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State Street (STT)

Filed: 23 Oct 20, 11:37am

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
Form 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File No. 001-07511
STATE STREET CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
MA04-2456637
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Lincoln Street
Boston,MA02111(617)786-3000
(Address of principal executive offices, and Zip Code)(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $1 par value per shareSTTNew York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/4,000th ownership interest in a share ofSTT.PRDNew York Stock Exchange
Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series D, without par value per share
Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/4,000th ownership interest in a share ofSTT.PRGNew York Stock Exchange
Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series G, without par value per share

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company", and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company 
    Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes    No  

The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of October 21, 2020 was 352,797,695.




STATE STREET CORPORATION
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED
September 30, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
General
Overview of Financial Results
Consolidated Results of Operations
Total Revenue
Net Interest Income
Provision for Credit Losses
Expenses
Acquisition Costs20
Restructuring and Repositioning Charges20
  Income Tax Expense
Line of Business Information
Investment Servicing
Investment Management
Financial Condition
Investment Securities
Loans
Cross-Border Outstandings
Risk Management
Credit Risk Management
Liquidity Risk Management
Operational Risk Management
Information Technology Risk Management
Market Risk Management
Model Risk Management
Strategic Risk Management
Capital
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Significant Accounting Estimates
Recent Accounting Developments
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Controls and Procedures
Consolidated Financial Statements
Consolidated Statement of Income (unaudited)
Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income (unaudited)
Consolidated Statement of Condition
Consolidated Statement of Changes in Shareholders' Equity (unaudited)
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows (unaudited)
Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2. Fair Value
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Note 3. Investment Securities
Note 4. Loans and Allowance for Credit Losses
Note 5. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Note 6. Other Assets
Note 7. Derivative Financial Instruments
Note 8. Offsetting Arrangements
Note 9. Commitments and Guarantees
Note 10. Contingencies
Note 11. Variable Interest Entities
Note 12. Shareholders' Equity
Note 13. Regulatory Capital
Note 14. Net Interest Income
Note 15. Expenses
Note 16. Earnings Per Common Share
Note 17. Line of Business Information
Note 18. Revenue From Contracts with customers
Note 19. Non-U.S. Activities
Review Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Item 6. Exhibits
Signatures
















We use acronyms and other defined terms for certain business terms and abbreviations, as defined in the acronyms list and glossary following the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.


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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

GENERAL
State Street Corporation, referred to as the Parent Company, is a financial holding company organized in 1969 under the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Our executive offices are located at One Lincoln Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (telephone (617) 786-3000). For purposes of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2020 (Form 10-Q), unless the context requires otherwise, references to "State Street," "we," "us," "our" or similar terms mean State Street Corporation and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis. The Parent Company is a source of financial and managerial strength to our subsidiaries. Through our subsidiaries, including our principal banking subsidiary, State Street Bank and Trust Company, referred to as State Street Bank, we provide a broad range of financial products and services to institutional investors worldwide, with $36.64 trillion of AUC/A and $3.15 trillion of AUM as of September 30, 2020.
As of September 30, 2020, we had consolidated total assets of $272.08 billion, consolidated total deposits of $197.51 billion, consolidated total shareholders' equity of $25.56 billion and 38,979 employees. We operate in more than 100 geographic markets worldwide, including in the U.S., Canada, Europe, the Middle East and Asia.
Our operations are organized into two lines of business, Investment Servicing and Investment Management, which are defined based on products and services provided.
Additional information about our lines of business is provided in Line of Business Information in this Management's Discussion and Analysis and Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
This Management's Discussion and Analysis is part of the Form 10-Q and updates the Management's Discussion and Analysis in our 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 previously filed with the SEC (2019 Form 10-K). You should read the financial information contained in this Management's Discussion and Analysis and elsewhere in this Form 10-Q in conjunction with the financial and other information contained in our 2019 Form 10-K. Certain previously reported amounts presented in this Form 10-Q have been reclassified to conform to current-period presentation.
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions in its application of certain
accounting policies that materially affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue and expenses.
The significant accounting policies that require us to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that are difficult, subjective or complex about matters that are uncertain and may change in subsequent periods include:
accounting for fair value measurements;
impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets;
contingencies; and
allowance for credit losses.
These significant accounting policies require the most subjective or complex judgments, and underlying estimates and assumptions could be subject to revision as new information becomes available. For additional information about these significant accounting policies refer to pages 115 to 117, “Significant Accounting Estimates” included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, in our 2019 Form 10-K and Significant Accounting Estimates in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in this Form 10-Q. Upon evaluating our accounting policies in light of our adoption of CECL on January 1, 2020, we included allowance for credit losses as one of our significant accounting policies. Other than including that additional significant policy, we did not change these significant accounting policies in the first nine months of 2020.
Certain financial information provided in this Form 10-Q, including in this Management's Discussion and Analysis, is prepared on both a U.S. GAAP, or reported basis, and a non-GAAP basis. We measure and compare certain financial information on a non-GAAP basis, including information that management uses in evaluating our business and activities.
Non-GAAP financial information should be considered in addition to, and not as a substitute for or superior to, financial information prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP. Any non-GAAP financial information presented in this Form 10-Q, including this Management’s Discussion and Analysis, is reconciled to its most directly comparable U.S. GAAP-basis measure.
We further believe that our presentation of FTE NII, a non-GAAP measure, which reports non-taxable revenue, such as interest income associated with tax-exempt investment securities, on a FTE basis,
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
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facilitates an investor's understanding and analysis of our underlying financial performance and trends.
We provide additional disclosures required by applicable bank regulatory standards, including supplemental qualitative and quantitative information with respect to regulatory capital (including market risk associated with our trading activities) and the LCR, summary results of semi-annual State Street-run stress tests which we conduct under the Dodd-Frank Act, and resolution plan disclosures required under the Dodd-Frank Act. These additional disclosures are accessible on the “Investor Relations” section of our corporate website at www.statestreet.com.
We have included our website address in this report as an inactive textual reference only. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-Q.
We use acronyms and other defined terms for certain business terms and abbreviations, as defined in the acronyms list and glossary following the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
Forward-Looking Statements
This Form 10-Q, as well as other reports and proxy materials submitted by us under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, registration statements filed by us under the Securities Act of 1933, our annual report to shareholders and other public statements we may make, may contain statements (including statements in our Management's Discussion and Analysis included in such reports, as applicable) that are considered “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of U.S. securities laws, including statements about our goals and expectations regarding our business, financial and capital condition, results of operations, strategies, cost savings and transformation initiatives, investment portfolio performance, dividend and stock purchase programs, outcomes of legal proceedings, market growth, acquisitions, joint ventures and divestitures, client growth and new technologies, services and opportunities, as well as industry, governmental, regulatory, economic and market trends, initiatives and developments, the business environment and other matters that do not relate strictly to historical facts.
Terminology such as “plan,” “expect,” “intend,” “objective,” “forecast,” “outlook,” “believe,” “priority,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “seek,” “may,” “will,” “trend,” “target,” “strategy” and “goal,” or similar statements or variations of such terms, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain such terms.
Forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties, which change over time, are based on management's expectations and
assumptions at the time the statements are made and are not guarantees of future results. Management's expectations and assumptions, and the continued validity of the forward-looking statements, are subject to change due to a broad range of factors affecting the U.S. and global economies, regulatory environment and the equity, debt, currency and other financial markets, as well as factors specific to State Street and its subsidiaries, including State Street Bank. Factors that could cause changes in the expectations or assumptions on which forward-looking statements are based cannot be foreseen with certainty and include, but are not limited to:
the financial strength of the counterparties with which we or our clients do business and to which we have investment, credit or financial exposures or to which our clients have such exposures as a result of our acting as agent, including as an asset manager or securities lending agent;
the significant risks and uncertainties for our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our regulatory capital and liquidity ratios and other regulatory requirements, caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which will depend on several factors, including the scope and duration of the pandemic, its influence on the economy and financial markets, the effectiveness of our work from home arrangements and staffing levels in operational facilities, challenges associated with our return to office plans such as maintaining a safe office environment and integrating at-home and in-office staff, the impact of market participants on which we rely and actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic and the impact of lower equity market valuations on our servicing and management fee revenue;
increases in the volatility of, or declines in the level of, our NII; changes in the composition or valuation of the assets recorded in our consolidated statement of condition (and our ability to measure the fair value of investment securities); and changes in the manner in which we fund those assets;
the volatility of servicing fee, management fee, trading fee and securities finance revenues due to, among other factors, the value of equity and fixed-income markets, market interest and FX rates, the volume of client transaction activity, competitive pressures in the investment servicing and asset management industries, and the timing
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
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of revenue recognition with respect to software and processing fees revenues;
the liquidity of the U.S. and international securities markets, particularly the markets for fixed-income securities and inter-bank credits; the liquidity of the assets on our balance sheet and changes or volatility in the sources of such funding, particularly the deposits of our clients; and demands upon our liquidity, including the liquidity demands and requirements of our clients;
the level, volatility and uncertainty of interest rates; the expected discontinuation of Interbank Offered Rates including London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR); the valuation of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies in which we record revenue or accrue expenses; the performance and volatility of securities, credit, currency and other markets in the U.S. and internationally; and the impact of monetary and fiscal policy in the U.S. and internationally on prevailing rates of interest and currency exchange rates in the markets in which we provide services to our clients;
the credit quality, credit-agency ratings and fair values of the securities in our investment securities portfolio, a deterioration or downgrade of which could lead to impairment of such securities and the recognition of a provision for credit losses in our consolidated statement of income;
our ability to attract and retain deposits and other low-cost, short-term funding; our ability to manage the level and pricing of such deposits and the relative portion of our deposits that are determined to be operational under regulatory guidelines; our ability to deploy deposits in a profitable manner consistent with our liquidity needs, regulatory requirements and risk profile; and the risks associated with the potential liquidity mismatch between short-term deposit funding and longer term investments;
the manner and timing with which the Federal Reserve and other U.S. and non-U.S. regulators implement or reevaluate the regulatory framework applicable to our operations (as well as changes to that framework), including implementation or modification of the Dodd-Frank Act and related stress testing and resolution planning requirements and implementation of international standards applicable to financial institutions, such as those proposed by the Basel Committee and European legislation
(such as Undertakings for Collective Investments in Transferable Securities (UCITS) V, the Money Market Fund Regulation and the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II/Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation); among other consequences, these regulatory changes impact the levels of regulatory capital, long-term debt and liquidity we must maintain, acceptable levels of credit exposure to third parties, margin requirements applicable to derivatives, restrictions on banking and financial activities and the manner in which we structure and implement our global operations and servicing relationships. In addition, our regulatory posture and related expenses have been and will continue to be affected by heightened standards and changes in regulatory expectations for global systemically important financial institutions applicable to, among other things, risk management, liquidity and capital planning, cyber-security, resiliency, resolution planning and compliance programs, as well as changes in governmental enforcement approaches to perceived failures to comply with regulatory or legal obligations;
adverse changes in the regulatory ratios that we are, or will be, required to meet, whether arising under the Dodd-Frank Act or implementation of international standards applicable to financial institutions, such as those proposed by the Basel Committee, or due to changes in regulatory positions, practices or regulations in jurisdictions in which we engage in banking activities, including changes in internal or external data, formulae, models, assumptions or other advanced systems used in the calculation of our capital or liquidity ratios that cause changes in those ratios as they are measured from period to period;
requirements to obtain the prior approval or non-objection of the Federal Reserve or other U.S. and non-U.S. regulators for the use, allocation or distribution of our capital or other specific capital actions or corporate activities, including, without limitation, acquisitions, investments in subsidiaries, dividends and stock repurchases, without which our growth plans, distributions to shareholders, share repurchase programs or other capital or corporate initiatives may be restricted;
geopolitical risks applicable to our operations and activities in jurisdictions globally, including emerging markets and economies, that have the potential to disrupt or impose
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
costs, delays or damages upon our, our clients', our counterparties' and suppliers' and our infrastructure providers' respective operations, activities and strategic planning and to compromise financial markets and stability;
changes in law or regulation, or the enforcement of law or regulation, that may adversely affect our business activities or those of our clients or our counterparties, and the products or services that we sell, including, without limitation, additional or increased taxes or assessments thereon, capital adequacy requirements, margin requirements and changes that expose us to risks related to our operating model and the adequacy and resiliency of our controls or compliance programs;
cyber-security incidents, or failures to protect our systems and our, our clients' and others' information against cyber-attacks, that could result in the theft, loss, unauthorized access to, disclosure, use or alteration of information, system failures, or loss of access to information; any such incident or failure could adversely impact our ability to conduct our businesses, damage our reputation and cause losses, potentially materially;
our ability to expand our use of technology to enhance the efficiency, accuracy and reliability of our operations and our dependencies on information technology; to replace and consolidate systems, particularly those relying upon older technology, and to adequately incorporate cyber-security, resiliency and business continuity into our operations, information technology infrastructure and systems management; to implement robust management processes into our technology development and maintenance programs; and to control risks related to use of technology, including cyber-crime and inadvertent data disclosures;
our ability to identify and address threats to our information technology infrastructure and systems (including those of our third-party service providers); the effectiveness of our and our third party service providers' efforts to manage the resiliency of the systems on which we rely; controls regarding the access to, and integrity of, our and our clients' data; and complexities and costs of protecting the security of such systems and data;
our ability to control operational and resiliency risks, data security breach risks and outsourcing risks; our ability to protect
our intellectual property rights; the possibility of errors in the quantitative models we use to manage our business; and the possibility that our controls will prove insufficient, fail or be circumvented;
economic or financial market disruptions in the U.S. or internationally, including those which may result from recessions or political instability; for example, the United Kingdom's (U.K.) exit from the European Union or actual or potential changes in trade policy, such as tariffs or bilateral and multilateral trade agreements;
our ability to create cost efficiencies through changes in our operational processes and to further digitize our processes and interfaces with our clients, any failure of which, in whole or in part, may among other things, reduce our competitive position, diminish the cost-effectiveness of our systems and processes or provide an insufficient return on our associated investment;
our ability to promote a strong culture of risk management, operating controls, compliance oversight, ethical behavior and governance that meets our expectations and those of our clients and our regulators, and the financial, regulatory, reputational and other consequences of our failure to meet such expectations;
the impact on our compliance and controls enhancement programs associated with the appointment of a monitor under the deferred prosecution agreement with the DOJ and compliance consultant appointed under a settlement with the SEC, including the potential for such monitor and compliance consultant to require changes to our programs or to identify other issues that require substantial expenditures, changes in our operations, payments to clients or reporting to U.S. authorities;
the results of our review of our billing practices, including additional findings or amounts we may be required to reimburse clients, as well as potential consequences of such review, including damage to our client relationships or our reputation, adverse actions or penalties imposed by governmental authorities and costs associated with remediation of identified deficiencies;
the results of, and costs associated with, governmental or regulatory inquiries and investigations, litigation and similar claims, disputes, or civil or criminal proceedings;
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
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changes or potential changes in the amount of compensation we receive from clients for our services, and the mix of services provided by us that clients choose;
the large institutional clients on which we focus are often able to exert considerable market influence and have diverse investment activities, and this, combined with strong competitive market forces, subjects us to significant pressure to reduce the fees we charge, to potentially significant changes in our AUC/A or our AUM in the event of the acquisition or loss of a client, in whole or in part, and to potentially significant changes in our revenue in the event a client re-balances or changes its investment approach, re-directs assets to lower- or higher-fee asset classes or changes the mix of products or services that it receives from us;
the potential for losses arising from our investments in sponsored investment funds;
the possibility that our clients will incur substantial losses in investment pools for which we act as agent; the possibility of significant reductions in the liquidity or valuation of assets underlying those pools and the potential that clients will seek to hold us liable for such losses; and the possibility that our clients or regulators will assert claims that our fees, with respect to such investment products, are not appropriate;
our ability to anticipate and manage the level and timing of redemptions and withdrawals from our collateral pools and other collective investment products;
the credit agency ratings of our debt and depositary obligations and investor and client perceptions of our financial strength;
adverse publicity, whether specific to us or regarding other industry participants or industry-wide factors, or other reputational harm;
changes or potential changes to the competitive environment, due to, among other things, regulatory and technological changes, the effects of industry consolidation and perceptions of us, as a suitable service provider or counterparty;
our ability to complete acquisitions, joint ventures and divestitures, including, without limitation, our ability to obtain regulatory approvals, the ability to arrange financing as required and the ability to satisfy closing conditions;
the risks that our acquired businesses,
including, without limitation, CRD, and joint ventures will not achieve their anticipated financial, operational and product innovation benefits or will not be integrated successfully, or that the integration will take longer than anticipated; that expected synergies will not be achieved or unexpected negative synergies or liabilities will be experienced; that client and deposit retention goals will not be met; that other regulatory or operational challenges will be experienced; and that disruptions from the transaction will harm our relationships with our clients, our employees or regulators;
our ability to integrate CRD's front office software solutions with our middle and back office capabilities to develop our front-to-middle-to-back office State Street Alpha that is competitive, generates revenues in line with our expectations and meets our clients' requirements; the dependency of State Street Alpha on enhancements to our data management and the risks to our servicing model associated with increased exposure to client data;
our ability to recognize evolving needs of our clients and to develop products that are responsive to such trends and profitable to us; the performance of and demand for the products and services we offer; and the potential for new products and services to impose additional costs on us and expose us to increased operational risk;
our ability to grow revenue, manage expenses, attract and retain highly skilled people and raise the capital necessary to achieve our business goals and comply with regulatory requirements and expectations;
changes in accounting standards and practices; and
the impact of the U.S. tax legislation enacted in 2017, and changes in tax legislation and in the interpretation of existing tax laws by U.S. and non-U.S. tax authorities that affect the amount of taxes due.
Actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed in our forward-looking statements and from our historical financial results due to the factors discussed in this section and elsewhere in this Form 10-Q or disclosed in our other SEC filings. Forward-looking statements in this Form 10-Q should not be relied on as representing our expectations or assumptions as of any time subsequent to the time this Form 10-Q is filed with the SEC. We undertake no obligation to revise our forward-looking statements after the time they are
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
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made. The factors discussed herein are not intended to be a complete statement of all risks and uncertainties that may affect our businesses. We cannot anticipate all developments that may adversely affect our business or operations or our consolidated results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
Forward-looking statements should not be viewed as predictions, and should not be the primary basis on which investors evaluate State Street. Any investor in State Street should consider all risks and uncertainties disclosed in our SEC filings, including our filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, in particular our annual reports on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and our current reports on Form 8-K, or registration statements filed under the Securities Act of 1933, all of which are accessible on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov or on the Investor Relations section of our corporate website at www.statestreet.com.
OVERVIEW OF FINANCIAL RESULTS
TABLE 1: OVERVIEW OF FINANCIAL RESULTS
Three Months Ended September 30,
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)20202019% Change
Total fee revenue$2,306 $2,259 %
Net interest income478 644 (26)
Total revenue2,784 2,903 (4)
Provision for credit losses(1)
 nm
Total expenses2,103 2,180 (4)
Income before income tax expense681 721 (6)
Income tax expense126 138 (9)
Net income$555 $583 (5)
Adjustments to net income:
Dividends on preferred stock(2)
$(38)$(55)(31)
Net income available to common shareholders$517 $528 (2)
Earnings per common share:
Basic$1.47 $1.44 
Diluted1.45 1.42 
Average common shares outstanding (in thousands):
Basic352,586 366,732 (4)
Diluted357,168 370,595 (4)
Cash dividends declared per common share$.52 $.52 — 
Return on average common equity8.9 %9.7 %(80)bps
Pre-tax margin24.5 24.8 (30)
Nine Months Ended September 30,
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)20202019% Change
Total fee revenue$7,083 $6,779 %
Net interest income1,701 1,930 (12)
Total other income2 (1)nm
Total revenue8,786 8,708 
Provision for credit losses(1)
88 nm
Total expenses6,440 6,627 (3)
Income before income tax expense2,258 2,074 
Income tax expense375 396 (5)
Net income$1,883 $1,678 12 
Adjustments to net income:
Dividends on preferred stock(2)
$(123)$(160)(23)
Earnings allocated to participating securities(3)
(1)(1)— 
Net income available to common shareholders$1,759 $1,517 16 
Earnings per common share:
Basic$4.99 $4.07 23 
Diluted4.93 4.03 22 
Average common shares outstanding (in thousands):
Basic352,829 372,766 (5)
Diluted356,971 376,361 (5)
Cash dividends declared per common share$1.56 $1.46 
Return on average common equity10.6 %9.5 %110bps
Pre-tax Margin25.7 23.8 190
(1) We adopted ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (ASC 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, on January 1, 2020. Please refer to Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q for additional information.
(2) Additional information about our preferred stock dividends is provided in Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
(3) Represents the portion of net income available to common equity allocated to participating securities, composed of unvested and fully vested SERP (Supplemental executive retirement plans) shares and fully vested deferred director stock awards, which are equity-based awards that contain non-forfeitable rights to dividends, and are considered to participate with the common stock in undistributed earnings.
nm Not meaningful
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
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The following “Financial Results and Highlights” section provides information related to significant events, as well as highlights of our consolidated financial results for the third quarter of 2020 presented in Table 1: Overview of Financial Results. More detailed information about our consolidated financial results, including comparisons of our financial results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 to the same periods in 2019, is provided under “Consolidated Results of Operations”, "Line of Business Information" and "Capital" which follows these sections, as well as in our consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q. In this Management’s Discussion and Analysis, where we describe the effects of changes in FX rates, those effects are determined by applying applicable weighted average FX rates from the relevant 2019 period to the relevant 2020 period results.
Financial Results and Highlights
Third quarter of 2020 financial performance:
EPS of $1.45 in the third quarter of 2020 increased 2% compared to $1.42 in the same period in 2019.
In the third quarter of 2020, return on equity of 8.9% decreased from 9.7% in the same period in 2019, primarily due to higher retained earnings, the absence of share repurchases in the second and third quarters of 2020 and a decrease in net income available to common shareholders. Pre-tax margin of 24.5% in the third quarter of 2020 decreased from 24.8% in the same period in 2019, primarily due to lower total revenue, partially offset by lower expenses.
Operating leverage was an unfavorable (0.6)% in the third quarter of 2020. Operating leverage represents the difference between the percentage change in total revenue and the percentage change in total expenses, in each case relative to the prior year period.
In August 2020, the Federal Reserve confirmed that our SCB will be 2.5% for the period starting on October 1, 2020 and ending on September 30, 2021, resulting in no change to our capital requirements. Due to the economic challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic, we and other participating CCAR banks are required to resubmit our capital plans by November 2, 2020 under updated scenarios provided by the Federal
Reserve. Results from the new stress test are expected by the end of the year, however, it is unclear whether or not the results will impact our calculated SCB. In line with the decision to administer a new stress test, the Federal Reserve has continued its suspension of the ability of all CCAR banking organizations to distribute capital beyond common dividends (at their current levels) through the fourth quarter of 2020.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the actions we took to support our clients, the financial markets and the broader economy, is reflected in our results for the third quarter and first nine months of 2020.
We experienced higher levels of client deposits, which have moderated but remain above pre-COVID levels.
We developed a safe and measured framework to reopen offices and are establishing a "Workplace of the Future" plan, leveraging technology and optimizing a hybrid work from home model, with approximately 80% of our employees continuing to work remotely at the end of the period.
We continued to onboard new clients and managed elevated transaction volumes during the COVID-19 pandemic.
We continue to support our clients' liquidity needs through our participation in the Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility (MMLF) and are custodian and administrator for four Federal Reserve programs: Commercial Paper Funding Facility, Main Street Lending Program, and Primary and Secondary Markets Corporate Credit Facilities.
As previously announced, together with the other U.S. based G-SIBs, we temporarily suspended our common stock repurchase program, in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, and subsequently, the Federal Reserve placed limitations on capital distributions in the third and fourth quarters of 2020. As a result, we had no repurchases of our common stock in the second and third quarters of 2020.
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
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Net interest income declined, reflecting a low interest rate environment resulting from Federal Reserve actions to support the economy.
Revenue
Total fee revenue increased 2% in the third quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, primarily driven by increases in servicing fees, management fees, foreign exchange trading services and software and processing fees, partially offset by lower securities finance revenues. Total revenue decreased 4% in the third quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, due to a decline in NII, partially offset by an increase in total fee revenue.
Servicing fee revenue increased 2% in the third quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, primarily due to higher average market levels, net new business and client activity, partially offset by moderating pricing headwinds.
Management fee revenue increased 2% in the third quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, primarily due to higher average market levels, partially offset by institutional net outflows.
Foreign exchange trading services increased 4% in the third quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, primarily reflecting higher client FX volumes and volatility.
Securities finance revenue decreased 28% in the third quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, primarily driven by decreases in enhanced custody balances due to client deleveraging and lower agency lending revenues due to lower spreads and reinvestment yields.
Software and processing fees revenue increased 21% in the third quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, primarily due to higher CRD revenues driven by SaaS revenue and professional services fees, and market-related adjustments.
CRD contributed approximately $89 million and $62 million in total revenue and total expenses, respectively, in the third quarter of 2020, compared to $81 million and $56 million, respectively, in the same period in 2019. In addition to total revenue and expenses, CRD-related expenses include $17 million in amortization of other intangible assets in both the third quarters of 2020 and 2019. CRD revenue with affiliated entities, which is eliminated in our consolidated
financial statements, was $10 million and $4 million for the third quarters of 2020 and 2019, respectively.
NII decreased 26% in the third quarter of 2020, compared to the same period in 2019, primarily due to significantly lower market rates, higher MBS premium amortization, including a true-up of approximately $20 million in the third quarter of 2020, and the absence of approximately $20 million episodic market-related benefits in 2019, partially offset by higher investment portfolio and loan balances.
Provision for Credit Losses
In the third quarter of 2020, we recorded no provision for credit losses related to loans and financial assets held at amortized cost and off-balance sheet commitments based on the CECL methodology, adopted January 1, 2020, primarily due to slightly improving economic forecasts and limited negative credit migration.
This compares to a $2 million provision for credit losses in the same period in 2019 (which was under the previous incurred loss model).
Expenses
Total expenses decreased 4% in the third quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, including 2% lower compensation and employee benefits costs, primarily reflecting on-going expense management initiatives.
The impact of notable items in the third quarter of 2020 includes approximately $15 million of acquisition and restructuring costs primarily related to CRD, partially offset by a $9 million accrual release, compared to approximately $27 million of acquisition and restructuring costs and an $18 million accrual in the same period in 2019.
AUC/A and AUM
AUC/A increased 11% as of September 30, 2020 compared to September 30, 2019, primarily due to higher period-end market levels, net new business growth and client flows. In the third quarter of 2020, newly announced asset servicing mandates totaled approximately $249 billion, with approximately one-third related to State Street AlphaSM, our front-to-back servicing platform. Servicing assets remaining to be installed in future periods totaled approximately $486 billion as of September 30, 2020.
State Street Corporation | 11


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
AUM increased 7% as of September 30, 2020 compared to September 30, 2019, primarily due to higher period-end market levels and net inflows from ETFs, partially offset by institutional net outflows.
Capital
In the third quarter of 2020, we returned a total of approximately $183 million to our shareholders in the form of common stock dividends.
We declared aggregate common stock dividends of $0.52 per share, totaling $184 million in the third quarter of 2020, compared to $0.52 per share, totaling $189 million in the same period in 2019.
We had no repurchases of our common stock in the third quarter of 2020 under current Federal Reserve requirements. In the third quarter of 2019, we acquired 9.4 million shares of common stock at an average per share cost of $53.15 and an aggregate cost of approximately $500 million.
Our binding CET1 capital ratio was 12.4% as of September 30, 2020 compared to 11.7% as of December 31, 2019, driven by higher retained earnings, partially offset by an increase in RWA, with significant headroom above the applicable regulatory requirement. Our Tier 1 leverage ratio decreased to 6.6% as of September 30, 2020, compared to 6.9% as of December 31, 2019, primarily due to an increase in adjusted average assets in the third quarter of 2020. Our standardized approach capital ratios were binding as of September 30, 2020.
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
This section discusses our consolidated results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 compared to the same periods in 2019, and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying condensed notes to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
Total Revenue
TABLE 2: TOTAL REVENUE
Three Months Ended September 30,% Change
(Dollars in millions)20202019
Fee revenue:
Servicing fees$1,301 $1,272 %
Management fees455 445 
Foreign exchange trading services294 284 
Securities finance84 116 (28)
Software and processing fees172 142 21 
Total fee revenue(1)
2,306 2,259 
Net interest income:
   Interest income520 1,001 (48)
   Interest expense42 357 (88)
Net interest income478 644 (26)
Total revenue$2,784 $2,903 (4)
Nine Months Ended September 30,% Change
(Dollars in millions)20202019
Fee revenue:
Servicing fees$3,860 $3,775 %
Management fees1,329 1,306 
Foreign exchange trading services1,097 837 31 
Securities finance268 360 (26)
Software and processing fees529 501 
Total fee revenue(1)
7,083 6,779 
Net interest income:
Interest income2,062 3,035 (32)
Interest expense361 1,105 (67)
Net interest income1,701 1,930 (12)
Other income:
Gains (losses) from sales of available-for-sale securities, net2 — nm
Other income (1)nm
Total other income2 (1)nm
Total revenue$8,786 $8,708 
nm Not meaningful
(1) The impact of State Street Global Advisors fee waivers on total fee revenue was less than $5 million for both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020.

State Street Corporation | 12


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Fee Revenue
Table 2: Total Revenue, provides the breakout of fee revenue in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019. Servicing and management fees collectively made up approximately 76% and 73% of total fee revenue in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to 76% and 75% in the same periods in 2019, respectively.
Servicing Fee Revenue
Generally, our servicing fee revenues are affected by several factors including changes in market valuations, client activity and asset flows, net new business and the manner in which we price our services. We provide a range of services to our clients, including core custody services, accounting, reporting and administration and middle office services, and the nature and mix of services provided affects our servicing fees. The basis for fees will differ across regions and clients. On average and over time, approximately 55% of our servicing fee revenues have been variable due to changes in asset valuations including changes in daily average valuations of AUC/A; another 15% of our servicing fees are impacted by the volume of activity in the funds we serve; and the remaining 30% of our servicing fees tend not to be variable in nature nor impacted by market fluctuations or values.
Changes in Market Valuations
Our servicing fee revenue is impacted by both our levels and the geographic and product mix of our AUC/A. Increases or decreases in market valuations have a corresponding impact on the level of our AUC/A and servicing fee revenues, though the degree of impact will vary depending on asset types and classes and geography of assets held within our clients’ portfolios.
Over the five years ended December 31, 2019, we estimate that worldwide market valuations impacted our servicing fee revenues by approximately (2)% to 5% annually. See Table 3: Daily Averages, Month-End Averages and Quarter-End Equity Indices for selected indices. While the specific indices presented are indicative of general market trends, the asset types and classes relevant to individual client portfolios can and do differ, and the performance of associated relevant indices and of client portfolios can therefore differ from the performance of the indices presented. In addition, our asset classifications may differ from those industry classifications presented.
We estimate, using relevant information as of September 30, 2020 and assuming that all other factors remain constant, that:
A 10% increase or decrease in worldwide equity valuations, on a weighted average basis, over the relevant periods for which our servicing fees are calculated, would result in a corresponding change in our total servicing fee revenues, on average and over time, of approximately 3%; and
A 10% increase or decrease in worldwide fixed income valuations, on a weighted average basis, over the relevant periods for which our servicing fees are calculated, would result in a corresponding change in our total servicing fee revenues, on average and over time, of approximately 1%.
TABLE 3: DAILY AVERAGES, MONTH-END AVERAGES AND QUARTER-END EQUITY INDICES(1)
Daily Averages of IndicesMonth-End Averages of IndicesQuarter-End Indices
Three Months Ended September 30,Three Months Ended September 30,As of September 30,
20202019% Change20202019% Change20202019% Change
S&P 500®
3,320 2,958 12 %3,378 2,961 14 %3,363 2,977 13 %
MSCI EAFE®
1,871 1,882 (1)1,862 1,876 (1)1,855 1,899 (2)
MSCI® Emerging Markets
1,084 1,014 1,087 1,007 1,082 1,001 
Daily Averages of IndicesMonth-End Averages of Indices
Nine Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
20202019% Change20202019% Change
S&P 500®
3,104 2,856 %3,106 2,872 %
MSCI EAFE®
1,807 1,868 (3)1,790 1,874 (4)
MSCI® Emerging Markets
1,015 1,030 (1)1,003 1,035 (3)
(1) The index names listed in the table are service marks of their respective owners.
TABLE 4: QUARTER-END DEBT INDICES(1)
As of September 30,
20202019% Change
Barclays Capital U.S. Aggregate Bond Index®
2,376 2,221 %
Barclays Capital Global Aggregate Bond Index®
541 509 
(1) The index names listed in the table are service marks of their respective owners.
State Street Corporation | 13


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Client Activity and Asset Flows
Client activity and asset flows are impacted by the number of transactions we execute on behalf of our clients, including FX settlements, equity and derivative trades, and wire transfer activity, as well as actions by our clients to change the asset class in which their assets are invested. Our servicing fee revenues are impacted by a number of factors, including transaction volumes, asset levels and asset classes in which funds are invested, as well as industry trends associated with these client-related activities.
Our clients may change the asset classes in which their assets are invested, based on their market outlook, risk acceptance tolerance or other considerations. Over the five years ended December 31, 2019, we estimate that client activity and asset flows, together, impacted our servicing fee revenues by approximately (1)% to 2% annually. See Table 5: Industry Asset Flows for selected asset flow information. While the asset flows presented are indicative of general market trends, the asset types and classes relevant to individual client portfolios can and do differ, and our flows may differ from those market trends. In addition, our asset classifications may differ from those industry classifications presented.
TABLE 5: INDUSTRY ASSET FLOWS
Three Months Ended September 30,
(In billions)20202019
North America - (US Domiciled) - Morningstar Direct Market Data(1)(2)(3)(6)
Long-Term Funds(4)
$1.2 $34.9 
Money Market(192.8)198.9 
Exchange-Traded Fund77.8 28.5 
Total ICI Flows$(113.8)$262.3 
Europe - Morningstar Direct Market Data(1)(2)(5)(6)
Long-Term Funds(4)
$175.3 $97.6 
Money Market117.0 83.2 
Exchange-Traded Fund39.7 30.1 
Total Broadridge Flows$332.0 $210.9 
(1) Industry data is provided for illustrative purposes only. It is not intended to reflect our activity or our clients' activity and is indicative of only segments of the entire industry.
(2) Source: Morningstar. The data includes long-term mutual funds, ETFs and money market funds. Mutual fund data represents estimates of net new cash flow, which is new sales minus redemptions combined with net exchanges, while ETF data represents net issuance, which is gross issuance less gross redemptions. Data for Fund of Funds, Feeder funds and Obsolete funds were excluded from the series to prevent double counting. Data is from the Morningstar Direct Asset Flows database.
(3) The third quarter of 2020 data for North America (US domiciled) includes Morningstar direct actuals for July and August and Morningstar direct estimates for September 2020.
(4) The long-term fund flows reported by Morningstar direct in North America are composed of US domiciled market flows mainly in Equities, Allocation and Fixed Income asset classes. The long-term funds flows reported by Morningstar direct in EMEA are composed of the European market flows mainly in Equities, Allocation and Fixed Incomes asset classes.
(5) The third quarter of 2020 data for Europe is on a rolling three month basis for June 2020 through August 2020, sourced by Morningstar.
(6) Data providers for North America and EMEA industry flows were changed to Morningstar from other providers in the third quarter of 2020 for consistency across regions and other efficiency considerations. Data collection and tabulation methodologies among data providers differ. All periods presented reflect data sourced from Morningstar. Prior period data therefore differs from data previously presented, which was sourced from other data providers.
Pricing
The industry in which we operate has historically faced pricing pressure, and our servicing fee revenues are also affected by such pressure today. Consequently, no assumption should be drawn as to future revenue run rate from announced servicing wins, as the amount of revenue associated with AUC/A can vary materially. On average, over the five years ended December 31, 2019, we estimate that pricing pressure with respect to existing clients has impacted our servicing fees by approximately (2)% annually, with the impact ranging from (1)% to (4)% in any given year. Pricing concessions can be a part of a contract renegotiation with a client including terms that may benefit us, such as extending the terms of our relationship with the client, expanding the scope of services that we provide or reducing our dependency on manual processes through the standardization of the services we provide. The timing of the impact of additional revenue generated by anticipated additional services, and the amount of revenue generated, may differ from the impact of pricing concessions on existing services due to the necessary time required to onboard those new services, the nature of those services and client investment practices. This same market pressure also impacts the fees we negotiate when we win business from new clients.
Net New Business
Over the five years ended December 31, 2019, net new business, which includes business both won and lost, has affected our servicing fee revenues by approximately 2% on average with a range of 0% to 3% annually.
New business impacting servicing fees can include: custody; product and participant level accounting; daily valuation and administration; record-keeping; cash management; and other services. Revenues associated with new servicing mandates may vary based on the breadth of services provided, the time required to install the assets, and the types of assets installed.
State Street Corporation | 14


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Management Fee Revenue
Management fees generally are affected by our level of AUM, which we report based on month-end valuations. Management fees for certain components of managed assets, such as ETFs, mutual funds and UCITS, are affected by daily average valuations of AUM. Management fee revenue is more sensitive to market valuations than servicing fee revenue, as a higher proportion of the underlying services provided, and the associated management fees earned, are dependent on equity and fixed-income security valuations. Additional factors, such as the relative mix of assets managed, may have a significant effect on our management fee revenue. While certain management fees are directly determined by the values of AUM and the investment strategies employed, management fees may reflect other factors, including performance fee arrangements, as well as our relationship pricing for clients. In addition, in a prolonged low-interest-rate environment, such as we are currently experiencing, we have waived and may in the future waive certain fees for our clients for money market products.
Asset-based management fees for passively managed products, to which our AUM is currently primarily weighted, are generally charged at a lower fee of AUM than for actively managed products. Actively managed products may also include performance fee arrangements which are recorded when the fee is earned, based on predetermined benchmarks associated with the applicable account's performance.
In light of the above, we estimate, using relevant information as of September 30, 2020 and assuming that all other factors remain constant, including the impact of business won and lost and client flows, that:
A 10% increase or decrease in worldwide equity valuations, on a weighted average basis, over the relevant periods for which our management fees are calculated, would result in a corresponding change in our total management fee revenues, on average and over time, of approximately 5%; and
A 10% increase or decrease in worldwide fixed-income valuations, on a weighted average basis, over the relevant periods for which our management fees are calculated, would result in a corresponding change in our total management fee revenues, on average and over time, of approximately 4%.
Daily averages, month-end averages and quarter-end indices demonstrate worldwide changes in equity and debt markets that affect our management fee revenue. Quarter-end indices affect the values of AUM as of those dates. See Table 3: Daily Averages, Month-End Averages and Quarter-End Equity Indices for selected indices.
Additional information about fee revenue is provided under "Line of Business Information" included in this Management's Discussion and Analysis.
Net Interest Income
See Table 2: Total Revenue, for the breakout of interest income and interest expense for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 compared to the same periods in 2019.
NII is defined as interest income earned on interest-earning assets less interest expense incurred on interest-bearing liabilities. Interest-earning assets, which principally consist of investment securities, interest-bearing deposits with banks, resale agreements, loans and other liquid assets, are financed primarily by client deposits, short-term borrowings and long-term debt.
NIM represents the relationship between annualized FTE NII and average total interest-earning assets for the period. It is calculated by dividing FTE NII by average interest-earning assets. Revenue that is exempt from income taxes, mainly earned from certain investment securities (state and political subdivisions), is adjusted to a FTE basis using the U.S. federal and state statutory income tax rates.
NII on a FTE basis decreased in both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily due to lower market rates, the absence of approximately $20 million episodic market-related benefits which impacted the third quarter of 2019 and a non-recurring true-up of $20 million in the third quarter of 2020 of prior period premium amortization, partially offset by higher investment portfolio and loan balances.
Investment securities net premium amortization, which is included in interest income, was $179 million and $396 million in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $116 million and $318 million in the same periods in 2019, respectively, primarily related to higher MBS premium amortization.
State Street Corporation | 15


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Interest income related to debt securities is recognized in our consolidated statement of income using the effective interest method, or on a basis approximating a level rate of return, over the contractual or estimated life of the security. The rate of return considers any non-refundable fees or costs, as well as purchase premiums or discounts, resulting in amortization or accretion, accordingly. The amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts are adjusted for prepayments when they occur, which primarily impact mortgage-backed securities.
The following table presents the investment securities amortizable purchase premium net of discount accretion for the periods indicated:
TABLE 6: INVESTMENT SECURITIES NET PREMIUM AMORTIZATION
Three Months Ended September 30,
(Dollars in millions)20202019
Unamortized premiums, net of discounts at period end(1)
$2,016 $1,506 
Net premium amortization(2)
179 116 
Investment securities duration (years)(3)
2.9 2.6 
(1) As of September 30, 2020 and September 30, 2019, approximately 64% and 62%, respectively, of unamortized premiums, net of discounts, was related to mortgage-backed securities.
(2) Net of discount accretion on MMLF HTM securities.
(3) Excluding investment securities purchased under the MMLF program, the investment securities portfolio duration is 3.0 years.
Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility
In March 2020, in response to the economic impact of COVID-19, the Federal Reserve established the MMLF program in order to enhance the liquidity and functioning of crucial money markets. Through the establishment of the MMLF program, the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston makes loans available to eligible financial institutions secured by high-quality assets purchased by the financial institution from money market mutual funds. The MMLF program is authorized through December 31, 2020. We are supporting our clients' liquidity needs through this program, following its adoption on March 18, 2020. As a result of the asset purchases (including negotiable CDs, municipals and asset-backed commercial paper), our participation in the facility was $7.5 billion on average in the third quarter of 2020, and earned $2 million of NII. We did not make any purchases of HTM securities under the MMLF program in the third quarter of 2020. The purchases are match funded through Federal Reserve borrowings and the assets are posted as collateral. The borrowing is non-recourse, meaning that the Federal Reserve has taken on the credit risk of the assets purchased. The purchased securities are classified as held-to-maturity and have a maturity of less than 12 months. MMLF related assets do not impact our risk-based and leverage capital ratios.
State Street Corporation | 16


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
See Table 7: Average Balances and Interest Rates - Fully Taxable-Equivalent Basis, for the breakout of NII on a FTE basis for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 compared to the same periods in 2019.
TABLE 7: AVERAGE BALANCES AND INTEREST RATES - FULLY TAXABLE-EQUIVALENT BASIS(1)
Three Months Ended September 30,
20202019
(Dollars in millions; fully taxable-equivalent basis)
Average
Balance
Interest
Revenue/Expense
Rate
Average
Balance
Interest
Revenue/Expense
Rate
Interest-bearing deposits with banks$72,717 $(6)(.03)%$45,791 $98 .85 %
Securities purchased under resale agreements(2)
4,181 20 1.91 3,149 101 12.75 
Trading account assets900   880 — — 
Investment securities:
Investment securities available-for-sale59,593 152 1.02 54,460 270 1.99 
Investment securities held-to-maturity43,367 191 1.77 39,128 234 2.39 
Investment securities held-to-maturity purchased under money market liquidity facility7,488 25 1.32 — — — 
Total investment securities110,448 368 1.33 93,588 504 2.16 
Loans25,974 139 2.13 23,926 195 3.24 
Other interest-earning assets11,586 3 .10 13,990 107 3.02 
Average total interest-earning assets$225,806 $524 .92 $181,324 $1,005 2.20 
Interest-bearing deposits:
U.S.$85,432 $4 .02 %$67,170 $141 .83 %
Non-U.S.(3)
69,514 (65)(.37)61,355 32 .21 
Total interest-bearing deposits(3)(4)
154,946 (61)(.16)128,525 173 .53 
Securities sold under repurchase agreements2,891  .08 1,998 1.45 
Short-term borrowings under money market liquidity facility
7,449 23 1.24 — — — 
Other short-term borrowings1,724 2 .44 1,788 1.68 
Long-term debt14,794 69 1.86 11,415 99 3.48 
Other interest-bearing liabilities2,764 9 1.28 3,691 70 7.62 
Average total interest-bearing liabilities$184,568 $42 .09 $147,417 $357 .96 
Interest rate spread.83 %1.24 %
Net interest income, fully taxable-equivalent basis$482 $648 
Net interest margin, fully taxable-equivalent basis.85 %1.42 %
Tax-equivalent adjustment(4)(4)
Net interest income, GAAP-basis$478 $644 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20202019
(Dollars in millions; fully taxable-equivalent basis)
Average
Balance
Interest
Revenue/Expense
Average Rate
Average
Balance
Interest
Revenue/Expense
Average Rate
Interest-bearing deposits with banks$75,517 $79 .14 %$47,562 $326 .92 %
Securities purchased under resale agreements(2)
3,114 109 4.68 2,634 289 14.69 
Trading account assets897   880 — — 
Investment securities:
Investment securities available-for-sale57,109 556 1.30 50,440 771 2.04 
Investment securities held-to-maturity41,595 694 2.23 40,177 742 2.46 
Investment securities held to maturity purchased under money market liquidity facility9,516 103 1.45 — — — 
Total Investment securities108,220 1,353 1.67 90,617 1,513 2.23 
Loans27,266 482 2.36 23,605 591 3.35 
Other interest-earning assets10,729 52 0.64 14,790 330 2.98 
Average total interest-earning assets$225,743 $2,075 1.23 $180,088 $3,049 2.26 
Interest-bearing deposits:
U.S.$85,592 $111 .17 %$66,077 $423 .86 %
Non-U.S.(3)
66,953 (158)(.31)60,817 130 .29 
Total interest-bearing deposits(3)(4)
152,545 (47)(.04)126,894 553 .58 
Securities sold under repurchase agreements2,687 3 .16 1,754 27 2.06 
Short-term borrowings under money market liquidity facility9,550 87 1.22 — — — 
Other short-term borrowings2,582 17 0.86 1,664 18 1.41 
Long-term debt14,553 252 2.31 11,201 312 3.71 
Other interest-bearing liabilities3,217 49 2.01 4,101 195 6.39 
Average total interest-bearing liabilities$185,134 $361 .26 $145,614 $1,105 1.01 
Interest rate spread0.97 %1.25 %
Net interest income, fully taxable-equivalent basis$1,714 $1,944 
Net interest margin, fully taxable-equivalent basis1.01 %1.44 %
Tax-equivalent adjustment(13)(14)
Net interest income, GAAP basis$1,701 $1,930 
(1) Rates earned/paid on interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities include the impact of hedge activities associated with our asset and liability management activities where applicable.
(2) Reflects the impact of balance sheet netting under enforceable netting agreements of approximately $83.48 billion and $103.46 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $117.94 billion and $84.20 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively. Excluding the impact of netting, the average interest rates would be approximately 0.09% and 0.14% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to 0.33% and 0.45% in the same periods in 2019, respectively.
(3) Average rate includes the impact of FX swap costs of approximately $(19) million and $(39) million in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $37 million and $135 million in the same periods in 2019, respectively. Average rates for total interest-bearing deposits excluding the impact of FX swap costs were (0.11)% and (0.01)% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to approximately 0.42% and 0.44% in the same periods in 2019, respectively.
(4) Total deposits averaged $189.23 billion and $188.82 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $157.23 billion and $156.39 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively.
State Street Corporation | 17


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Changes in the components of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities are discussed in more detail below. Additional information about the components of interest income and interest expense is provided in Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
Average total interest-earning assets were $225.81 billion and $225.74 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $181.32 billion and $180.09 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively. The increase is primarily driven by higher average total client deposits.
Interest-bearing deposits with banks averaged $72.72 billion and $75.52 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $45.79 billion and $47.56 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively. These deposits primarily reflect our maintenance of cash balances at the Federal Reserve, the European Central Bank (ECB) and other non-U.S. central banks. The higher levels of average cash balances with central banks reflect higher levels of client deposits.
Securities purchased under resale agreements averaged $4.18 billion and $3.11 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $3.15 billion and $2.63 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively. The impact of balance sheet netting was $83.48 billion and $103.46 billion on average in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $117.94 billion and $84.20 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively. We maintain an agreement with Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (FICC), a clearing organization that enables us to net all securities sold under repurchase agreements against those purchased under resale agreements with counterparties that are also members of the clearing organization. The increase in average balance sheet netting, in the nine months ended September 30, 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, is primarily due to the expansion of our FICC program and new client activity.
We have been a netting and sponsoring member within FICC since 2005. FICC expanded the service in 2017, and since then, we have increased our participation. We enter into repurchase and resale transactions in eligible securities with sponsored clients and with other FICC members and, pursuant to FICC Government Securities Division rules, submit, novate and net the transactions. We may sponsor clients to clear their eligible repurchase transactions with FICC, backed by our guarantee to FICC of the prompt and full payment and performance of our sponsored member clients’ respective obligations. We obtain a security interest from our sponsored clients in the high quality
securities collateral that they receive, which is designed to mitigate our potential exposure to FICC.
Average investment securities, excluding MMLF HTM securities, increased to $102.96 billion and $98.70 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, from $93.59 billion and $90.62 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively, primarily driven by higher MBS balances and foreign government bonds. The growth was driven by our redeployment of higher structural deposit levels that resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Loans averaged $25.97 billion and $27.27 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $23.93 billion and $23.61 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively. Average core loans, which exclude overdrafts and highlight our efforts to grow our lending portfolio, averaged $22.54 billion and $22.42 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, compared to $19.78 billion and $19.62 billion in the same periods in 2019.
Average other interest-earning assets, largely associated with our enhanced custody business, decreased to $11.59 billion and $10.73 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 from $13.99 billion and $14.79 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively, primarily driven by a reduction in the level of cash collateral posted related to client deleveraging. Enhanced custody is our securities financing business where we act as principal with respect to our custody clients and generate securities finance revenue. The NII earned on these transactions is generally lower than the interest earned on other alternative investments.
Aggregate average total interest-bearing deposits increased to $154.95 billion and $152.55 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, from $128.53 billion and $126.89 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively. Average U.S. interest-bearing deposits increased as a result of the market uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the level of global interest rates and new deposit gathering initiatives. We expect deposits to remain elevated within the current environment of low interest rates and continued expansion of the money supply by the Federal Reserve. Future deposit levels will be influenced by the underlying asset servicing business, client deposit behavior and market conditions, including the levels of U.S. and non-U.S. interest rates.
Average other short-term borrowings, typically associated with our tax-exempt investment program, were $1.72 billion and $2.58 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020,
State Street Corporation | 18


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
respectively, compared to $1.79 billion and $1.66 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively.
Average long-term debt was $14.79 billion and $14.55 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $11.42 billion and $11.20 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively. These amounts reflect issuances, redemptions and maturities of senior debt during the respective periods.
Average other interest-bearing liabilities were $2.76 billion and $3.22 billion in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $3.69 billion and $4.10 billion in the same periods in 2019, respectively. Other interest-bearing liabilities primarily reflect our level of cash collateral received from clients in connection with our enhanced custody business, which is presented on a net basis where we have enforceable netting agreements.
Several factors could affect future levels of NII and NIM, including the volume and mix of client deposits and funding sources; central bank actions; balance sheet management activities; changes in the level and slope of U.S. and non-U.S. interest rates; revised or proposed regulatory capital or liquidity standards, or interpretations of those standards; the yields earned on securities purchased compared to the yields earned on securities sold or matured and changes in the type and amount of credit or other loans we extend.
Based on market conditions and other factors, including regulatory standards, we continue to reinvest the majority of the proceeds from pay-downs and maturities of investment securities in highly-rated U.S. and non-U.S. securities, such as federal agency MBS, sovereign debt securities and U.S. Treasury and agency securities. The pace at which we reinvest and the types of investment securities purchased will depend on the impact of market conditions, the implementation of regulatory standards, including interpretation of those standards and other factors over time. We expect these factors and the levels of global interest rates to impact our reinvestment program and future levels of NII and NIM.
Provision for Credit Losses
In January 2020, we adopted ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (ASC 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which replaces the incurred loss methodology with an expected loss methodology that is referred to as CECL methodology. The impact of transitioning to ASC 326 on the consolidated financial statements was an increase in the allowance for credit losses and a decrease in retained earnings of $3 million as of January 1, 2020. In the third quarter of 2020, we recorded no provision for credit losses
related to loans and financial assets held at amortized cost and off-balance sheet commitments based on the CECL methodology, reflecting slightly improving economic forecasts and limited negative credit migration.
This compares to a $2 million provision for credit losses in the same period in 2019 (which was under the previous incurred loss model). Additional information is provided under “Loans” in "Financial Condition" in this Management's Discussion and Analysis and in Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
Expenses
Table 8: Expenses, provides the breakout of expenses for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, compared to the same periods in 2019.
TABLE 8: EXPENSES
Three Months Ended September 30,% change
(Dollars in millions)20202019
Compensation and employee benefits$1,062 $1,083 (2)%
Information systems and communications395 376 5
Transaction processing services234 254 (8)
Occupancy109 113 (4)
Acquisition costs15 27 (44)
Restructuring charges, net — 
Amortization of other intangible assets59 59 
Other:
Professional services89 70 27
Other140 198 (29)
Total other229 268 (15)
Total expenses$2,103 $2,180 (4)
Number of employees at quarter-end38,979 39,407 (1)
Nine Months Ended September 30,% change
(Dollars in millions)20202019
Compensation and employee benefits$3,321 $3,396 (2)%
Information systems and communications1,156 1,103 5
Transaction processing services721 741 (3)
Occupancy327 344 (5)
Acquisition costs38 50 (24)
Restructuring charges, net (2)(100)
Amortization of other intangible assets175 178 (2)
Other:
Professional services261 235 11
Other441 582 (24)
Total other702 817 (14)
Total expenses$6,440 $6,627 (3)
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Compensation and employee benefits expenses decreased 2% in both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily due to lower headcount, lower contractor spend, employee medical costs and incentive compensation.
Total headcount decreased by approximately 1% as of September 30, 2020 compared to September 30, 2019, primarily driven by productivity savings.
Information systems and communications expenses increased 5% in both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, compared to the same periods in 2019. The increase was primarily related to software costs and technology infrastructure enhancements, partially offset by third-party vendor savings.
Transaction processing services expenses decreased 8% and 3% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily reflecting higher sub-custody savings.
Occupancy expenses decreased 4% and 5% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily due to the advancement of our global optimization footprint strategy.
Amortization of other intangible assets were flat and decreased 2% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2019.
Other expenses decreased 15% and 14% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily driven by an $18 million accrual in the third quarter of 2019, a $9 million accrual release in the third quarter of 2020, and lower marketing and travel costs, partially offset by higher professional fees.
In April 2020, we announced that we were deferring most planned headcount reductions through the end of 2020, in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect our planned actions will take place following that period.
Acquisition Costs
We recorded approximately $15 million and $38 million of acquisition costs in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $27 million and $50 million in the same periods in 2019, respectively, related to our acquisition of CRD. As we integrate CRD into our business, we expect to incur a total of approximately $200 million of acquisition costs, including merger and integration costs, through 2021, of which $148 million has been incurred as of September 30, 2020, since the acquisition.
Restructuring and Repositioning Charges
The following table presents aggregate activity for repositioning charges and activity related to previous Beacon restructuring charges for the periods indicated:
TABLE 9: RESTRUCTURING AND REPOSITIONING CHARGES
(In millions)Employee
Related Costs
Real Estate
Actions
Asset and Other Write-offsTotal
Accrual Balance at December 31, 2018$303 $37 $$341 
Accruals for Beacon(4)— — (4)
Payments and Other Adjustments(53)(25)— (78)
Accrual balance at March 31, 2019246 12 259 
Accruals for Beacon— — 
Payments and Other Adjustments(51)(1)— (52)
Accrual balance at June 30, 2019197 11 209 
Payments and Other Adjustments(62)(2)— (64)
Accrual balance at September 30, 2019$135 $$$145 
Accrual balance at December 31, 2019$190 $$$198 
Payments and other adjustments(33)(1)— (34)
Accrual balance at March 31, 2020157 164 
Payments and other adjustments(25)(1)— (26)
Accrual balance at June 30, 2020132 138 
Payments and other adjustments(10)1 (1)(10)
Accrual balance at September 30, 2020$122 $6 $ $128 
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense was $126 million and $375 million in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $138 million and $396 million in the same periods in 2019, respectively. Our effective tax rate was 18.5% and 16.6% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to 19.2% and 19.1% in the same periods in 2019, respectively. The decrease in the effective tax rate in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, compared to the same periods in 2019, includes a reduction in a valuation allowance related to foreign tax credits.
LINE OF BUSINESS INFORMATION
Our operations are organized into two lines of business: Investment Servicing and Investment Management, which are defined based on products and services provided. The results of operations for these lines of business are not necessarily comparable with those of other companies, including companies in the financial services industry.
Investment Servicing, through State Street Institutional Services, State Street Global Markets,
State Street Corporation | 20


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
State Street Global Exchange and CRD, provides services for institutional clients, including mutual funds, collective investment funds and other investment pools, corporate and public retirement plans, insurance companies, investment managers, foundations and endowments worldwide. Products include: custody; product and participant level accounting; daily pricing and administration; master trust and master custody; depotbank services (a fund oversight role created by non-U.S. regulation); record-keeping; cash management; foreign exchange, brokerage and other trading services; securities finance and enhanced custody products; deposit and short-term investment facilities; loans and lease financing; investment manager and alternative investment manager operations outsourcing; performance, risk and compliance analytics; and financial data management to support institutional investors. Our CRD business also falls within our Investment Servicing line of business and includes products and services, such as: portfolio modeling and construction; trade order management; investment risk and compliance; and wealth management solutions.
Investment Management, through State Street Global Advisors, provides a broad range of investment management strategies and products for our clients. Our investment management strategies and products span the risk/reward spectrum, including core and enhanced indexing, multi-asset strategies, active quantitative and fundamental active capabilities and alternative investment strategies. Our AUM is currently primarily weighted to indexed strategies. In addition, we provide a breadth of services and solutions, including environmental, social and governance investing, defined benefit and defined contribution and Global Fiduciary Solutions (formerly Outsourced Chief Investment Officer). State Street Global Advisors is also a provider of ETFs, including the SPDR® ETF brand. While management fees are primarily determined by the values of AUM and the investment strategies employed, management fees reflect other factors as well, including the benchmarks specified in the respective management agreements related to performance fees.
For information about our two lines of business, as well as the revenues, expenses and capital allocation methodologies associated with them, refer to Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
Investment Servicing
TABLE 10: INVESTMENT SERVICING LINE OF BUSINESS RESULTS
(Dollars in millions, except where otherwise noted)Three Months Ended September 30,% Change
20202019
Servicing fees$1,301$1,272%
Foreign exchange trading services252249
Securities finance81114(29)
Software and processing fees16214016 
Total fee revenue1,7961,775
Net interest income482649(26)
Total revenue2,2782,424(6)
Provision for credit losses2nm
Total expenses1,7391,762(1)
Income before income tax expense$539$660(18)
Pre-tax margin24 %27 %
(Dollars in millions, except where otherwise noted)Nine Months Ended September 30,% Change
20202019
Servicing fees$3,860$3,775%
Foreign exchange trading services99873536 
Securities finance258353(27)
Software and processing fees528483
Total fee revenue5,6445,346
Net interest income1,7161,951(12)
Total other income2(1)nm
Total revenue7,3627,296
Provision for credit losses887nm
Total expenses5,3155,391(1)
Income before income tax expense$1,959$1,898
Pre-tax margin27 %26 %
nm Not meaningful
Servicing Fees
Servicing fees, as presented in Table 10: Investment Servicing Line of Business Results, increased 2% in both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily due to higher average market levels, net new business and client activity, partially offset by moderating pricing headwinds. FX rates positively impacted servicing fees by 1% in the third quarter of 2020 and negatively impacted servicing fees by 2% in the same period in 2019.
Servicing fees generated outside the U.S. were approximately 47% and 46% of total servicing fees in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to approximately 47% in both the same periods in 2019.
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
TABLE 11: ASSETS UNDER CUSTODY AND/OR ADMINISTRATION BY PRODUCT
(In billions)September 30, 2020December 31, 2019September 30, 2019
Collective funds$9,960 $9,796 $9,224 
Mutual funds10,143 9,221 8,687 
Insurance and other products9,218 8,417 8,171 
Pension products7,322 6,924 6,817 
Total$36,643 $34,358 $32,899 
TABLE 12: ASSETS UNDER CUSTODY AND/OR ADMINISTRATION BY ASSET CLASS
(In billions)September 30, 2020December 31, 2019September 30, 2019
Equities$20,094 $19,301 $18,243 
Fixed-income12,403 10,766 10,413 
Short-term and other investments4,146 4,291 4,243 
Total$36,643 $34,358 $32,899 
TABLE 13: ASSETS UNDER CUSTODY AND/OR ADMINISTRATION BY GEOGRAPHY(1)
(In billions)September 30, 2020December 31, 2019September 30, 2019
Americas$26,666 $25,018 $23,888 
Europe/Middle East/Africa7,675 7,325 7,091 
Asia/Pacific2,302 2,015 1,920 
Total$36,643 $34,358 $32,899 
(1) Geographic mix is generally based on the domicile of the entity servicing the funds and is not necessarily representative of the underlying asset mix.
Asset servicing mandates newly announced in the third quarter of 2020 totaled approximately $249 billion. Servicing assets remaining to be installed in future periods totaled approximately $486 billion as of September 30, 2020, which will be reflected in AUC/A in future periods after installation and will generate servicing fee revenue in subsequent periods. The full revenue impact of such mandates will be realized over several quarters as the assets are installed and additional services are added over that period.
New asset servicing mandates may be subject to completion of definitive agreements, approval of applicable boards and shareholders and customary regulatory approvals. New asset servicing mandates and servicing assets remaining to be installed in future periods exclude certain new business which has been contracted, but for which the client has not yet provided permission to publicly disclose and the expected installation date extends beyond one quarter. These excluded assets, which from time to time may be significant, will be included in new asset servicing mandates and reflected in servicing assets remaining to be installed in the period in which the client provides its permission. Servicing mandates and servicing assets remaining to be installed in future periods are presented on a gross basis and therefore also do not include the impact of clients who have notified us during the period of their intent to
terminate or reduce their relationship with us, which may from time to time be significant.
With respect to these new servicing mandates, once installed we may provide various services, including accounting, bank loan servicing, compliance reporting and monitoring, custody, depository banking services, FX, fund administration, hedge fund servicing, middle office outsourcing, performance and analytics, private equity administration, real estate administration, securities finance, transfer agency and wealth management services. Revenues associated with new servicing mandates may vary based on the breadth of services provided and the timing of installation, and the types of assets.
For additional information about the impact of worldwide equity and fixed-income valuations on our fee revenue, as well as other key drivers of our servicing fee revenue, refer to "Fee Revenue" in "Consolidated Results of Operations" included in this Management's Discussion and Analysis.
Foreign Exchange Trading Services
Foreign exchange trading services revenue, as presented in Table 10: Investment Servicing Line of Business Results, increased 1% and 36% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily due to higher client FX volumes and volatility. Foreign exchange trading services is composed of revenue generated by FX trading and revenue generated by brokerage and other trading services, which made up 56% and 44%, respectively, of foreign exchange trading services revenue in the third quarter of 2020 and 65% and 35%, respectively, of foreign exchange trading services revenue in the nine months ended September 30, 2020.
We primarily earn FX trading revenue by acting as a principal market-maker through both "direct sales and trading” and “indirect FX trading.”
Direct sales and trading: Represent FX transactions at negotiated rates with clients and investment managers that contact our trading desk directly. These principal market-making activities include transactions for funds serviced by third party custodians or prime brokers, as well as those funds under custody with us.
Indirect FX trading: Represents FX transactions with clients, for which we are the funds' custodian, or their investment managers, routed to our FX desk through our asset-servicing operation. We execute indirect FX trades as a principal at rates disclosed to our clients.
Our FX trading revenue is influenced by multiple factors, including: the volume and type of client FX
State Street Corporation | 22


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
transactions and related spreads; currency volatility, reflecting market conditions; and our management of exchange rate, interest rate and other market risks associated with our FX activities. The relative impact of these factors on our total FX trading revenues often differs from period to period. For example, assuming all other factors remain constant, increases or decreases in volumes or bid-offer spreads across product mix tend to result in increases or decreases, as the case may be, in client-related FX revenue.
Our clients that utilize indirect FX trading can, in addition to executing their FX transactions through dealers not affiliated with us, transition from indirect FX trading to either direct sales and trading execution, including our “Street FX” service, or to one of our electronic trading platforms. Street FX, in which we continue to act as a principal market-maker, enables our clients to define their FX execution strategy and automate the FX trade execution process, both for funds under custody with us as well as those under custody at another bank.
We also earn foreign exchange trading services revenue through "electronic FX services" and "other trading, transition management and brokerage revenue."
Electronic FX services: Our clients may choose to execute FX transactions through one of our electronic trading platforms. These transactions generate revenue through a “click” fee.
Other trading, transition management and brokerage revenue: As our clients look to us to enhance and preserve portfolio values, they may choose to utilize our Transition or Currency Management capabilities or transact with our Equity Trade execution group. These transactions, which are not limited to foreign exchange, generate revenue via commissions charged for trades transacted during the management of these portfolios.
Securities Finance
Our securities finance business consists of three components:
(1) an agency lending program for State Street Global Advisors managed investment funds with a broad range of investment objectives, which we refer to as the State Street Global Advisors lending funds;
(2) an agency lending program for third-party investment managers and asset owners, which we refer to as the agency lending funds; and
(3) security lending transactions which we enter into as principal, which we refer to as our enhanced custody business.
Securities finance revenue earned from our agency lending activities, which is composed of our split of both the spreads related to cash collateral and the fees related to non-cash collateral, is principally a function of the volume of securities on loan, the interest rate spreads and fees earned on the underlying collateral and our share of the fee split.
As principal, our enhanced custody business borrows securities from the lending client or other market participants and then lends such securities to the subsequent borrower, either our client or a broker/dealer. We act as principal when the lending client is unable to, or elects not to, transact directly with the market and execute the transaction and furnish the securities. In our role as principal, we provide support to the transaction through our credit rating. While we source a significant proportion of the securities furnished by us in our role as principal from third parties, we have the ability to source securities through assets under custody from clients who have designated us as an eligible borrower.
Securities finance revenue, as presented in Table 10: Investment Servicing Line of Business Results, decreased 29% and 27% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily driven by decreases in enhanced custody balances due to client deleveraging and lower agency lending revenues due to lower spreads and reinvestment yields. Market influences may continue to affect client demand for securities finance, and as a result our revenue from, and the profitability of, our securities lending activities in future periods. In addition, the constantly evolving regulatory environment, including revised or proposed capital and liquidity standards, interpretations of those standards, and our own balance sheet management activities, may influence modifications to the way in which we deliver our agency lending or enhanced custody businesses, the volume of our securities lending activity and related revenue and profitability in future periods.
Software and Processing Fees
Software and processing fees revenue includes diverse types of fees and revenue, including fees from software licensing and maintenance, fees from our structured products business and other revenue including equity income from our joint venture investments, gains and losses on sales of other assets, market-related adjustments and income associated with certain tax-advantaged investments.
Software and processing fees revenue, presented in Table 10: Investment Servicing Line of Business Results, increased 16% and 9% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily due to higher CRD revenues.
State Street Corporation | 23


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
We acquired CRD on October 1, 2018. Revenue related to the front office solutions provided by CRD is primarily driven by the sale of term software licenses and software as service arrangements, including professional services such as consulting and implementation services, software support and maintenance. Approximately 50%-70% of revenue associated with a sale of software to be installed on-premise is recognized at a point in time when the customer benefits from obtaining access to and use of the software license, with the percentage varying based on the length of the contract and other contractual terms. The remainder of revenue for on-premise installations is recognized over the length of the contract as maintenance and other services are provided.  Upon renewal of an on-premises software contract, the same pattern of revenue recognition is followed with 50%-70% recognized upon renewal and the balance recognized over the term of the contract. Revenue for a Software as a Service (SaaS) related arrangement, where the customer does not take possession of the software, is recognized over the term of the contract as services are provided. Upon renewal of a SaaS arrangement, revenue continues to be recognized as services are provided under the new contract. As a result of these differences in how portions of CRD revenue are accounted for, CRD revenue may vary more than other business units quarter to quarter.
CRD contributed approximately $89 million and $314 million in total revenue in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $81 million and $264 million in the same periods in 2019, respectively. The increase in revenue is primarily driven by SaaS revenue and professional services fees.
Amortization of tax advantage investments negatively impacted software and processing fees by $24 million and $67 million in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $19 million and $39 million in the same periods in 2019, respectively.
In addition, FX and market-related adjustments impacted software and processing fees by approximately $7 million and ($12) million in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to ($14) million and $1 million in the same periods in 2019, respectively.
Expenses
Total expenses for Investment Servicing decreased 1% in both the three and nine months
ended September 30, 2020, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily due to resource discipline initiatives and vendor savings, partially offset by technology infrastructure and operational investments.
CRD contributed approximately $62 million and $181 million in total expenses in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $56 million and $143 million in the same periods in 2019, respectively. In addition, CRD-related expenses include $17 million and $50 million in amortization of other intangible assets in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to $17 million and $49 million in the same periods in 2019, respectively.
Additional information about expenses is provided under "Expenses" in "Consolidated Results of Operations" included in this Management's Discussion and Analysis.
Investment Management
TABLE 14: INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT LINE OF BUSINESS RESULTS
(Dollars in millions, except where otherwise noted)Three Months Ended September 30,% Change
20202019
Management fees$455 $445 %
Foreign exchange trading services(1)
42 35 20 
Securities finance3 50 
Software and processing fees(2)
10 nm
Total fee revenue510 484 
Net interest income(4)(5)(20)
Total revenue506 479 
Total expenses358 373 (4)
Income before income tax expense$148 $106 40 
Pre-tax margin29 %22 %
(Dollars in millions, except where otherwise noted)Nine Months Ended September 30,% Change
20202019
Management fees$1,329 $1,306 %
Foreign exchange trading services(1)
99 102 (3)
Securities finance10 43 
Software and processing fees(2)
1 18 nm
Total fee revenue1,439 1,433 — 
Net interest income(15)(21)(29)
Total revenue1,424 1,412 
Total expenses1,096 1,156 (5)
Income before income tax expense$328 $256 28 
Pre-tax margin23 %18 %
(1) Includes revenues related to certain ETFs associated with State Street Global Advisors for which we act as the distribution and marketing agent.
(2) Includes other revenue items that are primarily driven by equity market movements.
nm Not meaningful
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Investment Management total revenue increased 6% and 1% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2019.
Management Fees
Management fees increased 2% in both the third quarter of 2020 and nine months ended September 30, 2020, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily due to higher average market levels, partially offset by institutional net outflows.
Management fees generated outside the U.S. were approximately 27% of total management fees in both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, and in both the same periods in 2019.
TABLE 15: ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT BY ASSET CLASS AND INVESTMENT APPROACH
(In billions)September 30, 2020December 31, 2019September 30, 2019
Equity:
  Active$81 $88 $84 
  Passive1,879 1,903 1,747 
Total equity1,960 1,991 1,831 
Fixed-income:
  Active87 89 92 
  Passive405 379 367 
Total fixed-income492 468 459 
Cash(1)
333 324 336 
Multi-asset-class solutions:
  Active24 24 23 
  Passive142 133 134 
Total multi-asset-class solutions166 157 157 
Alternative investments(2):
  Active20 21 22 
  Passive177 155 148 
Total alternative investments197 176 170 
Total$3,148 $3,116 $2,953 
(1) Includes both floating- and constant-net-asset-value portfolios held in commingled structures or separate accounts.
(2) Includes real estate investment trusts, currency and commodities, including SPDR® Gold Shares and SPDR® Gold MiniSharesSM Trust. We are not the investment manager for the SPDR® Gold Shares and SPDR® MiniSharesSM Trust, but act as the marketing agent.
TABLE 16: EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS BY ASSET CLASS(1)
(In billions)September 30, 2020December 31, 2019September 30, 2019
Alternative Investments(2)
$88 $56 $56 
Cash14 
Equity605 618 553 
Fixed-Income94 85 80 
Total Exchange-Traded Funds$801 $768 $698 
(1) ETFs are a component of AUM presented in the preceding table.
(2) Includes real estate investment trusts, currency and commodities, including SPDR® Gold Shares and SPDR® Gold MiniSharesSM Trust. We are not the investment manager for the SPDR® Gold Shares and SPDR® MiniSharesSM Trust, but act as the marketing agent.
TABLE 17: GEOGRAPHIC MIX OF ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT(1)
(In billions)September 30, 2020December 31, 2019September 30, 2019
North America$2,169 $2,115 $1,999 
Europe/Middle East/Africa478 493 476 
Asia/Pacific501 508 478 
Total$3,148 $3,116 $2,953 
(1) Geographic mix is based on client location or fund management location.
State Street Corporation | 25


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
TABLE 18: ACTIVITY IN ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT BY PRODUCT CATEGORY
(In billions)EquityFixed-Income
Cash(1)
Multi-Asset-Class Solutions
Alternative Investments(2)
Total
Balance as of December 31, 2018$1,544 $422 $287 $132 $126 $2,511 
Long-term institutional flows, net(3)
26 (7)— 16 38 
Exchange-traded fund flows, net13 15 — — 34 
Cash fund flows, net— — 31 — — 31 
Total flows, net39 31 22 103 
Market appreciation (depreciation)404 38 22 28 498 
Foreign exchange impact— — — — 
Total market/foreign exchange impact408 38 22 28 502 
Balance as of December 31, 2019$1,991 $468 $324 $157 $176 $3,116 
Long-term institutional flows, net(3)
(17)(5)(1)4 (10)(29)
Exchange-traded fund flows, net(9)8 5  20 24 
Cash fund flows, net  2   2 
Total flows, net(26)3 6 4 10 (3)
Market appreciation (depreciation)(13)18 3 3 12 23 
Foreign exchange impact8 3  2 (1)12 
Total market/foreign exchange impact(5)21 3 5 11 35 
Balance as of September 30, 2020$1,960 $492 $333 $166 $197 $3,148 
(1) Includes both floating- and constant-net-asset-value portfolios held in commingled structures or separate accounts.
(2) Includes real estate investment trusts, currency and commodities, including SPDR® Gold Shares and SPDR® Gold MiniSharesSM Trust. We are not the investment manager for the SPDR® Gold Shares and SPDR® MiniSharesSM Trust, but act as the marketing agent.
(3) Amounts represent long-term portfolios, excluding ETFs.
TABLE 19: ACTIVITY IN ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT BY PRODUCT CATEGORY
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
(In billions)2020201920202019
Beginning balance$3,054 $2,918 $3,116 $2,511 
Net asset flows:
Long-term institutional(8)(14)(29)54 
ETF1 12 24 10 
Cash fund(58)15 2 42 
Total flows, net(65)13 (3)106 
Market appreciation (depreciation)135 40 23 349 
Foreign exchange impact24 (18)12 (13)
Total market/foreign exchange impact159 22 35 336 
Ending balance$3,148 $2,953 $3,148 $2,953 
Expenses
Total expenses for Investment Management decreased 4% and 5% in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2019, primarily due to savings from resource discipline initiatives and process re-engineering benefits.
Additional information about expenses is provided under "Expenses" in "Consolidated Results of Operations" included in this Management's Discussion and Analysis.
State Street Corporation | 26


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
FINANCIAL CONDITION
The structure of our consolidated statement of condition is primarily driven by the liabilities generated by our Investment Servicing and Investment Management lines of business. Our clients' needs and our operating objectives determine balance sheet volume, mix and currency denomination. As our clients execute their worldwide cash management and investment activities, they utilize deposits and short-term investments that constitute the majority of our liabilities. These liabilities are generally in the form of interest-bearing transaction account deposits, which are denominated in a variety of currencies; non-interest-bearing demand deposits; and repurchase agreements, which generally serve as short-term investment alternatives for our clients.
Deposits and other liabilities resulting from client initiated transactions are invested in assets that generally have contractual maturities significantly longer than our liabilities; however, we evaluate the operational nature of our deposits and seek to maintain appropriate short-term liquidity of those liabilities that are not operational in nature and maintain longer-termed assets for our operational deposits. Our assets consist primarily of securities held in our AFS or HTM portfolios and short-duration financial instruments, such as interest-bearing deposits with banks and securities purchased under resale agreements. The actual mix of assets is influenced by the characteristics of the client liabilities and our desire to maintain a well-diversified portfolio of high-quality assets.
TABLE 20: AVERAGE STATEMENT OF CONDITION(1)
Nine Months Ended September 30,
(In millions)20202019
Assets:
Interest-bearing deposits with banks$75,517 $47,562 
Securities purchased under resale agreements3,114 2,634 
Trading account assets897 880 
U.S. Treasury and federal agencies:
Direct obligations14,148 14,327 
Mortgage-and asset-backed securities45,380 41,845 
State and political subdivisions1,738 1,887 
Other investments:
Asset-backed securities10,669 9,445 
Collateralized mortgage-backed securities and obligations695 923 
Other debt investments and equity securities26,074 22,190 
Investment securities held to maturity purchased under money market liquidity facility9,516 — 
Total investment securities108,220 90,617 
Loans27,266 23,605 
Other interest-earning assets10,729 14,790 
Average total interest-earning assets225,743 180,088 
Cash and due from banks3,663 3,401 
Other non-interest-earning assets37,336 37,975 
Average total assets$266,742 $221,464 
Liabilities and shareholders’ equity:
Interest-bearing deposits:
U.S.$85,592 $66,077 
Non-U.S.66,953 60,817 
Total interest-bearing deposits(2)
152,545 126,894 
Securities sold under repurchase agreements2,687 1,754 
Short-term borrowings under money market liquidity facility9,550 — 
Other short-term borrowings2,582 1,664 
Long-term debt14,553 11,201 
Other interest-bearing liabilities3,217 4,101 
Average total interest-bearing liabilities185,134 145,614 
Non-interest-bearing deposits(2)
36,276 29,493 
Other non-interest-bearing liabilities20,591 21,353 
Preferred shareholders’ equity2,601 3,690 
Common shareholders’ equity22,140 21,314 
Average total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$266,742 $221,464 
(1) Additional information about our average statement of condition, primarily our interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, is provided in "Net Interest Income" included in this Management's Discussion and Analysis.
(2) Total deposits averaged $188.82 billion in the nine months ended September 30, 2020 compared to $156.39 billion in the same period in 2019.
State Street Corporation | 27


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Investment Securities
TABLE 21: CARRYING VALUES OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES
(In millions)September 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Available-for-sale:
U.S. Treasury and federal agencies:
Direct obligations$7,293 $3,487 
Mortgage-backed securities18,211 17,838 
Total U.S. Treasury and federal agencies25,504 21,325 
Asset-backed securities:
Student loans(1)
357 531 
Credit cards90 89 
Collateralized loan obligations2,538 1,820 
Total asset-backed securities2,985 2,440 
Non-U.S. debt securities:
Mortgage-backed securities1,863 1,980 
Asset-backed securities2,031 2,179 
Government securities12,849 12,373 
Other11,310 8,658 
Total non-U.S. debt securities28,053 25,190 
State and political subdivisions1,694 1,783 
Collateralized mortgage obligations84 104 
Other U.S. debt securities3,460 2,973 
Total available-for-sale$61,780 $53,815 
Held-to-maturity(2):
U.S. Treasury and federal agencies:
Direct obligations$6,668 $10,311 
Mortgage-backed securities33,096 26,297 
Total U.S. Treasury and federal agencies39,764 36,608 
Asset-backed securities:
Student loans(1)
4,323 3,783 
Total asset-backed securities4,323 3,783 
Non-U.S. debt securities:
Mortgage-backed securities321 366 
Government securities419 328 
Total non-U.S. debt securities740 694 
Collateralized mortgage obligations569 697 
Total45,396 41,782 
Held-to-maturity under money market mutual fund liquidity facility(3)
4,825 — 
Total held-to-maturity$50,221 $41,782 
(1) Primarily comprised of securities guaranteed by the federal government with respect to at least 97% of defaulted principal and accrued interest on the underlying loans.
(2) Includes securities at amortized cost or fair value on the date of transfer from AFS.
(3) Consists entirely of U.S. securities.
Additional information about our investment securities portfolio, including our allowance for credit losses on investment securities, is provided in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
We manage our investment securities portfolio to align with the interest rate and duration characteristics of our client liabilities and in the context of the overall structure of our consolidated statement of condition, in consideration of the global interest rate environment. We consider a well-diversified, high-credit quality investment securities portfolio to be an important element in the
management of our consolidated statement of condition.
Average duration of our investment securities portfolio was 2.9 years and 2.7 years as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. The increase in securities duration is primarily driven by continued growth in the investment portfolio and the maturity of the short-dated MMLF securities. Excluding HTM securities purchased under the MMLF program, the average duration of our investment securities portfolio was 3.0 years and 2.7 years as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
As presented in the table below, approximately 91% and 90% of the carrying value of the portfolio was rated “AAA” or “AA” as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively, excluding the securities purchased under the MMLF program. The Federal Reserve has taken on the credit risk of the assets purchased under the MMLF program, including municipal securities. The securities purchased under the MMLF program were primarily short-duration securities.
TABLE 22: INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO BY EXTERNAL CREDIT RATING (EXCLUDING SECURITIES PURCHASED UNDER THE MMLF PROGRAM)
September 30, 2020December 31, 2019
AAA(1)
78 %77 %
AA13 13 
A4 
BBB5 
Below BBB — 
100 %100 %
(1) Includes U.S. Treasury and federal agency securities that are split-rated, “AAA” by Moody’s Investors Service and “AA+” by Standard & Poor’s and also includes Agency MBS securities which are not explicitly rated but which have an explicit or assumed guarantee from the U.S. government.
As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the investment portfolio was diversified with respect to asset class composition. The following table presents the composition of these asset classes.
TABLE 23: INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO BY ASSET CLASS
September 30, 2020December 31, 2019
U.S. Agency
Mortgage-backed securities
39 %41 %
Foreign sovereign19 19 
U.S. Treasuries12 14 
Asset-backed securities10 11 
Other credit(1)
20 15 
100 %100 %
(1) Includes the securities purchased under the MMLF program.
State Street Corporation | 28


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Non-U.S. Debt Securities
Approximately 26% and 27% of the aggregate carrying value of our investment securities portfolio was non-U.S. debt securities as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
TABLE 24: NON-U.S. DEBT SECURITIES(1)
(In millions)September 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Available-for-sale:
Canada$3,280 $2,611 
European(2)
2,980 2,101 
France2,559 2,223 
Australia2,535 2,409 
Germany2,014 1,944 
Spain1,670 1,531 
Belgium1,600 977 
Austria1,482 1,398 
Netherlands1,437 1,524 
United Kingdom1,282 1,608 
Ireland1,190 1,235 
Finland1,153 846 
Italy1,018 1,113 
Asian(2)
985 581 
Japan560 1,363 
Hong Kong305 617 
Sweden239 156 
Luxembourg93 124 
Brazil67 93 
Norway56 51 
Other(3)
1,548 685 
Total$28,053 $25,190 
Held-to-maturity:
Singapore$302 $214 
Germany117 112 
United Kingdom104 126 
Australia90 109 
Spain84 85 
Other43 48 
Total$740 $694 
(1) Geography is determined primarily based on the domicile of collateral or issuer.
(2) Consists entirely of supranational bonds.
(3) Included approximately $1,490 million and $618 million as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively, related to supranational and non-U.S. agency bonds.
Approximately 79% and 74% of the aggregate carrying value of these non-U.S. debt securities was rated “AAA” or “AA” as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, approximately 21% and 27%, respectively, of the aggregate carrying value of these non-U.S. debt securities was floating-rate.
As of September 30, 2020, our non-U.S. debt securities had an average market-to-book ratio of 101.3%, and an aggregate pre-tax net unrealized
gain of $376 million, composed of gross unrealized gains of $399 million and gross unrealized losses of $23 million. These unrealized amounts included:
a pre-tax net unrealized gain of $319 million, composed of gross unrealized gains of $336 million and gross unrealized losses of $17 million, associated with non-U.S. AFS debt securities; and
a pre-tax net unrealized gain of $57 million, composed of gross unrealized gains of $63 million and gross unrealized losses of $6 million, associated with non-U.S. HTM debt securities.
As of September 30, 2020, the securities listed under “Canada” were composed of Canadian government, corporate bonds and non-U.S. agency securities and municipals. The securities listed under “France” were composed of sovereign bonds, non-U.S. agency securities, ABS, corporate debt and covered bonds. Additionally, the underlying collateral for non-U.S. MBS and ABS primarily included French, Australian, German, U.K., Dutch and Italian mortgages.
Municipal Obligations
We carried approximately $1.7 billion of municipal securities classified as state and political subdivisions in our investment securities portfolio as of September 30, 2020, as shown in Table 21: Carrying Values of Investment Securities, all of which were classified as AFS. As of September 30, 2020, we also provided approximately $9.9 billion of credit and liquidity facilities to municipal issuers.
TABLE 25: STATE AND MUNICIPAL OBLIGORS(1)
(Dollars in millions)
Total Municipal
Securities
(2)
Credit and
Liquidity 
Facilities(3)
Total
% of Total Municipal
Exposure
September 30, 2020
State of Issuer:
Texas$272 $2,314 $2,586 22 %
California137 2,065 2,202 19 
New York299��1,773 2,072 18 
Massachusetts415 1,036 1,451 12 
Total$1,123 $7,188 $8,311 
December 31, 2019
State of Issuer:
Texas$275 $2,345 $2,620 23 %
California111 2,114 2,225 20 
New York283 1,531 1,814 16 
Massachusetts442 809 1,251 11 
Total$1,111 $6,799 $7,910 
(1) Represented 5% or more of our aggregate municipal credit exposure of approximately $11.69 billion and $11.32 billion across our businesses as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
(2) Includes approximately $0.11 billion of municipal HTM MMLF securities.
(3) Includes municipal loans which are also presented within Table 26: U.S. and Non-U.S. Loans.
State Street Corporation | 29


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Our aggregate municipal securities exposure presented in Table 25: State and Municipal Obligors, was concentrated primarily with highly-rated counterparties, with approximately 84% of the obligors rated “AAA” or “AA”, or equivalent, as of September 30, 2020. Additionally, as of September 30, 2020, approximately 24% and 76% of our aggregate municipal securities exposure was associated with general obligation bonds and revenue bonds, respectively. The portfolios are also diversified geographically, with the states that represent our largest exposures widely dispersed across the U.S.
Additional information with respect to our assessment of impairment of our municipal securities is provided in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
Loans
TABLE 26: U.S. AND NON- U.S. LOANS
(In millions)As of September 30, 2020As of December 31, 2019
Domestic(1):
Commercial and financial:
Fund Finance (2)
$10,012 $10,270 
Leveraged loans3,038 3,342 
Overdrafts2,223 1,739 
Other(3)
2,735 3,411 
Commercial real estate1,944 1,766 
Total domestic19,952 20,528 
Foreign(1):
Commercial and financial:
Fund Finance(2)
4,262 3,145 
Leveraged loans1,222 1,119 
Overdrafts1,570 1,517 
Other(3)
29 — 
Total foreign7,083 5,781 
Total loans27,035 26,309 
Allowance for loan losses(134)(74)
Loans, net of allowance$26,901 $26,235 
(1) Domestic and foreign categorization is based on the borrower’s country of domicile.
(2) Fund finance loans include primarily $5,345 million loans to real money funds, $7,654 million private equity capital call finance loans and $860 million loans to business development companies as of September 30, 2020, compared to $6,040 million loans to real money funds, $6,076 million private equity capital call finance loans and $932 million loans to business development companies as of December 31, 2019.
(3) Includes $1,859 million securities finance loans, $850 million loans to municipalities and $55 million other loans as of September 30, 2020 and $2,537 million securities finance loans, $848 million loans to municipalities and $26 million other loans as of December 31, 2019.
The increase in loans in the commercial and financial segment as of September 30, 2020 compared to December 31, 2019 was primarily driven by higher levels of client overdrafts and fund finance loans, partially offset by a decrease in securities finance loans.
As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, our leveraged loans, totaled approximately $4.26 billion and $4.46 billion, respectively. We continued selective de-risking actions in the leveraged loan portfolio, selling $55 million and $271 million leveraged loans in the three and nine
months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, of which $10 million remained unsettled and was held for sale as of September 30, 2020. We recorded losses on the sale of these loans of $11 million and $29 million in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively. In addition, we had binding unfunded commitments as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019 of $53 million and $176 million, respectively, to participate in such syndications. Additional information about these unfunded commitments is provided in Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
These leveraged loans, which are primarily rated “speculative” under our internal risk-rating framework (refer to Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q), are externally rated “BBB,” “BB” or “B,” with approximately 84% and 86% of the loans rated “BB” or “B” as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Our investment strategy involves generally limiting our investment to larger, more liquid credits underwritten by major global financial institutions, applying our internal credit analysis process to each potential investment and diversifying our exposure by counterparty and industry segment. However, these loans have significant exposure to credit losses relative to higher-rated loans in our portfolio.
Additional information about all of our loan segments, as well as underlying classes, is provided in Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
No loans were modified in troubled debt restructurings as of both September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
Allowance for Credit Losses
TABLE 27: ALLOWANCE FOR CREDIT LOSSES
Nine Months Ended September 30,
(In millions)2020
2019(1)
Allowance for credit losses:
Beginning balance(1)
$93 $83 
Provision for credit losses (funded commitments)(2)
89 
Provision for credit losses (unfunded commitments)(3)
(4)— 
Provision for credit losses (held-to-maturity securities and all other)3 — 
Charge-offs(4)
(33)(2)
FX translation5 (2)
Ending balance$153 $86 
(1) Beginning 2020, the balance will not tie to the December 31, 2019 ending balance due to the adoption of ASU 2016-13. Please refer to Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q for additional information.
(2) The provision for credit losses is primarily related to commercial and financial loans.
(3) Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-13, the provision for unfunded commitments was recorded within other expenses in the consolidated statement of income. Upon adoption of ASU 2016-13 in the first quarter of 2020, the provision for all assets within scope is recorded within the provision for credit losses in the consolidated statement of income.
(4) The charge-offs are related to commercial and financial loans.
State Street Corporation | 30


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
As discussed above, we adopted ASU 2016-13 in January 2020. For additional information on this new standard, refer to Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
The provision for credit losses related to loans and financial assets held at amortized cost, including investment securities classified as HTM and off-balance sheet commitments, was nil in the three months ended September 30, 2020 and $88 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2020, based on the CECL methodology, compared to $2 million and $7 million in the same periods in 2019, respectively (which were under the previous incurred loss model). Additional information is provided in Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q. For additional information on the previous loss model, please refer to Note 4 of the 2019 Form 10-K.
As of September 30, 2020, approximately $106 million of our allowance for credit losses was related to leveraged loans included in the commercial and financial segment compared to $61 million as of September 30, 2019, reflecting changes in reserving standards and economic outlook, as well as negative credit migration. As our view on current and future economic scenarios change, our allowance for credit losses related to these loans may be impacted through a change to the provisions for credit losses, reflecting credit migration within our loan portfolio, as well as changes in management's economic outlook as of quarter-end. The remaining $47 million and $10 million as of September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively, was related to off-balance sheet commitments and other financial assets held at amortized cost, including investment securities held to maturity.
An allowance for credit losses is recognized on HTM securities upon acquisition of the security, and on AFS securities when the fair value and expected future cash flows of the investment securities are less than their amortized cost basis. Please refer to Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q for additional information. Our assessment of impairment involves an evaluation of economic and security-specific factors. Such factors are based on estimates, derived by management, which contemplate current market conditions and security-specific performance. To the extent that market conditions are worse than management's expectations or due to idiosyncratic bond performance, the credit-related component of impairment, in particular, could increase and would be recorded in the provision for credit losses. Additional information with respect to the allowance for credit losses, net impairment losses and gross unrealized losses is provided in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
Cross-Border Outstandings
Cross-border outstandings are amounts payable to us by non-U.S. counterparties which are denominated in U.S. dollars or other non-local currency, as well as non-U.S. local currency claims not funded by local currency liabilities. Our cross-border outstandings consist primarily of deposits with banks; loans and lease financing, including short-duration advances; investment securities; amounts related to FX and interest rate contracts; and securities finance.  In addition to credit risk, cross-border outstandings have the risk that, as a result of political or economic conditions in a country, borrowers may be unable to meet their contractual repayment obligations of principal and/or interest when due because of the unavailability of, or restrictions on, FX needed by borrowers to repay their obligations.
As market and economic conditions change, the major independent credit rating agencies may downgrade U.S. and non-U.S. financial institutions and sovereign issuers which have been, and may in the future be, significant counterparties to us, or whose financial instruments serve as collateral on which we rely for credit risk mitigation purposes, and may do so again in the future. As a result, we may be exposed to increased counterparty risk, leading to negative ratings volatility.
The cross-border outstandings presented in Table 28: Cross-border outstandings, represented approximately 28% of our consolidated total assets as of both September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
TABLE 28: CROSS-BORDER OUTSTANDINGS(1)
(In millions)
Investment Securities and Other Assets 
Derivatives and Securities on LoanTotal Cross-Border Outstandings
September 30, 2020  
Germany$21,992 $606 $22,598 
United Kingdom16,434 1,849 18,283 
Japan7,151 683 7,834 
Australia5,348 857 6,205 
Luxembourg5,030 1,091 6,121 
Canada4,904 1,191 6,095 
Ireland1,789 2,186 3,975 
France3,338 598 3,936 
December 31, 2019 
Germany$20,968 $217 $21,185 
United Kingdom13,764 1,468 15,232 
Japan11,121 555 11,676 
Luxembourg3,399 668 4,067 
Canada2,955 783 3,738 
Australia3,100 597 3,697 
France2,813 240 3,053 
Ireland1,988 641 2,629 
Switzerland1,724 589 2,313 
(1) Cross-border outstandings included countries in which we do business, and which amounted to at least 1% of our consolidated total assets as of the dates indicated.
State Street Corporation | 31


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
As of September 30, 2020, aggregate cross-border outstandings in Switzerland and Belgium amounted to between 0.75% and 1% of our consolidated assets, at approximately $2.71 billion and $2.20 billion, respectively. As of December 31, 2019, aggregate cross-border outstandings in the Netherlands amounted to between 0.75% and 1% of our consolidated assets, at approximately $1.89 billion.
Risk Management
In the normal course of our global business activities, we are exposed to a variety of risks, some inherent in the financial services industry, others more specific to our business activities. Our risk management framework focuses on material risks, which include the following:
credit and counterparty risk;
liquidity risk, funding and management;
operational risk;
information technology risk;
market risk associated with our trading activities;
market risk associated with our non-trading activities, which we refer to as asset-and-liability management, and which consists primarily of interest rate risk;
model risk;
strategic risk; and
reputational, fiduciary and business conduct risk.
Many of these risks, as well as certain of the factors underlying each of these risks that could affect our businesses and our consolidated financial statements, are discussed in detail on pages 18 to 47 included under Item 1A, Risk Factors, in our 2019 Form 10-K, and in Part II, Item 1A of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
For additional information about our risk management, including our risk appetite framework and risk governance committee structure, refer to pages 80 to 84 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Risk Management Framework", in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Credit Risk Management
We define credit risk as the risk of financial loss if a counterparty, borrower or obligor, collectively referred to as a counterparty, is either unable or unwilling to repay borrowings or settle a transaction in accordance with underlying contractual terms. We assume credit risk in our traditional non-trading lending activities, such as loans and contingent commitments, in our investment securities portfolio, where recourse to a counterparty exists, and in our direct and indirect trading activities, such as securities
purchased under a resale agreement, principal securities lending and FX and indemnified agency securities lending. We also assume credit risk in our day-to-day treasury and securities and other settlement operations, in the form of deposit placements and other cash balances, with central banks or private sector institutions and fees receivables.
Allowance for Credit Losses
We maintain an allowance for credit losses to support our on-balance sheet credit exposures, including financial assets held at amortized cost and investment securities held-to-maturity. We also maintain an allowance for unfunded commitments and letters of credit to support our off-balance credit exposure. The two components together represent the allowance for credit losses. Review and evaluation of the adequacy of the allowance for credit losses is ongoing throughout the year, but occurs at least quarterly, and is based, among other factors, on our evaluation of the level of risk in the portfolio, and reasonable and supportable forecasts and their effect on our counterparties in our expectation of credit losses. We utilize multiple economic scenarios, consisting of a baseline, upside and downside scenario, to develop management’s forecast of future expected losses.
The economic forecast utilized in the third quarter of 2020 reflects slightly improving economic forecasts and limited negative credit migration. However, the economic forecast remains highly uncertain, particularly since future economic activity remains dependent on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. If future data and forecasts deviate relative to the forecasts utilized to determine our allowance for credit losses as of September 30, 2020, or if credit risk migration is higher or lower than forecasted for reasons independent of the economic forecast, our allowance for credit losses will also change. Additional information about the allowance for credit losses is provided in Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
For additional information about our credit risk management framework, including our core policies and principles, structure and organization, credit ratings, risk parameter estimates, credit risk mitigation, credit limits, reporting, monitoring and controls, refer to pages 84 to 89 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Risk Management Framework", in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Liquidity Risk Management
Our liquidity framework contemplates areas of potential risk based on our activities, size and other appropriate risk-related factors. In managing liquidity risk we employ limits, maintain established metrics
State Street Corporation | 32


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
and early warning indicators and perform routine stress testing to identify potential liquidity needs. This process involves the evaluation of a combination of internal and external scenarios which assist us in measuring our liquidity position and in identifying potential increases in cash needs or decreases in available sources of cash, as well as the potential impairment of our ability to access the global capital markets.
We manage our liquidity on a global, consolidated basis. We also manage liquidity on a stand-alone basis at the Parent Company, as well as at certain branches and subsidiaries of State Street Bank. State Street Bank generally has access to markets and funding sources limited to banks, such as the federal funds market and the Federal Reserve's discount window. The Parent Company is managed to a more conservative liquidity profile, reflecting narrower market access. Additionally, the Parent Company typically holds, or has direct access to, primarily through SSIF, a direct subsidiary of the Parent Company, and the support agreement, as discussed in the "Uses of Liquidity" section of this Management's Discussion and Analysis, enough cash to meet its current debt maturities and cash needs, as well as those projected over the next one-year period. Reference our SPOE Strategy as discussed in the "Uses of Liquidity" section of this Management's Discussion and Analysis. Absent financial distress at the Parent Company, the liquid assets available at SSIF continue to be available to the Parent Company. As of September 30, 2020, the Parent Company and State Street Bank had approximately $1.51 billion of senior notes or subordinated debentures outstanding that will mature in the next twelve months.
As a systemically important financial institution, our liquidity risk management activities are subject to heightened and evolving regulatory requirements, including interpretations of those requirements, under specific U.S. and international regulations and also resulting from published and unpublished guidance, supervisory activities, such as stress tests, resolution planning, examinations and other regulatory interactions. Satisfaction of these requirements could, in some cases, result in changes in the composition of our investment portfolio, reduced NII or NIM, a reduction in the level of certain business activities or modifications to the way in which we deliver our products and services. If we fail to meet regulatory requirements to the satisfaction of our regulators, we could receive negative regulatory stress test results, incur a resolution plan deficiency or determination of a non-credible resolution plan or otherwise receive an adverse regulatory finding. Our efforts to satisfy, or our failure to satisfy, these regulatory requirements could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
For additional information on our liquidity risk management, as well as liquidity risk metrics, refer to pages 89 to 93 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation, in our 2019 Form 10-K. For additional information on our liquidity ratios, including LCR and the net stable funding ratio, refer to page 9 included under Item 1, Business, in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Asset Liquidity
Central to the management of our liquidity is asset liquidity, which consists primarily of unencumbered highly liquid securities, cash and cash equivalents reported in our consolidated statement of condition. We restrict the eligibility of securities to be characterized as asset liquidity to U.S. Government and federal agency securities (including MBS), securities of selected non-U.S. Governments and supranational organizations as well as certain other high-quality securities which generally are more liquid than other types of assets even in times of stress. As a banking organization, we are subject to a minimum LCR of 100% under the LCR rule approved by U.S. banking regulators. The LCR is intended to promote the short-term resilience of internationally active banking organizations, like us, to improve the banking industry's ability to absorb shocks arising from market stress over a 30 calendar day period and improve the measurement and management of liquidity risk. The LCR measures an institution’s HQLA against its net cash outflows. HQLA primarily consists of unencumbered cash and certain high quality liquid securities that qualify for inclusion under the LCR rule. We report LCR to the Federal Reserve daily. For the quarters ended September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, daily average LCR for the Parent Company was 109% and 110%, respectively. The average HQLA for the Parent Company under the LCR final rule was $130.95 billion and $100.23 billion, post-prescribed haircuts, for the quarters ended September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
We maintained average cash balances in excess of regulatory requirements governing deposits with the Federal Reserve of approximately $68.46 billion at the Federal Reserve, the ECB and other non-U.S. central banks for the quarter ended September 30, 2020, compared to $41.56 billion for the quarter ended December 31, 2019. The higher levels of average cash balances with central banks reflect higher levels of client deposits.
Liquid securities carried in our asset liquidity include securities pledged without corresponding advances from the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (FRBB), the FHLB and other non-U.S. central banks. State Street Bank is a member of the FHLB. This
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
membership allows for advances of liquidity in varying terms against high-quality collateral, which helps facilitate asset-and-liability management. As of September 30, 2020, we had approximately $5 billion of outstanding borrowings from the FHLB. As of December 31, 2019, we had no outstanding borrowings from the FHLB.
Access to primary, intra-day and contingent liquidity provided by these utilities is an important source of contingent liquidity with utilization subject to underlying conditions. As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we had no outstanding primary credit borrowings from the FRBB discount window.
In addition to the securities included in our asset liquidity, we have significant amounts of other unencumbered investment securities. These securities are available sources of liquidity, although not as rapidly deployed as those included in our asset liquidity.
The average fair value of total unencumbered securities was $80.77 billion for the quarter ended September 30, 2020 compared to $76.94 billion for the quarter ended December 31, 2019.
Uses of Liquidity
Significant uses of our liquidity could result from the following: withdrawals of client deposits; draw-downs by our custody clients of lines of credit; advances to clients to settle securities transactions; or other permitted purposes. Such circumstances would generally arise under stress conditions including deterioration in credit ratings. A recurring significant use of our liquidity involves our deployment of HQLA from our investment portfolio to post collateral to financial institutions serving as sources of securities under our enhanced custody program.
We had unfunded commitments to extend credit with gross contractual amounts totaling $33.74 billion and $29.70 billion and standby letters of credit totaling $3.24 billion and $3.32 billion as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. These amounts do not reflect the value of any collateral. As of September 30, 2020, approximately 73% of our unfunded commitments to extend credit and 17% of our standby letters of credit expire within one year. Since many of our commitments are expected to expire or renew without being fully drawn upon, the gross contractual amounts do not necessarily represent our future cash requirements.
Resolution Planning
State Street, like other bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more, periodically submits a plan for rapid and orderly resolution in the event of material financial distress or failure, commonly referred to as a resolution plan or a
living will, to the Federal Reserve and the FDIC under Section 165(d) of the Dodd-Frank Act. Through resolution planning, we seek, in the event of our insolvency, to maintain State Street Bank’s role as a key infrastructure provider within the financial system, while minimizing risk to the financial system and maximizing value for the benefit of our stakeholders. We have and will continue to focus management attention and resources to meet regulatory expectations with respect to resolution planning.
We submitted our updated 2019 165(d) resolution plan describing our preferred resolution strategy to the Federal Reserve and FDIC (the Agencies) before July 1, 2019, and our resolution strategy is materially consistent with our prior resolution strategy. In reviewing the 2019 plan, the Agencies noted meaningful improvements over prior plan submissions. The Agencies did not identify any deficiencies in the 2019 plan, but did identify one shortcoming related to the implementation of governance mechanisms. We submitted to the Agencies our plan to remediate this shortcoming in line with the expected timeframe. In addition to the above letter, the Federal Reserve and FDIC jointly issued a final rule that was published in the Federal Register on November 1, 2019.  This final rule revised the implementation requirements under the Dodd Frank Act's resolution planning provisions by means of establishing a biennial filing cycle for the U.S. G-SIBs, including State Street. This cycle alternates between a targeted resolution plan, followed two years later by a full resolution plan. The Agencies have published the scope for the upcoming targeted resolution plan, to include the core elements of resolution planning and some specific firm level information, including impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic. The next resolution plan is due on July 1, 2021.
In the event of material financial distress or failure, our preferred resolution strategy is the SPOE Strategy. For additional information about the SPOE Strategy, refer to pages 12 to 14 included under Item 1, Business, in our 2019 Form 10-K. The SPOE Strategy provides that prior to the bankruptcy of the Parent Company and pursuant to a support agreement among the Parent Company, SSIF, our Beneficiary Entities (as defined below) and certain other of our entities, SSIF is obligated, up to its available resources, to recapitalize and/or provide liquidity to State Street Bank and our other entities benefiting from such capital and/or liquidity (collectively with State Street Bank, “Beneficiary Entities”), in amounts designed to prevent the Beneficiary Entities from themselves entering into resolution proceedings. Following the recapitalization of, or provision of liquidity to the Beneficiary Entities, the Parent Company would enter into a bankruptcy
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
proceeding under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. The Beneficiary Entities and our subsidiaries would be transferred to a newly organized holding company held by a reorganization trust for the benefit of the Parent Company’s claimants.
Under the support agreement, the Parent Company has pre-funded SSIF by contributing certain of its assets (primarily its liquid assets, cash deposits, debt investments, investments in marketable securities and other cash and non-cash equivalent investments) to SSIF contemporaneous with entering into the support agreement and will continue to contribute such assets, to the extent available, on an on-going basis. In consideration for these contributions, SSIF has agreed in the support agreement to provide capital and liquidity support to the Parent Company and all of the Beneficiary Entities in accordance with the Parent Company’s capital and liquidity policies. Under the support agreement, the Parent Company is only permitted to retain certain amounts of cash needed to meet its upcoming obligations and to fund expenses during a potential bankruptcy proceeding. SSIF has provided the Parent Company with a committed credit line and issued (and may issue) one or more promissory notes to the Parent Company (the Parent Company Funding Notes) that together are intended to allow us to continue to meet our obligations throughout the period prior to the occurrence of a "Recapitalization Event" (as defined below). The support agreement does not contemplate that SSIF is obligated to maintain any specific level of resources and SSIF may not have sufficient resources to implement the SPOE Strategy.
In the event a Recapitalization Event occurs, the obligations outstanding under the Parent Company Funding Notes would automatically convert into or be exchanged for capital contributed to SSIF. The obligations of the Parent Company and SSIF under the support agreement are secured through a security agreement that grants a lien on the assets that the Parent Company and SSIF would use to fulfill their obligations under the support agreement to the Beneficiary Entities. SSIF is a distinct legal entity separate from the Parent Company and the Parent Company’s other affiliates.
In accordance with its policies, we are required to monitor, on an ongoing basis, the capital and liquidity needs of State Street Bank and the other Beneficiary Entities. To support this process, we have established a trigger framework that identifies key actions that would need to be taken or decisions that would need to be made if certain events tied to our financial condition occur. In the event that we experience material financial distress, the support agreement requires us to model and calculate certain capital and liquidity triggers on a regular basis to
determine whether or not the Parent Company should commence preparations for a bankruptcy filing and whether or not a Recapitalization Event has occurred.
Upon the occurrence of a Recapitalization Event: (1) SSIF would not be authorized to provide any further liquidity to the Parent Company; (2) the Parent Company would be required to contribute to SSIF any remaining assets it is required to contribute to SSIF under the support agreement; (3) SSIF would be required to provide capital and liquidity support to the Beneficiary Entities to support such entities’ continued operation; and (4) the Parent Company would be expected to commence Chapter 11 proceedings under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. No person or entity, other than a party to the support agreement, should rely, including in evaluating any of our entities from a creditor's perspective or determining whether to enter into a contractual relationship with any of our entities, on any of our affiliates being or remaining a Beneficiary Entity or receiving capital or liquidity support pursuant to the support agreement.
A “Recapitalization Event” is defined under the support agreement as the earlier occurrence of one or more capital and liquidity thresholds being breached or the authorization by the Parent Company's Board of Directors for the Parent Company to commence bankruptcy proceedings. These thresholds are set at levels intended to provide for the availability of sufficient capital and liquidity to enable an orderly resolution without extraordinary government support. The SPOE Strategy and the obligations under the support agreement may result in the recapitalization of State Street Bank and the commencement of bankruptcy proceedings by the Parent Company at an earlier stage of financial stress than might otherwise occur without such mechanisms in place. An expected effect of the SPOE Strategy and applicable TLAC regulatory requirements is that losses will be imposed on the Parent Company shareholders and the holders of long-term debt and other forms of TLAC securities currently outstanding or issued in the future by the Parent Company, as well as on any other Parent Company creditors, before any of its losses are imposed on the holders of the debt securities of the Parent Company's operating subsidiaries or any of their depositors or creditors, or before U.S. taxpayers are put at risk.
There can be no assurance that credit rating agencies, in response to our 2019 resolution plan or the support agreement, will not downgrade, place on negative watch or change their outlook on our debt credit ratings, generally or on specific debt securities. Any such downgrade, placement on negative watch or change in outlook could adversely affect our cost of borrowing, limit our access to the capital markets or result in restrictive covenants in future debt
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
agreements and could also adversely impact the trading prices, or the liquidity, of our outstanding debt securities.
State Street Bank is also required to submit, periodically in accordance with applicable regulations and FDIC guidance, a plan for resolution in the event of its failure, referred to as an Insured Depository Institution (IDI) plan. On April 22, 2019, the Federal Register published the FDIC’s advance notice of proposed rulemaking in which it invited comment on potential revisions to its IDI plan requirements. In addition to this advance notice of proposed rulemaking, on April 16, 2019, the FDIC Board voted to delay the next round of submissions under the IDI Rule until the rulemaking process has been completed. On May 20, 2020, the FDIC released a statement notifying of its plan to issue a proposal in the current year that may require the submission of a targeted IDI plan in 2021.
Funding
Deposits
We provide products and services including custody, accounting, administration, daily pricing, FX services, cash management, financial asset management, securities finance and investment advisory services. As a provider of these products and services, we generate client deposits, which have generally provided a stable, low-cost source of funds. As a global custodian, clients place deposits with our entities in various currencies. As of both September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, approximately 60% of our average total deposit balances were denominated in U.S. dollars, approximately 20% in EUR, 10% in GBP and 10% in all other currencies.
Short-Term Funding
Our on-balance sheet liquid assets are also an integral component of our liquidity management strategy. These assets provide liquidity through maturities of the assets, but more importantly, they provide us with the ability to raise funds by pledging the securities as collateral for borrowings or through outright sales. In addition, our access to the global capital markets gives us the ability to source incremental funding from wholesale investors. As discussed earlier under “Asset Liquidity,” State Street Bank's membership in the FHLB allows for advances of liquidity with varying terms against high-quality collateral.
Short-term secured funding also comes in the form of securities lent or sold under agreements to repurchase. These transactions are short-term in nature, generally overnight and are collateralized by high-quality investment securities. These balances were $2.43 billion and $1.10 billion as of
September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
State Street Bank currently maintains a line of credit with a financial institution of CAD 1.40 billion, or approximately $1.05 billion, as of September 30, 2020, to support its Canadian securities processing operations. The line of credit has no stated termination date and is cancelable by either party with prior notice. As of both September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, there was no balance outstanding on this line of credit.
Long-Term Funding
We have the ability to issue debt and equity securities under our current universal shelf registration statement to meet current commitments and business needs, including accommodating the transaction and cash management needs of our clients. In addition, State Street Bank also has current authorization from the Board to issue up to $5 billion in unsecured senior debt.
Agency Credit Ratings
Our ability to maintain consistent access to liquidity is fostered by the maintenance of high investment grade ratings as measured by the major independent credit rating agencies. Factors essential to maintaining high credit ratings include:
diverse and stable core earnings;
relative market position;
strong risk management;
strong capital ratios;
diverse liquidity sources, including the global capital markets and client deposits;
strong liquidity monitoring procedures; and
preparedness for current or future regulatory developments.
High ratings limit borrowing costs and enhance our liquidity by:
providing assurance for unsecured funding and depositors;
increasing the potential market for our debt and improving our ability to offer products;
serving markets; and
engaging in transactions in which clients value high credit ratings.
A downgrade or reduction of our credit ratings could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity by restricting our ability to access the capital markets, which could increase the related cost of funds. In turn, this could cause the sudden and large-scale withdrawal of unsecured deposits by our clients, which could lead to draw-downs of unfunded commitments to extend credit or trigger requirements under securities purchase commitments; or require
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
additional collateral or force terminations of certain trading derivative contracts.
A majority of our derivative contracts have been entered into under bilateral agreements with counterparties who may require us to post collateral or terminate the transactions based on changes in our credit ratings. We assess the impact of these arrangements by determining the collateral that would be required assuming a downgrade by all rating agencies. The additional collateral or termination payments related to our net derivative liabilities under these arrangements that could have been called by counterparties in the event of a downgrade in our credit ratings below levels specified in the agreements is provided in Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q. Other funding sources, such as secured financing transactions and other margin requirements, for which there are no explicit triggers, could also be adversely affected.
Operational Risk Management
Operational risk is the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, human error and systems or from external events.
In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have instituted business continuity arrangements across our operating locations and we and a significant percentage of our key service providers are operating significantly or entirely in a work from home environment. Due to the related market disruption, we have also been processing a historically high volume of transactions on behalf of our clients. Both the operating environment and market dynamics increase operational risk and information technology risk, including cyber-threats.  See also “Information Technology Risk Management” below.
For additional information about our operational risk framework, refer to pages 93 to 97 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Risk Management Framework", in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Information Technology Risk Management
We define information technology risk as the risk associated with the use, ownership, operation, involvement, influence and adoption of information technology. Information technology risk includes risks triggered by technology non-compliance with regulatory obligations, information security and privacy incidents, business disruption, technology internal control and process gaps, technology operational events and adoption of new business technologies.
For additional information about our information technology risk framework, refer to pages 97 to 98 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and
Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Risk Management", in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Market Risk Management
Market risk is defined by U.S. banking regulators as the risk of loss that could result from broad market movements, such as changes in the general level of interest rates, credit spreads, FX rates or commodity prices. We are exposed to market risk in both our trading and certain of our non-trading, or asset and liability management activities.
Information about the market risk associated with our trading activities is provided below under “Trading Activities.” Information about the market risk associated with our non-trading activities, which consists primarily of interest rate risk, is provided below under “Asset and Liability Management Activities.”
Trading Activities
In the conduct of our trading activities, we assume market risk, the level of which is a function of our overall risk appetite, business objectives and liquidity needs, our clients' requirements and market volatility, and our execution against those factors.
For additional information about the market risk associated with our trading activities, refer to pages 98 to 99 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, in our 2019 Form 10-K.
As part of our trading activities, we assume positions in the FX and interest-rate markets by buying and selling cash instruments and entering into derivative instruments, including FX forward contracts, FX and interest-rate options and interest rate swaps, interest rate forward contracts, and interest rate futures. As of September 30, 2020, the notional amount of these derivative contracts was $2.79 trillion, of which $2.78 trillion was composed of FX forward, swap and spot contracts. We seek to match positions closely with the objective of tightly controlling related currency and interest rate risk. All FX contracts are valued daily at current market rates.

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Value-at-Risk and Stressed Value-at-Risk
We use a variety of risk measurement tools and methodologies, including VaR, which is an estimate of potential loss for a given period within a stated statistical confidence interval. We use a risk measurement methodology to measure trading related VaR daily. We have adopted standards for measuring trading related VaR, and we maintain regulatory capital for market risk associated with currently applicable bank regulatory market risk requirements. Our regulatory VaR-based measure is calculated based on historical volatilities of market risk factors during a two-year observation period calibrated to a one-tail, 99% confidence interval and a ten-business-day holding period.
We calculate a stressed VaR-based measure using the same model we use to calculate VaR, but with model inputs calibrated to historical data from a range of continuous twelve-month periods that reflect significant financial stress. The stressed VaR model identifies the second-worst outcome occurring in the worst continuous one-year rolling period since July 2007. This stressed VaR meets the regulatory requirement as the rolling ten-day period with an outcome that is worse than 99% of other outcomes during that twelve-month period of financial stress. For each portfolio, the stress period is determined algorithmically by seeking the one-year time horizon that produces the largest ten-business-day VaR from within the available historical data. This historical data set includes the financial crisis of 2008, the highly volatile period surrounding the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis and the Standard & Poor's downgrade of U.S. Treasury debt in August 2011. As the historical data set used to determine the stress period expands over time, future market stress events will be automatically incorporated.
For additional information about our VaR measurement tools and methodologies, refer to pages 100 to 103 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Stress Testing
We have a corporate-wide stress testing program in place that incorporates an array of techniques to measure the potential loss we could suffer in a hypothetical scenario of adverse economic and financial conditions. We also monitor concentrations of risk such as concentration by branch, risk component, and currency pairs. We conduct stress testing on a daily basis based on selected historical stress events that are relevant to
our positions in order to estimate the potential impact to our current portfolio should similar market conditions recur, and we also perform stress testing as part of the Federal Reserve's CCAR process. Stress testing is conducted, analyzed and reported at the corporate, trading desk, division and risk-factor level (for example, exchange risk, interest rate risk and volatility risk).
Stress testing results and limits are actively monitored on a daily basis by Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) and reported to the Trading and Markets Risk Committee (TMRC). Limit breaches are addressed by ERM risk managers in conjunction with the business units, escalated as appropriate, and reviewed by the TMRC if material. In addition, we have established several action triggers that prompt review by management and the implementation of a remediation plan.
Validation and Back-Testing
We perform frequent back-testing to assess the accuracy of our VaR-based model in estimating loss at the stated confidence level. This back-testing involves the comparison of estimated VaR model outputs to daily, actual P&L outcomes, observed from daily market movements. We back-test our VaR model using “clean” P&L, which excludes non-trading revenue such as fees, commissions and NII, as well as estimated revenue from intra-day trading.
Our VaR definition of trading losses excludes items that are not specific to the price movement of the trading assets and liabilities themselves, such as fees, commissions, changes to reserves and gains or losses from intra-day activity.
We had no back-testing exceptions in the quarters ended September 30, 2020, June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2019.
The following tables present VaR and stressed VaR associated with our trading activities for covered positions held during the quarters ended September 30, 2020, June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2019. A covered position is generally defined by U.S. banking regulators as an on-or off-balance sheet position associated with the organization's trading activities that is free of any restrictions on its tradability, but does not include intangible assets, certain credit derivatives recognized as guarantees and certain equity positions not publicly traded.
Diversification effect in the table below represents the difference between total VaR and the sum of the VaRs for each trading activity. This effect arises because the trading activities are not perfectly correlated.
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
TABLE 29: TEN-DAY VALUE-AT-RISK ASSOCIATED WITH TRADING ACTIVITIES FOR COVERED POSITIONS
Three Months EndedAs of September 30, 2020As of June 30, 2020As of September 30, 2019
September 30, 2020June 30, 2020September 30, 2019
(In thousands)Avg.Max.Min.Avg.Max.Min.Avg.Max.Min.VaRVaRVaR
Global Markets$14,270 

$31,389 

$6,589 $10,072 $19,152 $5,618 $10,404 

$24,389 

$5,239 $13,964 $8,534 $24,389 
Global Treasury3,206 

7,933 

350 3,856 8,043 423 489 

1,221 

146 1,969 4,040 287 
Diversification(2,758)

(7,914)

(342)(2,673)(5,294)(307)(455)

(1,249)

(157)(1,618)(2,293)(315)
Total VaR$14,718 

$31,408 

$6,597 $11,255 $21,901 $5,734 $10,438 

$24,361 

$5,228 $14,315 $10,281 $24,361 
TABLE 30: TEN-DAY STRESSED VALUE-AT-RISK ASSOCIATED WITH TRADING ACTIVITIES FOR COVERED POSITIONS
Three Months EndedAs of September 30, 2020As of June 30, 2020As of September 30, 2019
September 30, 2020June 30, 2020September 30, 2019
(In thousands)Avg.Max.Min.Avg.Max.Min.Avg.Max.Min.Stressed VaRStressed VaRStressed VaR
Global Markets$32,974 


$84,755 


$17,472 $29,533 $59,530 $17,545 $34,422 


$54,867 


$17,511 $39,714 $30,684 $42,724 
Global Treasury9,075 


23,153 


1,725 8,987 16,010 1,713 5,117 


10,421 


1,519 5,594 9,755 3,291 
Diversification(7,773)


(23,190)


(1,591)(7,766)(12,256)1,951 (5,106)


(11,198)


(1,009)(4,861)(12,779)(3,227)
Total VaR$34,276 


$84,718 


$17,606 $30,754 $63,284 $21,209 $34,433 


$54,090 


$18,021 $40,447 $27,660 $42,788 
The three month average of our stressed VaR-based measure was approximately $34 million for the quarter ended September 30, 2020 compared to an average of approximately $31 million for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 and $34 million for the quarter ended September 30, 2019. The increase in the average stressed VaR compared to the quarter ended June 30, 2020 is primarily attributed to higher foreign exchange and interest rate risk positions.
The VaR-based measures presented in the preceding tables are primarily a reflection of the overall level of market volatility and our appetite for taking market risk in our trading activities. Overall levels of volatility have been low, both on an absolute basis and relative to the historical information observed at the beginning of the period used for the calculations.
We may in the future modify and adjust our models and methodologies used to calculate VaR and stressed VaR, subject to regulatory review and approval, and these modifications and adjustments may result in changes in our VaR-based and stressed VaR-based measures. The following tables present the VaR and stressed-VaR associated with our trading activities attributable to FX risk, interest rate risk and volatility risk as of September 30, 2020, June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2019. Diversification effect in the table below represents the difference between total VaR and the sum of the VaRs for each risk category. This effect arises because the risk categories are not perfectly correlated.
TABLE 31: TEN-DAY VALUE-AT-RISK ASSOCIATED WITH TRADING ACTIVITIES BY RISK FACTOR FOR COVERED POSITIONS(1)
As of September 30, 2020As of June 30, 2020As of September 30, 2019
(In thousands)Foreign Exchange RiskInterest Rate RiskVolatility RiskForeign Exchange RiskInterest Rate RiskVolatility RiskForeign Exchange RiskInterest Rate RiskVolatility Risk
By component:
Global Markets$3,260 

$13,634 

$771 $6,243 $8,706 $239 $9,178 

$20,808 

$303 
Global Treasury16 

2,078 

 16 4,244 — 14 

284 

— 
Diversification(15)

(1,804)

 (15)(2,249)— (27)

(396)

— 
Total VaR$3,261 

$13,908 

$771 $6,244 $10,701 $239 $9,165 

$20,696 

$303 
TABLE 32: TEN-DAY STRESSED VALUE-AT-RISK ASSOCIATED WITH TRADING ACTIVITIES BY RISK FACTOR FOR COVERED POSITIONS(1)
As of September 30, 2020As of June 30, 2020As of September 30, 2019
(In thousands)Foreign Exchange RiskInterest Rate RiskVolatility RiskForeign Exchange RiskInterest Rate RiskVolatility RiskForeign Exchange RiskInterest Rate RiskVolatility Risk
By component:
Global Markets$8,098 


$44,418 


$868 $16,712 $32,549 $285 $25,735 


$49,042 


$372 
Global Treasury34 


5,679 


 34 9,484 — 26 


3,425 


— 
Diversification(34)


(6,468)


 (56)(9,946)— (30)


(5,208)


— 
Total VaR$8,098 


$43,629 


$868 $16,690 $32,087 $285 $25,731 


$47,259 


$372 
(1) For purposes of risk attribution by component, FX refers only to the risk from market movements in period-end rates. Forwards, futures, options and swaps with maturities greater than period-end have embedded interest rate risk that is captured by the measures used for interest rate risk. Accordingly, the interest rate risk embedded in these FX instruments is included in the interest rate risk component.
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Asset and Liability Management Activities
The primary objective of asset and liability management is to provide sustainable NII under varying economic conditions, while protecting the economic value of the assets and liabilities carried on our consolidated statement of condition from the adverse effects of changes in interest rates. While many market factors affect the level of NII and the economic value of our assets and liabilities, one of the most significant factors is our exposure to movements in interest rates. Most of our NII is earned from the investment of client deposits generated by our businesses. We invest these client deposits in assets that conform generally to the characteristics of our balance sheet liabilities, including the currency composition of our significant non-U.S. dollar denominated client liabilities.
We quantify NII sensitivity using an earnings simulation model that includes our expectations for new business growth, changes in balance sheet mix and investment portfolio positioning. This measure compares our baseline view of NII over a twelve-month horizon, based on our internal forecast of interest rates, to a wide range of rate shocks. Table 33, Key Interest Rates for Baseline Forecasts, presents the spot and 12-month forward rates used in our baseline forecasts at September 30, 2020 and September 30, 2019. Our September 30, 2020 baseline forecast assumes no changes by the Federal Reserve over the next 12 months.
TABLE 33: KEY INTEREST RATES FOR BASELINE FORECASTS
September 30, 2020September 30, 2019
Fed Funds Target10-Year TreasuryFed Funds Target10-Year Treasury
Spot rates0.25 %0.69 %2.00 %1.66 %
12-month forward rates0.25 0.77 1.25 1.61 
In Table 34: Net Interest Income Sensitivity, we report the expected change in NII over the next twelve months from instantaneous shocks to various tenors on the yield curve, including the impacts from U.S. and non-U.S. rates. Each scenario assumes no management action is taken to mitigate the adverse effects of interest rate changes on our financial performance. While investment securities balances can fluctuate with the level of rates as prepayment assumptions change, our modeling approach in both the September 30, 2020 and September 30, 2019 reporting periods was to keep our balance sheet consistent with our baseline outlook in both higher and lower rate scenarios. In prior reporting periods this year, we deviated from that approach for our +100 bps shock scenarios in light of the changing interest rate environment and fluctuating deposit balances. In the March 31, 2020 and June 30, 2020 reporting periods, client deposits were modeled to return to average balance levels experienced in the fourth quarter of 2019 with a corresponding reduction in cash and cash equivalents held with central banks. Given deposit stabilization in the third quarter of 2020, we no longer believe this deposit reduction is appropriate. Additionally, given the current low interest rate environment, our -100 bps shock scenarios are impacted by assumed floors as interest rates reach zero for certain currencies including the U.S. dollar scenarios.
TABLE 34: NET INTEREST INCOME SENSITIVITY
September 30, 2020September 30, 2019
(In millions)U.S. DollarAll Other CurrenciesTotalU.S. DollarAll Other CurrenciesTotal
Rate change:Benefit (Exposure)Benefit (Exposure)
Parallel shifts:
+100 bps shock$426 $134 $560 $86 $171 $257 
–100 bps shock(67)149 82 (227)58 (169)
Steeper yield curve:
+100 bps shift in long-end rates170 5 175 151 157 
-100 bps shift in short-end rates33 163 196 (67)61 (6)
Flatter yield curve:
+100 bps shift in short-end rates248 145 393 (52)165 113 
-100 bps shift in long-end rates(111)(4)(115)(146)(5)(151)
As of September 30, 2020, NII is expected to benefit from both parallel increases and decreases in interest rates. Compared to September 30, 2019, our NII is more sensitive to parallel rate increases primarily driven by higher levels of deposits and assumptions for lower deposit betas. Our positioning to parallel rate decreases has shifted to benefit NII predominantly driven by either contractual or assumed floors as interest rates in several currencies approach zero, which prevents the full extent of the rate shock to be realized.
State Street Corporation | 40


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
U.S. dollar NII as of September 30, 2020 remains positioned to benefit from a parallel rise in interest rates and to decline under a parallel decrease in interest rates. Compared to September 30, 2019, our U.S. dollar NII benefit to higher rates has increased primarily due to higher levels of deposits and assumptions for lower deposit betas. Compared to September 30, 2019, our U.S. dollar NII sensitivity to lower rates has improved mainly driven by either contractual or assumed floors as U.S. interest rates approach zero as well as lower long-end rates which includes the effect of decreasing paydowns of investment securities.
NII is still positioned to benefit from changes in non-U.S. interest rates with the majority of our sensitivity derived from the short-end of the curve given deposit pricing expectations. Compared to September 30, 2019, our non-U.S. benefit to higher rates has decreased while the benefit to lower rates has increased. The decreased benefit to higher rates is driven by higher volumes of fixed rate securities in our non-U.S. investment portfolio. The increased benefit to lower rates is mainly driven by the impact of contractual floors on our EUR denominated loan and securities portfolio compared to the deposits that are repricing the negative rates.
EVE sensitivity is a discounted cash flow model designed to estimate the fair value of assets and liabilities under a series of interest rate shocks over a long-term horizon. In the following table, we report our EVE sensitivity to 200 bps instantaneous rate shocks, relative to spot interest rates. Management compares the change in EVE sensitivity against our aggregate tier 1 and tier 2 risk-based capital, calculated in conformity with current applicable regulatory requirements. EVE sensitivity is dependent on the timing of interest and principal cash flows. Also, the measure only evaluates the spot balance sheet and does not include the impact of new business assumptions.
TABLE 35: ECONOMIC VALUE OF EQUITY SENSITIVITY
As of September 30,
(In millions)20202019
Rate change:Benefit (Exposure)
+200 bps shock$(1,369)$(1,726)
–200 bps shock1,236 1,093 
As of September 30, 2020, EVE sensitivity remains exposed to upward shifts in interest rates. Compared to September 30, 2019, the change in the up 200 bps instantaneous shock scenario was primarily driven by the benefit from increased liability duration from deposit modeling updates and hedging activity, partially offset by increased duration in our securities portfolio. The down 200 bps instantaneous shock results are impacted by assumed floors as interest rates in several currencies approach zero,
which prevents the full extent of the rate shock to be realized.
Both NII sensitivity and EVE sensitivity are routinely monitored as market conditions change. For additional information about our Asset and Liability Management Activities, refer to pages 103 to 105 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Risk Management", in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Model Risk Management
The use of models is widespread throughout the financial services industry, with large and complex organizations relying on sophisticated models to support numerous aspects of their financial decision making. The models contemporaneously represent both a significant advancement in financial management and a source of risk. In large banking organizations like us, model results influence business decisions, and model failure could have a harmful effect on our financial performance. As a result, the Model Risk Management Framework seeks to mitigate our model risk.
For additional information about our model risk management framework, including our governance and model validation, refer to pages 105 to 106 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Risk Management Framework", in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Strategic Risk Management
We define strategic risk as the current or prospective impact on earnings or capital arising from adverse business decisions, improper implementation of strategic initiatives, or lack of responsiveness to industry-wide changes. Strategic risks are influenced by changes in the competitive environment; decline in market performance or changes in our business activities; and the potential secondary impacts of reputational risks, not already captured as market, interest rate, credit, operational, model or liquidity risks. We incorporate strategic risk into our assessment of our business plans and risk and capital management processes. Active management of strategic risk is an integral component of all aspects of our business.
For additional information about our strategic risk management framework, refer to page 106 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, "Risk Management Framework", in our 2019 Form 10-K.

State Street Corporation | 41


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Capital
Managing our capital involves evaluating whether our actual and projected levels of capital are commensurate with our risk profile, are in compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements and are sufficient to provide us with the financial flexibility to undertake future strategic business initiatives. We assess capital adequacy based on relevant regulatory capital requirements, as well as our own internal capital goals, targets and other relevant metrics.
Our designation as a G-SIB is based on a number of factors, as evaluated by banking regulators, and requires us to maintain an additional capital surcharge above the minimum capital ratios set forth in the Basel III rule. Further, like all other U.S. G-SIBs, we are also currently subject to a 2.0% leverage buffer under the Basel III rule. If we fail to exceed any regulatory buffer or surcharge, we will be subject to increased restrictions (depending upon the extent of the shortfall) regarding capital distributions and discretionary executive bonus payments.
Not all of our competitors have similarly been designated as systemically important nor are all of them subject to the same degree of regulation as a bank or financial holding company, and therefore some of our competitors may not be subject to the same capital, liquidity and other regulatory requirements.
For additional information about our capital, refer to pages 106 to 113 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Regulatory Capital
We and State Street Bank, as advanced approaches banking organizations, are subject to the U.S. Basel III framework. Provisions of the Basel III rule became effective with full implementation on January 1, 2019. We are also subject to the final market risk capital rule issued by U.S. banking regulators effective as of January 2013.
The minimum capital ratios as of January 1, 2020, including a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% and a G-SIB surcharge of 1.0%, are 8.0% for CET1 capital, 9.5% for tier 1 risk-based capital and 11.5% for total risk-based capital. Based on a calculation date of December 31, 2018, our G-SIB surcharge for 2020 was reduced to 1.0%. Based on a calculation date of December 31, 2019, our G-SIB surcharge for 2021 will be 1.0%.
In August 2020, the Federal Reserve confirmed that our SCB will be 2.5% for the period starting on October 1, 2020 and ending on September 30, 2021, resulting in no change to our capital requirements. Due to the economic challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic, we and other participating
CCAR banks are required to resubmit our capital plans by November 2, 2020 under updated scenarios provided by the Federal Reserve. Results from the new stress test are expected by the end of the year, however, it is unclear whether or not the results will impact our calculated SCB. In line with the decision to administer a new stress test, the Federal Reserve has continued its suspension of the ability of all CCAR banking organizations to distribute capital beyond common dividends (at their current levels) through the fourth quarter of 2020.
To maintain the status of the Parent Company as a financial holding company, we and our insured depository institution subsidiaries are required, among other requirements, to be "well capitalized" as defined by Regulation Y and Regulation H, respectively.
The Basel III rule provides for two frameworks for monitoring capital adequacy: the “standardized approach" and the “advanced approaches", applicable to advanced approaches banking organizations, like us. The standardized approach prescribes standardized calculations for credit risk RWA, including specified risk weights for certain on- and off-balance sheet exposures. The advanced approaches consist of the Advanced Internal Ratings-Based Approach used for the calculation of RWA related to credit risk, and the Advanced Measurement Approach used for the calculation of RWA related to operational risk.
State Street Corporation | 42


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table presents the regulatory capital structure, total RWA, related regulatory capital ratios and the minimum required regulatory capital ratios for us and State Street Bank, calculated under the advanced approaches and standardized approach provisions of the Basel III final rule as of the dates indicated. We are subject to the more stringent of the risk-based capital ratios calculated under the standardized approach and those calculated under the advanced approaches in the assessment of our capital adequacy under applicable bank regulatory standards.
TABLE 36: REGULATORY CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND RELATED REGULATORY CAPITAL RATIOS
State Street CorporationState Street Bank
(Dollars in millions)Basel III Advanced Approaches September 30, 2020Basel III Standardized Approach September 30, 2020Basel III Advanced Approaches December 31, 2019Basel III Standardized Approach December 31, 2019Basel III Advanced Approaches September 30, 2020Basel III Standardized Approach September 30, 2020Basel III Advanced Approaches December 31, 2019Basel III Standardized Approach December 31, 2019
 Common shareholders' equity:
Common stock and related surplus$10,696 $10,696 $10,636 $10,636 $12,893 $12,893 $12,893 $12,893 
Retained earnings23,128 23,128 21,918 21,918 13,404 13,404 13,218 13,218 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)(111)(111)(870)(870)109 109 (654)(654)
Treasury stock, at cost(10,626)(10,626)(10,209)(10,209)  — — 
Total23,087 23,087 21,475 21,475 26,406 26,406 25,457 25,457 
Regulatory capital adjustments:
Goodwill and other intangible assets, net of associated deferred tax liabilities(8,992)(8,992)(9,112)(9,112)(8,721)(8,721)(8,839)(8,839)
Other adjustments(1)
(270)(270)(150)(150)(107)(107)(1)(1)
 Common equity tier 1 capital13,825 13,825 12,213 12,213 17,578 17,578 16,617 16,617 
Preferred stock2,471 2,471 2,962 2,962   — — 
 Tier 1 capital16,296 16,296 15,175 15,175 17,578 17,578 16,617 16,617 
Qualifying subordinated long-term debt964 964 1,095 1,095 969 969 1,099 1,099 
Allowance for credit losses30 153 90 39 153 90 
 Total capital$17,290 $17,413 $16,275 $16,360 $18,586 $18,700 $17,719 $17,806 
 Risk-weighted assets:
Credit risk(2)
$62,199 $109,296 $54,763 $102,367 $57,723 $105,406 $51,610 $98,979 
Operational risk(3)
44,050 NA47,963  NA43,563 NA44,138 NA
Market risk1,863 1,863 1,638 1,638 1,863 1,863 1,638 1,638 
Total risk-weighted assets$108,112 $111,159 $104,364 $104,005 $103,149 $107,269 $97,386 $100,617 
Adjusted quarterly average assets$247,762 $247,762 $219,624 $219,624 $244,434 $244,434 $216,397 $216,397 
Capital Ratios:2020 Minimum Requirements Including Capital Conservation Buffer and G-SIB Surcharge2019 Minimum Requirements Including Capital Conservation Buffer and G-SIB Surcharge
Common equity tier 1 capital8.0 %8.5 %12.8 %12.4 %11.7 %11.7 %17.0 %16.4 %17.1 %16.5 %
Tier 1 capital9.5 10.0 15.1 14.7 14.5 14.6 17.0 16.4 17.1 16.5 
Total capital11.5 12.0 16.0 15.7 15.6 15.7 18.0 17.4 18.2 17.7 
(1) Other adjustments within CET1 capital primarily include the overfunded portion of our defined benefit pension plan obligation net of associated deferred tax liabilities, disallowed deferred tax assets, and other required credit risk based deductions.
(2) Includes a CVA which reflects the risk of potential fair value adjustments for credit risk reflected in our valuation of over-the-counter (OTC) derivative contracts. We used a simple CVA approach in conformity with the Basel III advanced approaches.
(3) Under the current advanced approaches rules and regulatory guidance concerning operational risk models, RWA attributable to operational risk can vary substantially from period-to-period, without direct correlation to the effects of a particular loss event on our results of operations and financial condition and impacting dates and periods that may differ from the dates and periods as of and during which the loss event is reflected in our financial statements, with the timing and categorization dependent on the processes for model updates and, if applicable, model revalidation and regulatory review and related supervisory processes. An individual loss event can have a significant effect on the output of our operational RWA under the advanced approaches depending on the severity of the loss event and its categorization among the seven Basel-defined UOMs.
NA Not applicable
State Street Corporation | 43


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Our CET1 capital increased $1.61 billion as of September 30, 2020 compared to December 31, 2019, primarily driven by capital retained due to limitations on capital distributions. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we had no repurchases of our common stock in the third quarter of 2020 under current Federal Reserve requirements. We maintained our per share common dividend at $0.52 per share during the third quarter of 2020. Additionally, our continued capital optimization efforts resulted in lower preferred stock dividends in the third quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019.
Our tier 1 capital increased $1.12 billion as of September 30, 2020 compared to December 31, 2019, due to the aforementioned increase in our CET1 capital, which was partially offset by the redemption of all outstanding Series C non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock as of March 15, 2020 at redemption price of $0.50 billion. Total capital increased under the advanced approaches and standardized approach by $1.02 billion and $1.05 billion, respectively, primarily due to the changes in our tier 1 and tier 2 capital. As described above, no share repurchases were executed in the third quarter of 2020 and none will be executed in the fourth quarter of 2020.
The table below presents a roll-forward of CET1 capital, tier 1 capital and total capital for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and for the year ended December 31, 2019.
TABLE 37: CAPITAL ROLL-FORWARD
(In millions)Basel III Advanced Approaches September 30, 2020Basel III Standardized Approach September 30, 2020
Basel III
Advanced Approaches
December 31, 2019
Basel III Standardized Approach
December 31, 2019
Common equity tier 1 capital:
Common equity tier 1 capital balance, beginning of period$12,213 $12,213 $11,580 $11,580 
Net income1,883 1,883 2,242 2,242 
Changes in treasury stock, at cost(417)(417)(1,494)(1,494)
Dividends declared(663)(663)(939)(939)
Goodwill and other intangible assets, net of associated deferred tax liabilities120 120 238 238 
Effect of certain items in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)759 759 462 462 
Other adjustments(70)(70)124 124 
Changes in common equity tier 1 capital1,612 1,612 633 633 
Common equity tier 1 capital balance, end of period13,825 13,825 12,213 12,213 
Additional tier 1 capital:
Tier 1 capital balance, beginning of period15,175 15,175 15,270 15,270 
Change in common equity tier 1 capital1,612 1,612 633 633 
Net issuance (redemption) of preferred stock(491)(491)(728)(728)
Other adjustments  — — 
Changes in tier 1 capital1,121 1,121 (95)(95)
Tier 1 capital balance, end of period16,296 16,296 15,175 15,175 
Tier 2 capital:
Tier 2 capital balance, beginning of period1,100 1,185 792 861 
Net issuance and changes in long-term debt qualifying as tier 2(131)(131)317 317 
Changes in allowance for credit losses(1)
25 63 (9)
Change in other adjustments  — — 
Changes in tier 2 capital(106)(68)308 324 
Tier 2 capital balance, end of period994 1,117 1,100 1,185 
Total capital:
Total capital balance, beginning of period16,275 16,360 16,062 16,131 
Changes in tier 1 capital1,121 1,121 (95)(95)
Changes in tier 2 capital(106)(68)308 324 
Total capital balance, end of period$17,290 $17,413 $16,275 $16,360 
(1) We adopted ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (ASC 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, on January 1, 2020. Please refer to Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q for additional information.
State Street Corporation | 44


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table presents a roll-forward of the Basel III advanced and standardized approaches RWA for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and for the year ended December 31, 2019.
TABLE 38: ADVANCED & STANDARDIZED APPROACHES RISK-WEIGHTED ASSETS ROLL-FORWARD
(In millions)Basel III Advanced Approaches September 30, 2020Basel III
Advanced Approaches December 31, 2019
Basel III Standardized Approach September 30, 2020Basel III Standardized Approach December 31, 2019
Total risk-weighted assets, beginning of period(1)
$104,364 $95,315 $104,005 $98,820 
Changes in credit risk-weighted assets:
Net increase (decrease) in investment securities-wholesale2,846 3,470 1,915 3,882 
Net increase (decrease) in loans2,285 2,586 2,614 809 
Net increase (decrease) in securitization exposures58 (140)58 (140)
Net increase (decrease) in repo-style transaction exposures809 (45)(600)365 
Net increase (decrease) in Over-the-counter derivatives exposures(535)26 1,423 (1,124)
Net increase (decrease) in all other(2)(3)
1,973 1,128 1,519 1,272 
Net increase (decrease) in credit risk-weighted assets7,436 7,025 6,929 5,064 
Net increase (decrease) in market risk-weighted assets225 121 225 121 
Net increase (decrease) in operational risk-weighted assets(3,913)1,903 N/AN/A
Total risk-weighted assets, end of period$108,112 $104,364 $111,159 $104,005 
(1) Standardized approach RWA as of the periods noted above were calculated using our estimates, based on our then current interpretation of the Basel III rule.
(2) Includes assets not in a definable category, cleared transactions, non-material portfolio, other wholesale, cash and due from, and interest-bearing deposits with banks, equity exposures and 6% credit risk supervisory charge.
(3) Includes assets not in a definable category, cleared transactions, other wholesale, cash and due from, and interest-bearing deposits with banks and equity exposures.
As of September 30, 2020, total advanced approaches RWA increased $3.75 billion compared to December 31, 2019, mainly due to an increase in credit risk RWA, partially offset by a decrease in operational risk RWA. The increase in credit risk RWA was primarily due to an increase in wholesale investment securities RWA, loans RWA and all other RWA, partially offset by a decrease in OTC derivatives RWA. The decrease in operational risk RWA was driven by a decline in the frequency of conduct and compliance loss events.
As of September 30, 2020, total standardized approach RWA increased $7.15 billion compared to December 31, 2019, mainly due to an increase in credit risk RWA. The increase in credit risk RWA was primarily due to an increase in loans RWA, wholesale investment securities RWA, all other RWA and OTC derivatives RWA, partially offset by a decrease in repo-style transactions RWA.
The regulatory capital ratios as of September 30, 2020, presented in Table 36: Regulatory Capital Structure and Related Regulatory Capital Ratios, are calculated under the standardized approach and advanced approaches in conformity with the Basel III rule. The advanced approaches-based ratios reflect calculations and determinations with respect to our capital and related matters as of September 30, 2020, based on our internal and external data, quantitative formulae, statistical models, historical correlations and assumptions, collectively referred to as “advanced systems,” in effect and used by us for those purposes as of the time we first reported such ratios in a quarterly report on Form 10-Q or an annual report on Form 10-K. Significant components of these advanced systems involve the exercise of judgment by us and our regulators, and our advanced systems may not, individually or collectively, precisely represent or calculate the scenarios, circumstances, outputs or other results for which they are designed or intended.
Our advanced systems are subject to update and periodic revalidation in response to changes in our business activities and our historical experiences, forces and events experienced by the market broadly or by individual financial institutions, changes in regulations and regulatory interpretations and other factors, and are also subject to continuing regulatory review and approval. For example, a significant operational loss experienced by another financial institution, even if we do not experience a related loss, could result in a material change in the output of our advanced systems and a corresponding material change in our risk exposures, our total RWA and our capital ratios compared to prior periods. An operational loss that we experience could also result in a material change in our capital requirements for operational risk under the advanced approaches, depending on the severity of the loss event, its characterization among the seven Basel-defined units of measure (UOM), and the stability of the distributional approach for a particular UOM, and without direct correlation to the effects of the loss event, or the timing of such effects, on our results of operations.
Due to the influence of changes in these advanced systems, whether resulting from changes in data inputs, regulation or regulatory supervision or interpretation, specific to us or market activities or experiences or other updates or factors, we expect that our advanced systems and our capital ratios calculated in conformity with the Basel III rule will change and may be volatile over time, and that those latter changes or volatility could be material as calculated and measured from period to period. The full effects of the Basel III rule on us and State Street Bank are therefore subject to further evaluation and also to further regulatory guidance, action or rule-making.
State Street Corporation | 45


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Tier 1 and Supplementary Leverage Ratios
The SLR rule requires that, as of January 1, 2018, (i) State Street Bank maintains an SLR of at least 6.0% to be well capitalized under the U.S. banking regulators’ Prompt Corrective Action Framework and (ii) we maintain an SLR of at least 5.0% to avoid limitations on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments. In addition to the SLR, State Street Bank is subject to a well capitalized tier 1 leverage ratio requirement of 5.0%.
Effective April 1, 2020, the Federal Reserve and the other U.S. federal banking agencies adopted a final rule as part of the EGRRCPA that establishes a deduction for qualifying central bank deposits from a custodial banking organization’s total leverage exposure equal to the lesser of (i) the total amount of funds the custodial banking organization and its consolidated subsidiaries have on deposit at qualifying central banks and (ii) the total amount of client funds on deposit at the custodial banking organization that are linked to fiduciary or custodial and safekeeping accounts. For the quarter ended September 30, 2020, we have excluded $69.8 billion of average balances held on deposit at central banks from the denominator used in the calculation of our SLR, based on this custodial banking deduction.
TABLE 39: TIER 1 AND SUPPLEMENTARY LEVERAGE RATIOS
(Dollars in millions)September 30, 2020December 31, 2019
State Street Corporation:
Tier 1 capital$16,296 $15,175 
Average assets272,075 228,886 
Less: adjustments for deductions from tier 1 capital(24,313)(9,262)
Adjusted average assets247,762 219,624 
Off-balance sheet exposures(1)
(50,038)28,238 
Total assets for SLR$197,724 $247,862 
Tier 1 leverage ratio(2)
6.6 %6.9 %
Supplementary leverage ratio8.2 6.1 
State Street Bank:
Tier 1 capital$17,578 $16,617 
Average assets264,383 225,234 
Less: adjustments for deductions from tier 1 capital(19,949)(8,837)
Adjusted average assets244,434 216,397 
Off-balance sheet exposures(1)
(35,900)28,266 
Total assets for SLR$208,534 $244,663 
Tier 1 leverage ratio(2)
7.2 %7.7 %
Supplementary leverage ratio8.4 6.8 
(1) Includes regulatory relief granted under EGRRCPA and the interim final rule.
(2) Tier 1 leverage ratios were calculated in conformity with the Basel III rule.
Total Loss-Absorbing Capacity
In 2016, the Federal Reserve released its final rule on TLAC, LTD and clean holding company requirements for U.S. domiciled G-SIBs, such as us, that is intended to improve the resiliency and resolvability of certain U.S. banking organizations
through enhanced prudential standards. Among other things, the TLAC final rule requires us to comply with minimum requirements for external TLAC and external LTD effective January 1, 2019. Specifically, we must hold (1) combined eligible tier 1 regulatory capital and LTD in the amount equal to the greater of 21.5% of total RWA (18.0% minimum plus 2.5% plus a G-SIB surcharge calculated for these purposes under Method 1 of 1.0% plus any applicable counter- cyclical buffer, which is currently 0%) and 9.5% of total leverage exposure (7.5% minimum plus the SLR buffer of 2.0%), as defined by the SLR final rule; and (2) qualifying external LTD equal to the greater of 7.0% of RWA (6.0% minimum plus a G-SIB surcharge calculated for these purposes under method 2 of 1.0%) and 4.5% of total leverage exposure, as defined by the SLR final rule. As of April 1, 2020, the TLAC and LTD requirements calibrated to SLR reflect the deduction of certain central bank balances as prescribed by the regulatory relief implemented under the EGRRCPA.
The following table presents our external LTD and external TLAC as of September 30, 2020.
TABLE 40: TOTAL LOSS-ABSORBING CAPACITY
As of September 30, 2020
(Dollars in millions)ActualRequirement
Total loss-absorbing capacity (eligible Tier 1 regulatory capacity and long term debt):
Risk-weighted assets$28,528 25.7 %$23,899 21.5 %
Supplementary leverage exposure28,528 14.4 18,784 9.5 
Long term debt:
Risk-weighted assets12,232 11.0 7,781 7.0 
Supplementary leverage exposure12,232 6.2 8,898 4.5 
Regulatory Developments
In April 2018, the Federal Reserve issued a proposed rule which would replace the current 2.0% supplementary leverage ratio buffer for G-SIBs, with a buffer equal to 50% of their G-SIB surcharge, which is currently 1.0% for us. This proposal would also make conforming modifications to our TLAC and eligible LTD requirements applicable to G-SIBs. At this point in time, it is unclear whether this proposal will be implemented as proposed.
In November 2019, the Federal Reserve and other U.S. federal banking agencies issued a final rule to implement the Standardized Approach for counterparty credit risk as a replacement of the Current Exposure Method for calculating exposure-at-default of derivatives exposures. Mandatory compliance with the final rule is required by January 1, 2022.
On March 4, 2020, the Agencies issued the SCB final rule that will replace, under the Standardized Approach, the current capital conservation buffer (2.5%) with a SCB calculated as the difference
State Street Corporation | 46


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
between the institution’s starting and lowest projected CET1 ratio under the CCAR severely adverse scenario plus planned common stock dividend payments (as a percentage of RWA) from the fourth through seventh quarter of the CCAR planning horizon. The SCB requirement, which became effective October 1, 2020, can be no less than 2.5% of RWA.
The Federal Reserve and other U.S. Agencies issued interim final rules effective in March 2020 and later finalized on a permanent basis on August 26, 2020, which revised the definition of eligible retained income for all U.S. banking organizations. The revised definition of eligible retained income makes any automatic limitations on capital distributions, where a banking organization's regulatory ratios were to decline below the respective minimum requirements, take effect on a more gradual basis.
Following the launch of the MMLF program, which we participate in, the Federal Reserve issued an interim final rule on March 19, 2020 (followed by a final rule on September 29, 2020), allowing Bank Holding Companies (BHCs) to exclude assets purchased with the MMLF program from their RWA, total leverage exposure and average total consolidated assets. For the quarter ended September 30, 2020, we deducted $7.5 billion of MMLF program average HTM securities.
On March 27, 2020, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) announced the deferral of the implementation of the revisions to the Basel III framework to January 1, 2023. As of now, the U.S. Agencies have not formally proposed the implementation of the BCBS revisions.
Effective April 1, 2020, the Federal Reserve and the other U.S. Agencies adopted a final rule as part of EGRRCPA that establishes a deduction for qualifying central bank deposits from a custodial banking organization’s total leverage exposure equal to the lesser of (i) the total amount of funds the custodial banking organization and its consolidated subsidiaries have on deposit at qualifying central banks and (ii) the total amount of client funds on deposit at the custodial banking organization that are linked to fiduciary or custodial and safekeeping accounts. For the quarter ended September 30, 2020, we were permitted to deduct $69.8 billion of average balances held on deposit at central banks from the denominator used in the calculation of our SLR, based on this custodial banking deduction.
In addition to the regulatory relief granted to custodial banks under the EGRRCPA, an SLR interim final rule released on April 1, 2020 allows all BHCs to deduct their deposits at Federal Reserve Banks and their investments in U.S. Treasuries from their total leverage exposure on a temporary basis, from the second quarter of 2020 through the first quarter of
2021. The temporary deduction of our investment in U.S. Treasuries is incremental to the existing central bank placement deduction granted to custodian banks under EGRRCPA. For the quarter ended September 30, 2020, we were permitted to deduct $14.1 billion invested in U.S. Treasuries from our total leverage exposure.
On May 15, 2020, the U.S. Agencies released an interim final rule that permits insured depository institution subsidiaries of BHCs also to elect to temporarily exclude deposits at Federal Reserve Banks and investments in U.S. Treasuries from their total leverage exposure, subject to certain conditions. State Street Bank has elected not to apply such exclusions as of September 30, 2020.
On June 25, 2020, we were notified by the Federal Reserve of the results from this year's DFAST stress test, including our preliminary SCB of 2.5%. Additionally, included in this notification and in light of the considerable economic uncertainty created by the COVID-19 pandemic, all participating CCAR banking organizations will be required to resubmit their capital plans by November 2, 2020, based on updated scenarios provided by the Federal Reserve on September 17, 2020.
In line with the decision to administer a new stress test, the Federal Reserve is limiting the ability of all CCAR banking organizations to make capital distributions in the third and fourth quarters of 2020, although banking organizations are permitted to pay common stock dividends at previous levels and is further limited by a formula based on recent income. As a result, CCAR banking organizations, including us, were not permitted to return capital to shareholders in the form of common share repurchases during the third quarter of 2020, and will not be permitted to return capital to shareholders in the form of common share repurchases in the fourth quarter of 2020, unless otherwise approved by the Federal Reserve. As of now, our capital distributions in the first quarter of 2021 and beyond will be governed by our minimum capital requirements inclusive of the SCB.
On August 10, 2020, the Federal Reserve confirmed that our SCB will be 2.5% for the period starting on October 1, 2020 and ending on September 30, 2021, resulting in no change to our capital requirements. Results from the new stress test are expected by the end of the year, however, it is unclear whether or not the results will impact our calculated SCB.
For additional information about our capital, refer to pages 106-113 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, in our 2019 Form 10-K.
State Street Corporation | 47


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Capital Actions
Preferred Stock
The following table summarizes selected terms of each of the series of the preferred stock issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2020:
TABLE 41: PREFERRED STOCK ISSUED AND OUTSTANDING
Preferred Stock(2):
Issuance DateDepositary Shares IssuedAmount outstanding (in millions)Ownership Interest Per Depositary ShareLiquidation Preference Per ShareLiquidation Preference Per Depositary SharePer Annum Dividend RateDividend Payment FrequencyCarrying Value as of September 30, 2020
(In millions)
Redemption Date(1)
Series DFebruary 201430,000,000$750 1/4,000th$100,000 $25 5.90% to but excluding March 15, 2024, then a floating rate equal to the three-month LIBOR plus 3.108%Quarterly: March, June, September and December$742 March 15, 2024
Series F(3)
May 2015750,0007501/100th100,000 1,000 5.25% to but excluding September 15, 2020, then a floating rate equal to the three-month LIBOR plus 3.597%, or 3.84738% effective September 15, 2020
Quarterly: March, June, September and December742 September 15, 2020
Series GApril 201620,000,0005001/4,000th100,000 25 5.35% to but excluding March 15, 2026, then a floating rate equal to the three-month LIBOR plus 3.709%Quarterly: March, June, September and December493 March 15, 2026
Series HSeptember 2018500,0005001/100th100,000 1,000 5.625% to but excluding December 15, 2023, then a floating rate equal to the three-month LIBOR plus 2.539%Semi-annually: June and December494 December 15, 2023
(1) On the redemption date, or any dividend payment date thereafter, the preferred stock and corresponding depositary shares may be redeemed by us, in whole or in part, at the liquidation price per share and liquidation price per depositary share plus any declared and unpaid dividends, without accumulation of any undeclared dividends.
(2) The preferred stock and corresponding depositary shares may be redeemed at our option in whole, but not in part, prior to the redemption date upon the occurrence of a regulatory capital treatment event, as defined in the certificate of designation, at a redemption price equal to the liquidation price per share and liquidation price per depositary share plus any declared and unpaid dividends, without accumulation of any undeclared dividends.
(3) Series F preferred stock is redeemable on September 15, 2020 and on each succeeding dividend payment date. We did not elect redemption on September 15, 2020.
The following tables present the dividends declared for each of the series of preferred stock issued and outstanding for the periods indicated:
TABLE 42: PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS
Three Months Ended September 30,
20202019
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)Dividends Declared per ShareDividends Declared per Depositary Share
Total
(In millions)(1)
Dividends Declared per ShareDividends Declared per Depositary ShareTotal
(In millions)
Preferred Stock:
Series C(1)
$ $ $ $1,313 $0.33 $
Series D1,475 0.37 11 1,475 0.37 11 
Series E(2)
   1,500 0.38 11 
Series F2,625 26.25 20 2,625 26.25 20 
Series G1,338 0.33 7 1,338 0.33 
Series H   — — — 
Total$38 $55 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20202019
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)Dividends Declared per ShareDividends Declared per Depositary ShareTotalDividends Declared per ShareDividends Declared per Depositary ShareTotal
Preferred Stock:
Series C(1)
$1,313 $0.33 $6 $3,939 $0.99 $19 
Series D4,425 1.11 33 4,425 1.11 33 
Series E(2)
   4,500 1.14 33 
Series F5,250 52.50 40 5,250 52.50 40 
Series G4,014 0.99 21 4,014 0.99 21 
Series H2,813 28.13 14 2,813 28.13 14 
Total$114 $160 
(1) We redeemed all outstanding Series C non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock as of March 15, 2020 at a redemption price of $500 million ($100,000 per share equivalent to $25.00 per depositary share) plus accrued and unpaid dividends.
(2) We redeemed all outstanding Series E non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock as of December 15, 2019 at a redemption price of $750 million ($100,000 per share equivalent to $25.00 per depositary share) plus accrued and unpaid dividends.
State Street Corporation | 48


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
In October 2020, we declared dividends in our Series D, F, G and H preferred stock of $1,475, $973, $1,338, and $2,813, respectively, per share, or approximately $0.37, $9.73, $0.33 and $28.13, respectively, per depositary share. These dividends total approximately $11 million, $7 million, $7 million and $14 million on our Series D, F, G and H preferred stock, respectively, which will be paid in December 2020.
Common Stock
In June 2019, the Federal Reserve issued a non-objection to our capital plan submitted as part of the CCAR 2019 submission; and in connection with that capital plan, our Board approved a common stock purchase program authorizing the purchase of up to $2.0 billion of our common stock from July 1, 2019 through June 30, 2020 (the 2019 Program). On March 16, 2020, we, along with the other U.S. G-SIBs, suspended common share repurchases to bolster capital in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. On June 25, 2020, the Federal Reserve imposed limitations on capital distributions for all large banks, including the suspension of common share repurchases through the third quarter of 2020. As a result, we had no repurchases of our common stock in either the second or third quarters of 2020 under our common stock purchase program. On September 30, 2020, the Federal Reserve extended the suspension of common share repurchases through the fourth quarter of 2020.
In June 2018, our Board approved a common stock purchase program authorizing the purchase of up to $1.2 billion of our common stock through June 30, 2019 (the 2018 Program). We repurchased $300 million of our common stock in each of the first and second quarters of 2019 under the 2018 Program.
The table below presents the activity under our common stock purchase program during the periods indicated:
TABLE 43: SHARES REPURCHASED
Three Months Ended September 30, 2020Nine Months Ended September 30, 2020
Shares Acquired
(In millions)
Average Cost per ShareTotal Acquired
(In millions)
Shares Acquired
(In millions)
Average Cost per ShareTotal Acquired
(In millions)
2019 Program $ $ 6.5 $77.35 $500 
Three Months Ended September 30, 2019Nine Months Ended September 30, 2019
Shares Acquired
(In millions)
Average Cost per ShareTotal Acquired
(In millions)
Shares Acquired
(In millions)
Average Cost per ShareTotal Acquired
(In millions)
2019 Program9.4 $53.15 $500 9.4 $53.15 $500 
2018 Program— — — 8.8 67.97 600 
The table below presents the dividends declared on common stock for the periods indicated:
TABLE 44: COMMON STOCK DIVIDENDS
Three Months Ended September 30,
20202019
Dividends Declared per ShareTotal (In millions)Dividends Declared per ShareTotal (In millions)
Common Stock$0.52 $184 $0.52 $189 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20202019
Dividends Declared per ShareTotal (In millions)Dividends Declared per ShareTotal (In millions)
Common Stock$1.56 $550 $1.46 $541 
Federal and state banking regulations place certain restrictions on dividends paid by subsidiary banks to the parent holding company. In addition, banking regulators have the authority to prohibit bank holding companies from paying dividends. For information concerning limitations on dividends from our subsidiary banks, refer to pages 52 and 53 included under Item 5, Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities, in our 2019 Form 10-K, and to Note 15 on pages 159 to 161 to the consolidated financial statements included under Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, in our 2019 Form 10-K. Our common stock and preferred stock dividends, including the declaration, timing and amount thereof, are subject to consideration and approval by the Board at the relevant times.
Stock purchases may be made using various types of mechanisms, including open market purchases, accelerated share repurchases or transactions off market and may be made under Rule 10b5-1 trading programs. The timing of stock purchases, types of transactions and number of shares purchased will depend on several factors, including, market conditions and our capital positions, financial performance and investment opportunities. The common stock purchase program does not have specific price targets and may be suspended at any time.
State Street Corporation | 49


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
On behalf of clients enrolled in our securities lending program, we lend securities to banks, broker/dealers and other institutions. In most circumstances, we indemnify our clients for the fair market value of those securities against a failure of the borrower to return such securities. Though these transactions are collateralized, the substantial volume of these activities necessitates detailed credit-based underwriting and monitoring processes. The aggregate amount of indemnified securities on loan totaled $379.05 billion and $367.90 billion as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. We require the borrower to provide collateral in an amount in excess of 100% of the fair market value of the securities borrowed. We hold the collateral received in connection with these securities lending services as agent, and the collateral is not recorded in our consolidated statement of condition. We revalue the securities on loan and the collateral daily to determine if additional collateral is necessary or if excess collateral is required to be returned to the borrower. We held, as agent, cash and securities totaling $398.08 billion and $385.43 billion as collateral for indemnified securities on loan as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
The cash collateral held by us as agent is invested on behalf of our clients. In certain cases, the cash collateral is invested in third-party repurchase agreements, for which we indemnify the client against loss of the principal invested. We require the counterparty to the indemnified repurchase agreement to provide collateral in an amount in excess of 100% of the amount of the repurchase agreement. In our role as agent, the indemnified repurchase agreements and the related collateral held by us are not recorded in our consolidated statement of condition. Of the collateral of $398.08 billion and $385.43 billion, referenced above, $49.50 billion and $45.66 billion was invested in indemnified repurchase agreements as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. We or our agents held $53.05 billion and $48.89 billion as collateral for indemnified investments in repurchase agreements as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
Additional information about our securities finance activities and other off-balance sheet arrangements is provided in Notes 7, 9 and 11 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP, and we apply accounting policies that affect the determination of amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements.
Certain of our accounting policies, by their nature, require management to make judgments, involving significant estimates and assumptions, about the effects of matters that are inherently uncertain. These estimates and assumptions are based on information available as of the date of the consolidated financial statements, and changes in this information over time could materially affect the amounts of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue and expenses reported in subsequent consolidated financial statements.
Based on the sensitivity of reported financial statement amounts to the underlying estimates and assumptions, the more significant accounting policies applied by us have been identified by management as those associated with recurring fair value measurements, impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets, contingencies and allowance for credit losses. These accounting policies require the most subjective or complex judgments, and underlying estimates and assumptions could be most subject to revision as new information becomes available. An understanding of the judgments, estimates and assumptions underlying these accounting policies is essential in order to understand our reported consolidated results of operations and financial condition.
Allowance for Credit Losses
In January 2020, we adopted ASC 326, which replaces the incurred loss methodology with an expected loss methodology. We maintain an allowance for credit losses to support our on-balance sheet credit exposures, including financial assets held at amortized cost and investment securities held to-maturity. We also maintain an allowance for unfunded commitments and letters of credit to support our off-balance credit exposure. The two components together represent the allowance for credit losses.
Determining the appropriateness of the allowance is complex and requires judgment by management about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. In future periods, factors and forecasts then prevailing may result in significant changes in the allowance for credit losses in those future periods. We estimate credit losses over the contractual life of the financial asset while factoring in prepayment activity where supported by data over a three year reasonable and supportable forecast period. We utilize a baseline, upside and downside scenario which are applied based on a probability
State Street Corporation | 50


MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
weighting, in order to better reflect management’s expectation of expected credit losses given existing market conditions and the changes in the economic environment. The multiple scenarios are based on a three year horizon (or less depending on contractual maturity) and then revert linearly over a two year period to a ten-year historical average thereafter. The contractual term excludes expected extensions, renewals and modifications, but includes prepayment assumptions where applicable.
Additional information about our allowance for credit losses is provided in Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
For additional information about these significant accounting policies refer to pages 115 to 117, “Significant Accounting Estimates” included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, in our 2019 Form 10-K.
RECENT ACCOUNTING DEVELOPMENTS
Information with respect to recent accounting developments is provided in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
The information provided under Financial Condition - Market Risk Management in Management’s Discussion and Analysis, included in this Form 10-Q, is incorporated by reference herein. For more information on our market risk refer to pages 98 to 105 included under Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, in our 2019 Form 10-K.
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
We have established and maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information related to us and our subsidiaries on a consolidated basis required to be disclosed in our reports filed or submitted under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC's rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. For the quarter ended September 30, 2020, our management carried out an evaluation, with the participation of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures. Based on the evaluation of these disclosure controls and procedures, the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of September 30, 2020.
We have established and maintain internal control over financial reporting as a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of consolidated financial statements for external purposes in conformity with U.S. GAAP. In the ordinary course of business, we routinely enhance our internal controls and procedures for financial reporting by either upgrading our current systems or implementing new systems. Changes have been made and may be made to our internal controls and procedures for financial reporting as a result of these efforts. During the quarter ended September 30, 2020, no change occurred in our internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

State Street Corporation | 51



STATE STREET CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME
(UNAUDITED)
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)2020201920202019
Fee revenue:
Servicing fees$1,301 $1,272 $3,860 $3,775 
Management fees455 445 1,329 1,306 
Foreign exchange trading services294 284 1,097 837 
Securities finance84 116 268 360 
Software and processing fees172 142 529 501 
Total fee revenue2,306 2,259 7,083 6,779 
Net interest income:
Interest income520 1,001