to potential loss from various market risks, including changes in equity prices, interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates.
In accordance with the SEC’s Financial Reporting Release No. 48, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the effects that market risk exposures could have on the future earnings, fair values or cash flows of our financial instruments as of December 31, 2020. Market risk represents the risk of changes in the fair value of a financial instrument and consists of several components, including liquidity, basis and price risks.
The sensitivity analysis performed as of December 31, 2020 presents hypothetical losses in cash flows, earnings and fair values of market sensitive instruments which were held by us on December 31, 2020 and are sensitive to changes in interest rates and equity security prices. This risk management discussion and the estimated amounts generated from the following sensitivity analysis represent forward-looking statements of market risk assuming certain adverse market conditions occur. Actual results in the future may differ materially from these projected results due to actual
developments in the global financial markets. The analysis methods used by us to assess and mitigate risk should not be considered projections of future events of losses.
We have not included Watford in the following analyses as we do not guarantee or provide credit support for Watford, and our financial exposure to Watford is limited to our investment in Watford’s senior notes, common and preferred shares and counterparty credit risk (mitigated by collateral) arising from the reinsurance transactions.
The focus of the SEC’s market risk rules is on price risk. For purposes of specific risk analysis, we employ sensitivity analysis to determine the effects that market risk exposures could have on the future earnings, fair values or cash flows of our financial instruments. The financial instruments included in the following sensitivity analysis consist of all of our investments and cash.
Investment Market Risk
Fixed Income Securities. We invest in interest rate sensitive securities, primarily debt securities. We consider the effect of interest rate movements on the fair value of our fixed maturities, fixed maturities pledged under securities lending agreements, short-term investments and certain of our other investments, equity securities and investment funds accounted for using the equity method which invest in fixed income securities (collectively, “Fixed Income Securities”) and the corresponding change in unrealized appreciation. As interest rates rise, the fair value of our Fixed Income Securities falls, and the converse is also true. Based on historical observations, there is a low probability that all interest rate yield curves would shift in the same direction at the same time. Furthermore, at times interest rate movements in certain credit sectors exhibit a much lower correlation to changes in U.S. Treasury yields. Accordingly, the actual effect of interest rate movements may differ materially from the amounts set forth in the following tables.
The following table summarizes the effect that an immediate, parallel shift in the interest rate yield curve would have had on our investment portfolio at December 31, 2020 and 2019:
|(U.S. dollars in billions)||Interest Rate Shift in Basis Points|
|Dec. 31, 2020|
|Total fair value||$||25.82||$||25.44||$||25.07||$||24.69||$||24.31|
|Change from base||3.0||%||1.5||%||(1.5)||%||(3.0)||%|
|Change in unrealized value||$||0.75||$||0.38||$||(0.38)||$||(0.75)|
|Dec. 31, 2019|
|Total fair value||$||21.54||$||21.19||$||20.83||$||20.48||$||20.13|
|Change from base||3.4||%||1.7||%||(1.7)||%||(3.4)||%|
|Change in unrealized value||$||0.71||$||0.35||$||(0.35)||$||(0.71)|
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In addition, we consider the effect of credit spread movements on the market value of our Fixed Income Securities and the corresponding change in unrealized value. As credit spreads widen, the fair value of our Fixed Income Securities falls, and the converse is also true. In periods where the spreads on our Fixed Income Securities are much higher than their historical average due to short-term market dislocations, a parallel shift in credit spread levels would result in a much more pronounced change in unrealized value.
The following table summarizes the effect that an immediate, parallel shift in credit spreads in a static interest rate environment would have had on the portfolio at December 31, 2020 and 2019:
|(U.S. dollars in billions)||Credit Spread Shift in Percentage|
|Dec. 31, 2020|
|Total fair value||$||25.54||$||25.32||$||25.07||$||24.82||$||24.59|
|Change from base||1.9||%||1.0||%||(1.0)||%||(1.9)||%|
|Change in unrealized value||$||0.48||$||0.25||$||(0.25)||$||(0.48)|
|Dec. 31, 2019|
|Total fair value||$||21.19||$||21.02||$||20.83||$||20.65||$||20.48|
|Change from base||1.7||%||0.9||%||(0.9)||%||(1.7)||%|
|Change in unrealized value||$||0.35||$||0.19||$||(0.19)||$||(0.35)|
Another method that attempts to measure portfolio risk is Value-at-Risk (“VaR”). VaR measures the worst expected loss under normal market conditions over a specific time interval at a given confidence level. The 1-year 95th percentile parametric VaR reported herein estimates that 95% of the time, the portfolio loss in a one-year horizon would be less than or equal to the calculated number, stated as a percentage of the measured portfolio’s initial value. The VaR is a variance-covariance based estimate, based on linear sensitivities of a portfolio to a broad set of systematic market risk factors and idiosyncratic risk factors mapped to the portfolio exposures. The relationships between the risk factors are estimated using historical data, and the most recent data points are generally given more weight. As of December 31, 2020, our portfolio’s VaR was estimated to be 4.30%, compared to an estimated 3.19% at December 31, 2019.
Equity Securities. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the fair value of our investments in equity securities (excluding securities included in Fixed Income Securities above) totaled $1.1 billion and $820.6 million, respectively. These investments are exposed to price risk, which is the potential loss arising from decreases in fair value. An immediate hypothetical 10% decline in the value of each position would reduce the fair value of such investments by approximately $109.5 million and $82.1 million at December 31, 2020 and
2019, respectively, and would have decreased book value per share by approximately $0.27 and $0.20, respectively. An immediate hypothetical 10% increase in the value of each position would increase the fair value of such investments by approximately $109.5 million and $82.1 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and would have increased book value per share by approximately $0.27 and $0.20, respectively.
Investment-Related Derivatives. At December 31, 2020, the notional value of all derivative instruments (excluding to-be-announced mortgage backed securities which are included in the fixed income securities analysis above and foreign currency forward contracts which are included in the foreign currency exchange risk analysis below) was $8.6 billion, compared to $8.0 billion at December 31, 2019. If the underlying exposure of each investment-related derivative held at December 31, 2020 depreciated by 100 basis points, it would have resulted in a reduction in net income of approximately $85.7 million, and a decrease in book value per share of $0.21, compared to $80.4 million and $0.20, respectively, on investment-related derivatives held at December 31, 2019. If the underlying exposure of each investment-related derivative held at December 31, 2020 appreciated by 100 basis points, it would have resulted in an increase in net income of approximately $85.7 million, and an increase in book value per share of $0.21, compared to $80.4 million and $0.20, respectively, on investment-related derivatives held at December 31, 2019. See note 11, “Derivative Instruments,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional disclosures concerning derivatives.
For further discussion on investment activity, please refer to “—Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources—Financial Condition—Investable Assets.”
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
Foreign currency rate risk is the potential change in value, income and cash flow arising from adverse changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Through our subsidiaries and branches located in various foreign countries, we conduct our insurance and reinsurance operations in a variety of local currencies other than the U.S. Dollar. We generally hold investments in foreign currencies which are intended to mitigate our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations in our net insurance liabilities. We may also utilize foreign currency forward contracts and currency options as part of our investment strategy. See note 11, “Derivative Instruments,” to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information.
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The following table provides a summary of our net foreign currency exchange exposures, as well as foreign currency derivatives in place to manage these exposures:
|(U.S. dollars in thousands, except |
per share data)
|Net assets (liabilities), denominated in foreign currencies, excluding shareholders’ equity and derivatives||$||(309,968)||$||265,501|
|Shareholders’ equity denominated in foreign currencies (1)||695,355||744,690|
|Net foreign currency forward contracts outstanding (2)||1,108,161||81,731|
|Net exposures denominated in foreign currencies||$||1,493,548||$||1,091,922|
|Pre-tax impact of a hypothetical 10% appreciation of the U.S. Dollar against foreign currencies:|
|Book value per share||$||(0.37)||$||(0.27)|
|Pre-tax impact of a hypothetical 10% decline of the U.S. Dollar against foreign currencies:|
|Book value per share||$||0.37||$||0.27|
(1) Represents capital contributions held in the foreign currencies of our operating units.
(2) Represents the net notional value of outstanding foreign currency forward contracts.
Although the Company generally attempts to match the currency of its projected liabilities with investments in the same currencies, from time to time the Company may elect to over or underweight one or more currencies, which could increase the Company’s exposure to foreign currency fluctuations and increase the volatility of the Company’s shareholders’ equity. Historical observations indicate a low probability that all foreign currency exchange rates would shift against the U.S. Dollar in the same direction and at the same time and, accordingly, the actual effect of foreign currency rate movements may differ materially from the amounts set forth above. For further discussion on foreign exchange activity, please refer to “—Results of Operations.”
Effects of Inflation
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our consolidated results of operations, except insofar as inflation may affect our reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses and interest rates. The potential exists, after a catastrophe loss, for the development of inflationary pressures in a local economy. The anticipated effects of inflation on us are considered in our catastrophe loss models. The actual effects of inflation on our results cannot be accurately known until claims are ultimately settled.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Reference is made to the information appearing above under the subheading “Market Sensitive Instruments and Risk Management” under the caption “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation,” which information is hereby incorporated by reference.
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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
|Index to Financial Statements||Page No.|
|At December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019|
|For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018|
|For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018|
|For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018|
|For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018|
|Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements|
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Arch Capital Group Ltd.
Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Arch Capital Group Ltd. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the related consolidated statements of income, of comprehensive income, of changes in shareholders’ equity, and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, including the related notes and financial statement schedules listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.
Basis for Opinions
The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management's Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
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Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Valuation of Reserve for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
As described in Notes 3, 5 and 6 to the consolidated financial statements, the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses represents estimates of future amounts required to pay losses and loss adjustment expenses for insured or reinsured events which have occurred at or before the balance sheet date. As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s total reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses was $16.5 billion. For the insurance and reinsurance segments, management estimates ultimate losses and loss adjustment expenses using various generally accepted actuarial methods applied to known losses and other relevant information. Ultimate losses and loss adjustment expenses are generally determined by extrapolation of claim emergence and settlement patterns observed in the past that can reasonably be expected to persist into the future. Management makes a number of key assumptions in their reserving process, including estimating loss development patterns and expected loss ratios. For the mortgage segment, the lead actuarial methodology used by management is a frequency-severity method based on the inventory of pending delinquencies. The assumptions of frequency and severity reflect judgments based on historical data and experience.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the valuation of the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when developing their estimate, which in turn led to a high degree of auditor subjectivity and judgment in performing procedures related to the valuation of the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses, (ii) the significant auditor effort and judgment in evaluating audit evidence related to the aforementioned key actuarial methods and key assumptions, and (iii) the audit effort included the involvement of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge to assist in performing these procedures and evaluating the audit evidence obtained.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the valuation of the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses, including controls over the selection of key actuarial methods and development of key assumptions. These procedures also included, among others, the involvement of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge to assist in performing one or a combination of procedures, including (i) developing an independent estimate, on a test basis, of the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses, and comparing the independent estimate to management’s actuarially determined reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses to evaluate the reasonableness of the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses and (ii) evaluating the appropriateness of the actuarial methods and reasonableness of the assumptions, related to loss development patterns, expected loss ratios, frequency, and severity used by management to determine the Company’s reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses. Developing the independent estimate and evaluating the appropriateness of the key methods and reasonableness of the key assumptions related to loss development patterns, expected loss ratios, frequency and severity, as applicable, involved testing the completeness and accuracy of historical data provided by management.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
New York, New York
February 26, 2021
We have served as the Company’s or its predecessor’s auditor since 1995.
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|ARCH CAPITAL GROUP LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES|
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(U.S. dollars in thousands, except share data)
|Fixed maturities available for sale, at fair value (amortized cost: $18,143,305 and $16,598,808; net of allowance for credit losses: $2,397 at December 31, 2020)||$||18,717,825||$||16,894,526|
|Short-term investments available for sale, at fair value (amortized cost: $1,924,292 and $957,283; net of allowance for credit losses: $0 at December 31, 2020)||1,924,922||956,546|
|Collateral received under securities lending, at fair value (amortized cost: $301,089 and $388,366)||301,096||388,376|
|Equity securities, at fair value||1,444,830||838,925|
|Other investments (portion measured at fair value: $3,824,796 and $3,663,477)||4,324,796||3,663,477|
|Investments accounted for using the equity method||2,047,889||1,660,396|
|Accrued investment income||103,299||117,937|
|Securities pledged under securities lending, at fair value (amortized cost: $294,493 and $378,738)||294,912||379,868|
|Premiums receivable (net of allowance for credit losses: $37,781 and $21,003)||2,064,586||1,778,717|
|Reinsurance recoverable on unpaid and paid losses and loss adjustment expenses (net of allowance for credit losses: $11,636 and $1,364)||4,500,802||4,346,816|
|Contractholder receivables (net of allowance for credit losses: $8,638 and $0)||1,986,924||2,119,460|
|Ceded unearned premiums||1,234,075||1,234,683|
|Deferred acquisition costs||790,708||633,400|
|Receivable for securities sold||92,743||24,133|
|Goodwill and intangible assets||692,863||738,083|
|Reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses||$||16,513,929||$||13,891,842|
|Reinsurance balances payable||683,263||667,072|
|Collateral held for insured obligations||215,581||206,698|
|Revolving credit agreement borrowings||155,687||484,287|
|Securities lending payable||301,089||388,366|
|Payable for securities purchased||218,779||87,579|
|Commitments and Contingencies||0||0|
|Redeemable noncontrolling interests||58,548||55,404|
|Non-cumulative preferred shares||780,000||780,000|
|Common shares ($0.0011 par, shares issued: 579,000,841 and 574,617,195)||643||638|
|Additional paid-in capital||1,977,794||1,889,683|
|Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of deferred income tax||488,895||212,091|
|Common shares held in treasury, at cost (shares: 172,280,199 and 168,997,994)||(2,503,909)||(2,406,047)|
|Total shareholders' equity available to Arch||13,105,886||11,497,371|
|Non-redeemable noncontrolling interests||823,007||762,777|
|Total shareholders' equity||13,928,893||12,260,148|
|Total liabilities, noncontrolling interests and shareholders' equity||$||43,282,297||$||37,885,361|
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
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|ARCH CAPITAL GROUP LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES|
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(U.S. dollars in thousands, except share data)
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Net premiums earned||$||6,991,935||$||5,786,498||$||5,231,975|
|Net investment income||519,608||627,738||563,633|
|Net realized gains (losses)||823,460||363,198||(408,173)|
|Other underwriting income||26,784||24,861||15,073|
|Equity in net income of investments accounted for using the equity method||146,693||123,672||45,641|
|Other income (loss)||16,795||2,233||2,419|
|Losses and loss adjustment expenses||4,689,599||3,133,452||2,890,106|
|Other operating expenses||875,176||800,997||677,809|
|Amortization of intangible assets||69,031||82,104||105,670|
|Net foreign exchange losses (gains)||83,634||20,609||(69,402)|
|Income before income taxes||1,577,549||1,849,110||841,772|
|Current tax expense (benefit)||197,662||144,361||85,863|
|Deferred tax expense (benefit)||(85,824)||11,449||28,088|
|Income tax expense||111,838||155,810||113,951|