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Hartford Financial Services (HIG)

Filed: 25 Oct 18, 4:23pm





UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q
 ____________________________________
(Mark One)
ýQUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2018
or
¨TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____________ to ______________
Commission file number 001-13958
____________________________________ 
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THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 13-3317783
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Hartford Plaza, Hartford, Connecticut 06155
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(860) 547-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Indicate by check mark:Yes No
    
•     whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.ý ¨
    
•     whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).ý ¨
    
•     whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.   
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer  ¨
Non-accelerated filer  ¨
Smaller reporting company  ¨
Emerging growth company  ¨

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨
•     whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).¨ ý
As of October 23, 2018, there were outstanding 358,734,819 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share, of the registrant.

1






THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ItemDescriptionPage
  
1.      FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 
 REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS - FOR THE THREE AND NINE MONTHS ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 AND 2017
 CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS) - FOR THE THREE AND NINE MONTHS ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 AND 2017
 CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS - AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 AND DECEMBER 31, 2017
 CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY - FOR THE NINE MONTHS ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 AND 2017
 CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS - FOR THE NINE MONTHS ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2018 AND 2017
 NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
2.      MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
3.      QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK[a]
4.      CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
  
1.      LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
1A.   RISK FACTORS
2.      UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS
6.      EXHIBITS
 EXHIBITS INDEX
 SIGNATURE
[a]The information required by this item is set forth in the Enterprise Risk Management section of Item 2, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and is incorporated herein by reference.


2






Forward-Looking Statements
Certain of the statements contained herein are forward-looking statements made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “seeks,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “projects,” and similar references to future periods.
Forward-looking statements are based on management's current expectations and assumptions regarding future economic, competitive, legislative and other developments and their potential effect upon The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, the "Company" or "The Hartford"). Because forward-looking statements relate to the future, they are subject to inherent uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. Actual results could differ materially from expectations, depending on the evolution of various factors, including the risks and uncertainties identified below, as well as factors described in such forward-looking statements; Part II, Item 1A, Risk Factors of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q; Part II, Item 1A, Risk Factors in The Hartford's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2018; Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors in The Hartford’s 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report; and our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC").
Risks Related to Economic, Political and Global Market Conditions:
challenges related to the Company’s current operating environment, including global political, economic and market conditions, and the effect of financial market disruptions, economic downturns, changes in trade regulation including tariffs and other barriers or other potentially adverse macroeconomic developments on the demand for our products and returns in our investment portfolios;
financial risk related to the continued reinvestment of our investment portfolios;
market risks associated with our business, including changes in credit spreads, equity prices, interest rates, inflation rate, market volatility and foreign exchange rates;
the impact on our investment portfolio if our investment portfolio is concentrated in any particular segment of the economy;
Insurance Industry and Product-Related Risks:
the possibility of unfavorable loss development, including with respect to long-tailed exposures;
the possibility of a pandemic, earthquake, or other natural or man-made disaster that may adversely affect our businesses;
weather and other natural physical events, including the severity and frequency of storms, hail, winter storms, hurricanes and tropical storms, as well as climate change and its potential impact on weather patterns;
the possible occurrence of terrorist attacks and the Company’s inability to contain its exposure as a result of, among other factors, the inability to exclude coverage for terrorist attacks from workers' compensation policies and limitations on reinsurance coverage from the federal government under applicable laws;
the Company’s ability to effectively price its property and casualty policies, including its ability to obtain regulatory consents to pricing actions or to non-renewal or withdrawal of certain product lines;
actions by competitors that may be larger or have greater financial resources than we do;
technology changes, such as usage-based methods of determining premiums, advancement in automotive safety features, the development of autonomous vehicles, and platforms that facilitate ride sharing, which may alter demand for the Company's products, impact the frequency or severity of losses, and/or impact the way the Company markets, distributes and underwrites its products;
the Company’s ability to market, distribute and provide insurance products and investment advisory services through current and future distribution channels and advisory firms;
the uncertain effects of emerging claim and coverage issues;
Financial Strength, Credit and Counterparty Risks:
risks to our business, financial position, prospects and results associated with negative rating actions or downgrades in the Company’s financial strength and credit ratings or negative rating actions or downgrades relating to our investments;
the impact on our statutory capital of various factors, including many that are outside the Company’s control, which can in turn affect our credit and financial strength ratings, cost of capital, regulatory compliance and other aspects of our business and results;
losses due to nonperformance or defaults by others, including credit risk with counterparties associated with investments, derivatives, premiums receivable, reinsurance recoverables and indemnifications provided by third parties in connection with previous dispositions;
the potential for losses due to our reinsurers’ unwillingness or inability to meet their obligations under reinsurance contracts and the availability, pricing and adequacy of reinsurance to protect the Company against losses;
regulatory limitations on the ability of the Company and certain of its subsidiaries to declare and pay dividends;

3






Risks Relating to Estimates, Assumptions and Valuations;
risk associated with the use of analytical models in making decisions in key areas such as underwriting, capital management, hedging, reserving, and catastrophe risk management;
the potential for differing interpretations of the methodologies, estimations and assumptions that underlie the Company’s fair value estimates for its investments and the evaluation of other-than-temporary impairments on available-for-sale securities;
the potential for further impairments of our goodwill or the potential for changes in valuation allowances against deferred tax assets;
the significant uncertainties that limit our ability to estimate the ultimate reserves necessary for asbestos and environmental claims;
Strategic and Operational Risks:
the Company’s ability to maintain the availability of its systems and safeguard the security of its data in the event of a disaster, cyber or other information security incident or other unanticipated event;
failure to complete our proposed acquisition of The Navigators Group, Inc. may cause volatility in our securities;
the risks, challenges and uncertainties associated with our capital management plan, expense reduction initiatives and other actions, which may include acquisitions, divestitures or restructurings;
the potential for difficulties arising from outsourcing and similar third-party relationships;
the Company’s ability to protect its intellectual property and defend against claims of infringement;
Regulatory and Legal Risks:
the cost and other potential effects of increased regulatory and legislative developments, including those that could adversely impact the demand for the Company’s products, operating costs and required capital levels;
unfavorable judicial or legislative developments;
the impact of changes in federal or state tax laws;
regulatory requirements that could delay, deter or prevent a takeover attempt that shareholders might consider in their best interests;
the impact of potential changes in accounting principles and related financial reporting requirements.
Any forward-looking statement made by the Company in this document speaks only as of the date of the filing of this Form 10-Q. Factors or events that could cause the Company’s actual results to differ may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for the Company to predict all of them. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.

4




Part I - Item 1. Financial Statements


Item 1. Financial Statements
 
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of
The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc.
Hartford, Connecticut

Results of Review of Interim Financial Information

We have reviewed the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet of The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of September 30, 2018, the related condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) for the three-month and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, and the condensed consolidated statements of changes in stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the nine-month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "interim financial information"). Based on our reviews, we are not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the accompanying interim financial information for it to be in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have previously audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheet of the Company as of December 31, 2017, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, changes in stockholders' equity, and cash flows for the year then ended (not presented herein); and in our report dated February 23, 2018, we expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements. In our opinion, the information set forth in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2017, is fairly stated, in all material respects, in relation to the consolidated balance sheet from which it has been derived.

Basis for Review Results

This interim financial information is the responsibility of the Company's management. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our reviews in accordance with standards of the PCAOB. A review of interim financial information consists principally of applying analytical procedures and making inquiries of persons responsible for financial and accounting matters. It is substantially less in scope than an audit conducted in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion regarding the financial statements taken as a whole. Accordingly, we do not express such an opinion.


/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
Hartford, Connecticut
October 25, 2018



5

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations

 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
(In millions, except for per share data)20182017 20182017
 (Unaudited)
Revenues     
Earned premiums$3,987
$3,447
 $11,872
$10,340
Fee income344
291
 994
855
Net investment income444
404
 1,323
1,209
Net realized capital gains (losses):     
Total other-than-temporary impairment ("OTTI") losses(4)(4) (6)(11)
OTTI losses recognized in other comprehensive income (“OCI”)3
3
 5
7
Net OTTI losses recognized in earnings(1)(1) (1)(4)
 Other net realized capital gains39
27
 61
109
 Total net realized capital gains38
26
 60
105
Other revenues29
24
 73
66
Total revenues4,842
4,192
 14,322
12,575
Benefits, losses and expenses     
Benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses2,786
2,638
 8,219
7,482
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs ("DAC")348
341
 1,034
1,030
Insurance operating costs and other expenses1,091
952
 3,195
3,521
Loss on extinguishment of debt

 6

Interest expense69
79
 228
238
Amortization of other intangible assets18
1
 54
3
Total benefits, losses and expenses4,312
4,011
 12,736
12,274
Income from continuing operations before income taxes530
181
 1,586
301
 Income tax expense103
36
 297
5
Income from continuing operations, net of tax427
145
 1,289
296
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax5
89
 322
276
Net income$432
$234
 $1,611
$572
Income from continuing operations, net of tax, per common share

   
Basic$1.19
$0.40
 $3.60
$0.81
Diluted$1.17
$0.40
 $3.54
$0.79
Net income per common share


   
Basic$1.20
$0.65
 $4.50
$1.56
Diluted$1.19
$0.64
 $4.42
$1.54
Cash dividends declared per common share$0.30
$0.23
 $0.80
$0.69
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

6

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)

 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
(In millions)20182017 20182017
 (Unaudited)
Net income$432
$234
 $1,611
$572
Other comprehensive income (loss):     
Changes in net unrealized gain on securities(171)85
 (2,164)564
Changes in OTTI losses recognized in other comprehensive income(1)(1) (1)(1)
Changes in net gain on cash flow hedging instruments(5)(14) (37)(33)
Changes in foreign currency translation adjustments1
14
 (4)21
Changes in pension and other postretirement plan adjustments10
7
 29
371
OCI, net of tax(166)91
 (2,177)922
Comprehensive income (loss)$266
$325
 $(566)$1,494
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

7

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In millions, except for share and per share data)September 30,
2018
December 31, 2017
 (Unaudited) 
Assets 
Investments:  
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale, at fair value (amortized cost of $36,094 and $35,612)$36,166
$36,964
Fixed maturities, at fair value using the fair value option24
41
Equity securities, at fair value1,035

Equity securities, available-for-sale, at fair value (cost of $0 and $907)
1,012
Mortgage loans (net of allowances for loan losses of $1 and $1)3,559
3,175
Limited partnerships and other alternative investments1,712
1,588
Other investments98
96
Short-term investments3,540
2,270
Total investments46,134
45,146
Cash102
180
Premiums receivable and agents’ balances, net4,025
3,910
Reinsurance recoverables, net3,931
4,061
Deferred policy acquisition costs670
650
Deferred income taxes, net1,244
1,164
Goodwill1,290
1,290
Property and equipment, net997
1,034
Other intangible assets, net651
659
Other assets2,393
2,230
Assets held for sale
164,936
Total assets$61,437
$225,260
Liabilities

Unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses$32,297
$32,287
Reserve for future policy benefits656
713
Other policyholder funds and benefits payable775
816
Unearned premiums5,388
5,322
Short-term debt413
320
Long-term debt4,263
4,678
Other liabilities4,916
5,188
Liabilities held for sale
162,442
Total liabilities$48,708
$211,766
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 13)  
Stockholders’ Equity  
Common stock, $0.01 par value — 1,500,000,000 shares authorized, 384,923,222 shares issued at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017$4
$4
Additional paid-in capital4,385
4,379
Retained earnings10,973
9,642
Treasury stock, at cost — 26,247,219 and 28,088,186 shares(1,114)(1,194)
 Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax(1,519)663
Total stockholders’ equity$12,729
$13,494
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$61,437
$225,260
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

8

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Equity

 Nine Months Ended September 30,
(In millions, except for share data)20182017
 (Unaudited)
Common Stock$4
$4
Additional Paid-in Capital  
Additional Paid-in Capital, beginning of period4,379
5,247
Issuance of shares under incentive and stock compensation plans(92)(68)
Stock-based compensation plans expense105
77
Issuance of shares for warrant exercise(7)(65)
Additional Paid-in Capital, end of period4,385
5,191
Retained Earnings  
Retained Earnings, beginning of period9,642
13,114
Cumulative effect of accounting changes, net of tax5

Adjusted balance, beginning of period9,647
13,114
Net income1,611
572
Dividends declared on common stock(285)(252)
Retained Earnings, end of period10,973
13,434
Treasury Stock, at cost  
Treasury Stock, at cost, beginning of period(1,194)(1,125)
Treasury stock acquired
(975)
Issuance of shares under incentive and stock compensation plans109
90
Net shares acquired related to employee incentive and stock compensation plans(36)(36)
Issuance of shares for warrant exercise7
65
Treasury Stock, at cost, end of period(1,114)(1,981)
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), net of tax  
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), net of tax, beginning of period663
(337)
Cumulative effect of accounting changes, net of tax(5)
Adjusted balance, beginning of period658
(337)
Total other comprehensive income (loss)(2,177)922
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), net of tax, end of period(1,519)585
Total Stockholders’ Equity$12,729
$17,233
   
Common Shares Outstanding  
Common Shares Outstanding, beginning of period (in thousands)356,835
373,949
Treasury stock acquired
(19,281)
Issuance of shares under incentive and stock compensation plans2,373
2,078
Return of shares under incentive and stock compensation plans to treasury stock(694)(718)
Issuance of shares for warrant exercise162
1,512
Common Shares Outstanding, at end of period358,676
357,540
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

9

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 Nine Months Ended September 30,
(In millions)20182017
Operating Activities(Unaudited)
Net income$1,611
$572
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:  
Net realized capital gains(7)(52)
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs1,092
1,088
Additions to deferred policy acquisition costs(1,057)(1,039)
Depreciation and amortization359
300
Loss on extinguishment of debt6

Gain on sale(202)
Pension settlement
747
Other operating activities, net346
328
Change in assets and liabilities:  
Decrease in reinsurance recoverables111
43
Decrease (increase) in accrued and deferred income taxes(74)64
Increase (decrease) in unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, reserve for future policy benefits, and unearned premiums(119)845
Net change in other assets and other liabilities(224)(1,372)
Net cash provided by operating activities1,842
1,524
Investing Activities  
Proceeds from the sale/maturity/prepayment of:  
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale20,069
21,371
Fixed maturities, fair value option21
140
Equity securities, at fair value1,171

Equity securities, available-for-sale
599
Mortgage loans314
558
Partnerships377
190
Proceeds from repurchase agreements program(11)
Payments for the purchase of:  
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale(18,679)(22,021)
Equity securities, at fair value(1,084)
Equity securities, available-for-sale
(517)
Mortgage loans(667)(943)
Partnerships(408)(344)
Repayments of repurchase agreements program42

Net payments for derivatives(228)(98)
Net additions of property and equipment(70)(129)
Net payments for short-term investments(2,720)(523)
Other investing activities, net(4)10
Proceeds from business sold, net of cash transferred1,115
222
Net cash used for investing activities(762)(1,485)
Financing Activities  
Deposits and other additions to investment and universal life-type contracts1,814
3,628
Withdrawals and other deductions from investment and universal life-type contracts(9,210)(10,623)
Net transfers from separate accounts related to investment and universal life-type contracts6,949
6,080
Repayments at maturity or settlement of consumer notes(2)(12)
Net increase (decrease) in securities loaned or sold under agreements to repurchase(646)1,434
Repayment of debt(826)(416)
Proceeds from the issuance of debt490
500
Net issuance (return) of shares under incentive and stock compensation plans

10
(16)
Treasury stock acquired
(975)
Dividends paid on common stock(270)(258)
Net cash used for financing activities(1,691)(658)
Foreign exchange rate effect on cash(4)70
Net decrease in cash, including cash classified as assets held for sale(615)(549)
 Less: Net decrease in cash classified as assets held for sale(537)(315)
Net (decrease) in cash(78)(234)
Cash – beginning of period180
328
Cash – end of period$102
$94
Supplemental Disclosure of Cash Flow Information  
Income tax received (paid)$(1)$3
Interest paid$197
$205
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

10

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Dollar amounts in millions, except for per share data, unless otherwise stated)
1. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies



Basis of Presentation
The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc. is a holding company for insurance and financial services subsidiaries that provide property and casualty insurance, group life and disability products and mutual funds and exchange-traded products to individual and business customers in the United States (collectively, “The Hartford”, the “Company”, “we” or “our”).
On August 22, 2018, the Company announced it entered into a definitive agreement to acquire all outstanding common shares of The Navigators Group, Inc. ("Navigators Group"), a global specialty underwriter, for $70 a share, or $2.1 billion in cash. The transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2019, subject to approval by Navigators Group's shareholders and other customary closing conditions, including receipt of regulatory approvals.
On May 31, 2018, Hartford Holdings, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, completed the sale of the issued and outstanding equity of Hartford Life, Inc. (“HLI”), a holding company for its life and annuity operating subsidiaries. For further discussion of this transaction, see Note 18 - Business Dispositions and Discontinued Operations of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
On November 1, 2017, Hartford Life and Accident Insurance Company ("HLA"), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, completed the acquisition of Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business through a reinsurance transaction. For further discussion of this transaction, see Note 2 - Business Acquisitions of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
On May 10, 2017, the Company completed the sale of its United Kingdom ("U.K.") property and casualty run-off subsidiaries.
The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information, which differ materially from the accounting practices prescribed by various insurance regulatory authorities. These Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto included in the Company's 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report. The results of operations for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.
The accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes are unaudited. These financial statements reflect all adjustments (generally consisting only of normal accruals) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary for the fair presentation of the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods. The Company's significant accounting policies are summarized in Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.
Consolidation
The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the
 
accounts of The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc., and entities in which the Company directly or indirectly has a controlling financial interest. Entities in which the Company has significant influence over the operating and financing decisions but does not control are reported using the equity method. All intercompany transactions and balances between The Hartford and its subsidiaries and affiliates that are not held for sale have been eliminated.
Discontinued Operations
The results of operations of a component of the Company are reported in discontinued operations when certain criteria are met as of the date of disposal, or earlier if classified as held-for-sale. When a component is identified for discontinued operations reporting, amounts for prior periods are retrospectively reclassified as discontinued operations. Components are identified as discontinued operations if they are a major part of an entity's operations and financial results such as a separate major line of business or a separate major geographical area of operations.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The most significant estimates include those used in determining property and casualty and group long-term disability insurance product reserves, net of reinsurance; evaluation of goodwill for impairment; valuation of investments and derivative instruments; valuation allowance on deferred tax assets; and contingencies relating to corporate litigation and regulatory matters.
Reclassifications
Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year financial information to conform to the current year presentation. In particular:
Distribution costs within the Mutual Funds segment that were previously netted against fee income are presented gross in insurance operating costs and other expenses.
Adoption of New Accounting Standards
Reclassification of Effect of Tax Rate Change from AOCI to Retained Earnings
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the FASB's new guidance for the effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities related to items recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI") resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017

11

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
1. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

("Tax Reform") enacted on December 22, 2017. Tax Reform reduced the federal tax rate applied to the Company’s deferred tax balances from 35% to 21% on enactment. Under U.S. GAAP, the Company recorded the total effect of the change in enacted tax rates on deferred tax balances as a charge to income tax expense within net income during the fourth quarter of 2017, including the change in deferred tax balances related to components of AOCI. The new accounting guidance permitted the Company to reclassify the “stranded” tax effects out of AOCI and into retained earnings that resulted from recording the tax effects of unrealized investment gains, unrecognized actuarial losses on pension and other postretirement benefit plans, and cumulative translation adjustments at a 35% tax rate because the 14 point reduction in tax rate was recognized in net income instead of other comprehensive income. On adoption, the Company recorded a reclassification of $88 from AOCI to retained earnings. As a result of the reclassification, in the first quarter of 2018, the Company reduced the estimated loss on sale recorded in income from discontinued operations by $193, net of tax, for the increase in AOCI related to the assets held for sale. The reduction in the loss on sale resulted in a corresponding increase in assets held for sale and AOCI as of January 1, 2018 and the AOCI associated with assets held for sale was removed from the balance sheet when the sale closed on May 31, 2018. Additionally, as of January 1, 2018, the Company reclassified $105 of stranded tax effects related to continuing operations which reduced AOCI and increased retained earnings.
Financial Instruments- Recognition and Measurement
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted updated guidance issued by the FASB for the recognition and measurement of financial instruments through a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balances of retained earnings and AOCI. The new guidance requires investments in equity securities to be measured at fair value with any changes in valuation reported in net income except for investments that are consolidated or are accounted for under the equity method of accounting. The new guidance also requires a deferred tax asset resulting from net unrealized losses on available-for-sale fixed maturities that are
 
recognized in AOCI to be evaluated for recoverability in combination with the Company’s other deferred tax assets. Under prior guidance, the Company reported equity securities, available for sale ("AFS"), at fair value with changes in fair value reported in other comprehensive income. As of January 1, 2018, the Company reclassified from AOCI to retained earnings net unrealized gains of $83, after tax, related to equity securities having a fair value of $1.0 billion. In addition, $10 of net unrealized gains net of shadow DAC related to discontinued operations were reclassified from AOCI to retained earnings of the life and annuity run-off business held for sale, which increased the estimated loss on sale in 2018 by the same amount. Beginning in 2018, the Company reports equity securities at fair value with changes in fair value reported in net realized capital gains and losses.
Revenue Recognition
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the FASB’s updated guidance for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers, which excludes insurance contracts and financial instruments. Revenue subject to the guidance is recognized when, or as, goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that an entity is expected to receive in exchange for those goods or services. For all but certain revenues associated with our Mutual Funds business, the updated guidance is consistent with previous guidance for the Company’s transactions and did not have an effect on the Company’s financial position, cash flows or net income. The updated guidance also updated criteria for determining when the Company acts as a principal or an agent. The Company determined that it is the principal for some of its mutual fund distribution service contracts and, upon adoption, reclassified distribution costs of $48 and $140 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively, that were previously netted against fee income to insurance operating costs and other expenses.
Information about the nature, amount, timing of recognition and cash flows for the Company’s revenues subject to the updated guidance follows.

12

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
1. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Revenue from Non-Insurance Contracts with Customers
  Three months ended September 30,Nine months ended September 30,
 Revenue Line Item2018201720182017
Commercial Lines     
Installment billing feesFee income$9
$9
$26
$28
Personal Lines     
Installment billing feesFee income10
11
30
33
Insurance servicing revenuesOther revenues24
24
66
66
Group Benefits     
Administrative servicesFee income43
19
131
57
Mutual Funds     
Advisor, distribution and other management feesFee income245
229
722
660
Other feesFee income21
22
63
75
Corporate     
Investment management and other feesFee income15
1
21
2
Transition service revenuesOther revenues6

8

Total revenues subject to updated guidance $373
$315
$1,067
$921
Installment fees are charged on property and casualty insurance contracts for billing the insurance customer in installments over the policy term. These fees are recognized in fee income as earned on collection.
Insurance servicing revenues within Personal Lines consist of up-front commissions earned for collecting premiums and processing claims on insurance policies for which The Hartford does not assume underwriting risk, predominantly related to the National Flood Insurance Plan program. These insurance servicing revenues are recognized over the period of the flood program's policy terms.
Group Benefits products earn fee income from employers for the administration of underwriting, implementation and claims processing for employer self-funded plans and for leave management services. Fees are recognized as services are provided and collected monthly.
The Company provides investment management, administrative and distribution services to mutual funds and exchange-traded products. The Company assesses investment advisory, distribution and other asset management fees primarily based on the average daily net asset values from mutual funds and exchange-traded products, which are recorded in the period in which the services are provided and collected monthly. Fluctuations in domestic and international markets and related investment performance, volume and mix of sales and redemptions of mutual funds or exchange-traded products, and other changes to the composition of assets under management are all factors that ultimately have a direct effect on fee income earned.
Mutual Funds other fees primarily include transfer agent fees, generally assessed as a charge per account, and are recognized as fee income in the period in which the services are provided with payments collected monthly.
 
Corporate investment management and other fees are primarily for managing third party invested assets, including management of the invested assets of the Talcott Resolution life and annuity run-off business sold in the second quarter of 2018 ("Talcott Resolution"). These fees, calculated based on the average quarterly net asset values, are recorded in the period in which the services are provided and are collected quarterly. Fluctuations in markets and interest rates and other changes to the composition of assets under management are all factors that ultimately have a direct effect on fee income earned.
Corporate transition service revenues consist of operational services provided to The Hartford’s former life and annuity run-off business that will be provided for a period up to 24 months from the May 31, 2018 sale date. The transition service revenues are recognized as other revenues in the period in which the services are provided with payments collected monthly.
Future Adoption of New Accounting Standards
Hedging Activities
The FASB issued updated guidance on hedge accounting. See Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report for more information on the future adoption of the new hedging activities accounting standard. The Company will adopt the updated guidance January 1, 2019, as required, although earlier adoption is permitted. The adoption is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s financial position, cash flows or net income.

13

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
1. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Leases
In accordance with the FASB’s update to its new lease accounting standard, the Company will adopt the new guidance as of the January 1, 2019 effective date with no change to comparative periods. See Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report for more information on the future adoption of the new lease accounting standard. We do not expect a material impact to the consolidated financial statements; however, it is expected that assets and liabilities will increase based on the present value of remaining lease payments for leases in place at the adoption date.
Reserve for Future Policy Benefits
The FASB issued new guidance on accounting for long-duration insurance contracts. The Company’s long-duration insurance contracts include paid-up life insurance and whole-life insurance policies resulting from conversion from group life policies and run-off structured settlement and terminal funding agreement liabilities. Under existing guidance, a reserve for future policy benefits is calculated as the present value of future benefits and related expenses less the present value of any future premiums using assumptions “locked in” at the time the policies were issued, including discount rate, lapse rate, mortality, and expense assumptions. Under existing guidance, assumptions are only updated if there is an expected premium deficiency. The new guidance will require that underlying cash flow assumptions (such as for lapse rate, mortality and expenses) be reviewed and updated at least annually in the same quarter each year. The new guidance also requires that the discount rate assumption be updated each quarter and be based on an upper-medium grade (low-credit-risk) fixed-income investment yield. The change in the reserve estimate as a result of updating cash flow assumptions will be recognized in net income. The change in the reserve estimate as a result of updating the discount rate assumption will be recognized in other comprehensive income. Because reserves will be based on updated assumptions and no longer locked in at contract inception, there will no longer be a test for premium deficiency. The new guidance will be effective January 1, 2021, and will be applied to balances in place as of the earliest period presented. Early adoption is permitted. The Company has not yet determined the method or timing for adoption or estimated the effect on the Company’s financial statements.

14

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
2. Business Acquisitions

Aetna Group Insurance
On November 1, 2017, The Hartford acquired Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business through a reinsurance transaction for total consideration of $1.452 billion and recorded provisional estimates of the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. In September 2018, The Hartford and Aetna agreed on the final assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the acquisition date and The Hartford finalized its provisional
 
estimates with a final cash settlement in October. As a result, in the third quarter of 2018, The Hartford recorded additional assets and liabilities at fair value of $80 and $80, respectively, with no change in goodwill. The following table presents the preliminary allocation of the purchase price to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the acquisition date, the measurement period adjustments recorded, and the final purchase price allocation.
Fair Value of Assets Acquired and Liabilities Assumed at the Acquisition Date
 Preliminary Value as of November 1, 2017 (as previously reported as of December 31, 2017)Measurement Period AdjustmentsAs Adjusted Value as of November 1, 2017
Assets   
Cash and invested assets [1]$3,360
$45
$3,405
Premiums receivable96
7
103
Deferred income taxes, net56
13
69
Other intangible assets629

629
Property and equipment68

68
Reinsurance recoverables
31
31
Other assets16
(16)
Total Assets Acquired4,225
80
4,305
Liabilities   
Unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses2,833
71
2,904
Reserve for future policy benefits payable346
1
347
Other policyholder funds and benefits payable245
1
246
Unearned premiums3
1
4
Other liabilities69
6
75
Total Liabilities Assumed3,496
80
3,576
Net identifiable assets acquired729

729
Goodwill [2]723

723
Net Assets Acquired$1,452
$
$1,452
[1]
Includes $45 of cash received from Aetna in October 2018 in settlement of the final balance sheet and reported as a receivable in other assets in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of September 30, 2018.
[2]
Approximately $610 is deductible for income tax purposes.
The effect of measurement period adjustments on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 was immaterial and was determined as if the accounting had been completed as of the acquisition date.
The following table presents supplemental pro forma amounts of revenue and net income for the Company for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, as though the business was acquired on January 1, 2016.
 
Pro Forma Results
 Three months ended September 30, 2017 [1]Nine months ended September 30, 2017 [1]
Total Revenue$4,777
$14,309
Net Income$249
$619
[1]Pro forma adjustments include the revenue and earnings of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business as well as amortization of identifiable intangible assets acquired and the fair value adjustment to acquired insurance reserves. Pro forma adjustments do not include retrospective adjustments to defer and amortize acquisition costs as would be recorded under the Company’s accounting policy.


15

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
3. Earnings Per Common Share



Computation of Basic and Diluted Earnings per Common Share
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
(In millions, except for per share data)20182017 20182017
Earnings     
Income from continuing operations, net of tax$427
$145
 $1,289
$296
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax5
89
 322
276
Net income$432
$234
 $1,611
$572
Shares     
Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic358.6
360.2
 358.1
365.9
Dilutive effect of stock compensation plans3.6
4.5
 4.0
4.1
Dilutive effect of warrants1.9
2.3
 2.0
2.6
Weighted average common shares outstanding and dilutive potential common shares364.1
367.0
 364.1
372.6
Net income per common share     
Basic     
Income from continuing operations, net of tax$1.19
$0.40
 $3.60
$0.81
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax$0.01
$0.25
 $0.90
$0.75
Net income per common share$1.20
$0.65
 $4.50
$1.56
Diluted     
Income from continuing operations, net of tax$1.17
$0.40
 $3.54
$0.79
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax$0.02
$0.24
 $0.88
$0.75
Net income per common share$1.19
$0.64
 $4.42
$1.54

16

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
4. Segment Information

The Company currently conducts business principally in five reporting segments including Commercial Lines, Personal Lines, Property & Casualty Other Operations, Group Benefits and Mutual Funds, as well as a Corporate category. The Company includes in the Corporate category investment management fees and expenses related to managing third party business, including management of the invested assets of the Talcott Resolution life and annuity run-off business sold in the second quarter of 2018, discontinued operations related to the sale of Talcott Resolution, reserves for run-off structured settlement and terminal funding agreement liabilities, capital raising activities (including debt financing and related interest expense), purchase accounting adjustments related to goodwill and other expenses not allocated to the reporting segments. In addition, Corporate includes a 9.7% ownership interest in the limited partnership that acquired Talcott Resolution. For further discussion of continued involvement with Talcott Resolution, see Note 18 - Business Dispositions and Discontinued Operations of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Company's revenues are generated primarily in the United States ("U.S."). Any foreign sourced revenue is immaterial.
Net Income
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017 20182017
Commercial Lines$289
$90
 $959
$579
Personal Lines51
8
 146
65
Property & Casualty Other Operations9
18
 31
62
Group Benefits77
71
 227
185
Mutual Funds41
26
 112
73
Corporate(35)21
 136
(392)
Net income$432
$234
 $1,611
$572

17

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
4. Segment Information (continued)


Revenues
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,

20182017 20182017
Earned premiums and fee income     
Commercial Lines     
Workers’ compensation$845
$828
 $2,495
$2,461
Liability170
150
 480
450
Package business343
325
 1,013
965
Automobile157
155
 454
477
Professional liability65
63
 190
183
Bond60
59
 179
172
Property154
152
 456
451
Total Commercial Lines1,794
1,732
 5,267
5,159
Personal Lines



   
Automobile598
653
 1,809
1,975
Homeowners261
279
 785
843
Total Personal Lines [1]859
932
 2,594
2,818
Group Benefits     
Group disability684
386
 2,051
1,146
Group life652
383
 1,968
1,176
Other60
53
 179
159
Total Group Benefits1,396
822
 4,198
2,481
Mutual Funds     
Mutual fund and Exchange-Traded Products ("ETP") [2]242
225
 710
657
Talcott Resolution life and annuity separate accounts [3]25
26
 76
78
Total Mutual Funds267
251
 786
735
Corporate15
1
 21
2
Total earned premiums and fee income4,331
3,738
 12,866
11,195
Net investment income444
404
 1,323
1,209
Net realized capital gains38
26
 60
105
Other revenues29
24
 73
66
Total revenues$4,842
$4,192
 $14,322
$12,575
[1]
For the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, AARP members accounted for earned premiums of $758 and $801, respectively. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, AARP members accounted for earned premiums of $2.3 billion and $2.4 billion, respectively.
[2]
Excludes distribution costs of $48 and $140 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively, that were previously netted against fee income and are now presented gross in insurance operating costs and other expenses.
[3]Relates to Talcott Resolution life and annuity business sold in May, 2018 that is still managed by the Company's Mutual Funds segment.

18

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements


The Company carries certain financial assets and liabilities at estimated fair value. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market in an orderly transaction between market participants. Our fair value framework includes a hierarchy that gives the highest priority to the use of quoted prices in active markets, followed by the use of market observable inputs, followed by the use of unobservable inputs. The fair value hierarchy levels are as follows:
Level 1Fair values based primarily on unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities, in active markets that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2Fair values primarily based on observable inputs, other than quoted prices included in Level 1, or based on prices for similar assets and liabilities.
 
Level 3Fair values derived when one or more of the significant inputs are unobservable (including assumptions about risk). With little or no observable market, the determination of fair values uses considerable judgment and represents the Company’s best estimate of an amount that could be realized in a market exchange for the asset or liability. Also included are securities that are traded within illiquid markets and/or priced by independent brokers.
The Company will classify the financial asset or liability by level based upon the lowest level input that is significant to the determination of the fair value. In most cases, both observable inputs (e.g., changes in interest rates) and unobservable inputs (e.g., changes in risk assumptions) are used to determine fair values that the Company has classified within Level 3.
Assets and (Liabilities) Carried at Fair Value by Hierarchy Level as of September 30, 2018
 TotalQuoted Prices in
Active Markets
for Identical
Assets
(Level 1)
Significant
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
Assets accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis    
Fixed maturities, AFS    
Asset-backed-securities ("ABS")$1,191
$
$1,137
$54
Collateralized loan obligations ("CLOs")1,326

1,030
296
Commercial mortgage-backed securities ("CMBS")3,657

3,635
22
Corporate13,492

12,941
551
Foreign government/government agencies952

949
3
Municipal10,602

10,593
9
Residential mortgage-backed securities ("RMBS")3,118

2,184
934
U.S. Treasuries1,828
695
1,133

Total fixed maturities36,166
695
33,602
1,869
Fixed maturities, FVO24

24

Equity securities, at fair value1,035
905
52
78
Derivative assets    
Credit derivatives14

14

Equity derivatives1


1
Foreign exchange derivatives(1)
(1)
Total derivative assets [1]14

13
1
Short-term investments3,540
980
2,560

Total assets accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis$40,779
$2,580
$36,251
$1,948
Liabilities accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis    
Derivative liabilities    
Foreign exchange derivatives(10)
(10)
Interest rate derivatives(51)
(53)2
Total derivative liabilities [2](61)
(63)2
Contingent consideration [3](32)

(32)
Total liabilities accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis$(93)$
$(63)$(30)

19

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


Assets and (Liabilities) Carried at Fair Value by Hierarchy Level as of December 31, 2017
 Total
Quoted Prices in
Active Markets
for Identical
Assets
(Level 1)
Significant
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
Assets accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis    
Fixed maturities, AFS    
Asset-backed-securities ("ABS")$1,126
$
$1,107
$19
Collateralized loan obligations ("CLOs")1,260

1,165
95
Commercial mortgage-backed securities ("CMBS")3,336

3,267
69
Corporate12,804

12,284
520
Foreign government/government agencies1,110

1,108
2
Municipal12,485

12,468
17
Residential mortgage-backed securities ("RMBS")3,044

1,814
1,230
U.S. Treasuries1,799
333
1,466

Total fixed maturities36,964
333
34,679
1,952
Fixed maturities, FVO41

41

Equity securities, AFS1,012
887
49
76
Derivative assets    
Credit derivatives9

9

Equity derivatives1


1
Foreign exchange derivatives(1)
(1)
Interest rate derivatives1

1

Total derivative assets [1]10

9
1
Short-term investments2,270
1,098
1,172

Total assets accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis$40,297
$2,318
$35,950
$2,029
Liabilities accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis    
Derivative liabilities    
Credit derivatives(3)
(3)
Foreign exchange derivatives(13)
(13)
Interest rate derivatives(84)
(85)1
Total derivative liabilities [2](100)
(101)1
Contingent consideration [3](29)

(29)
Total liabilities accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis$(129)$
$(101)$(28)
[1]Includes derivative instruments in a net positive fair value position after consideration of the accrued interest and impact of collateral posting requirements which may be imposed by agreements and applicable law. See footnote 2 to this table for derivative liabilities.
[2]Includes derivative instruments in a net negative fair value position (derivative liability) after consideration of the accrued interest and impact of collateral posting requirements which may be imposed by agreements and applicable law.
[3]For additional information see the Contingent Consideration section below.
Fixed Maturities, Equity Securities, Short-term Investments, and Derivatives
Valuation Techniques
The Company generally determines fair values using valuation techniques that use prices, rates, and other relevant information evident from market transactions involving identical or similar instruments. Valuation techniques also include, where appropriate, estimates of future cash flows that are converted into a single discounted amount using current market expectations. The Company uses a "waterfall" approach
 
comprised of the following pricing sources and techniques, which are listed in priority order:
Quoted prices, unadjusted, for identical assets or liabilities in active markets, which are classified as Level 1.
Prices from third-party pricing services, which primarily utilize a combination of techniques. These services utilize recently reported trades of identical, similar, or benchmark securities making adjustments for market observable inputs available through the reporting date. If there are no recently reported trades, they may use a discounted cash flow technique to develop a price using expected cash flows based upon the anticipated future performance of the underlying collateral discounted at an estimated market rate. Both

20

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


techniques develop prices that consider the time value of future cash flows and provide a margin for risk, including liquidity and credit risk. Most prices provided by third-party pricing services are classified as Level 2 because the inputs used in pricing the securities are observable. However, some securities that are less liquid or trade less actively are classified as Level 3. Additionally, certain long-dated securities, such as municipal securities and bank loans, include benchmark interest rate or credit spread assumptions that are not observable in the marketplace and are thus classified as Level 3.
Internal matrix pricing, which is a valuation process internally developed for private placement securities for which the Company is unable to obtain a price from a third-party pricing service. Internal pricing matrices determine credit spreads that, when combined with risk-free rates, are applied to contractual cash flows to develop a price. The Company develops credit spreads using market based data for public securities adjusted for credit spread differentials between public and private securities, which are obtained from a survey of multiple private placement brokers. The market-based reference credit spread considers the issuer’s financial strength and term to maturity, using an independent public security index and trade information, while the credit spread differential considers the non-public nature of the security. Securities priced using internal matrix pricing are classified as Level 2 because the inputs are observable or can be corroborated with observable data.
Independent broker quotes, which are typically non-binding, use inputs that can be difficult to corroborate with observable market based data. Brokers may use present value techniques using assumptions specific to the security types, or they may use recent transactions of similar securities. Due to the lack of transparency in the process that brokers use to develop prices, valuations that are based on independent broker quotes are classified as Level 3.
The fair value of derivative instruments is determined primarily using a discounted cash flow model or option model technique and incorporate counterparty credit risk. In some cases, quoted market prices for exchange-traded and OTC-cleared derivatives may be used and in other cases independent broker quotes may be used. The pricing valuation models primarily use inputs that are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data. The valuation of certain derivatives may include significant inputs that are unobservable, such as volatility levels, and reflect the Company’s view of what other market participants would use when pricing such instruments.
Valuation Controls
The fair value process for investments is monitored by the Valuation Committee, which is a cross-functional group of senior management within the Company that meets at least quarterly. The purpose of the committee is to oversee the pricing policy and procedures, as well as to approve changes to valuation methodologies and pricing sources. Controls and procedures used to assess third-party pricing services are reviewed by the Valuation Committee, including the results of annual due-diligence reviews.
 
There are also two working groups under the Valuation Committee: a Securities Fair Value Working Group (“Securities Working Group”) and a Derivatives Fair Value Working Group ("Derivatives Working Group"). The working groups, which include various investment, operations, accounting and risk management professionals, meet monthly to review market data trends, pricing and trading statistics and results, and any proposed pricing methodology changes.
The Securities Working Group reviews prices received from third parties to ensure that the prices represent a reasonable estimate of the fair value. The group considers trading volume, new issuance activity, market trends, new regulatory rulings and other factors to determine whether the market activity is significantly different than normal activity in an active market. A dedicated pricing unit follows up with trading and investment sector professionals and challenges prices of third-party pricing services when the estimated assumptions used differ from what the unit believes a market participant would use. If the available evidence indicates that pricing from third-party pricing services or broker quotes is based upon transactions that are stale or not from trades made in an orderly market, the Company places little, if any, weight on the third party service’s transaction price and will estimate fair value using an internal process, such as a pricing matrix.
The Derivatives Working Group reviews the inputs, assumptions and methodologies used to ensure that the prices represent a reasonable estimate of the fair value. A dedicated pricing team works directly with investment sector professionals to investigate the impacts of changes in the market environment on prices or valuations of derivatives. New models and any changes to current models are required to have detailed documentation and are validated to a second source. The model validation documentation and results of validation are presented to the Valuation Committee for approval.
The Company conducts other monitoring controls around securities and derivatives pricing including, but not limited to, the following:
Review of daily price changes over specific thresholds and new trade comparison to third-party pricing services.
Daily comparison of OTC derivative market valuations to counterparty valuations.
Review of weekly price changes compared to published bond prices of a corporate bond index.
Monthly reviews of price changes over thresholds, stale prices, missing prices, and zero prices.
Monthly validation of prices to a second source for securities in most sectors and for certain derivatives.
In addition, the Company’s enterprise-wide Operational Risk Management function, led by the Chief Risk Officer, is responsible for model risk management and provides an independent review of the suitability and reliability of model inputs, as well as an analysis of significant changes to current models.

21

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


Valuation Inputs
Quoted prices for identical assets in active markets are considered Level 1 and consist of on-the-run U.S. Treasuries,
 
money market funds, exchange-traded equity securities, open-ended mutual funds, short-term investments, and exchange traded futures and option contracts.

22

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


Valuation Inputs Used in Levels 2 and 3 Measurements for Securities and Derivatives
Level 2
Primary Observable Inputs
Level 3
Primary Unobservable Inputs
Fixed Maturity Investments
Structured securities (includes ABS, CDOs, CMBS and RMBS)
 
• Benchmark yields and spreads
• Monthly payment information
• Collateral performance, which varies by vintage year and includes delinquency rates, loss severity rates and refinancing assumptions
• Credit default swap indices

Other inputs for ABS and RMBS:
• Estimate of future principal prepayments, derived from the characteristics of the underlying structure
• Prepayment speeds previously experienced at the interest rate levels projected for the collateral
 
• Independent broker quotes
• Credit spreads beyond observable curve
• Interest rates beyond observable curve

Other inputs for less liquid securities or those that trade less actively, including subprime RMBS:
• Estimated cash flows
• Credit spreads, which include illiquidity premium
• Constant prepayment rates
• Constant default rates
• Loss severity
Corporates
 
• Benchmark yields and spreads
• Reported trades, bids, offers of the same or similar securities
• Issuer spreads and credit default swap curves

Other inputs for investment grade privately placed securities that utilize internal matrix pricing:
• Credit spreads for public securities of similar quality, maturity, and sector, adjusted for non-public nature
 
• Independent broker quotes
• Credit spreads beyond observable curve
• Interest rates beyond observable curve

Other inputs for below investment grade privately placed securities:
• Independent broker quotes
• Credit spreads for public securities of similar quality, maturity, and sector, adjusted for non-public nature
U.S Treasuries, Municipals, and Foreign government/government agencies
 
• Benchmark yields and spreads
• Issuer credit default swap curves
• Political events in emerging market economies
• Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board reported trades and material event notices
• Issuer financial statements
 
• Credit spreads beyond observable curve
• Interest rates beyond observable curve
Equity Securities
 • Quoted prices in markets that are not active • For privately traded equity securities, internal discounted cash flow models utilizing earnings multiples or other cash flow assumptions that are not observable
Short Term Investments
 
• Benchmark yields and spreads
• Reported trades, bids, offers
• Issuer spreads and credit default swap curves
• Material event notices and new issue money market rates
 Not applicable
Derivatives
Credit derivatives
 
• Swap yield curve
• Credit default swap curves
 Not applicable
Equity derivatives
 
• Equity index levels
• Swap yield curve
 
• Independent broker quotes
• Equity volatility
Foreign exchange derivatives
 
• Swap yield curve
• Currency spot and forward rates
• Cross currency basis curves
 Not applicable
Interest rate derivatives
 • Swap yield curve 
• Independent broker quotes
• Interest rate volatility

23

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


Significant Unobservable Inputs for Level 3 - Securities
Assets accounted for at fair value on a recurring basisFair
Value
Predominant
Valuation
Technique
Significant
Unobservable Input
MinimumMaximumWeighted Average [1]Impact of
Increase in Input
on Fair Value [2]
As of September 30, 2018
CMBS [3]$12
Discounted cash flowsSpread (encompasses prepayment, default risk and loss severity)9 bps1,040 bps177 bpsDecrease
Corporate [4]$289
Discounted cash flowsSpread100 bps761 bps201 bpsDecrease
Municipal$9
Discounted cash flowsSpread160 bps160 bps160 bpsDecrease
RMBS [3]$913
Discounted cash flowsSpread7 bps288 bps67 bpsDecrease
   Constant prepayment rate1%15%6% Decrease [5]
   Constant default rate1%8%3%Decrease
   Loss severity—%100%60%Decrease
As of December 31, 2017
CMBS [3]$56
Discounted cash flowsSpread (encompasses prepayment, default risk and loss severity)9 bps1,040 bps400 bpsDecrease
Corporate [4]$251
Discounted cash flowsSpread103 bps1,000 bps242 bpsDecrease
Municipal$17
Discounted cash flowsSpread192 bps250 bps219 bpsDecrease
RMBS [3]$1,215
Discounted cash flowsSpread24 bps351 bps74 bpsDecrease
   Constant prepayment rate1%25%6%Decrease [5]
   Constant default rate—%9%4%Decrease
   Loss severity—%100%66%Decrease
[1]The weighted average is determined based on the fair value of the securities.
[2]Conversely, the impact of a decrease in input would have the opposite impact to the fair value as that presented in the table.
[3]Excludes securities for which the Company bases fair value on broker quotations.
[4]Excludes securities for which the Company bases fair value on broker quotations; however, included are broker priced lower-rated private placement securities for which the Company receives spread and yield information to corroborate the fair value.
[5]Decrease for above market rate coupons and increase for below market rate coupons.
Significant Unobservable Inputs for Level 3 - Derivatives
 Fair
Value
Predominant
Valuation 
Technique
Significant Unobservable InputMinimumMaximumImpact of 
Increase in Input on 
Fair Value [1]
As of September 30, 2018
Interest rate swaptions [2]$2
Option modelInterest rate volatility3%3%Increase
Equity Options1
Option modelEquity volatility19%26%Increase
As of December 31, 2017
Interest rate swaptions [2]$1
Option modelInterest rate volatility2%2%Increase
Equity options$1
Option modelEquity volatility18%22%Increase
[1]Conversely, the impact of a decrease in input would have the opposite impact to the fair value as that presented in the table. Changes are based on long positions, unless otherwise noted. Changes in fair value will be inversely impacted for short positions.
[2]The swaptions presented are purchased options that have the right to enter into a pay-fixed swap.

24

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


The tables above excludes ABS and certain corporate securities for which fair values are predominately based on independent broker quotes. While the Company does not have access to the significant unobservable inputs that independent brokers may use in their pricing process, the Company believes brokers likely use inputs similar to those used by the Company and third-party pricing services to price similar instruments. As such, in their pricing models, brokers likely use estimated loss severity rates, prepayment rates, constant default rates and credit spreads. Therefore, similar to non-broker priced securities, increases in these inputs would generally cause fair values to decrease. As of September 30, 2018, no significant adjustments were made by the Company to broker prices received.
Transfers between Levels
Transfers of securities among the levels occur at the beginning of the reporting period. The amount of transfers from Level 1 to Level 2 was $379 and $1.3 billion for three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively, and $300 and $1.1 billion for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively, which represented previously on-the-run U.S. Treasury securities that are now off-the-run. Transfers from Level 2 to Level 1 for both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, were immaterial and there were no transfers from Level 2 to Level 1 for the same period in 2017. See the fair value rollforward tables for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, for the transfers into and out of Level 3.
Contingent Consideration
The acquisition of Lattice Strategies LLC ("Lattice") in 2016 requires the Company to make payments to former owners of Lattice of up to $60 contingent upon growth in exchange-traded products ("ETP") assets under management ("AUM") over a four-year period beginning on the date of acquisition. The contingent
 
consideration is measured at fair value on a quarterly basis by projecting future eligible ETP AUM over the contingency period to estimate the amount of expected payout. The future expected payout is discounted back to the valuation date using a risk-adjusted discount rate of 16.7%. The risk-adjusted discount rate is an internally generated and significant unobservable input to fair value.
The contingency period for ETP AUM growth ends in June, 2020 and management will adjust the fair value of the contingent consideration if and when it revises its projection of ETP AUM for the acquired business. Before discounting to fair value, the Company has accrued a contingent commission payable of $32 assuming ETP AUM for the acquired business grows to approximately $4 billion over the contingency period. The Company will evaluate the projected AUM growth again in the fourth quarter of 2018.
Level 3 Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis Using Significant Unobservable Inputs
The Company uses derivative instruments to manage the risk associated with certain assets and liabilities. However, the derivative instrument may not be classified with the same fair value hierarchy level as the associated asset or liability. Therefore, the realized and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives reported in the Level 3 rollforward may be offset by realized and unrealized gains and losses of the associated assets and liabilities in other line items of the financial statements.

25

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


Fair Value Rollforwards for Financial Instruments Classified as Level 3 for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2018
 Total realized/unrealized gains (losses)      
  Fair value as of June 30, 2018Included in net income [1]Included in OCI [2]PurchasesSettlementsSalesTransfers into Level 3 [3]Transfers out of Level 3 [3]Fair value as of September 30, 2018
Assets         
Fixed Maturities, AFS         
 ABS$57
$
$
$39
$(2)$
$9
$(49)$54
 CLOs159


211



(74)296
 CMBS28
(1)1

(1)

(5)22
 Corporate559

(2)12
(2)(12)
(4)551
 Foreign Govt./Govt. Agencies3







3
 Municipal9







9
 RMBS1,137

(3)
(77)(26)
(97)934
Total Fixed Maturities, AFS1,952
(1)(4)262
(82)(38)9
(229)1,869
Equity Securities, at fair value66


12




78
Derivatives, net [4]         
 Equity1







1
 Interest rate2







2
Total Derivatives, net [4]3







3
Total Assets$2,021
$(1)$(4)$274
$(82)$(38)$9
$(229)$1,950
Liabilities         
Contingent Consideration [5](31)(1)





(32)
Total Liabilities$(31)$(1)$
$
$
$
$
$
$(32)

26

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


Fair Value Rollforwards for Financial Instruments Classified as Level 3 for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018
 Total realized/unrealized gains (losses)      
  Fair value as of January 1, 2018Included in net income [1]Included in OCI [2]PurchasesSettlementsSalesTransfers into Level 3 [3]Transfers out of Level 3 [3]Fair value as of September 30, 2018
Assets         
Fixed Maturities, AFS         
 ABS$19
$
$
$89
$(5)$
$12
$(61)$54
 CLOs95


309

(4)
(104)296
 CMBS69
(1)
25
(4)(8)
(59)22
 Corporate520
1
(10)143
(34)(43)15
(41)551
 Foreign Govt./Govt. Agencies2


1




3
 Municipal17

(1)



(7)9
 RMBS1,230

(10)170
(251)(27)
(178)934
Total Fixed Maturities, AFS1,952

(21)737
(294)(82)27
(450)1,869
Equity Securities, at fair value76
28
1
13

(40)

78
Derivatives, net [4]         
 Equity1
1

1

(2)

1
 Interest rate1
1






2
Total Derivatives, net [4]2
2

1

(2)

3
Total Assets$2,030
$30
$(20)$751
$(294)$(124)$27
$(450)$1,950
Liabilities         
Contingent Consideration [5](29)(3)





(32)
Total Liabilities$(29)$(3)$
$
$
$
$
$
$(32)

27

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


Fair Value Rollforwards for Financial Instruments Classified as Level 3 for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2017
 Total realized/unrealized gains (losses)      
  Fair value as of June 30, 2017Included in net income [1]Included in OCI [2]PurchasesSettlementsSalesTransfers into Level 3 [3]Transfers out of Level 3 [3]Fair value as of September 30, 2017
Assets         
Fixed Maturities, AFS         
 ABS$63
$
$
$
$(3)$(6)$4
$(32)$26
 CLOs203


9



(116)96
 CMBS65
(1)

(3)


61
 Corporate528

5
36
(1)(24)19
(30)533
 Foreign Govt./Govt. Agencies22

1
7



(5)25
 Municipal16







16
 RMBS1,272

17
39
(72)

(1)1,255
Total Fixed Maturities, AFS2,169
(1)23
91
(79)(30)23
(184)2,012
Equity Securities, AFS55

(2)20




73
Derivatives, net [4]         
 Equity2







2
 Interest rate3
(1)





2
Total Derivatives, net [4]5
(1)





4
Total Assets$2,229
$(2)$21
$111
$(79)$(30)$23
$(184)$2,089
Liabilities         
Contingent Consideration [5](27)(1)





(28)
Total Liabilities$(27)$(1)$
$
$
$
$
$
$(28)

28

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


Fair Value Rollforwards for Financial Instruments Classified as Level 3 for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2017
 Total realized/unrealized gains (losses)      
  Fair value as of January 1, 2017Included in net income [1]Included in OCI [2]PurchasesSettlementsSalesTransfers into Level 3 [3]Transfers out of Level 3 [3]Fair value as of September 30, 2017
Assets         
Fixed Maturities, AFS         
 ABS$45
$
$
$56
$(6)$(6)$27
$(90)$26
 CLOs154


195
(101)

(152)96
 CMBS59
(2)
42
(7)

(31)61
 Corporate514
1
16
169
(42)(141)54
(38)533
 Foreign Govt./Govt. Agencies47

3
12

(2)
(35)25
 Municipal46
4
1


(35)

16
 RMBS1,261

39
156
(193)(7)
(1)1,255
Total Fixed Maturities, AFS2,126
3
59
630
(349)(191)81
(347)2,012
Fixed Maturities, FVO11


4
(2)(13)


Equity Securities, AFS55

(4)22




73
Derivatives, net [4]         
 Equity
(3)
5




2
 Interest rate9
(7)





2
 Other contracts1
(1)






Total Derivatives, net [4]10
(11)
5




4
Total Assets$2,202
$(8)$55
$661
$(351)$(204)$81
$(347)$2,089
Liabilities         
Contingent Consideration [5](25)(3)





(28)
Total Liabilities$(25)$(3)$
$
$
$
$
$
$(28)
[1]Amounts in these columns are generally reported in net realized capital gains (losses). All amounts are before income taxes.
[2]All amounts are before income taxes.
[3]Transfers in and/or (out) of Level 3 are primarily attributable to the availability of market observable information and the re-evaluation of the observability of pricing inputs.
[4]Derivative instruments are reported in this table on a net basis for asset (liability) positions and reported in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets in other investments and other liabilities.
[5]
For additional information, see Note 2 - Business Acquisitions of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2017 form 10-K Annual Report for discussion of the contingent consideration in connection with the acquisition of Lattice. Includes both market and non-market impacts in deriving realized and unrealized gains (losses).

29

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
5. Fair Value Measurements (continued)


Changes in Unrealized Gains (Losses) Included in Net Income for Financial Instruments Classified as Level 3 Still Held at End of Period
  Three months ended September 30,Nine months ended September 30,
  2018 [1] [2]2017 [1] [2]2018 [1] [2]2017 [1] [2]
Assets    
Fixed Maturities, AFS    
 CMBS$
$
$
$(1)
Total Fixed Maturities, AFS


(1)
Derivatives, net    
 Equity(1)
(1)(2)
 Interest rate
(1)
(6)
Total Derivatives, net(1)(1)(1)(8)
Total Assets$(1)$(1)$(1)$(9)
Liabilities    
Contingent Consideration [3](1)(1)(3)(3)
Total Liabilities$(1)$(1)$(3)$(3)
[1]All amounts in these rows are reported in net realized capital gains (losses). All amounts are before income taxes.
[2]Amounts presented are for Level 3 only and therefore may not agree to other disclosures included herein.
[3]
For additional information, see Note 2 - Business Acquisitions of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2017 form 10-K Annual Report for discussion of the contingent consideration in connection with the acquisition of Lattice.
Fair Value Option
The Company has elected the fair value option for certain securities that contain embedded credit derivatives with underlying credit risk primarily related to residential real estate, and these securities are included within Fixed Maturities, FVO on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company reports changes in the fair value of these securities in net realized capital gains and losses.
As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the fair value of assets and liabilities using the fair value option was $24 and $41, respectively, within the residential real estate sector.
For three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 there were no realized capital gains (losses) related to the fair value of assets using the fair value option. For both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 the realized capital gains (losses) related to the fair value of assets using the fair value option were $(1) within the residential real estate and corporate sectors.
 
Financial Instruments Not Carried at Fair Value
Financial Assets and Liabilities Not Carried at Fair Value
 Fair Value Hierarchy LevelCarrying AmountFair Value
September 30, 2018
Assets   
Mortgage loansLevel 3$3,559
$3,518
Liabilities   
Other policyholder funds and benefits payableLevel 3$784
$785
Senior notes [1]Level 2$3,587
$3,940
Junior subordinated debentures [1]Level 2$1,089
$1,142
December 31, 2017
Assets   
Mortgage loansLevel 3$3,175
$3,220
Liabilities   
Other policyholder funds and benefits payableLevel 3$825
$827
Senior notes [1]Level 2$3,415
$4,054
Junior subordinated debentures [1]Level 2$1,583
$1,699
[1]Included in long-term debt in the Consolidated Balance Sheets, except for current maturities, which are included in short-term debt.


30

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
6. Investments

Net Realized Capital Gains
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
(Before tax)2018201720182017
Gross gains on sales$26
$46
$91
$184
Gross losses on sales(41)(16)(129)(84)
Equity securities [1]46

88

Net OTTI losses recognized in earnings(1)(1)(1)(4)
Transactional foreign currency revaluation

1
14
Non-qualifying foreign currency derivatives1

2
(14)
Other, net [2]7
(3)8
9
Net realized capital gains$38
$26
$60
$105
[1]Effective January 1, 2018, with adoption of new accounting guidance for equity securities at fair value, includes all changes in fair value and trading gains and losses for equity securities.
[2]
Includes gains (losses) on non-qualifying derivatives, excluding foreign currency derivatives, of $8 and $(1), respectively, for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, the non-qualifying derivatives, excluding foreign currency derivatives, were $6 and $7, respectively.
Net realized capital gains (losses) from investment sales are reported as a component of revenues and are determined on a specific identification basis. Before tax, net gains (losses) on sales and impairments previously reported as unrealized gains or losses in AOCI were $(15) and $(59) for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively, and $32 and $102 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively. Proceeds from sales of AFS securities totaled $4.6 billion and $13.1 billion for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively, and $2.9 billion and $11.4 billion for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively. Effective January 1, 2018, with adoption of new accounting guidance for equity securities, the proceeds from sales of AFS securities no longer includes equity securities.
The net unrealized gain (loss) on equity securities included in net realized capital gains (losses) related to equity securities still held as of September 30, 2018, was $41 and $50 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively. Prior to January 1, 2018, changes in net unrealized gains (losses) on equity securities were included in AOCI.
Recognition and Presentation of Other-Than-Temporary Impairments
The Company will record an other-than-temporary impairment (“OTTI”) for fixed maturities if the Company intends to sell or it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before a recovery in value. A corresponding charge is recorded in net realized capital losses equal to the difference between the fair value and amortized cost basis of the security.
The Company will also record an OTTI for those fixed maturities for which the Company does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis. For these securities, the excess of the
 
amortized cost basis over its fair value is separated into the portion representing a credit OTTI, which is recorded in net realized capital losses, and the remaining non-credit amount, which is recorded in OCI. The credit OTTI amount is the excess of its amortized cost basis over the Company’s best estimate of discounted expected future cash flows. The non-credit amount is the excess of the best estimate of the discounted expected future cash flows over the fair value. The Company’s best estimate of discounted expected future cash flows becomes the new cost basis and accretes prospectively into net investment income over the estimated remaining life of the security.
Developing the Company’s best estimate of expected future cash flows is a quantitative and qualitative process that incorporates information received from third-party sources along with certain internal assumptions regarding the future performance. The Company's considerations include, but are not limited to, (a) changes in the financial condition of the issuer and the underlying collateral, (b) whether the issuer is current on contractually obligated interest and principal payments, (c) credit ratings, (d) payment structure of the security and (e) the extent to which the fair value has been less than the amortized cost of the security.
For non-structured securities, assumptions include, but are not limited to, economic and industry-specific trends and fundamentals, security-specific developments, industry earnings multiples and the issuer’s ability to restructure and execute asset sales.
For structured securities, assumptions include, but are not limited to, various performance indicators such as historical and projected default and recovery rates, credit ratings, current and projected delinquency rates, loan-to-value ("LTV") ratios, average cumulative collateral loss rates that vary by vintage year, prepayment speeds, and property value declines. These assumptions require the use of significant management judgment and include the probability of issuer default and estimates regarding timing and amount of expected recoveries which may include estimating the underlying collateral value.
Prior to January 1, 2018, the Company recorded an OTTI for certain equity securities with debt-like characteristics if the Company intended to sell or it was more likely than not that the Company was required to sell the security before a recovery in value as well as for those equity securities for which the Company did not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis. The Company also recorded an OTTI for equity securities where the decline in the fair value was deemed to be other-than-temporary. For further discussion of these policies, see Recognition and Presentation of Other-Than-Temporary Impairments within Note 6 - Investments of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.

31

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
6. Investments (continued)


Impairments in Earnings by Type
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2018201720182017
Credit impairments$1
$
$1
$2
Intent-to-sell impairments



Impairments on equity securities
1

2
Total impairments$1
$1
$1
$4
Cumulative Credit Impairments
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
(Before tax)2018201720182017
Balance as of beginning of period$(20)$(94)$(25)$(110)
Additions for credit impairments recognized on [1]:    
Securities not previously impaired



Securities previously impaired(1)
(1)(2)
Reductions for credit impairments previously recognized on:    
Securities that matured or were sold during the period1

6
8
Securities due to an increase in expected cash flows


10
Balance as of end of period$(20)$(94)$(20)$(94)
[1]These additions are included in the net OTTI losses recognized in earnings in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.

32

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
6. Investments (continued)


Available-for-Sale Securities
AFS Securities by Type
 September 30, 2018 December 31, 2017
 
Cost or
Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value
Non-Credit
OTTI [1]
 
Cost or
Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value
Non-Credit
OTTI [1]
ABS$1,191
$3
$(3)$1,191
$
 $1,119
$9
$(2)$1,126
$
CLOs1,328
1
(3)1,326

 1,257
3

1,260

CMBS3,718
25
(86)3,657
(5) 3,304
58
(26)3,336
(5)
Corporate13,640
176
(324)13,492

 12,370
490
(56)12,804

Foreign govt./govt. agencies961
11
(20)952

 1,071
43
(4)1,110

Municipal10,276
402
(76)10,602

 11,743
754
(12)12,485

RMBS3,126
44
(52)3,118

 2,985
63
(4)3,044

U.S. Treasuries1,854
17
(43)1,828

 1,763
46
(10)1,799

Total fixed maturities, AFS36,094
679
(607)36,166
(5) 35,612
1,466
(114)36,964
(5)
Equity securities, AFS [2]









 907
121
(16)1,012

Total AFS securities$36,094
$679
$(607)$36,166
$(5) $36,519
$1,587
$(130)$37,976
$(5)
[1]
Represents the amount of cumulative non-credit OTTI losses recognized in OCI on securities that also had credit impairments. These losses are included in gross unrealized losses in AOCI as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
[2]
Effective January 1, 2018, with the adoption of new accounting standards for financial instruments, equity securities, AFS were reclassified to equity securities at fair value and are excluded from the table above as of September 30, 2018.
Fixed maturities, AFS, by Contractual Maturity Year
 September 30, 2018December 31, 2017

Amortized CostFair ValueAmortized CostFair Value
One year or less$1,033
$1,037
$1,507
$1,513
Over one year through five years6,233
6,242
5,007
5,119
Over five years through ten years6,543
6,469
6,505
6,700
Over ten years12,922
13,126
13,928
14,866
Subtotal26,731
26,874
26,947
28,198
Mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities9,363
9,292
8,665
8,766
Total fixed maturities, AFS$36,094
$36,166
$35,612
$36,964
Estimated maturities may differ from contractual maturities due to security call or prepayment provisions. Due to the potential for variability in payment speeds (i.e. prepayments or extensions), mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities are not categorized by contractual maturity.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company aims to maintain a diversified investment portfolio including issuer, sector and geographic stratification, where
 
applicable, and has established certain exposure limits, diversification standards and review procedures to mitigate credit risk. The Company had no investment exposure to any credit concentration risk of a single issuer greater than 10% of the Company's stockholders' equity, other than the U.S. government and certain U.S. government agencies as of September 30, 2018 or December 31, 2017.

33

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
6. Investments (continued)


Unrealized Losses on AFS Securities
Unrealized Loss Aging for AFS Securities by Type and Length of Time as of September 30, 2018
 Less Than 12 Months12 Months or MoreTotal
 Amortized CostFair ValueUnrealized LossesAmortized CostFair ValueUnrealized LossesAmortized CostFair ValueUnrealized Losses
ABS$668
$666
$(2)$74
$73
$(1)$742
$739
$(3)
CLOs929
926
(3)10
10

939
936
(3)
CMBS1,995
1,952
(43)740
697
(43)2,735
2,649
(86)
Corporate7,586
7,364
(222)1,412
1,310
(102)8,998
8,674
(324)
Foreign govt./govt. agencies552
537
(15)95
90
(5)647
627
(20)
Municipal2,206
2,151
(55)266
245
(21)2,472
2,396
(76)
RMBS1,795
1,751
(44)184
176
(8)1,979
1,927
(52)
U.S. Treasuries1,024
1,001
(23)402
382
(20)1,426
1,383
(43)
Total fixed maturities, AFS in an unrealized loss position$16,755
$16,348
$(407)$3,183
$2,983
$(200)$19,938
$19,331
$(607)
Unrealized Loss Aging for AFS Securities by Type and Length of Time as of December 31, 2017
 Less Than 12 Months12 Months or MoreTotal
 Amortized CostFair ValueUnrealized LossesAmortized CostFair ValueUnrealized LossesAmortized CostFair ValueUnrealized Losses
ABS$461
$460
$(1)$30
$29
$(1)$491
$489
$(2)
CLOs359
359

1
1

360
360

CMBS1,178
1,167
(11)243
228
(15)1,421
1,395
(26)
Corporate2,322
2,302
(20)1,064
1,028
(36)3,386
3,330
(56)
Foreign govt./govt. agencies244
242
(2)51
49
(2)295
291
(4)
Municipal511
507
(4)236
228
(8)747
735
(12)
RMBS889
887
(2)137
135
(2)1,026
1,022
(4)
U.S. Treasuries658
652
(6)254
250
(4)912
902
(10)
Total fixed maturities, AFS6,622
6,576
(46)2,016
1,948
(68)8,638
8,524
(114)
Equity securities, AFS [1]176
163
(13)24
21
(3)200
184
(16)
Total securities in an unrealized loss position$6,798
$6,739
$(59)$2,040
$1,969
$(71)$8,838
$8,708
$(130)
[1]Effective January 1, 2018, with the adoption of new accounting guidance for financial instruments, equity securities, AFS were reclassified to equity securities at fair value and are excluded from the table above as of September 30, 2018.
As of September 30, 2018, AFS securities in an unrealized loss position consisted of 2,926 securities, primarily in the corporate and commercial real estate sectors, which were depressed primarily due to an increase in interest rates and/or widening of credit spreads since the securities were purchased. As of September 30, 2018, 99% of these securities were depressed less than 20% of cost or amortized cost. The increase in unrealized losses during the nine months ended September 30, 2018 was primarily attributable to higher interest rates and wider credit spreads.
Most of the securities depressed for twelve months or more relate to corporate securities, structured securities with exposure to commercial real estate, and municipal bonds. Corporate securities and commercial real estate securities were primarily
 
depressed because current market spreads are wider and interest rates are higher than at the securities' respective purchase dates. Certain municipal bonds were depressed because the securities have long-dated maturities and interest rates have increased since their purchase. The Company neither has an intention to sell nor does it expect to be required to sell the securities outlined in the preceding discussion.
Mortgage Loans
Mortgage Loan Valuation Allowances
Mortgage loans are considered to be impaired when management estimates that, based upon current information and events, it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect amounts due

34

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
6. Investments (continued)


according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. The Company reviews mortgage loans on a quarterly basis to identify potential credit losses. Among other factors, management reviews current and projected macroeconomic trends, such as unemployment rates and property-specific factors such as rental rates, occupancy levels, LTV ratios and debt service coverage ratios (“DSCR”). In addition, the Company considers historical, current and projected delinquency rates and property values. Estimates of collectibility require the use of significant management judgment and include the probability and timing of borrower default and loss severity estimates. In addition, cash flow projections may change based upon new information about the borrower's ability to pay and/or the value of underlying collateral such as changes in projected property value estimates.
For mortgage loans that are deemed impaired, a valuation allowance is established for the difference between the carrying amount and estimated fair value. The mortgage loan's estimated fair value is most frequently the Company's share of the fair value of the collateral but may also be the Company’s share of either (a) the present value of the expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate or (b) the loan’s observable market price. A valuation allowance may be recorded for an individual loan or for a group of loans that have an LTV ratio of 90% or greater, a low DSCR or have other lower credit quality characteristics. Changes in valuation allowances are recorded in net realized capital gains and losses. Interest income on impaired loans is accrued to the extent it is deemed collectible and the borrowers continue to make payments under the original or restructured loan terms. The Company stops accruing interest income on loans when it is probable that the Company will not receive interest and principal payments according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. The Company resumes accruing interest income when it determines that sufficient collateral exists to satisfy the full amount of the loan principal and interest payments and when it is probable cash will be received in the foreseeable future. Interest income on defaulted loans is recognized when received.
As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, mortgage loans had an amortized cost and carrying value of $3.6 billion and $3.2 billion, respectively, with a valuation allowance of $1 for both periods.
As of both September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the carrying value of mortgage loans that had a valuation allowance was $24. There were no mortgage loans held-for-sale as of September 30, 2018 or December 31, 2017. As of September 30, 2018, the Company had no mortgage loans that have had extensions or restructurings other than what is allowable under the original terms of the contract.
The following table presents the activity within the Company’s valuation allowance for mortgage loans. These loans have been evaluated both individually and collectively for impairment. Loans evaluated collectively for impairment are immaterial.
 
Valuation Allowance Activity
 20182017
Balance, as of January 1$(1)$
Reversals/(Additions)
(1)
Deductions
1
Balance, as of September 30$(1)$
The weighted-average LTV ratio of the Company’s mortgage loan portfolio was 53% as of September 30, 2018, while the weighted-average LTV ratio at origination of these loans was 61%. LTV ratios compare the loan amount to the value of the underlying property collateralizing the loan. The loan collateral values are updated no less than annually through reviews of the underlying properties. Factors considered in estimating property values include, among other things, actual and expected property cash flows, geographic market data and the ratio of the property's net operating income to its value. DSCR compares a property’s net operating income to the borrower’s principal and interest payments. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company held no delinquent mortgage loans past due by 90 days or more.
Mortgage Loans Credit Quality
 September 30, 2018December 31, 2017
Loan-to-valueCarrying ValueAvg. Debt-Service Coverage RatioCarrying ValueAvg. Debt-Service Coverage Ratio
Greater than 80%$

$18
1.27x
65% - 80%406
1.68x
265
1.95x
Less than 65%3,153
2.60x
2,892
2.76x
Total mortgage loans$3,559
2.50x
$3,175
2.69x
Mortgage Loans by Region
 September 30, 2018December 31, 2017
 Carrying ValuePercent of TotalCarrying ValuePercent of Total
East North Central$250
7.0%$251
7.9%
Middle Atlantic271
7.6%272
8.6%
Mountain31
0.9%31
1.0%
New England290
8.2%293
9.2%
Pacific870
24.4%760
23.9%
South Atlantic713
20.0%710
22.4%
West North Central148
4.2%149
4.7%
West South Central421
11.8%278
8.7%
Other [1]565
15.9%431
13.6%
Total mortgage loans$3,559
100.0%$3,175
100.0%
[1]Primarily represents loans collateralized by multiple properties in various regions.

35

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
6. Investments (continued)


Mortgage Loans by Property Type
 September 30, 2018December 31, 2017
 Carrying ValuePercent of TotalCarrying
Value
Percent of Total
Commercial    
Industrial$1,018
28.6%$817
25.7%
Multifamily1,083
30.4%1,006
31.7%
Office760
21.4%751
23.7%
Retail373
10.5%367
11.5%
Single Family82
2.3%
%
Other243
6.8%234
7.4%
Total mortgage loans$3,559
100.0%$3,175
100.0%
Mortgage Servicing
The Company originates, sells and services commercial mortgage loans on behalf of third parties and recognizes servicing fee income over the period that services are performed. As of September 30, 2018, under this program, the Company serviced commercial mortgage loans with a total outstanding principal of $5.9 billion, of which $3.6 billion was serviced on behalf of third parties and $2.3 billion was retained and reported in total investments on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets . As of December 31, 2017, the Company serviced commercial mortgage loans with a total outstanding principal balance of $1.3 billion, of which $402 was serviced on behalf of third parties, $566 was retained and reported in total investments and $356 was reported in assets held for sale on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheets. Servicing rights are carried at the lower of cost or fair value and were zero as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, because servicing fees were market-level fees at origination and remain adequate to compensate the Company for servicing the loans.
Variable Interest Entities
The Company is engaged with various special purpose entities and other entities that are deemed to be VIEs primarily as an investor through normal investment activities but also as an investment manager.
A VIE is an entity that either has investors that lack certain essential characteristics of a controlling financial interest, such as simple majority kick-out rights, or lacks sufficient funds to finance its own activities without financial support provided by other entities. The Company performs ongoing qualitative assessments of its VIEs to determine whether the Company has a controlling financial interest in the VIE and therefore is the primary beneficiary. The Company is deemed to have a controlling financial interest when it has both the ability to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIE and the obligation to absorb losses or right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. Based on the Company’s assessment, if it determines it is the primary beneficiary, the Company
 
consolidates the VIE in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Consolidated VIEs
As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company did not hold any securities for which it is the primary beneficiary.
Non-Consolidated VIEs
The Company, through normal investment activities, makes passive investments in limited partnerships and other alternative investments. For these non-consolidated VIEs, the Company has determined it is not the primary beneficiary as it has no ability to direct activities that could significantly affect the economic performance of the investments. The Company’s maximum exposure to loss as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 was limited to the total carrying value of $1.0 billion and $920, respectively, which are included in limited partnerships and other alternative investments in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company has outstanding commitments totaling $689 and $787, respectively, whereby the Company is committed to fund these investments and may be called by the partnership during the commitment period to fund the purchase of new investments and partnership expenses. These investments are generally of a passive nature in that the Company does not take an active role in management. For further discussion of these investments, see Equity Method Investments within Note 6 - Investments of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.
In addition, the Company also makes passive investments in structured securities issued by VIEs for which the Company is not the manager. These investments are included in ABS, CDOs, CMBS and RMBS in the Available-for-Sale Securities table and fixed maturities, AFS and FVO, in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company has not provided financial or other support with respect to these investments other than its original investment. For these investments, the Company determined it is not the primary beneficiary due to the relative size of the Company’s investment in comparison to the principal amount of the structured securities issued by the VIEs, the level of credit subordination which reduces the Company’s obligation to absorb losses or right to receive benefits and the Company’s inability to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIEs. The Company’s maximum exposure to loss on these investments is limited to the amount of the Company’s investment.
Securities Lending, Repurchase Agreements and Other Collateral Transactions
The Company enters into securities financing transactions as a way to earn additional income or manage liquidity, primarily through securities lending and repurchase agreements.

36

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
6. Investments (continued)


Securities Lending
Under a securities lending program, the Company lends certain fixed maturities within the corporate, foreign government/government agencies, and municipal sectors as well as equity securities to qualifying third-party borrowers in return for collateral in the form of cash or securities. For domestic and non-domestic loaned securities, respectively, borrowers provide collateral of 102% and 105% of the fair value of the securities lent at the time of the loan. Borrowers will return the securities to the Company for cash or securities collateral at maturity dates generally of 90 days or less. Security collateral on deposit from counterparties in connection with securities lending transactions may not be sold or re-pledged, except in the event of default by the counterparty, and is not reflected on the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Additional collateral is obtained if the fair value of the collateral falls below 100% of the fair value of the loaned securities. The agreements provide the counterparty the right to sell or re-pledge the securities loaned. If cash, rather than securities, is received as collateral, the cash is typically invested in short-term investments or fixed maturities and is reported as an asset on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Income associated with securities lending transactions is reported as a component of net investment income in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Repurchase Agreements
From time to time, the Company enters into repurchase agreements to manage liquidity or to earn incremental income. A repurchase agreement is a transaction in which one party (transferor) agrees to sell securities to another party (transferee) in return for cash (or securities), with a simultaneous agreement to repurchase the same securities at a specified price at a later date. These transactions generally have a contractual maturity of ninety days or less. Repurchase agreements include master netting provisions that provide both counterparties the right to offset claims and apply securities held by them with respect to their obligations in the event of a default. Although the Company has the contractual right to offset claims, the Company's current positions do not meet the specific conditions for net presentation.
Under repurchase agreements, the Company transfers collateral of U.S. government and government agency securities and receives cash. For repurchase agreements, the Company obtains cash in an amount equal to at least 95% of the fair value of the securities transferred. The agreements require additional collateral to be transferred when necessary and provide the counterparty the right to sell or re-pledge the securities transferred. The cash received from the repurchase program is typically invested in short-term investments or fixed maturities and is reported as an asset on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company accounts for the repurchase agreements as collateralized borrowings. The securities transferred under repurchase agreements are included in fixed maturities, AFS with the obligation to repurchase those securities recorded in other liabilities on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
From time to time, the Company enters into reverse repurchase agreements where the Company purchases securities and
 
simultaneously agrees to resell the same or substantially the same securities. The agreements require additional collateral to be transferred to the Company when necessary and the Company has the right to sell or re-pledge the securities received. The Company accounts for reverse repurchase agreements as collateralized financing. The receivable for reverse repurchase agreements is included within short term investments in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Securities Lending and Repurchase Agreements
 September 30, 2018December 31, 2017
 Fair ValueFair Value
Securities Lending Transactions:  
Gross amount of securities on loan$697
$922
Gross amount of associated liability for collateral received [1]$714
$945
   
Repurchase agreements:  
Gross amount of recognized liabilities for repurchase agreements$167
$174
Gross amount of collateral pledged related to repurchase agreements [2]$168
$176
Gross amount of recognized receivables for reverse repurchase agreements$36
$
[1]
Cash collateral received is reinvested in fixed maturities, AFS and short term investments and is included in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Amount includes additional securities collateral received of $2 and $0 million which are excluded from the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
[2]Collateral pledged is included within fixed maturities, AFS and short term investments in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Other Collateral Transactions
The Company is required by law to deposit securities with government agencies in certain states in which it conducts business. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the fair value of securities on deposit were $2.5 billion .
As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company pledged collateral of $46 and $104, respectively, of U.S. government securities and government agency securities or cash primarily related to certain bank loan participations committed to through a limited partnership agreement. These amounts also include collateral related to letters of credit.
For disclosure of collateral in support of derivative transactions, refer to the Derivative Collateral Arrangements section of Note 7 - Derivative Instruments of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.


37

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
7. Derivative Instruments



The Company utilizes a variety of OTC, OTC-cleared and exchange traded derivative instruments as a part of its overall risk management strategy as well as to enter into replication transactions. Derivative instruments are used to manage risk associated with interest rate, equity market, credit spread, issuer default, price, and currency exchange rate risk or volatility. Replication transactions are used as an economical means to synthetically replicate the characteristics and performance of assets that are permissible investments under the Company’s investment policies.
Strategies that Qualify for Hedge Accounting
Some of the Company's derivatives satisfy hedge accounting requirements as outlined in Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in The Hartford’s 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report. Typically, these hedging instruments include interest rate swaps and, to a lesser extent, foreign currency swaps where the terms or expected cash flows of the hedged item closely match the terms of the swap. The interest rate swaps are typically used to manage interest rate duration of certain fixed maturity securities. The hedge strategies by hedge accounting designation include:
Cash Flow Hedges
Interest rate swaps are predominantly used to manage portfolio duration and better match cash receipts from assets with cash disbursements required to fund liabilities. These derivatives primarily convert interest receipts on floating-rate fixed maturity securities to fixed rates. The Company has also entered into interest rate swaps to convert the variable interest payments on the 3 month Libor + 2.125% junior subordinated debt to fixed interest payments. For further information, see the Junior Subordinated Debentures section within Note 13 - Debt of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in The Hartford's 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.
Foreign currency swaps are used to convert foreign currency-denominated cash flows related to certain investment receipts to U.S. dollars in order to reduce cash flow fluctuations due to changes in currency rates.
The Company also previously entered into forward starting swap agreements to hedge the interest rate exposure related to the future purchase of fixed-rate securities, primarily to hedge interest rate risk inherent in the assumptions used to price certain group benefits liabilities.
Non-qualifying Strategies
Derivative relationships that do not qualify for hedge accounting (“non-qualifying strategies”) primarily include hedging and replication strategies that utilize credit default swaps. In addition, hedges of interest rate, foreign currency and equity risk of certain fixed maturities and equities do not qualify for hedge accounting. The non-qualifying strategies include:
 
Credit Contracts
Credit default swaps are used to purchase credit protection on an individual entity or referenced index to economically hedge against default risk and credit-related changes in the value of fixed maturity securities. Credit default swaps are also used to assume credit risk related to an individual entity or referenced index as a part of replication transactions. These contracts require the Company to pay or receive a periodic fee in exchange for compensation from the counterparty should the referenced security issuers experience a credit event, as defined in the contract. The Company also enters into credit default swaps to terminate existing credit default swaps, thereby offsetting the changes in value of the original swap going forward.
Interest Rate Swaps, Swaptions and Futures
The Company uses interest rate swaps, swaptions and futures to manage interest rate duration between assets and liabilities in certain investment portfolios. In addition, the Company enters into interest rate swaps to terminate existing swaps, thereby offsetting the changes in value of the original swap going forward. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the notional amount of interest rate swaps in offsetting relationships was $7.1 billion and $7.3 billion, respectively.
Foreign Currency Swaps and Forwards
The Company enters into foreign currency swaps to convert the foreign currency exposures of certain foreign currency-denominated fixed maturity investments to U.S. dollars. The Company may at times enter into foreign currency forwards to hedge non-U.S. dollar denominated cash and, previously, equity securities. The Company previously entered into foreign currency forwards to hedge currency impacts on changes in equity of the U.K. property and casualty run-off subsidiaries that were sold in May 2017. For further information on the disposition, see Note 2 - Business Acquisitions of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in The Hartford's 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.
Equity Index Options
The Company enters into equity index options to hedge the impact of a decline in the equity markets on the investment portfolio. The Company also enters into call options on equity securities to generate additional return.
Derivative Balance Sheet Classification
For reporting purposes, the Company has elected to offset within assets or liabilities based upon the net of the fair value amounts, income accruals, and related cash collateral receivables and payables of OTC derivative instruments executed in a legal entity and with the same counterparty under a master netting agreement, which provides the Company with the legal right of offset. The following fair value amounts do not include income accruals or related cash collateral receivables and payables, which are netted with derivative fair value amounts to determine balance sheet presentation. The Company’s derivative

38

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
7. Derivative Instruments (continued)


instruments are held for risk management purposes, unless otherwise noted in the following table. The notional amount of derivative contracts represents the basis upon which pay or receive amounts are calculated and is presented in the table to
 
quantify the volume of the Company’s derivative activity. Notional amounts are not necessarily reflective of credit risk.
Derivative Balance Sheet Presentation
 Net DerivativesAsset Derivatives [1]Liability Derivatives [1]
 Notional AmountFair ValueFair ValueFair Value
Hedge Designation/ Derivative TypeSep. 30, 2018Dec. 31, 2017Sep. 30, 2018Dec. 31, 2017Sep. 30, 2018Dec. 31, 2017Sep. 30, 2018Dec. 31, 2017
Cash flow hedges        
Interest rate swaps$2,080
$2,190
$
$
$
$1
$
$(1)
Foreign currency swaps153
153
(11)(13)1

(12)(13)
Total cash flow hedges2,233
2,343
(11)(13)1
1
(12)(14)
Non-qualifying strategies        
Interest rate contracts        
Interest rate swaps and futures8,111
7,986
(51)(83)3
7
(54)(90)
Foreign exchange contracts        
Foreign currency swaps and forwards318
213

(1)1

(1)(1)
Credit contracts        
Credit derivatives that purchase credit protection8
61

1

2

(1)
Credit derivatives that assume credit risk [2]923
823
14
3
15
3
(1)
Credit derivatives in offsetting positions46
1,046

2
6
11
(6)(9)
Equity contracts        
Equity index swaps and options125
258
1
1
1
1


Total non-qualifying strategies9,531
10,387
(36)(77)26
24
(62)(101)
Total cash flow hedges and non-qualifying strategies$11,764
$12,730
$(47)$(90)$27
$25
$(74)$(115)
Balance Sheet Location        
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale$153
$153
$
$
$
$
$
$
Other investments9,377
9,957
14
10
19
16
(5)(6)
Other liabilities2,234
2,620
(61)(100)8
9
(69)(109)
Total derivatives$11,764
$12,730
$(47)$(90)$27
$25
$(74)$(115)
[1]Certain prior year amounts have been restated to conform to the current year presentation for OTC-cleared derivatives.
[2]The derivative instruments related to this strategy are held for other investment purposes.
Offsetting of Derivative Assets/Liabilities
The following tables present the gross fair value amounts, the amounts offset, and net position of derivative instruments eligible for offset in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Amounts offset include fair value amounts, income
 
accruals and related cash collateral receivables and payables associated with derivative instruments that are traded under a common master netting agreement, as described in the preceding discussion. Also included in the tables are financial collateral receivables and payables, which are contractually permitted to be offset upon an event of default, although are disallowed for offsetting under U.S. GAAP.

39

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
7. Derivative Instruments (continued)


Offsetting Derivative Assets and Liabilities
 (i) (ii) (iii) = (i) - (ii)(iv) (v) = (iii) - (iv)
     Net Amounts Presented in the Statement of Financial Position Collateral Disallowed for Offset in the Statement of Financial Position  
 Gross Amounts of Recognized Assets (Liabilities) [1] Gross Amounts Offset in the Statement of Financial Position Derivative Assets [2] (Liabilities) [3] Accrued Interest and Cash Collateral (Received) [4] Pledged [3] Financial Collateral (Received) Pledged [5] Net Amount
As of September 30, 2018           
Other investments$27
 $23
 $14
 $(10) $2
 $2
Other liabilities$(74) $(5) $(61) $(8) $(61) $(8)
As of December 31, 2017           
Other investments$25
 $22
 $10
 $(7) $1
 $2
Other liabilities$(115) $(10) $(100) $(5) $(96) $(9)
[1]Certain prior year amounts have been restated to conform to the current year presentation for OTC-cleared derivatives.
[2]Included in other investments in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
[3]Included in other liabilities in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and is limited to the net derivative payable associated with each counterparty.
[4]Included in other investments in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and is limited to the net derivative receivable associated with each counterparty.
[5]Excludes collateral associated with exchange-traded derivative instruments.
Cash Flow Hedges
For derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges, the effective portion of the gain or loss on the derivative is reported as a component of OCI and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. Gains and losses on the derivative representing hedge ineffectiveness are recognized in current period earnings. All components of each derivative’s gain or loss were included in the assessment of hedge effectiveness.
 
Derivatives in Cash Flow Hedging Relationships
 Gain (Loss) Recognized in OCI on Derivative (Effective Portion)
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2018 2017 2018 2017
Interest rate swaps$
 $2
 $(16) $16
Foreign currency swaps
 (4) 1
 (8)
Total$
 $(2) $(15) $8
        
 Gain (Loss) Reclassified from AOCI into Income (Effective Portion)
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2018 2017 2018
 2017
Interest rate swaps      
Net realized capital gains$
 $
 $1
 $5
Net investment income7
 8
 24
 27
Total$7
 $8
 $25
 $32
During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, and September 30, 2017, the Company had no ineffectiveness recognized in income within net realized capital gains (losses).
As of September 30, 2018, the before tax deferred net gains on derivative instruments recorded in AOCI that are expected to be reclassified to earnings during the next twelve months are $24. This expectation is based on the anticipated interest payments on

40

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
7. Derivative Instruments (continued)


hedged investments in fixed maturity securities that will occur over the next twelve months, at which time the Company will recognize the deferred net gains (losses) as an adjustment to net investment income over the term of the investment cash flows.
During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, and September 30, 2017, the Company had no net reclassifications from AOCI to earnings resulting from the discontinuance of cash-flow hedges due to forecasted
 
transactions that were no longer probable of occurring.
Non-Qualifying Strategies
For non-qualifying strategies, including embedded derivatives that are required to be bifurcated from their host contracts and accounted for as derivatives, the gain or loss on the derivative is recognized currently in earnings within net realized capital gains (losses).
Non-Qualifying Strategies Recognized within Net Realized Capital Gains (Losses)
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017 20182017
Foreign exchange contracts     
Foreign currency swaps and forwards$1
$
 $2
$(14)
Other non-qualifying derivatives     
Interest rate contracts     
Interest rate swaps, swaptions, and futures1
(4) 7
(6)
Credit contracts     
Credit derivatives that purchase credit protection
8
 
26
Credit derivatives that assume credit risk8
(2) 
(9)
Equity contracts     
Equity index swaps and options(1)(3) (1)(3)
Other     
Contingent capital facility put option

 
(1)
Total other non-qualifying derivatives8
(1) 6
7
Total [1]$9
$(1) $8
$(7)
[1]
Excludes investments that contain an embedded credit derivative for which the Company has elected the fair value option. For further discussion, see the Fair Value Option section in Note 5 - Fair Value Measurements.
Credit Risk Assumed through Credit Derivatives
The Company enters into credit default swaps that assume credit risk of a single entity or referenced index in order to synthetically replicate investment transactions that are permissible under the Company's investment policies. The Company will receive periodic payments based on an agreed upon rate and notional amount and will only make a payment if there is a credit event. A credit event payment will typically be equal to the notional value of the swap contract less the value of the referenced security
 
issuer’s debt obligation after the occurrence of the credit event. A credit event is generally defined as a default on contractually obligated interest or principal payments or bankruptcy of the referenced entity. The credit default swaps in which the Company assumes credit risk primarily reference investment grade single corporate issuers and baskets, which include standard diversified portfolios of corporate and CMBS issuers. The diversified portfolios of corporate issuers are established within sector concentration limits and may be divided into tranches that possess different credit ratings.

41

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
7. Derivative Instruments (continued)


Credit Risk Assumed Derivatives by Type
    
Underlying Referenced Credit
Obligation(s) [1]
  
 
Notional
Amount
[2]
Fair
Value
Weighted
Average
Years to
Maturity
Type
Average
Credit
Rating
Offsetting
Notional
Amount [3]
Offsetting
Fair
Value [3]
As of September 30, 2018
Single name credit default swaps       
Investment grade risk exposure$170
$4
5 yearsCorporate Credit/
Foreign Gov.
A-$
$
Basket credit default swaps [4]       
Investment grade risk exposure743
10
6 yearsCorporate CreditBBB+

Investment grade risk exposure12

5 yearsCMBS CreditA-2

Below investment grade risk exposure21
(6)Less than 1 yearCMBS CreditCCC21
6
Total [5]$946
$8
   $23
$6
As of December 31, 2017
Single name credit default swaps       
Investment grade risk exposure$130
$3
5 yearsCorporate Credit/
Foreign Gov.
A-$
$
Below investment grade risk exposure9

Less than 1 yearCorporate CreditB9

Basket credit default swaps [4]       
Investment grade risk exposure1,137
2
3 yearsCorporate CreditBBB+454
(2)
Below investment grade risk exposure27
2
3 yearsCorporate CreditB+27

Investment grade risk exposure13
(1)5 yearsCMBS CreditA3

Below investment grade risk exposure30
(6)Less than 1 yearCMBS CreditCCC30
7
Total [5]$1,346
$
   $523
$5
[1]The average credit ratings are based on availability and are generally the midpoint of the available ratings among Moody’s, S&P, Fitch and Morningstar. If no rating is available from a rating agency, then an internally developed rating is used.
[2]Notional amount is equal to the maximum potential future loss amount. These derivatives are governed by agreements and applicable law, which include collateral posting requirements. There is no additional specific collateral related to these contracts or recourse provisions included in the contracts to offset losses.
[3]The Company has entered into offsetting credit default swaps to terminate certain existing credit default swaps, thereby offsetting the future changes in value of, or losses paid related to, the original swap.
[4]Comprised of swaps of standard market indices of diversified portfolios of corporate and CMBS issuers referenced through credit default swaps. These swaps are subsequently valued based upon the observable standard market index.
[5]
Excludes investments that contain an embedded credit derivative for which the Company has elected the fair value option. For further discussion, see the Fair Value Option section in Note 5 - Fair Value Measurements.
Derivative Collateral Arrangements
The Company enters into various collateral arrangements in connection with its derivative instruments, which require both the pledging and accepting of collateral. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company pledged cash collateral with a fair value of $1 associated with derivative instruments. The collateral receivable has been recorded in other assets or other liabilities on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as determined by the Company's election to offset on the balance sheet. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company also pledged securities collateral associated with derivative instruments with a fair value of $68 and $101, respectively, which have been included in fixed
 
maturities on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. In addition, as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company has also pledged initial margin of securities related to OTC-cleared and exchange traded derivatives with a fair value of $99 and $96, respectively, which are included within fixed maturities on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The counterparties generally have the right to sell or re-pledge these securities.
As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company accepted cash collateral associated with derivative instruments of $13 and $11, respectively, which was invested and recorded in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets in fixed maturities and short-term investments with corresponding amounts recorded in other investments or other liabilities as determined by the Company's election to offset on the balance

42

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
7. Derivative Instruments (continued)


sheet. The Company also accepted securities collateral as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, with a fair value of $2, none of which the Company has the ability to sell or repledge. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company had no repledged securities and did not sell any securities held as collateral. In addition, as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, non-cash collateral accepted was held in separate custodial accounts and was not included in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets.


43

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
8. Other Intangible Assets

On February 16, 2018, The Company entered into a renewal rights agreement with Farmers Exchanges of the Farmers Group of Companies to acquire its Foremost-branded small commercial business sold through independent agents. In connection with the renewal rights agreement, the Company recorded a customer relationships intangible asset of $46 which will be amortized over 10 years.

44

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
9. Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses


Property and Casualty Insurance Products
Rollforward of Liabilities for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
 For the nine months ended September 30,
 20182017
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$23,775
$22,545
Reinsurance and other recoverables3,957
3,488
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net19,818
19,057
Provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses 
 
Current accident year5,151
5,587
Prior accident year development(139)1
Total provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses5,012
5,588
Less payments 
 
Current accident year1,647
1,770
Prior accident years3,166
3,143
Total payments4,813
4,913
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net20,017
19,732
Reinsurance and other recoverables3,780
3,508
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$23,797
$23,240
Unfavorable (Favorable) Prior Accident Year Development
 For the nine months ended September 30,
 20182017
Workers’ compensation$(97)$(29)
Workers’ compensation discount accretion30
21
General liability32
10
Package business(16)(22)
Commercial property(10)(5)
Professional liability(12)
Bond
10
Automobile liability - Commercial Lines(15)20
Automobile liability - Personal Lines(10)
Homeowners(20)
Net asbestos reserves

Net environmental reserves

Catastrophes(47)(12)
Uncollectible reinsurance22

Other reserve re-estimates, net4
8
Total prior accident year development$(139)$1
 
Re-estimates of prior accident year reserves for the nine months ended September 30, 2018
Workers’ compensation reserves were reduced in small commercial and middle market, primarily for accident years 2012 to 2015, as both claim frequency and medical claim severity have emerged favorably compared to previous reserve estimates.
General liability reserves were increased, primarily due to an increase in reserves for higher hazard general liability exposures in middle market for accident years 2009 to 2017, partially offset by a decrease in reserves for other lines within middle market, including premises and operations, umbrella and products liability, principally for accident years 2015 and prior. Contributing to the increase in reserves for higher hazard general liability exposures was an increase in large losses and, in more recent accident years, an increase in claim frequency. Contributing to the reduction in reserves for other middle market lines were more favorable outcomes due to initiatives to reduce legal expenses. In addition, reserve increases for claims with lead paint exposure were offset by reserve decreases for other mass torts and extra-contractual liability claims.
Package business reserves were reduced, primarily due to lower reserve estimates for both liability and property for accident years 2010 and prior, including a recovery of loss adjustment expenses for the 2005 accident year.
Commercial property reserves were reduced, driven by an increase in estimated reinsurance recoverables on middle market property losses from the 2017 accident year.

45

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
9. Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses (continued)


Professional liability reserves were reduced, principally for accident years 2014 and prior, for directors and officers liability claims principally due to a number of older claims closing with limited or no payment.
Automobile liability reserves were reduced, primarily driven by reduced estimates of loss adjustment expenses in small commercial for recent accident years and favorable development in personal automobile liability for accident years 2014 to 2017, principally due to lower severity, including with uninsured and underinsured motorist claims.
Homeowners reserves were reduced, primarily in accident years 2013 to 2017, driven by lower than expected severity across multiple perils.
Catastrophes reserves were reduced, primarily as a result of lower estimated net losses from 2017 catastrophes, principally related to hurricanes Harvey and Irma. Before reinsurance, estimated losses for 2017 catastrophe events decreased by $133 in the nine months ended September 30, 2018, resulting in a decrease in reinsurance recoverables of $90 as the Company no longer expects to recover under the 2017 Property Aggregate reinsurance treaty as aggregate ultimate losses for 2017 catastrophe events are now projected to be less than $850.
Uncollectible reinsurance reserves were increased due to lower anticipated recoveries related to older accident years.
Re-estimates of prior accident year reserves for the nine months ended September 30, 2017
Workers’ compensation reserves were reduced, primarily in small commercial, given the continued emergence of
 
favorable frequency for accident years 2013 to 2015. Management has placed additional weight on this favorable experience as it becomes more credible.
General liability reserves were increased for the 2013 to 2016 accident years on a class of business that insures service and maintenance contractors. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in recent accident year reserves for other middle market general liability reserves.
Package reserves were reduced for accident years 2013 and prior largely due to reducing the Company's estimate of allocated loss adjustment expenses incurred to settle the claims.
Bond business reserves increased for customs bonds written between 2000 and 2010 which was partly offset by a reduction in reserves for recent accident years as reported losses for commercial and contract surety have emerged favorably.
Automobile liability reserves within Commercial Lines were increased in small commercial and large national accounts for the 2013 to 2016 accident years, driven by higher frequency of more severe accidents, including litigated claims.
Catastrophes reserves were reduced primarily due to lower estimates of 2016 wind and hail event losses and a decrease in losses on a 2015 wildfire.

46

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
9. Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses (continued)


Group Life, Disability and Accident Products
Rollforward of Liabilities for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
 For the nine months ended September 30,
 20182017
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$8,512
$5,772
Reinsurance recoverables209
208
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net8,303
5,564
Add: Aetna U.S. group life and disability business acquisition [1]

42

Provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses



Current incurral year3,423
1,960
Prior year's discount accretion175
148
Prior incurral year development [2](284)(162)
Total provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses [3]3,314
1,946
Less: payments



Current incurral year1,659
917
Prior incurral years1,741
1,118
Total payments3,400
2,035
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net8,259
5,475
Reinsurance recoverables241
208
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$8,500
$5,683
[1]Represents an adjustment to Aetna U.S. group life and disability business reserves, net of reinsurance as of the acquisition date, upon finalization of the opening balance sheet.
[2]Prior incurral year development represents the change in estimated ultimate incurred losses and loss adjustment expenses for prior incurral years on a discounted basis.
[3]
Includes unallocated loss adjustment expenses of $131, and $74 for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, that are recorded in insurance operating costs and other expenses in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Re-estimates of prior incurral years reserves for the nine months ended September 30, 2018
Group disability- Prior period reserve estimates decreased by approximately $195 largely driven by group long-term disability claim recoveries higher than prior reserve assumptions and claim incidence lower than prior assumptions.  Short-term disability has also experienced favorable claim recoveries.
Group life and accident (including group life premium waiver)- Prior period reserve estimates decreased by approximately $85 largely driven by lower-than-previously expected claim incidence inclusive of group life, group life premium waiver, and group accidental death & dismemberment.
Re-estimates of prior incurral years reserves for the nine months ended September 30, 2017
Group disability- Prior period reserve estimates decreased by approximately $105 largely driven by group long-term disability claim recoveries higher than prior reserve assumptions. This favorability was partially reduced by lower expectation of future benefit offsets, particularly lower Social Security disability
 
income approval rates and longer decision turnaround times in the Social Security Administration.
Group life and accident (including group life premium waiver)- Prior period reserve estimates decreased by approximately $55 largely driven by lower than previously expected claim incidence in group life and group life premium waiver and lower than expected severity on group accidental death & dismemberment.

47

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
10. Reserve for Future Policy Benefits


Changes in Reserves for Future Policy Benefits[1]
Liability balance as of January 1, 2018$713
Incurred10
Paid(25)
Change in unrealized investment gains and losses(42)
Liability balance as of September 30, 2018$656
Reinsurance recoverable asset, as of January 1, 2018$26
Incurred10
Paid(1)
Reinsurance recoverable asset, as of September 30, 2018$35
Liability balance as of January 1, 2017$322
Incurred27
Paid(24)
Change in unrealized investment gains and losses(9)
Liability balance as of September 30, 2017$316
Reinsurance recoverable asset, as of January 1, 2017$28
Incurred(6)
Paid
Reinsurance recoverable asset, as of September 30, 2017$22
[1]Reserves for future policy benefits includes paid-up life insurance and whole-life policies resulting from conversion from group life policies included within the Group Benefits segment and reserves for run-off structured settlement and terminal funding agreement liabilities which are in the Corporate category.


48

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
11. Debt

Senior Notes
On March 15, 2018, The Hartford issued $500 of 4.4% senior notes ("4.4% Notes") due March 15, 2048 for net proceeds of approximately $490, after deducting underwriting discounts and expenses from the offering. Interest is payable semi-annually in arrears on March 15 and September 15, commencing September 15, 2018. The Hartford, at its option, can redeem the 4.4% Notes at any time, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to the greater of 100% of the principal amount being redeemed or a make-whole amount based on a comparable maturity US Treasury plus 25 basis points, plus any accrued and unpaid interest, except the option of a make-whole payment is not applicable within the final six months before maturity.
On March 15, 2018, The Hartford repaid at maturity the $320 principal amount of its 6.3% senior notes.
Junior Subordinated Debentures
On June 15, 2018, The Hartford redeemed $500 aggregate principal amount of its 8.125% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2068. During the initial offering of the 8.125% debentures, the Company entered into a replacement capital covenant ("RCC"), and under the terms of the RCC, if the Company redeemed the 8.125% debentures at any time prior to June 15, 2048 it could only do so with the proceeds from the sale of certain qualifying replacement securities. The 3 month Libor plus 2.125% debentures issued February 15, 2017 are qualifying replacement securities within the definition of RCC. In connection with this redemption, the Company recognized a $6 loss on extinguishment of debt for unamortized deferred debt issuance costs.
Revolving Credit Facility
On March 29, 2018, the Company entered into an amendment to its Five-Year Credit Agreement dated October 31, 2014. The Amendment reset the level of the Company's minimum consolidated net worth financial covenant to $9 billion excluding AOCI from its former $13.5 billion (where net worth was defined as stockholders' equity excluding AOCI and including junior subordinated debt), among other updates. Among other changes, under an amended and restated credit agreement that became effective in June 2018 after the closing of the sale of the Company's life and annuity run-off business, the aggregate amount of principal of the credit facility decreased from $1 billion to $750, including a reduction to the amount available for letters of credit from $250 to $100, the maturity date was extended to March 29, 2023, and the liens covenant and certain other covenants were modified.
Revolving loans from the Credit Facility may be in multiple currencies. U.S. dollar loans will bear interest at a floating rate equivalent to an indexed rate depending on the type of borrowing and a basis point spread based on The Hartford's credit rating and will mature no later than March 29, 2023. Letters of credit issued from the Credit Facility bear a fee based on The Hartford's credit rating and expire no later than March 29, 2024. The Credit Facility requires the Company to maintain a minimum consolidated net worth excluding AOCI of $9 billion, limit the ratio of senior debt to capitalization, excluding AOCI, at 35% and meet other customary covenants. The Credit Facility is for general corporate purposes.
As of September 30, 2018, no borrowings were outstanding and
 
$3 in letters of credit were issued under the Credit Facility and the Company was in compliance with all financial covenants.
Commercial Paper
As of September 30, 2018, the Hartford's maximum borrowings available under its commercial paper program was $750 and there was no commercial paper outstanding. The Company is dependent upon market conditions to access short-term financing through the issuance of commercial paper to investors. On July 19, 2018, the Board of Directors revised the Company's commercial paper issuance authorization from $1 billion to $750 to align the program with the Company's $750 five year revolving credit facility which became effective on June 11, 2018.
Collateralized Advances with Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston
In August 2018, the Company’s subsidiaries, Hartford Fire Insurance Company (“Hartford Fire”) and Hartford Life and Accident Insurance Company (“HLA”), became members of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston (“FHLBB”). Membership allows these subsidiaries access to collateralized advances, which may be short- or long-term with fixed or variable rates. FHLBB membership required the purchase of member stock and requires additional member stock ownership of 3% or 4% of any amount borrowed. Acceptable forms of collateral include real estate backed fixed maturities and mortgage loans and the amount of advances that can be taken is limited to a percentage of the fair value of the assets that ranges from a high of 97% for US government-backed fixed maturities maturing within 3 years to a low of 40% for A-rated commercial mortgage-backed fixed maturities maturing in 5 years or more. In its consolidated balance sheets, The Hartford would present the liability for advances taken based on use of the funds with advances for general corporate purposes presented in short- or long-term debt and advances to earn incremental investment income presented in other liabilities, consistent with other collateralized financing transactions such as securities lending and repurchase agreements. The Connecticut Department of Insurance (“CTDOI”) permits Hartford Fire and HLA to pledge up to $1.3 billion and $0.5 billion in qualifying assets, respectively, without prior approval, to secure FHLBB advances in 2018. The pledge limit is determined annually based on statutory admitted assets and capital and surplus of Hartford Fire and HLA, respectively. As of September 30, 2018, there were no advances outstanding under the FHLBB facility.


49

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
12. Income Taxes


Income Tax Rate Reconciliation
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2018201720182017
Tax provision at U.S. federal statutory rate [1]$112
$64
$333
$105
Tax-exempt interest(16)(31)(50)(91)
Executive compensation1

8

Stock-based compensation(3)(4)(5)(12)
Tax Reform11

13

Other(2)7
(2)3
Provision for income taxes$103
$36
$297
$5
[1]Due to the passage of Tax Reform on December 22, 2017, current and prior period federal statutory rates are reflected at 21% and 35% respectively.
Rollforward of Unrecognized Tax Benefits
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2018201720182017
Balance, beginning of period$9
$12
$9
$12
Gross increases - tax positions in prior period5

5

Gross decreases - tax positions in prior period



Balance, end of period$14
$12
$14
$12
The Company's unrecognized tax benefits were increased by $5 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 due to the filing of the Company's 2017 federal income tax return.
 
The entire amount of unrecognized tax benefits, if recognized, would affect the effective tax rate in the period of the release. In addition, for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 the Company recorded a receivable of $5 related to a tax indemnification agreement associated with the sale of Talcott Resolution. The receivable is separate from the tax liability and is classified as an other asset on the balance sheet.
For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company recorded income tax expenses of $11 and $13, respectively, related to tax reform due to the filing of the Company's 2017 federal income tax return and finalization of the opening balance sheet for the Aetna Group Benefits acquisition as a lower corporate income tax rate (post acquisition) reduced the value of net deferred tax assets that were adjusted during the measurement period.
The federal audits have been completed through 2013, and the Company is not currently under examination for any open years. Management believes that adequate provision has been made in the consolidated financial statements for any potential adjustments that may result from tax examinations and other tax-related matters for all open tax years.
The Company classifies interest and penalties (if applicable) as income tax expense in the consolidated financial statements. The Company recognized no interest expense for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017. The Company had no interest payable as of September 30, 2018 and 2017. The Company does not believe it would be subject to any penalties in any open tax years and, therefore, has not recorded any accrual for penalties.
Net deferred income taxes include the future tax benefits associated with the net operating loss carryover, foreign tax credit carryover and general business credit carryforward as shown in the table below.
Future Tax Benefits
 As of 
 September 30, 2018Expiration
 Carryover amountExpected tax benefit, grossDatesAmount
Net operating loss carryover - U.S.$2,814
$591
2023-2036$2,814
Net operating loss carryover - foreign$4
$
No expiration$4
Foreign tax credit carryover$5
$5
2023-2024$5
General business credit carryover$4
$4
2031-2037$4
Net Operating Loss Carryover
U.S. Net Operating Losses ("NOLs") reflected above arose in taxable years prior to 2017 and are still subject to prior tax law which allows for carryback and limits the period over which carryforwards may be used to offset taxable income as shown in the above table. Utilization of the Company's loss carryovers is dependent upon the generation of sufficient future taxable
 
income. Given the expected earnings of the Company going forward, including earnings of its property and casualty, group benefits and mutual fund businesses, the Company expects to generate sufficient taxable income in the future to utilize its net operating loss carryover. Although the Company projects there will be sufficient future taxable income to fully recover the remainder of the loss carryover, the Company's estimate of the likely realization may change over time.

50

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
12. Income Taxes (continued)


Tax Credit Carryovers
Foreign Tax Credits and General Business Credits- These credits are available to offset regular federal income taxes from future taxable income. The use of these credits prior to expiration depends on the generation of sufficient taxable income to first utilize all U.S. net operating loss carryovers. However, the Company has purchased certain investments which allow for utilization of the foreign tax credits without first using the net operating loss carryover. Consequently, the Company believes it is more likely than not the foreign tax credit carryover will be fully realized. Accordingly, no valuation allowance has been provided.
Alternative Minimum Tax Credit Carryovers- As of September 30, 2018, the Company had alternative minimum tax credit (AMT) carryovers, net of a sequestration fee payable, of $789, which are reflected as current income tax receivables within Other Assets in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company recorded a decrease in the AMT of $4 due to the filing of the 2017 federal income tax return as well as filings of the 2014, 2015 and 2016 amended federal income tax returns. AMT credits may be used to offset a regular tax liability for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2017, and are refundable at an amount equal to 50 percent of the excess of the minimum tax credit for the taxable year over the amount of the credit allowable for the year against regular tax liability. Any remaining credits not used against regular tax liability are refundable in the 2021 tax year to be collected in 2022. The sequestration fee applies to refunds of AMT credits but does not apply if those credits are used against regular tax liability. As of September 30, 2018, the Company's AMT credit carryover was net of an estimated sequestration fee payable of $52, but the amount of the fee that is ultimately payable is subject to change depending on the level and timing of future taxable income and any subsequent changes in the sequestration rate. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company recorded income tax benefits of $0 and $3, respectively, related to the reduction of the sequestration rate from 6.6 percent to 6.2 percent.


51

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
13. Commitments and Contingencies

Management evaluates each contingent matter separately. A loss is recorded if probable and reasonably estimable. Management establishes liabilities for these contingencies at its “best estimate,” or, if no one number within the range of possible losses is more probable than any other, the Company records an estimated liability at the low end of the range of losses.
Litigation
The Hartford is involved in claims litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, both as a liability insurer defending or providing indemnity for third-party claims brought against insureds and as an insurer defending coverage claims brought against it. The Hartford accounts for such activity through the establishment of unpaid loss and loss adjustment expense reserves. Subject to the uncertainties in the following discussion under the caption “Asbestos and Environmental Claims,” management expects that the ultimate liability, if any, with respect to such ordinary-course claims litigation, after consideration of provisions made for potential losses and costs of defense, will not be material to the consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows of The Hartford.
The Hartford is also involved in other kinds of legal actions, some of which assert claims for substantial amounts. In addition to the matter described below, these actions include putative class actions seeking certification of a state or national class. Such putative class actions have alleged, for example, underpayment of claims or improper sales or underwriting practices in connection with various kinds of insurance policies, such as personal and commercial automobile, property, disability, life and inland marine. The Hartford also is involved in individual actions in which punitive damages are sought, such as claims alleging bad faith in the handling of insurance claims or other allegedly unfair or improper business practices. Like many other insurers, The Hartford also has been joined in actions by asbestos plaintiffs asserting, among other things, that insurers had a duty to protect the public from the dangers of asbestos and that insurers committed unfair trade practices by asserting defenses on behalf of their policyholders in the underlying asbestos cases. Management expects that the ultimate liability, if any, with respect to such lawsuits, after consideration of provisions made for estimated losses, will not be material to the consolidated financial condition of The Hartford. Nonetheless, given the large or indeterminate amounts sought in certain of these actions, and the inherent unpredictability of litigation, the outcome in certain matters could, from time to time, have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations or cash flows in particular quarterly or annual periods.
Mutual Funds Litigation In February 2011, a derivative action was brought on behalf of six Hartford retail mutual funds in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, alleging that Hartford Investment Financial Services, LLC (“HIFSCO”), an indirect subsidiary of the Company, received excessive advisory and distribution fees in violation of its statutory fiduciary duty under Section 36(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940. During the course of the litigation, the claims regarding distribution fees were dismissed without prejudice, the lineup of funds as plaintiffs changed several times, and the plaintiffs added as a defendant Hartford Funds Management Company (“HFMC”), an indirect subsidiary of the
 
Company that assumed the role of advisor to the funds as of January 2013. In June 2015, HFMC and HIFSCO moved for summary judgment, and plaintiffs cross-moved for partial summary judgment with respect to one fund. In March 2016, the court denied the plaintiff's motion, and granted summary judgment for HIFSCO and HFMC with respect to one fund, leaving six funds as plaintiffs: The Hartford Balanced Fund, The Hartford Capital Appreciation Fund, The Hartford Floating Rate Fund, The Hartford Growth Opportunities Fund, The Hartford Healthcare Fund, and The Hartford Inflation Plus Fund. A bench trial on the issue of liability was held in November 2016. In February 2017, the court granted judgment for HIFSCO and HFMC as to all claims. Plaintiffs appealed. In August 2018, the judgment was affirmed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. Although plaintiffs may still seek review by the United States Supreme Court, management believes that the possibility of a material adverse outcome in this matter is remote.
Asbestos and Environmental Claims –The Company continues to receive asbestos and environmental ("A&E") claims. Asbestos claims relate primarily to bodily injuries asserted by people who came in contact with asbestos or products containing asbestos. Environmental claims relate primarily to pollution and related clean-up costs.
The Company wrote several different categories of insurance contracts that may cover A&E claims. First, the Company wrote primary policies providing the first layer of coverage in an insured’s liability program. Second, the Company wrote excess and umbrella policies providing higher layers of coverage for losses that exhaust the limits of underlying coverage. Third, the Company acted as a reinsurer assuming a portion of those risks assumed by other insurers writing primary, excess, umbrella and reinsurance coverages.
Significant uncertainty limits the ability of insurers and reinsurers to estimate the ultimate reserves necessary for unpaid gross losses and expenses related to environmental and particularly asbestos claims. The degree of variability of gross reserve estimates for these exposures is significantly greater than for other more traditional exposures.
In the case of the reserves for asbestos exposures, factors contributing to the high degree of uncertainty include inadequate loss development patterns, plaintiffs’ expanding theories of liability, the risks inherent in major litigation, and inconsistent emerging legal doctrines. Furthermore, over time, insurers, including the Company, have experienced significant changes in the rate at which asbestos claims are brought, the claims experience of particular insureds, and the value of claims, making predictions of future exposure from past experience uncertain. Plaintiffs and insureds also have sought to use bankruptcy proceedings, including “pre-packaged” bankruptcies, to accelerate and increase loss payments by insurers. In addition, some policyholders have asserted new classes of claims for coverages to which an aggregate limit of liability may not apply. Further uncertainties include insolvencies of other carriers and unanticipated developments pertaining to the Company’s ability to recover reinsurance for A&E claims. Management believes these issues are not likely to be resolved in the near future.
In the case of the reserves for environmental exposures, factors contributing to the high degree of uncertainty include expanding

52

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
13. Commitments and Contingencies (continued)

theories of liability and damages, the risks inherent in major litigation, inconsistent decisions concerning the existence and scope of coverage for environmental claims, and uncertainty as to the monetary amount being sought by the claimant from the insured.
The reporting pattern for assumed reinsurance claims, including those related to A&E claims, is much longer than for direct claims. In many instances, it takes months or years to determine that the policyholder’s own obligations have been met and how the reinsurance in question may apply to such claims. The delay in reporting reinsurance claims and exposures adds to the uncertainty of estimating the related reserves.
It is also not possible to predict changes in the legal and legislative environment and their effect on the future development of A&E claims.
Given the factors described above, the Company believes the actuarial tools and other techniques it employs to estimate the ultimate cost of claims for more traditional kinds of insurance exposure are less precise in estimating reserves for A&E exposures. For this reason, the Company principally relies on exposure-based analysis to estimate the ultimate costs of these claims, both gross and net of reinsurance, and regularly evaluates new account information in assessing its potential A&E exposures. The Company supplements this exposure-based analysis with evaluations of the Company’s historical direct net loss and expense paid and reported experience, and net loss and expense paid and reported experience by calendar and/or report year, to assess any emerging trends, fluctuations or characteristics suggested by the aggregate paid and reported activity.
While the Company believes that its current A&E reserves are appropriate, significant uncertainties limit the ability of insurers and reinsurers to estimate the ultimate reserves necessary for unpaid losses and related expenses. The ultimate liabilities, thus, could exceed the currently recorded reserves, and any such additional liability, while not estimable now, could be material to The Hartford’s consolidated operating results and liquidity.
As of September 30, 2018, the Company reported $1.1 billion of net asbestos reserves and $214 of net environmental reserves. While the Company believes that its current A&E reserves are appropriate, significant uncertainties limit our ability to estimate the ultimate reserves necessary for unpaid losses and related expenses. The ultimate liabilities, thus, could exceed the currently recorded reserves, and any such additional liability, while not reasonably estimable now, could be material to The Hartford's consolidated operating results and liquidity.
Effective December 31, 2016, the Company entered into an A&E adverse development cover ("ADC") reinsurance agreement with National Indemnity Company ("NICO"), a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc., to reduce uncertainty about potential adverse development of A&E reserves. Under the ADC, the Company paid a reinsurance premium of $650 for NICO to assume adverse net loss and allocated loss adjustment expense reserve development up to $1.5 billion above the Company’s existing net A&E reserves as of December 31, 2016 of approximately $1.7 billion. The $650 reinsurance premium was placed in a collateral trust account as security for NICO’s claim payment obligations to the Company.
 
Under retroactive reinsurance accounting, net adverse A&E reserve development after December 31, 2016 will result in an offsetting reinsurance recoverable up to the $1.5 billion limit. Cumulative ceded losses up to the $650 reinsurance premium paid are recognized as a dollar-for-dollar offset to direct losses incurred. Cumulative ceded losses exceeding the $650 reinsurance premium paid would result in a deferred gain. The deferred gain would be recognized over the claim settlement period in the proportion of the amount of cumulative ceded losses collected from the reinsurer to the estimated ultimate reinsurance recoveries. Consequently, until periods when the deferred gain is recognized as a benefit to earnings, cumulative adverse development of A&E claims after December 31, 2016 in excess of $650 may result in significant charges against earnings. Furthermore, cumulative adverse development of A&E claims could ultimately exceed the $1.5 billion treaty limit in which case any adverse development in excess of the treaty limit would be absorbed as a charge to earnings by the Company. In these scenarios, the effect of these changes could be material to the Company’s consolidated operating results and liquidity. As of September 30, 2018, the Company has incurred $285 in cumulative adverse development on A&E reserves that have been ceded under the ADC treaty with NICO, leaving approximately $1.2 billion of coverage available for future adverse net reserve development, if any.
Derivative Commitments
Certain of the Company’s derivative agreements contain provisions that are tied to the financial strength ratings, as set by nationally recognized statistical agencies, of the individual legal entity that entered into the derivative agreement. If the legal entity’s financial strength were to fall below certain ratings, the counterparties to the derivative agreements could demand immediate and ongoing full collateralization and in certain instances enable the counterparties to terminate the agreements and demand immediate settlement of all outstanding derivative positions traded under each impacted bilateral agreement. The settlement amount is determined by netting the derivative positions transacted under each agreement. If the termination rights were to be exercised by the counterparties, it could impact the legal entity’s ability to conduct hedging activities by increasing the associated costs and decreasing the willingness of counterparties to transact with the legal entity. The aggregate fair value of all derivative instruments with credit-risk-related contingent features that are in a net liability position as of September 30, 2018 was $69, of which the legal entities have posted collateral of $68 in the normal course of business. Based on derivative market values as of September 30, 2018, a downgrade of one level below the current financial strength rates by either Moody's or S&P would not require additional assets to be posted as collateral. Based on derivative market values as of September 30, 2018, a downgrade of two levels below the current financial strength ratings by either Moody's or S&P would require an additional $8 of assets to be posted as collateral. These collateral amounts could change as derivative market values change, as a result of changes in our hedging activities or to the extent changes in contractual terms are negotiated. The nature of the collateral that we post, if required, is primarily in the form of U.S. Treasury bills, U.S. Treasury notes and government agency securities.

53

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
14. Equity

Capital Purchase Program ("CPP") Warrants
As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, the Company has 2.1 million and 2.2 million of CPP warrants outstanding and exercisable. CPP warrant exercises were 0.1 million and 0.6 million for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. CPP warrant exercises were 0.2 million and 1.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The declaration of common stock dividends by the Company in excess of a threshold triggers a provision in the Company's
 
warrant agreement with The Bank of New York Mellon resulting in adjustments to the CPP warrant exercise price. Accordingly, the declaration of a common stock dividend during the three months ended September 30, 2018 resulted in an adjustment to the CPP warrant exercise price. The CPP warrant exercise price was $8.886 as of September 30, 2018 and $8.999 as of December 31, 2017.
Equity Repurchase Program
The Company does not currently have an equity repurchase authorization in 2018.
     


54

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
15. Changes In and Reclassifications From Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)

Changes in AOCI, Net of Tax for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2018
 Changes in
 Net Unrealized Gain on SecuritiesOTTI Losses in OCINet Gain on Cash Flow Hedging InstrumentsForeign Currency Translation AdjustmentsPension and Other Postretirement Plan AdjustmentsAOCI, net of tax
Beginning balance$211
$(3)$(12)$33
$(1,582)$(1,353)
OCI before reclassifications(183)(1)1
1
1
(181)
Amounts reclassified from AOCI12

(6)
9
15
     OCI, net of tax(171)(1)(5)1
10
(166)
Ending balance$40
$(4)$(17)$34
$(1,572)$(1,519)
Changes in AOCI, Net of Tax for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018
 Changes in
 Net Unrealized Gain on SecuritiesOTTI Losses in OCINet Gain on Cash Flow Hedging InstrumentsForeign Currency Translation AdjustmentsPension and Other Postretirement Plan AdjustmentsAOCI, net of tax
Beginning balance$1,931
$(3)$18
$34
$(1,317)$663
Cumulative effect of accounting changes, net of tax [1]273

2
4
(284)(5)
Adjusted balance, beginning of period2,204
(3)20
38
(1,601)658
OCI before reclassifications [2](2,213)
(12)(4)
(2,229)
Amounts reclassified from AOCI49
(1)(25)
29
52
     OCI, net of tax(2,164)(1)(37)(4)29
(2,177)
Ending balance$40
$(4)$(17)$34
$(1,572)$(1,519)
[1]Includes reclassification to retained earnings of $88 of stranded tax effects and $93 of net unrealized gains. Refer to Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies for further information.
[2]The reduction in AOCI included the effect of removing $758 of Talcott Resolution AOCI from the balance sheet when the business was sold effective May 31, 2018.

55

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
15. Changes In and Reclassifications From Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) (continued)

Reclassifications from AOCI
 Three Months Ended September 30, 2018Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018Affected Line Item in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations
Net Unrealized Gain on Securities   
Available-for-sale securities$(15)$(59)Net realized capital gains
 (15)(59)Total before tax
 (3)(12) Income tax expense
 
(2)Income from discontinued operations, net of tax
 $(12)$(49)Net income
OTTI Losses in OCI   
Other than temporary impairments$
$
Net realized capital gains
 

Total before tax
 

 Income tax expense
 $
$1
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax
 $
$1
Net income
Net Gains on Cash Flow Hedging Instruments   
Interest rate swaps$
$1
Net realized capital gains
Interest rate swaps7
24
Net investment income
 7
25
Total before tax
 1
5
 Income tax expense
 $
$5
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax
 $6
$25
Net income
Pension and Other Postretirement Plan Adjustments   
Amortization of prior service credit$2
$5
Insurance operating costs and other expenses
Amortization of actuarial loss(14)(42)Insurance operating costs and other expenses
 (12)(37)Total before tax
 (3)(8) Income tax expense
 $(9)$(29)Net income
Total amounts reclassified from AOCI$(15)$(52)Net income
Changes in AOCI, Net of Tax for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2017
 Changes in
 Net Unrealized Gain on SecuritiesOTTI Losses in OCINet Gain on Cash Flow Hedging InstrumentsForeign Currency Translation AdjustmentsPension and Other Postretirement Plan AdjustmentsAOCI, net of tax
Beginning balance$1,755
$(3)$57
$13
$(1,328)$494
OCI before reclassifications119
(1)(2)14
1
131
Amounts reclassified from AOCI(34)
(12)
6
(40)
     OCI, net of tax85
(1)(14)14
7
91
Ending balance$1,840
$(4)$43
$27
$(1,321)$585

56

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
15. Changes In and Reclassifications From Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) (continued)

Changes in AOCI, Net of Tax for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2017
 Changes in
 Net Unrealized Gain on SecuritiesOTTI Losses in OCINet Gain on Cash Flow Hedging InstrumentsForeign Currency Translation AdjustmentsPension and Other Postretirement Plan AdjustmentsAOCI, net of tax
Beginning balance$1,276
$(3)$76
$6
$(1,692)$(337)
OCI before reclassifications683
(1)7
21
(144)566
Amounts reclassified from AOCI(119)
(40)
515
356
     OCI, net of tax564
(1)(33)21
371
922
Ending balance$1,840
$(4)$43
$27
$(1,321)$585
Reclassifications from AOCI
 Three Months Ended September 30, 2017Nine Months Ended September 30, 2017Affected Line Item in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations
Net Unrealized Gain on Securities   
Available-for-sale securities$32
$102
Net realized capital gains
 32
102
Total before tax
 11
36
 Income tax expense
 13
53
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax
 $34
$119
Net income
Net Gains on Cash Flow Hedging Instruments   
Interest rate swaps$
$5
Net realized capital gains
Interest rate swaps8
27
Net investment income
 8
32
Total before tax
 3
11
 Income tax expense
 7
19
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax
 $12
$40
Net income
Pension and Other Postretirement Plan Adjustments   
Amortization of prior service credit$2
$
Insurance operating costs and other expenses
Amortization of actuarial loss(12)(45)Insurance operating costs and other expenses
Settlement loss
(747)Insurance operating costs and other expenses
 (10)(792)Total before tax
 (4)(277) Income tax expense
 $(6)$(515)Net income
Total amounts reclassified from AOCI$40
$(356)Net income

57

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
16. Employee Benefit Plans

The Company’s employee benefit plans are described in Note 18 - Employee Benefit Plans of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in The Hartford’s 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K. The Company made a contribution of $101 in September 2018 to the U.S. qualified defined benefit pension plan.
Net Periodic Benefit
 Pension Benefits
Other
 Postretirement
 Benefits
 Three Months Ended September 30,Three Months Ended September 30,
 2018201720182017
Service cost$1
$1
$
$
Interest cost36
36
1
2
Expected return on plan assets(57)(55)(2)(2)
Amortization of prior service credit

(2)(2)
Amortization of actuarial loss12
11
2
1
Settlements



Net periodic benefit$(8)$(7)$(1)$(1)
Net Periodic Cost (Benefit)
 Pension BenefitsOther  Postretirement  Benefits
 Nine months ended September 30,Nine months ended September 30,
 2018201720182017
Service cost$3
$3
$
$6
Interest cost107
134
4
(6)
Expected return on plan assets(172)(214)(5)(5)
Amortization of prior service credit

(5)
Amortization of actuarial loss37
41
5
4
Settlements
750


Net periodic cost (benefit)$(25)$714
$(1)$(1)

58

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
17. Stock Compensation Plans

In the second quarter of 2018, The Hartford modified the terms of the portion of its outstanding 2016 and 2017 performance share awards that are based on actual versus targeted return on equity over the performance period. The modification eliminated the benefit to return on equity that arose from the charge against earnings in 2017 driven by the effect of the lower corporate income tax rate on the carrying value of net deferred tax assets. This modification had no impact on compensation cost recognized over the vesting period since compensation cost based on the original performance share conditions is projected to be higher than what the cost would be based on the performance share conditions as modified.


59

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
18. Business Dispositions and Discontinued Operations

Discontinued Operations
Sale of life and annuity run-off business
On May 31, 2018, the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Hartford Holdings, Inc. (HHI), completed the sale of its life and annuity run-off business to a group of investors led by Cornell Capital LLC, Atlas Merchant Capital LLC, TRB Advisors LP, Global Atlantic Financial Group, Pine Brook and J. Safra Group. Under the terms of the sale agreement signed December 3, 2017, the investor group formed a limited partnership, Hopmeadow Holdings LP, that acquired Hartford Life, Inc. (HLI), and its life and annuity operating subsidiaries, for cash of approximately $1.4 billion after a pre-closing dividend to The Hartford of $300. The Hartford received a 9.7% ownership interest in the limited partnership valued at a cost of $164. In addition, as part of the terms of the sale agreement, The Hartford reduced its long-term debt by $142 because the debt, which was issued by HLI, was included as part of the sale. Including cash proceeds and the retained equity interest and net of transaction costs, net proceeds for the sale were approximately $1.5 billion. The life and annuity run-off operations met the criteria for reporting as discontinued operations and are reported in the Corporate category through the date of sale.
The Company has recognized a loss on sale within discontinued operations of approximately $3.1 billion including $3.3 billion in the fourth quarter of 2017 and a reduction in loss on sale of $202 in the first nine months of 2018. The reduction in loss on sale in 2018 primarily resulted from the reclassification to retained earnings of $193 of tax effects stranded in AOCI due to the accounting for Tax Reform and a $141 increase in estimated retained tax benefits, primarily net operating loss carryovers, partially offset by $104 of operating income from discontinued operations during the period up until the closing date and a reclassification of $10 of net unrealized capital gains from AOCI to retained earnings. See Note 1 - Adoption of New Accounting Standards within Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies, for additional information about the reclassifications from AOCI to retained earnings. The estimated amount of retained net operating loss carryovers depends on the estimated tax basis of the business sold which has increased since the date the Company entered into the sale agreement. At closing, shareholders’ equity was further reduced for the amount of AOCI of the life and annuity run-off business, which was approximately $758 largely consisting of net unrealized gains on investments, net of shadow DAC. The AOCI balance was $1 billion as of December 31, 2017.
Cash inflows and outflows from and to the life and annuity run-off business after closing were immaterial to the overall inflows and outflows the Company. Additionally, the revenues and expenses presented in continuing operations related to pre-disposal operations were immaterial.
The Company will manage invested assets of the life and annuity run-off business for an initial term of five years and provide transition services for up to 24 months.
The Hartford reported its 9.7% ownership interest in Hopmeadow Holdings LP in other assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheet, which is accounted for under the equity method.
 
The Hartford recognizes its share of income in other revenues in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations on a three month delay when financial information from the investee becomes available. The Company recognized $2 of income for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018. The post-sale period amount represents month of June 2018 results as the Company's share of net income is dependent on the availability of financial information from the investee.
Major Classes of Assets and Liabilities Transferred to the Buyer in Connection with the Sale
 
Carrying Value
as of Closing
Carrying Value
as of 12/31/2017
Assets  
Cash and investments$27,058
$30,135
Reinsurance recoverables20,718
20,785
Loss accrual [1](3,044)(3,257)
Other assets2,907
1,439
Separate account assets110,773
115,834
Total assets held for sale158,412
164,936
Liabilities  
Reserve for future policy benefits and unpaid loss and loss adjustment expenses$14,308
$14,482
Other policyholder funds and benefits payable28,680
29,228
Long-term debt142
142
Other liabilities2,222
2,756
Separate account liabilities110,773
115,834
Total liabilities held for sale$156,125
$162,442
[1]Represents the estimated accrued loss on sale of the Company's life and annuity run-off business.

60

THE HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
18. Business Dispositions and Discontinued Operations (continued)

Reconciliation of the Major Line Items Constituting Pretax Profit (Loss) of Discontinued Operations
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2018201720182017
Revenues    
Earned premiums$
$27
$39
$97
Fee income and other
217
382
665
Net investment income
326
519
964
Net realized capital gains (losses)4
(29)(68)(53)
Total revenues4
541
872
1,673
Benefits, losses and expenses  
  
Benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses
356
535
1,036
Amortization of DAC
15
58
58
Insurance operating costs and other expenses [1](5)93
157
275
Total benefits, losses and expenses(5)464
750
1,369
Income before income taxes9
77
122
304
Income tax expense (benefit)(7)(12)2
28
Income from operations of discontinued operations, net of tax16
89
120
276
Net realized capital gain (loss) on disposal, net of tax(11)
202

Income from discontinued operations, net of tax$5
$89
$322
$276
[1]Corporate allocated overhead has been included in continuing operations.
Cash flows from discontinued operations included in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows were as follows:
Cash Flows from Discontinued Operations
 Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017
Net cash provided by operating activities from discontinued operations$603
$612
Net cash provided by investing activities from discontinued operations$463
$266
Net cash used in financing activities from discontinued operations [1]$(737)$(595)
Cash paid for interest$
$2
[1] Excludes return of capital to parent of $619 and $598 for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.


61




Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Item 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
(Dollar amounts in millions except for per share data, unless otherwise stated)
The Hartford provides projections and other forward-looking information in the following discussions, which contain many forward-looking statements, particularly relating to the Company’s future financial performance. These forward-looking statements are estimates based on information currently available to the Company, are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and are subject to the cautionary statements set forth on pages 3 and 4 of this Form 10-Q. Actual results are likely to differ, and in the past have differed, materially from those forecast by the Company, depending on the outcome of various factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth in the following discussion; Part II, Item 1A, Risk Factors of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q; Part II, Item 1A, Risk Factors in The Hartford's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2018; Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors in The Hartford’s 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report; and our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Hartford undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
On August 22, 2018, the Company announced it entered into a definitive agreement to acquire all outstanding common shares of The Navigators Group, Inc. ("Navigators Group"), a global specialty underwriter, for $70 a share, or $2.1 billion in cash. The transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2019, subject to approval by Navigators Group's shareholders and other customary closing conditions, including receipt of regulatory approvals.
On May 31, 2018, Hartford Holdings, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, completed the sale of the issued and outstanding equity of Hartford Life, Inc. (“HLI”), a holding company, and its life and annuity operating subsidiaries. For discussion of this transaction, see Note 18 - Business Dispositions and Discontinued Operations of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
On February 16, 2018, The Hartford entered into a renewal rights agreement with the Farmers Exchanges, of the Farmers Insurance Group of Companies, to acquire its Foremost-branded small commercial business sold through independent agents. Written premium from this agreement began in the third quarter of 2018.
On November 1, 2017, Hartford Life and Accident Insurance Company ("HLA"), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, completed the acquisition of Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business through a reinsurance transaction. Aetna's U.S. group life and disability revenue and earnings since the acquisition date are included in the operating results of the Company's Group Benefits reporting segment. For discussion of this transaction, see Note 2 - Business Acquisitions of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
On May 10, 2017, the Company completed the sale of its U.K. property and casualty run-off subsidiaries. The operating results of the Company's U.K. property and casualty run-off subsidiaries are included in the P&C Other Operations reporting segment. For discussion of this transaction, see Note 20 - Business Dispositions and Discontinued Operations in The Hartford's 2017 Form 10K Annual Report Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Certain reclassifications have been made to historical financial information presented in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") to conform to the current period presentation.
Distribution costs within the Mutual Funds segment that were previously netted against fee income are presented gross in insurance operating costs and other expenses.
The Hartford defines increases or decreases greater than or equal to 200% as “NM” or not meaningful.
INDEX
KEY PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND RATIOS
The Company considers the measures and ratios in the following discussion to be key performance indicators for its businesses. Management believes that these ratios and measures are useful in understanding the underlying trends in The Hartford’s businesses. However, these key performance indicators should only be used in conjunction with, and not in lieu of, the results presented in the segment discussions that follow in this MD&A.

62




Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




These ratios and measures may not be comparable to other performance measures used by the Company’s competitors.
Definitions of Non-GAAP and Other Measures and Ratios
Assets Under Management ("AUM")- include mutual fund and Exchange-Traded Products ("ETP") assets. AUM is a measure used by the Company because a significant portion of the Company’s mutual fund revenues are based upon asset values. These revenues increase or decrease with a rise or fall in AUM whether caused by changes in the market or through net flows.
Book Value per Diluted Share excluding accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI")- is calculated based upon a non-GAAP financial measure. It is calculated by dividing (a) total stockholders' equity, excluding AOCI, after tax, by (b) common shares outstanding and dilutive potential common shares. The Company provides this measure to enable investors to analyze the amount of the Company's net worth that is primarily attributable to the Company's business operations. The Company believes it is useful to investors because it eliminates the effect of items that can fluctuate significantly from period to period, primarily based on changes in interest rates.
Current Accident Year Catastrophe Ratio-a component of the loss and loss adjustment expense ratio, represents the ratio of catastrophe losses incurred in the current accident year (net of reinsurance) to earned premiums. A catastrophe is an event that causes $25 or more in industry insured property losses and affects a significant number of property and casualty policyholders and insurers, as defined by the Property Claim Service office of Verisk. The current accident year catastrophe ratio includes the effect of catastrophe losses, but does not include the effect of reinstatement premiums.
Combined Ratio-the sum of the loss and loss adjustment expense ratio, the expense ratio and the policyholder dividend
 
ratio. This ratio is a relative measurement that describes the related cost of losses and expenses for every $100 of earned premiums. A combined ratio below 100 demonstrates underwriting profit; a combined ratio above 100 demonstrates underwriting losses.
Core Earnings- a non-GAAP measure, is an important measure of the Company’s operating performance. The Company believes that core earnings provides investors with a valuable measure of the underlying performance of the Company’s businesses because it reveals trends in our insurance and financial services businesses that may be obscured by including the net effect of certain realized capital gains and losses, certain restructuring and other costs, integration and transaction costs in connection with an acquired business, pension settlements, loss on extinguishment of debt, gains and losses on reinsurance transactions, income tax benefit from a reduction in deferred income tax valuation allowance, impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("Tax Reform") on net deferred tax assets, and results of discontinued operations. Some realized capital gains and losses are primarily driven by investment decisions and external economic developments, the nature and timing of which are unrelated to the insurance and underwriting aspects of our business. Accordingly, core earnings excludes the effect of all realized gains and losses that tend to be variable from period to period based on capital market conditions. The Company believes, however, that some realized capital gains and losses are integrally related to our insurance operations, so core earnings includes net realized gains and losses such as net periodic settlements on credit derivatives. These net realized gains and losses are directly related to an offsetting item included in the income statement such as net investment income. Net income (loss) is the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure to core earnings. Core earnings should not be considered as a substitute for net income (loss) and does not reflect the overall profitability of the Company’s business. Therefore, the Company believes that it is useful for investors to evaluate both net income (loss) and core earnings when reviewing the Company’s performance.
Reconciliation of Net Income to Core Earnings
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2018201720182017
Net income$432
$234
$1,611
$572
Less: Net realized capital gains excluded from core earnings, before tax37
25
57
101
Less: Loss on extinguishment of debt, before tax

(6)
Less: Pension settlement, before tax


(750)
Less: Integration and transaction costs associated with acquired business, before tax(12)
(35)
Less: Income tax benefit (expense)(16)(10)(18)224
Less: Income from discontinued operations, after tax5
89
322
276
Core earnings$418
$130
$1,291
$721
Core Earnings Margin- a non-GAAP financial measure that the Company uses to evaluate, and believes is an important measure of, the Group Benefits segment’s operating performance. Core earnings margin is calculated by dividing core earnings by revenues excluding buyouts and realized gains
 
(losses). Net income margin is the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure. The Company believes that core earnings margin provides investors with a valuable measure of the performance of Group Benefits because it reveals trends in the business that may be obscured by the effect of buyouts and realized gains (losses).

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Core earnings margin should not be considered as a substitute for net income margin and does not reflect the overall profitability of Group Benefits. Therefore, the Company believes it is important for investors to evaluate both net income margin and core earnings margin when reviewing performance. A reconciliation of net income margin to core earnings margin is set forth in the Results of Operations section within MD&A - Group Benefits.
Expense Ratio- for the underwriting segments of Commercial Lines and Personal Lines is the ratio of underwriting expenses less fee income, to earned premiums. Underwriting expenses include the amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs and insurance operating costs and expenses, including certain centralized services costs and bad debt expense. Deferred policy acquisition costs include commissions, taxes, licenses and fees and other incremental direct underwriting expenses and are amortized over the policy term.
The expense ratio for Group Benefits is expressed as the ratio of insurance operating costs and other expenses including amortization of intangibles and amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs, to premiums and other considerations, excluding buyout premiums. The expense ratio does not include integration and other transaction costs associated with an acquired business.
Fee Income- largely driven from amounts earned as a result of contractually defined percentages of assets under management in our Mutual Funds business. These fees are generally earned on a daily basis. Therefore, the growth in assets under management either through positive net flows or favorable market performance will have a favorable impact on fee income. Conversely, either negative net flows or unfavorable market performance will reduce fee income.
Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Ratio- a measure of the cost of claims incurred in the calendar year divided by earned premium and includes losses incurred for both the current and prior accident years. Among other factors, the loss and loss adjustment expense ratio needed for the Company to achieve its targeted return on equity fluctuates from year to year based on changes in the expected investment yield over the claim settlement period, the timing of expected claim settlements and the targeted returns set by management based on the competitive environment.
The loss and loss adjustment expense ratio is affected by claim frequency and claim severity, particularly for shorter-tail property lines of business, where the emergence of claim frequency and severity is credible and likely indicative of ultimate losses. Claim frequency represents the percentage change in the average number of reported claims per unit of exposure in the current accident year compared to that of the previous accident year. Claim severity represents the percentage change in the estimated average cost per claim in the current accident year compared to that of the previous accident year. As one of the factors used to determine pricing, the Company’s practice is to first make an overall assumption about claim frequency and severity for a given line of business and then, as part of the ratemaking process, adjust the assumption as appropriate for the particular state, product or coverage.
Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Ratio before Catastrophes and Prior Accident Year
 
Development- a measure of the cost of non-catastrophe claims incurred in the current accident year divided by earned premiums. Management believes that the current accident year loss and loss adjustment expense ratio before catastrophes is a performance measure that is useful to investors as it removes the impact of volatile and unpredictable catastrophe losses and prior accident year development.
Loss Ratio, excluding Buyouts- utilized for the Group Benefits segment and is expressed as a ratio of benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses to premiums and other considerations, excluding buyout premiums. Since Group Benefits occasionally buys a block of claims for a stated premium amount, the Company excludes this buyout from the loss ratio used for evaluating the profitability of the business as buyouts may distort the loss ratio. Buyout premiums represent takeover of open claim liabilities and other non-recurring premium amounts.
Mutual Fund and Exchange-Traded Product Assets- are owned by the shareholders of those products and not by the Company and, therefore, are not reflected in the Company’s consolidated financial statements except in instances where the Company seeds new investment products and holds an investment in the fund for a period of time. Mutual fund and ETP assets are a measure used by the Company primarily because a significant portion of the Company’s Mutual Funds segment revenues are based upon asset values. These revenues increase or decrease with a rise or fall in AUM whether caused by changes in the market or through net flows.
New Business Written Premium- represents the amount of premiums charged for policies issued to customers who were not insured with the Company in the previous policy term. New business written premium plus renewal policy written premium equals total written premium.
Policies in Force- represent the number of policies with coverage in effect as of the end of the period. The number of policies in force is a growth measure used for Personal Lines and standard commercial lines within Commercial Lines and is affected by both new business growth and policy count retention.
Policy Count Retention- represents the ratio of the number of policies renewed during the period divided by the number of policies available to renew. The number of policies available to renew represents the number of policies, net of any cancellations, written in the previous policy term. Policy count retention is affected by a number of factors, including the percentage of renewal policy quotes accepted and decisions by the Company to non-renew policies because of specific policy underwriting concerns or because of a decision to reduce premium writings in certain classes of business or states. Policy count retention is also affected by advertising and rate actions taken by competitors.
Policyholder Dividend Ratio- the ratio of policyholder dividends to earned premium.
Prior Accident Year Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Ratio- represents the increase (decrease) in the estimated cost of settling catastrophe and non-catastrophe claims incurred in prior accident years as recorded in the current calendar year divided by earned premiums.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Reinstatement Premiums- represents additional ceded premium paid for the reinstatement of the amount of reinsurance coverage that was reduced as a result of a reinsured loss recoverable by the Company.
Renewal Earned Price Increase (Decrease)- Written premiums are earned over the policy term, which is six months for certain Personal Lines automobile business and twelve months for substantially all of the remainder of the Company’s Property and Casualty business. Since the Company earns premiums over the six to twelve month term of the policies, renewal earned price increases (decreases) lag renewal written price increases (decreases) by six to twelve months.
Renewal Written Price Increase (Decrease)- for Commercial Lines, represents the combined effect of rate changes, amount of insurance and individual risk pricing decisions per unit of exposure on policies that renewed. For Personal Lines, renewal written price increases represent the total change in premium per policy on those policies that renewed and includes the combined effect of rate changes, amount of insurance and other changes in exposure. For Personal Lines, other changes in exposure include, but are not limited to, the effect of changes in number of drivers, vehicles and incidents, as well as changes in customer policy elections, such as deductibles and limits. The rate component represents the change in rate filed with and approved by state regulators during the period and the amount of insurance represents the change in the value of the rating base, such as model year/vehicle symbol for automobiles, building replacement costs for property and wage inflation for workers’ compensation. A number of factors affect renewal written price increases (decreases) including expected loss costs as projected by the Company’s pricing actuaries, rate filings approved by state regulators, risk selection decisions made by the Company’s underwriters and marketplace competition. Renewal written price changes reflect the property and casualty insurance market cycle. Prices tend to increase for a particular line of business when insurance carriers have incurred significant losses in that line of business in the recent past or the industry as a whole commits less of its capital to writing exposures in that line of business. Prices tend to decrease when recent loss experience has been favorable or when competition among insurance carriers increases. Renewal written price statistics are subject to change from period to period, based on a number of factors, including changes in actuarial estimates and the effect of subsequent cancellations and non-renewals, and modifications made to better reflect ultimate pricing achieved.
Return on Assets (“ROA”), Core Earnings- a non-GAAP financial measure that the Company uses to evaluate, and believes is an important measure of the Mutual Funds segment’s operating performance. ROA, core earnings is calculated by dividing core earnings by a daily average AUM. ROA is the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure. The Company believes that ROA, core earnings, provides investors with a valuable measure of the performance of the Mutual Funds segment because it reveals trends in our business that may be obscured by the effect of realized gains (losses). ROA, core earnings, should not be considered as a substitute for ROA and does not reflect the overall profitability of our Mutual Funds business. Therefore, the Company believes it is important for investors to evaluate both ROA, and ROA, core earnings when reviewing the Mutual Funds segment performance. A reconciliation of ROA to ROA, core
 
earnings is set forth in the Results of Operations section within MD&A - Mutual Funds.
Underlying Combined Ratio- a non-GAAP financial measure, represents the combined ratio before catastrophes and prior accident year development. Combined ratio is the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure. The Company believes the underlying combined ratio is an important measure of the trend in profitability since it removes the impact of volatile and unpredictable catastrophe losses and prior accident year loss and loss adjustment expense reserve development. A reconciliation of combined ratio to underlying combined ratio is set forth in the Results of Operations section within MD&A - Commercial Lines and Personal Lines.
Underwriting Gain (Loss)- The Company's management evaluates profitability of the P&C businesses primarily on the basis of underwriting gain (loss). Underwriting gain (loss) is a before tax measure that represents earned premiums less incurred losses, loss adjustment expenses, amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs, underwriting expenses and dividends to policyholders. Underwriting gain (loss) is influenced significantly by earned premium growth and the adequacy of the Company's pricing. Underwriting profitability over time is also greatly influenced by the Company's pricing and underwriting discipline, which seeks to manage exposure to loss through favorable risk selection and diversification, its management of claims, its use of reinsurance and its ability to manage its expense ratio, which it accomplishes through economies of scale and its management of acquisition costs and other underwriting expenses. Net income (loss) is the most directly comparable GAAP measure. The Company believes that underwriting gain (loss) provides investors with a valuable measure of before tax profitability derived from underwriting activities, which are managed separately from the Company's investing activities. A reconciliation of underwriting gain (loss) to net income (loss) for Commercial Lines, Personal Lines and Property & Casualty Other Operations is set forth in segment sections of MD&A.
Written and Earned Premiums- Written premium is a statutory accounting financial measure which represents the amount of premiums charged for policies issued, net of reinsurance, during a fiscal period. Earned premium is a U.S. GAAP and statutory measure. Premiums are considered earned and are included in the financial results on a pro rata basis over the policy period. Management believes that written premium is a performance measure that is useful to investors as it reflects current trends in the Company’s sale of property and casualty insurance products. Written and earned premium are recorded net of ceded reinsurance premium.
Traditional life and disability insurance type products, such as those sold by Group Benefits, collect premiums from policyholders in exchange for financial protection for the policyholder from a specified insurable loss, such as death or disability. These premiums together with net investment income earned are used to pay the contractual obligations under these insurance contracts. Two major factors, new sales and persistency, impact premium growth. Sales can increase or decrease in a given year based on a number of factors, including but not limited to, customer demand for the Company’s product offerings, pricing competition, distribution channels and the

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Company’s reputation and ratings. Persistency refers to the percentage of premium remaining in-force from year-to-year.
THE HARTFORD’S OPERATIONS
Overview
The Hartford conducts business principally in five reporting segments including Commercial Lines, Personal Lines, Property & Casualty Other Operations, Group Benefits and Mutual Funds, as well as a Corporate category. The Company includes in the Corporate category investment management fees and expenses related to managing third party business, including management of the invested assets of the Talcott Resolution life and annuity run-off business sold in the second quarter of 2018 ("Talcott Resolution"), discontinued operations related to the sale of Talcott Resolution, reserves for run-off structured settlement and terminal funding agreement liabilities, capital raising activities (including debt financing and related interest expense), purchase accounting adjustments related to goodwill and other expenses not allocated to the reporting segments. In addition, Corporate includes a 9.7% ownership interest in the limited partnership that acquired Talcott Resolution.
The Company derives its revenues principally from: (a) premiums earned for insurance coverage provided to insureds; (b) management fees on mutual fund and ETP assets; (c) net investment income; (d) fees earned for services provided to third parties; (e) net realized capital gains and losses; and (f) other revenues earned from its 9.7% ownership interest in the limited partnership that owns Talcott Resolution. Premiums charged for insurance coverage are earned principally on a pro rata basis over the terms of the related policies in-force.
The profitability of the Company's property and casualty insurance businesses over time is greatly influenced by the Company’s underwriting discipline, which seeks to manage exposure to loss through favorable risk selection and diversification, its management of claims, its use of reinsurance, the size of its in force block, actual mortality and morbidity experience, and its ability to manage its expense ratio which it accomplishes through economies of scale and its management of acquisition costs and other underwriting expenses. Pricing adequacy depends on a number of factors, including the ability to obtain regulatory approval for rate changes, proper evaluation of underwriting risks, the ability to project future loss cost frequency and severity based on historical loss experience adjusted for known trends, the Company’s response to rate actions taken by competitors, its expense levels and expectations about regulatory and legal developments. The Company seeks to price its insurance policies such that insurance premiums and future net investment income earned on premiums received will cover underwriting expenses and the ultimate cost of paying claims reported on the policies and provide for a profit margin. For many of its insurance products, the Company is required to obtain approval for its premium rates from state insurance departments.
Similar to Property & Casualty, profitability of the Group Benefits business depends, in large part, on the ability to evaluate and price risks appropriately and make reliable estimates of mortality, morbidity, disability and longevity. To manage the pricing risk,
 
Group Benefits generally offers term insurance policies, allowing for the adjustment of rates or policy terms in order to minimize the adverse effect of market trends, loss costs, declining interest rates and other factors. However, as policies are typically sold with rate guarantees of up to three years, pricing for the Company’s products could prove to be inadequate if loss and expense trends emerge adversely during the rate guarantee period. For some of its products, the Company is required to obtain approval for its premium rates from state insurance departments. New and renewal business for group benefits business, particularly for long-term disability, are priced using an assumption about expected investment yields over time. While the Company employs asset-liability duration matching strategies to mitigate risk and may use interest-rate sensitive derivatives to hedge its exposure in the Group Benefits investment portfolio, cash flow patterns related to the payment of benefits and claims are uncertain and actual investment yields could differ significantly from expected investment yields, affecting profitability of the business. In addition to appropriately evaluating and pricing risks, the profitability of the Group Benefits business depends on other factors, including the Company’s response to pricing decisions and other actions taken by competitors, its ability to offer voluntary products and self-service capabilities, the persistency of its sold business and its ability to manage its expenses which it seeks to achieve through economies of scale and operating efficiencies.
The financial results of the Company’s mutual fund and ETP businesses depend largely on the amount of assets under management and the level of fees charged based, in part, on asset share class and product type. Changes in assets under management are driven by two main factors, net flows, and the market return of the funds, which is heavily influenced by the return realized in the equity and bond markets. Net flows are comprised of new sales less redemptions by mutual fund and ETP shareholders. Financial results are highly correlated to the growth in assets under management since these products generally earn fee income on a daily basis.
The investment return, or yield, on invested assets is an important element of the Company’s earnings since insurance products are priced with the assumption that premiums received can be invested for a period of time before benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses are paid. Due to the need to maintain sufficient liquidity to satisfy claim obligations, the majority of the Company’s invested assets have been held in available-for-sale securities, including, among other asset classes, corporate bonds, municipal bonds, government debt, short-term debt, mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities and collateralized loan obligations.
The primary investment objective for the Company is to maximize economic value, consistent with acceptable risk parameters, including the management of credit risk and interest rate sensitivity of invested assets, while generating sufficient after tax income to meet policyholder and corporate obligations. Investment strategies are developed based on a variety of factors including business needs, regulatory requirements and tax considerations.
For further information on the Company's reporting segments refer to Part I, Item 1, Business - Reporting Segments in The Hartford’s 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Financial Highlights
Net IncomeNet Income per Diluted ShareBook Value per Diluted Share
chart-9515a292591956d7a45.jpgchart-89acadf263f9589a929.jpgchart-8e7dce9a550458c3945.jpg
Net income of $432, or $1.20 per basic share and $1.19 per diluted share, increased from third quarter 2017 net income of $234, or $0.65 per basic share and $0.64 per diluted share, primarily due to higher earnings from continuing operations, partially offset by a decrease in income from discontinued operations. The higher income from continuing operations was primarily driven by an increase in income in Property and Casualty, Group Benefits and Mutual Funds that was partially attributable to a lower corporate Federal income tax rate in 2018.
Book value per diluted share decreased to $34.95 from $37.11 as of December 31, 2017 as a result of a 6% decrease in stockholders' equity resulting primarily from a decrease in AOCI over the nine month period, partially offset by net income in excess of shareholder dividends. AOCI decreased mainly due to the removal of AOCI related to Talcott Resolution upon the closing of the sale of that business, as well as lower net unrealized capital gains, driven by higher interest rates.
Net Investment Income   Annualized Investment Yield After tax
chart-0f702851201e5362bdd.jpgchart-964e7c65d4785ae390e.jpg
Net investment income of $444 increased 10% compared with third quarter 2017 primarily due to higher fixed maturities asset levels primarily driven by the acquisition of Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business.
Net realized gains increased compared with the third quarter 2017, with gains in 2018 primarily driven by appreciation in value of equity securities due to higher equity market levels, partially offset by net losses on sales in 2018 of fixed maturity securities driven by sector repositioning.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Annualized investment yield of 3.3%, after tax, increased from 3.0%, after tax, compared with third quarter 2017, primarily due to the effect of a lower corporate Federal income tax rate.
Net unrealized gains, after tax, for fixed maturities in the investment portfolio decreased by $171 in third quarter 2018 primarily due to the effect of higher interest rates.
Written PremiumsCombined Ratio
chart-62eabd0350ef5794820.jpgchart-172f4c6565155c9ea9b.jpg
Written premiums for Property & Casualty decreased 1% compared with third quarter 2017 reflecting a decrease in Personal Lines, largely offset by an increase in Commercial Lines.
Combined ratio for Property & Casualty decreased 9.8 points to 97.3 compared with a combined ratio of 107.1 in third quarter 2017, largely due to lower catastrophes, a lower current accident year loss and loss adjustment expense ratio for automobile and homeowners and favorable prior accident year development, partially offset by higher workers' compensation loss costs and a higher expense ratio.
Catastrophe losses of $169, before tax, decreased from catastrophe losses of $352, before tax, in third quarter 2017, largely due to losses from hurricanes Harvey and Irma in 2017.
Prior accident year development was a net favorable $60, before tax, in third quarter 2018, primarily due to a decrease in reserves for workers' compensation, professional liability, auto liability and 2017 catastrophes. Reserve development was a net favorable $1, before tax, in third quarter 2017, primarily due to a decrease in reserves for small commercial package business offset by a reserve increase for customs bond claims.
Net Income Margin - Group Benefits
chart-b0156d9d9d8b5830975.jpg
Net income margin for Group Benefits decreased to 5.1% from 7.7% in the third quarter 2017, primarily due to integration costs in 2018, a change from net realized capital gains to net realized capital losses, income tax expense from the impact of lower tax rates on

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




deferred tax assets recognized upon filing of the 2017 tax return and finalization of the opening balance sheet for the Aetna U.S. group life and disability benefits acquisition and amortization of other intangible assets in 2018. Contributing to the net income margin in both the 2018 and 2017 periods was favorable prior incurral year development net of discount accretion with favorable life mortality and long term disability incidence trends in third quarter 2018, partially offset by lower claim terminations.
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
The Consolidated Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the Company's Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and the related Notes beginning on page 6 as well as with the segment operating results sections of MD&A.
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017Change 20182017Change
Earned premiums$3,987
$3,447
16% $11,872
$10,340
15%
Fee income344
291
18% 994
855
16%
Net investment income444
404
10% 1,323
1,209
9%
Net realized capital gains38
26
46% 60
105
(43%)
Other revenues29
24
21% 73
66
11%
Total revenues4,842
4,192
16% 14,322
12,575
14%
Benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses2,786
2,638
6% 8,219
7,482
10%
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs348
341
2% 1,034
1,030
%
Insurance operating costs and other expenses1,091
952
15% 3,195
3,521
(9%)
Loss on extinguishment of debt

% 6

NM
Interest expense69
79
(13%) 228
238
(4%)
Amortization of other intangible assets18
1
NM
 54
3
NM
Total benefits, losses and expenses4,312
4,011
8% 12,736
12,274
4%
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes530
181
193% 1,586
301
NM
 Income tax expense103
36
186% 297
5
NM
Income from continuing operations, net of tax427
145
194% 1,289
296
NM
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax5
89
(94%) 322
276
17%
Net income$432
$234
85% $1,611
$572
182%
Three months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2017
Net income increased by $198 with an increase in income from continuing operations partially offset by a decrease in income from discontinued operations due to the sale of the run-off life and annuity business. Income from continuing operations increased by $282, primarily due to a higher before tax underwriting gain in Property & Casualty, increased before tax income in Group Benefits due to favorable life results and contribution from the fourth quarter 2017 acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability benefits business, and higher earnings in Mutual Funds driven by an increase in assets under management. Also contributing to the increase was the effect of a lower corporate Federal income tax rate in 2018. Contributing to the higher underwriting gain in Property & Casualty was lower current accident year catastrophes, more favorable prior accident year development, and an increase in current accident year underwriting results before catastrophes in Personal Lines automobile.
 
Earned premiums increased by $540 before tax, primarily due to the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business in November 2017 that has increased earned premiums in the Group Benefits segment. Earned premiums in Property and Casualty declined slightly, reflecting an 8% decline in Personal Lines, partially offset by a 4% increase in Commercial Lines. For a discussion of the Company's operating results by segment, see MD&A - Segment Operating Summaries.
Fee income increased by 18% reflecting higher fee income in Group Benefits related to an increase in administrative service contracts as a result of the Aetna acquisition, in Mutual Funds largely due to higher assets under management, and in Corporate resulting from fees earned on the management of Talcott Resolution's investment portfolio.
Net investment income increased by 10%, primarily due to a higher level of invested assets due to the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business. For further discussion of investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results, Net Investment Income.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Net realized capital gains of $38 in the third quarter of 2018 increased from the third quarter of 2017, with gains in 2018 primarily driven by appreciation in value of equity securities due to higher equity market levels, partially offset by losses on sales of fixed maturity securities driven by sector repositioning. For further discussion of investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results, Net Realized Capital Gains.
Benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses increased in Group Benefits, partially offset by a decrease in Property & Casualty. The increase in Group Benefits was largely due to the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business. The decrease in incurred losses for Property & Casualty was driven by:
Current accident year losses and loss adjustment expenses before catastrophes in Property & Casualty decreased $52 before tax, primarily resulting from the effect of lower earned premium and a lower automobile loss ratio in Personal Lines, partially offset by the effect of higher earned premium in Commercial Lines and higher workers’ compensation claim frequency.
Current accident year catastrophe losses of $169, before tax, for the three months ended September 30, 2018, compared to $352, before tax, for the prior year period. Catastrophe losses in 2018 were primarily from hurricane Florence, wind and hail events in Colorado and wildfires in California and Colorado. Catastrophe losses in 2017 were primarily from hurricanes Harvey and Irma which accounted for $332, before tax, of catastrophe losses in the quarter. For additional information, see MD&A - Critical Accounting Estimates, Property & Casualty Insurance Product Reserves, Net of Reinsurance.
Net prior accident year reserve development in Property & Casualty was favorable $60, before tax, for the three months ended September 30, 2018, compared to favorable net reserve development of $1, before tax, for the prior year period. Prior accident year development in 2018 primarily included reserve decreases in reserves for workers’ compensation, professional liability, auto liability and catastrophe reserves. Prior accident year development in 2017 included a decrease in reserves for small commercial package business offset by a reserve increase for customs bond claims. For additional information, see MD&A - Critical Accounting Estimates, Property & Casualty Insurance Product Reserves, Net of Reinsurance.
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs was up slightly year over year as an increase in Commercial Lines was mostly offset by a decrease in Personal Lines.
Insurance operating costs and other expenses increased due to operating costs associated with the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business, an increase in direct marketing expenses in Personal Lines to generate new business growth, higher commissions in middle market, and higher variable expenses in Mutual Funds.
Amortization of other intangible assets increased reflecting the amortization of customer relationship and other intangibles in the Group Benefits segment that arose
 
from the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business.
Income tax expense increased due to an increase in before tax income, partially offset by the effect of a lower corporate Federal income tax rate. Differences between the Company's effective income tax rate and the U.S. statutory rate of 21% and 35% in 2018 and 2017, respectively, are due primarily to tax-exempt interest earned on invested assets, stock-based compensation and non-deductible executive compensation. In the third quarter of 2018, the Company recorded adjustments to 2017 tax year estimates as a result of filing the 2017 Federal income tax return and finalization of the opening balance sheet for the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business acquisition that resulted in increasing income tax expense by $14 in Group Benefits offset by an income tax benefit within income from discontinued operations of $11 in Corporate. For further discussion of income taxes, see Note 12 - Income Taxes of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the nine months ended September 30, 2017
Net income increased primarily due to a pension settlement charge of $488, after tax, in the nine months ended September 30, 2017, an increase in income across Property & Casualty, Group Benefits and Mutual Funds that was partially attributable to a lower corporate Federal income tax rate in 2018. Within Property & Casualty, an improvement in before tax earnings was mostly driven by lower current accident year catastrophes, favorable prior accident year development related to workers’ compensation and 2017 catastrophe events and due to improved Personal Lines automobile results. The improvement in Group Benefits income before tax was largely due to a lower disability ratio and revenue growth, including from the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability benefits business, and the higher earnings in Mutual Funds was driven by an increase in assets under management.
Earned premiums increased by 15% or $1,532, before tax, primarily due to the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability benefits business that has increased earned premiums in the Group Benefits segment. Earned premiums in Property and Casualty declined reflecting an 8% decline in Personal Lines, partially offset by a 2% increase in Commercial Lines. For a discussion of the Company's operating results by segment, see MD&A - Segment Operating Summaries.
Fee income increased by 16% reflecting higher income in Group Benefits related to an increase in administrative service contracts as a result of the Aetna acquisition and in Mutual Funds largely due to higher assets under management.
Net investment income increased primarily due to a higher level of invested assets due to the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business. For further discussion of investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results, Net Investment Income.
Net realized capital gains of $60 in the nine months ended September 30, 2018 were lower than net realized capital gains in the prior year period. Net gains in 2018 were driven by sales and appreciation of equity securities, due to higher equity

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market levels and tactical repositioning, as well as a gain on the sale of a private real estate investment. These gains were partially offset by net losses on sales of fixed maturity securities driven by duration, liquidity and credit management. For further discussion of investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results, Net Realized Capital Gains.
Benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses increased in Group Benefits, partially offset by a decrease in Property & Casualty with the increase in Group Benefits primarily due to the effect of growth in earned premium largely resulting from the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business, partially offset by a lower group disability loss ratio. The decrease in incurred losses for Property & Casualty was driven by:
Current accident year loss and loss adjustment expenses before catastrophes in Property & Casualty decreased $239, before tax, primarily resulting from the effect of lower Personal Lines earned premium and lower loss costs in Personal Lines auto, homeowners and general liability, partially offset by higher workers’ compensation claim frequency.
Current accident year catastrophe losses of $460, before tax, for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 decreased compared to $657, before tax, for the prior year period. Catastrophe losses in 2018 were primarily from multiple wind and hail events in Colorado, the Midwest, South and Mid-Atlantic, winter storms on the East Coast, hurricane Florence, and wildfires in California and Colorado. Catastrophe losses in 2017 were primarily due to hurricanes Harvey and Irma in the third quarter and multiple wind and hail events across various U.S. geographic regions, primarily in the Midwest, Colorado, Texas and the Southeast. For additional information, see MD&A - Critical Accounting Estimates, Property & Casualty Insurance Product Reserves, Net of Reinsurance.
Net prior accident year reserve development in Property & Casualty was favorable $139, before tax, for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to unfavorable net reserve development of $1, before tax, for the prior year period. Prior accident year development in 2018 primarily included a decrease in reserves for workers’ compensation and a decrease in catastrophe reserves for the 2017 hurricanes.
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs was relatively flat year over year as a decrease in Personal Lines was largely offset by an increase in Commercial Lines.
Insurance operating costs and other expenses decreased due to a $750 pension settlement charge in the 2017 period, partially offset by an increase in operating costs associated with the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business, higher incentive-based compensation, increased commissions in Commercial Lines, and higher variable expenses in Mutual Funds.
Amortization of other intangible assets increased, reflecting the amortization of customer relationship intangibles in the Group Benefits segment that arose from the acquisition of the Aetna U.S. group life and disability business.
 
Income tax expense increased primarily due to an increase in before tax income, partially offset by the effect of a lower corporate Federal income tax rate. Differences between the Company's effective income tax rate and the U.S. statutory rate of 21% and 35% in 2018 and 2017, respectively, are due primarily to tax-exempt interest earned on invested assets, stock-based compensation and non-deductible executive compensation. For further discussion of income taxes, see Note 12 - Income Taxes of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Income from discontinued operations net of tax increased to $322 from $276 in the prior year period. The $322 of income from discontinued operations in 2018 was mostly attributable to recognizing additional retained tax benefits from the sale of the Talcott Resolution life and annuity run-off business and the reclassification of $193 of stranded tax effects from AOCI to retained earnings related to the sale of Talcott Resolution, both of which reduced the estimated loss on sale. The reclassification of stranded tax effects resulted in a corresponding increase in AOCI related to the assets held for sale. For more information on the reclassification of stranded tax effects, see Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. Refer to the Corporate category MD&A discussion for more information about operating earnings from the Talcott Resolution life and annuity run-off business held for sale recognized up until the sale closed on May 31, 2018.

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INVESTMENT RESULTS
Composition of Invested Assets
 September 30, 2018 December 31, 2017
 AmountPercent AmountPercent
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale ("AFS"), at fair value$36,166
78.4% $36,964
81.9%
Fixed maturities, at fair value using the fair value option ("FVO")24
0.1% 41
0.1%
Equity securities, at fair value [1]1,035
2.2%   
Equity securities, AFS, at fair value [1]   1,012
2.3%
Mortgage loans3,559
7.7% 3,175
7.0%
Limited partnerships and other alternative investments1,712
3.7% 1,588
3.5%
Other investments [2]98
0.2% 96
0.2%
Short-term investments3,540
7.7% 2,270
5.0%
Total investments$46,134
100.0% $45,146
100.0%
[1]Effective January 1, 2018, with the adoption of new accounting standards for financial instruments, equity securities, AFS were reclassified to equity securities at fair value.
[2]Includes derivative instruments.
September 30, 2018 compared to December 31, 2017
Total investments increased primarily due to an increase in short-term investments and mortgage loans, offset by a decrease in fixed maturities, AFS.
Fixed maturities, AFS decreased primarily due to a decrease in valuations due to higher interest rates.
 
Short-term investments increased largely due to proceeds from the sale of Talcott Resolution, partially offset by a decline in the Company's securities lending program.
Mortgage loans increased largely due to new originations of commercial mortgage loans within the industrial, multi-family, and single family markets.
Net Investment Income
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017 20182017
(Before tax)AmountYield [1]AmountYield [1] AmountYield [1]AmountYield [1]
Fixed maturities [2]$370
3.9%$327
4.0% $1,077
3.9%$972
4.0%
Equity securities6
2.5%4
2.1% 18
2.4%14
2.3%
Mortgage loans35
4.0%31
4.1% 102
4.1%91
4.1%
Limited partnerships and other alternative investments45
10.6%48
12.8% 157
13.3%145
13.2%
Other [3]10
 13
  27
 39
 
Investment expense(22) (19)  (58) (52) 
Total net investment income$444
4.0%$404
4.1% $1,323
4.0%$1,209
4.1%
Total net investment income excluding limited partnerships and other alternative investments$399
3.7%$356
3.8% $1,166
3.7%$1,064
3.8%
[1]Yields calculated using annualized net investment income divided by the monthly average invested assets at amortized cost as applicable, excluding repurchase agreement and securities lending collateral, if any, and derivatives book value.
[2]Includes net investment income on short-term investments.
[3]Primarily includes income from derivatives that qualify for hedge accounting and hedge fixed maturities.

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Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Total net investment income increased primarily due to higher income from fixed maturities as a result of higher asset levels driven by the acquisition of Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business. In addition, for the nine month period, total net investment income increased due to limited partnerships and other alternative investments as a result of higher returns on private equity and real estate investments.
Annualized net investment income yield, excluding non-routine items which primarily include prepayment penalties on mortgage loans, paydowns and make-whole payments on fixed maturities, was 3.7% for the nine month periods in 2018 and 2017.
New money yield, excluding certain U.S. Treasury securities and cash equivalent securities for the 2018 nine month
 
period, was approximately 4.0% which was above the average yield of sales and maturities of 3.6% for the same period. For the 2018 nine month period, the average reinvestment rate of 4.0% increased from 3.5% for the 2017 nine month period, due to higher interest rates.
Though new money rates have risen, since investment income in 2018 includes the lower yield on Aetna group life and disability assets that were recorded at current yields as of the November 1, 2017 acquisition date, we expect the annualized net investment income yield for the 2018 calendar year, excluding limited partnerships and other alternative investments, to approximate the portfolio yield earned in 2017 though it could be higher depending on the level of non-routine income and if reinvestment rates stay above the sales/maturity yield. The estimated impact on net investment income yield is subject to change as the composition of the portfolio changes through portfolio management and changes in market conditions.
Net Realized Capital Gains
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
(Before tax)20182017 20182017
Gross gains on sales$26
$46
 $91
$184
Gross losses on sales(41)(16) (129)(84)
Equity securities [1]46

 88

Net other-than-temporary impairment ("OTTI") losses recognized in earnings [2](1)(1) (1)(4)
Transactional foreign currency revaluation

 1
14
Non-qualifying foreign currency derivatives1

 2
(14)
Other, net [3]7
(3) 8
9
Net realized capital gains$38
$26
 $60
$105
[1]Effective January 1, 2018, with adoption of new accounting standards for equity securities at fair value, includes all changes in fair value and trading gains and losses for equity securities.
[2]
See Other-Than-Temporary Impairments within the Investment Portfolio Risks and Risk Management section of the MD&A.
[3]Primarily consists of changes in value of non-qualifying derivatives and including credit derivatives.
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018
Gross gains and losses on sales were primarily the result of duration, liquidity and credit management within corporate securities, U.S. treasury securities, and tax-exempt municipal bonds as well as from the sale of a private real estate investment.
Equity securities net gains were driven by appreciation of equity securities due to higher equity market levels and, for the nine month period, gains on sales due to tactical repositioning.
Other, net gains for the three month period were primarily due to gains on credit derivatives of $6 driven by credit spread tightening. Gains for the nine month period were primarily driven by gains on interest rate derivatives of $7 due to an increase in interest rates.
 
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Gross gains and losses on sales were primarily the result of duration, liquidity and credit management within corporate securities, equity securities, tax-exempt municipal bonds, residential mortgage-backed securities ("RMBS") and U.S. treasury securities.
Other, net losses for the three month period were primarily due to losses of $4 on interest rate derivatives due to an increase in interest rates and losses on equity derivatives of $3 due to an increase in the equity markets, partially offset by gains on credit derivatives of $4 driven by credit spread tightening. Gains for the nine month period gains were primarily due to gains on credit derivatives of $12 driven by credit spread tightening, partially offset by losses of $5 on equity derivatives due to an increase in the equity markets.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ, and in the past have differed, from those estimates.
The Company has identified the following estimates as critical in that they involve a higher degree of judgment and are subject to a significant degree of variability:
property and casualty insurance product reserves, net of reinsurance;
group benefit long-term disability (LTD) reserves, net of reinsurance;
evaluation of goodwill for impairment;
valuation of investments and derivative instruments including evaluation of other-than-temporary impairments on available-for-sale securities and valuation allowances on mortgage loans;
valuation allowance on deferred tax assets; and
contingencies relating to corporate litigation and regulatory matters.
Certain of these estimates are particularly sensitive to market conditions, and deterioration and/or volatility in the worldwide debt or equity markets could have a material impact on the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. In developing these estimates, management makes subjective and complex judgments that are inherently uncertain and subject to material change as facts and circumstances develop. Although variability is inherent in these estimates, management believes the amounts provided are appropriate based upon the facts available upon compilation of the financial statements.
The Company’s critical accounting estimates are discussed in Part II, Item 7 MD&A in the Company’s 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report. In addition, Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report should be read in conjunction with this section to assist with obtaining an understanding of the underlying accounting policies related to these estimates. The following discussion updates certain of the Company’s critical accounting estimates as of September 30, 2018.
 
Property & Casualty Insurance Product Reserves, Net of Reinsurance
P&C Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense ("LAE") Reserves of $20,017, Net of Reinsurance, by Segment as of September 30, 2018
chart-60aebf255b2c5444876.jpg
Based on the results of the quarterly reserve review process, the Company determines the appropriate reserve adjustments, if any, to record. Recorded reserve estimates are adjusted after consideration of numerous factors, including but not limited to, the magnitude of the difference between the actuarial indication and the recorded reserves, improvement or deterioration of actuarial indications in the period, the maturity of the accident year, trends observed over the recent past and the level of volatility within a particular line of business. In general, adjustments are made more quickly to more mature accident years and less volatile lines of business. Such adjustments of reserves are referred to as “prior accident year development”. Increases in previous estimates of ultimate loss costs are referred to as either an increase in prior accident year reserves or as unfavorable reserve development. Decreases in previous estimates of ultimate loss costs are referred to as either a decrease in prior accident year reserves or as favorable reserve development. Reserve development can influence the comparability of year over year underwriting results and is set forth in the paragraphs and tables that follow.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Rollforward of Property and Casualty Insurance Product Liabilities for Unpaid Losses and LAE for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018
 
Commercial
Lines
Personal
Lines
Property & Casualty Other OperationsTotal Property & Casualty Insurance
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$18,893
$2,294
$2,588
$23,775
Reinsurance and other recoverables3,147
71
739
3,957
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net15,746
2,223
1,849
19,818
Provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses    
Current accident year before catastrophes3,003
1,688

4,691
Current accident year ("CAY") catastrophes238
222

460
Prior accident year development ("PYD")(145)(21)27
(139)
Total provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses3,096
1,889
27
5,012
Less: payments2,676
1,967
170
4,813
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net16,166
2,145
1,706
20,017
Reinsurance and other recoverables3,089
21
670
3,780
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$19,255
$2,166
$2,376
$23,797
Earned premiums and fee income$5,267
$2,594
  
Loss and loss expense paid ratio [1]50.8
75.8
  
Loss and loss expense incurred ratio59.1
73.7
  
Prior accident year development (pts) [2](2.8)(0.8)  
[1]The “loss and loss expense paid ratio” represents the ratio of paid losses and loss adjustment expenses to earned premiums.
[2]“Prior accident year development (pts)” represents the ratio of prior accident year development to earned premiums.
Current Accident Year Catastrophe Losses for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018, Net of Reinsurance
 
Commercial
Lines
Personal
Lines
Total
Wind and hail$118
$158
$276
Winter storms57
22
79
Flooding1
1
2
Volcanic eruption
2
2
Wildfire2
32
34
Hurricane59
6
65
Massachusetts gas explosion1
1
2
Total catastrophe losses$238
$222
$460

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Unfavorable (Favorable) Prior Accident Year Development for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2018
 Commercial Lines
Personal
Lines
Property & Casualty Other OperationsTotal Property & Casualty Insurance
Workers’ compensation$(24)$
$
$(24)
Workers’ compensation discount accretion10


10
General liability4


4
Package business(9)

(9)
Commercial property2


2
Professional liability(20)

(20)
Bond



Automobile liability(5)(10)
(15)
Homeowners
(7)
(7)
Net asbestos reserves



Net environmental reserves



Catastrophes(11)(2)
(13)
Uncollectible reinsurance

11
11
Other reserve re-estimates, net
1

1
Total prior accident year development$(53)$(18)$11
$(60)
Unfavorable (Favorable) Prior Accident Year Development for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018
 Commercial Lines
Personal
Lines
Property & Casualty Other OperationsTotal Property & Casualty Insurance
Workers’ compensation$(97)$
$
$(97)
Workers’ compensation discount accretion30


30
General liability32


32
Package business(16)

(16)
Commercial property(10)

(10)
Professional liability(12)

(12)
Bond



Automobile liability(15)(10)
(25)
Homeowners
(20)
(20)
Net asbestos reserves



Net environmental reserves



Catastrophes(63)16

(47)
Uncollectible reinsurance

22
22
Other reserve re-estimates, net6
(7)5
4
Total prior accident year development$(145)$(21)$27
$(139)
Workers’ compensation reserves were reduced in small commercial and middle market, primarily for accident years 2012 to 2015, as both claim frequency and medical claim severity have emerged favorably compared to previous reserve estimates.
General liability reserves were increased, primarily due to an increase in reserves for higher hazard general liability exposures in middle market for accident years 2009 to 2017, partially offset by a decrease in reserves for other lines within
 
middle market, including premises and operations, umbrella and products liability, principally for accident years 2015 and prior. Contributing to the increase in reserves for higher hazard general liability exposures was an increase in large losses and, in more recent accident years, an increase in claim frequency. Contributing to the reduction in reserves for other middle market lines were more favorable outcomes due to initiatives to reduce legal expenses. In addition, reserve increases for claims with lead

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




paint exposure were offset by reserve decreases for other mass torts and extra-contractual liability claims.
Package business reserves were reduced, primarily due to lower reserve estimates for both liability and property for accident years 2010 and prior, including a recovery of loss adjustment expenses for the 2005 accident year.
Commercial property reserves were reduced, driven by an increase in estimated reinsurance recoverables on middle market property losses from the 2017 accident year.
Professional liability reserves were reduced, principally for accident years 2014 and prior, for directors and officers liability claims principally due to a number of older claims closing with limited or no payment.
Automobile liability reserves were reduced, primarily driven by reduced estimates of loss adjustment expenses in small commercial for recent accident years and favorable development in personal automobile liability for accident years 2014 to 2017, principally due to lower severity, including with uninsured and underinsured motorist claims.
 
Homeowners reserves were reduced, primarily in accident years 2013 to 2017, driven by lower than expected severity across multiple perils.
Catastrophes reserves were reduced, primarily as a result of lower estimated net losses from 2017 catastrophes, principally related to hurricanes Harvey and Irma. Before reinsurance, estimated losses for 2017 catastrophe events decreased by $133 in the nine months ended September 30, 2018, resulting in a decrease in reinsurance recoverables of $90 as the Company no longer expects to recover under the 2017 Property Aggregate reinsurance treaty as aggregate ultimate losses for 2017 catastrophe events are now projected to be less than $850.
Uncollectible reinsurance reserves were increased due to lower anticipated recoveries related to older accident years.
Rollforward of Property and Casualty Insurance Product Liabilities for Unpaid Losses and LAE for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2017
 
Commercial
Lines
Personal
Lines
Property & Casualty Other OperationsTotal Property & Casualty Insurance
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$17,950
$2,094
$2,501
$22,545
Reinsurance and other recoverables3,037
25
426
3,488
Beginning liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net14,913
2,069
2,075
19,057
Provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses    
Current accident year before catastrophes2,971
1,959

4,930
Current accident year catastrophes404
253

657
Prior accident year development12
(12)1
1
Total provision for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses3,387
2,200
1
5,588
Less: payments2,602
2,118
193
4,913
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, net15,698
2,151
1,883
19,732
Reinsurance and other recoverables3,095
24
389
3,508
Ending liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses, gross$18,793
$2,175
$2,272
$23,240
Earned premiums and fee income$5,159
$2,818
  
Loss and loss expense paid ratio [1]50.4
75.2
  
Loss and loss expense incurred ratio66.0
79.0
  
Prior accident year development (pts) [2]0.2
(0.4)  
[1]The “loss and loss expense paid ratio” represents the ratio of paid losses and loss adjustment expenses to earned premiums.
[2]“Prior accident year development (pts)” represents the ratio of prior accident year development to earned premiums.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Current Accident Year Catastrophe Losses for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2017, Net of Reinsurance
 
Commercial
Lines
Personal
Lines
Total
Wind and hail$137
$174
$311
Hurricanes [1]266
76
342
Winter storms1
3
4
Total catastrophe losses$404
$253
$657
[1] Includes catastrophe losses from Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma of $175 and $157, respectively.
Unfavorable (Favorable) Prior Accident Year Development for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2017
 Commercial Lines
Personal
Lines
Property & Casualty Other OperationsTotal Property & Casualty Insurance
Workers’ compensation$(9)$
$
$(9)
Workers’ compensation discount accretion5


5
Package business(22)

(22)
Commercial property1


1
Bond20


20
Catastrophes1


1
Other reserve re-estimates, net1
2

3
Total prior accident year development$(3)$2
$
$(1)
Unfavorable (Favorable) Prior Accident Year Development for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2017
 Commercial Lines
Personal
Lines
Property & Casualty Other OperationsTotal Property & Casualty Insurance
Workers’ compensation$(29)$
$
$(29)
Workers’ compensation discount accretion21


21
General liability10


10
Package business(22)

(22)
Commercial property(5)

(5)
Bond10


10
Automobile liability20


20
Catastrophes(1)(11)
(12)
Other reserve re-estimates, net8
(1)1
8
Total prior accident year development$12
$(12)$1
$1
Workers’ compensation reserves were reduced, primarily in small commercial, given the continued emergence of favorable frequency for accident years 2013 to 2015. Management has placed additional weight on this favorable experience as it becomes more credible.
General liability reserves were increased for the 2013 to 2016 accident years on a class of business that insures service and maintenance contractors. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in recent accident year reserves for other middle market general liability reserves.
 
Package reserves were reduced for accident years 2013 and prior largely due to reducing the Company's estimate of allocated loss adjustment expenses incurred to settle the claims.
Bond business reserves increased for customs bonds written between 2000 and 2010 which was partly offset by a reduction in reserves for recent accident years as reported losses for commercial and contract surety have emerged favorably.
Automobile liability reserves within Commercial Lines were increased in small commercial and large national accounts for the 2013 to 2016 accident years, driven by higher frequency of more severe accidents, including litigated claims.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Catastrophes reserves were reduced primarily due to lower estimates of 2016 wind and hail event losses and a decrease in losses on a 2015 wildfire.
P&C Other Operations Total Reserves, Net of Reinsurancechart-b431ac85df155d86803.jpg
Asbestos and Environmental Reserves
Reserves for asbestos and environmental ("A&E") are primarily within P&C Other Operations with less significant amounts of A&E reserves included within Commercial Lines and Personal Lines. The following tables include all A&E reserves, including reserves in P&C Other Operations and Commercial Lines and Personal Lines.
Asbestos and Environmental Net Reserves
 AsbestosEnvironmental
September 30, 2018  
Property and Casualty Other Operations$1,022
$161
Commercial Lines and Personal Lines68
53
Ending liability — net$1,090
$214
December 31, 2017  
Property and Casualty Other Operations$1,143
$182
Commercial Lines and Personal Lines72
55
Ending liability — net$1,215
$237
 
Property & Casualty Reserves Asbestos and Environmental Summary as of September 30, 2018
  AsbestosEnvironmentalTotal A&E
Gross   
 Direct$1,268
$300
$1,568
 Assumed Reinsurance402
44
446
 Total1,670
344
2,014
Ceded - other than National Indemnity Company ("NICO")(397)(28)(425)
Ceded - NICO adverse development cover ("ADC ")(183)(102)(285)
Net$1,090
$214
$1,304
Rollforward of Asbestos and Environmental Losses and LAE for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018 and September 30, 2017
 AsbestosEnvironmental
2018  
Beginning liability—net$1,215
$237
Losses and loss adjustment expenses incurred

Losses and loss adjustment expenses paid125
23
Reclassification of allowance for uncollectible reinsurance

Ending liability – net$1,090
$214
2017  
Beginning liability—net$1,363
$292
Losses and loss adjustment expenses paid111
48
Reclassification of allowance for uncollectible reinsurance [1]1

Ending liability – net$1,253
$244
[1]Related to the reclassification of an allowance for uncollectible reinsurance from the "All Other" category of P&C Other Operations reserves.
The Company classifies its A&E reserves into two categories: Direct and Assumed Reinsurance.
Direct Insurance- includes primary and excess coverage. Of the two categories of claims, direct policies tend to have the greatest factual development from which to estimate the Company’s exposures.
Assumed Reinsurance- includes both “treaty” reinsurance (covering broad categories of claims or blocks of business) and “facultative” reinsurance (covering specific risks or individual policies of primary or excess insurance companies). Assumed reinsurance exposures are less predictable than direct insurance exposures because the Company does not generally receive notice of a reinsurance claim until the underlying direct insurance claim is mature. This causes a delay in the receipt of information at the

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




reinsurer level and adds to the uncertainty of estimating related reserves.
Adverse Development Cover
Effective December 31, 2016, the Company entered into an A&E ADC reinsurance agreement with NICO, a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc., to reduce uncertainty about potential adverse development. Under the ADC, the Company paid a reinsurance premium of $650 for NICO to assume adverse net loss and allocated loss adjustment expense reserve development up to $1.5 billion above the Company’s existing net A&E reserves as of December 31, 2016 of approximately $1.7 billion. The $650 reinsurance premium was placed in a collateral trust account as security for NICO’s claim payment obligations to the Company. The Company has retained the risk of collection on amounts due from other third-party reinsurers and continues to be responsible for claims handling and other administrative services, subject to certain conditions. The ADC covers substantially all the Company’s A&E reserve development up to the reinsurance limit.
Under retroactive reinsurance accounting, net adverse A&E reserve development after December 31, 2016, will result in an offsetting reinsurance recoverable up to the $1.5 billion limit. Cumulative ceded losses up to the $650 reinsurance premium paid are recognized as a dollar-for-dollar offset to direct losses incurred. Cumulative ceded losses exceeding the $650 reinsurance premium paid would result in a deferred gain.  The deferred gain would be recognized over the claim settlement period in the proportion of the amount of cumulative ceded losses collected from the reinsurer to the estimated ultimate reinsurance recoveries. Consequently, until periods when the deferred gain is recognized as a benefit to earnings, cumulative adverse development of A&E claims after December 31, 2016 in excess of $650 may result in significant charges against earnings.
As of September 30, 2018, the Company has incurred a cumulative $285 in adverse development on A&E reserves that have been ceded under the ADC treaty with NICO, leaving approximately $1.2 billion of coverage available for future adverse net reserve development, if any.
Net and Gross Survival Ratios
Net and Gross survival ratios are a measure of the quotient of the carried reserves divided by average annual payments (net of reinsurance and on a gross basis) and is an indication of the number of years that carried reserves would last (i.e. survive) if future annual payments were consistent with the calculated historical average.
The survival ratios shown below are calculated for the one and three year periods ended September 30, 2018. The net basis survival ratio has been materially affected by the ADC entered into between the Company and NICO. The Company cedes adverse A&E development in excess of its December 31, 2016 net carried reserves of $1.7 billion to NICO up to a limit of $1.5 billion. Since December 31, 2016, net reserves for A&E have been declining as the Company has had no net incurred losses but continues to pay down net loss reserves. This has the effect of reducing the one- and three-year net survival ratios shown in the table below. For asbestos, the table also presents the three-year net survival ratios excluding the effect of the PPG Industries, Inc. ("PPG") settlement in 2016. For further discussion of the PPG settlement, see Part II, Item 7 MD&A, Critical Accounting
 
Estimates, Annual Reserves Reviews section in the Company’s 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.
Net and Gross Survival Ratios
 AsbestosEnvironmental
One year net survival ratio6.76.9
Three year net survival ratio- excluding PPG settlement6.6
4.3
One year gross survival ratio7.3
8.0
Three year gross survival ratio - excluding PPG settlement7.7
5.8
Asbestos and Environmental Paid and Incurred Losses and LAE Development for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018
 AsbestosEnvironmental
 Paid
Losses &  LAE
Incurred
Losses &  LAE
Paid
Losses &  LAE
Incurred
Losses &  LAE
Gross$168
$
$35
$
Ceded- other than NICO(43)
(12)
Ceded - NICO ADC



Net$125
$
$23
$
Annual Reserve Reviews
Review of Asbestos Reserves
In 2018, the Company expects to perform its regular comprehensive annual review of asbestos reserves in the fourth quarter.
As part of its evaluation in the fourth quarter of 2017, the Company reviewed all of its open direct domestic insurance accounts exposed to asbestos liability, as well as assumed reinsurance accounts. Based on this evaluation, the Company increased its net asbestos reserves for prior year development by $183 in the fourth quarter of 2017 which was offset by $183 of ceded losses under the ADC agreement.
Review of Environmental Reserves
In 2018, the Company expects to perform its regular comprehensive annual review of environmental reserves in the fourth quarter.
As part of its evaluation in the fourth quarter of 2017, the Company reviewed all of its open direct domestic insurance accounts exposed to environmental liability, as well as assumed reinsurance accounts. Based on this evaluation, the Company increased its net environmental reserves for prior year development by $102 in the fourth quarter 2017 which was offset by $102 of ceded losses under the ADC agreement.
2017 Reserve Reviews
For a discussion of the Company's 2017 comprehensive annual review of A&E reserves, see Part II, Item 7 MD&A, Critical

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Accounting Estimates, Annual Reserves Reviews section in the Company’s 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.
Uncertainties Regarding Adequacy of Asbestos and Environmental Reserves
A number of factors affect the variability of estimates for A&E reserves before considering the effect of the reinsurance agreement with NICO, including assumptions with respect to the frequency of claims, the average severity of those claims settled with payment, the dismissal rate of claims with no payment, resolution of coverage disputes with our policyholders and the expense to indemnity ratio. The uncertainty with respect to the underlying reserve assumptions for A&E adds a greater degree of variability to these reserve estimates than reserve estimates for more traditional exposures.
As of September 30, 2018, the Company reported $1.1 billion of net asbestos reserves and $214 of net environmental reserves. The Company believes that its current A&E reserves are appropriate. However, analyses of future developments could cause The Hartford to change its estimates of its A&E reserves. As discussed above, the effect of these changes could be material to the Company's liquidity and, if cumulative adverse development subsequent to December 31, 2016 exceeded $650, the effect of the changes could be material to the Company's consolidated operating results. The process of estimating A&E reserves remains subject to a wide variety of uncertainties, which are detailed in the Company's 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.
Consistent with the Company's long-standing reserve practices, the Company will continue to review and monitor its reserves in Property & Casualty Other Operations regularly, including its annual reviews of asbestos liabilities, reinsurance recoverables and the allowance for uncollectible reinsurance, and environmental liabilities, and where future developments indicate, make appropriate adjustments to the reserves. For a discussion of the Company's reserving practices, see MD&A - Critical Accounting Estimates, Property & Casualty Insurance Product Reserves, Net of Reinsurance in the Company's 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.


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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




SEGMENT OPERATING SUMMARIES
COMMERCIAL LINES
Results of Operations
Underwriting Summary
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017Change 20182017Change
Written premiums$1,751
$1,702
3% $5,336
$5,229
2%
Change in unearned premium reserve(34)(21)(62%) 95
98
(3%)
Earned premiums1,785
1,723
4% 5,241
5,131
2%
Fee income9
9
% 26
28
(7%)
Losses and loss adjustment expenses



    
Current accident year before catastrophes1,055
1,009
5% 3,003
2,971
1%
Current accident year catastrophes [1]95
270
(65%) 238
404
(41%)
Prior accident year development [1](53)(3)NM
 (145)12
NM
Total losses and loss adjustment expenses1,097
1,276
(14%) 3,096
3,387
(9%)
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs264
253
4% 780
754
3%
Underwriting expenses353
348
1% 1,013
995
2%
Amortization of other intangible assets2

NM
 3

NM
Dividends to policyholders8
4
100% 18
11
64%
Underwriting gain (loss)70
(149)147% 357
12
NM
Net servicing income(1)1
NM
 
2
(100%)
Net investment income [2]250
241
4% 750
724
4%
Net realized capital gains [2]29
13
123% 63
56
13%
Other income (expenses)2
(1)NM
 1

NM
 Income before income taxes350
105
NM
 1,171
794
47%
 Income tax expense [3]61
15
NM
 212
215
(1%)
Net income$289
$90
NM
 $959
$579
66%
[1]For discussion of current accident year catastrophes and prior accident year development, see MD&A - Critical Accounting Estimates, Property and Casualty Insurance Product Reserves, Net of Reinsurance.
[2]For discussion of consolidated investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results.
[3]
For discussion of income taxes, see Note 12 - Income Taxes of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Premium Measures [1]
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017 20182017
New business premium$314
$274
 $969
$864
Standard commercial lines policy count retention83%83% 82%84%
Standard commercial lines renewal written price increase1.7%3.4% 2.4%3.3%
Standard commercial lines renewal earned price increase2.9%3.0% 3.1%2.7%
Standard commercial lines policies in-force as of end of period (in thousands)   1,333
1,341
[1]Standard commercial lines consists of small commercial and middle market. Standard commercial premium measures exclude Maxum, higher hazard general liability in middle market and livestock lines of business.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Underwriting Ratios
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,

20182017Change 20182017Change
Loss and loss adjustment expense ratio       
Current accident year before catastrophes59.1
58.6
0.5
 57.3
57.9
(0.6)
Current accident year catastrophes5.3
15.7
(10.4) 4.5
7.9
(3.4)
Prior accident year development(3.0)(0.2)(2.8) (2.8)0.2
(3.0)
Total loss and loss adjustment expense ratio61.5
74.1
(12.6) 59.1
66.0
(6.9)
Expense ratio34.2
34.4
(0.2) 33.8
33.5
0.3
Policyholder dividend ratio0.4
0.2
0.2
 0.3
0.2
0.1
Combined ratio96.1
108.6
(12.5) 93.2
99.8
(6.6)
Current accident year catastrophes and prior year development2.3
15.5
(13.2) 1.7
8.1
(6.4)
Underlying combined ratio93.7
93.2
0.5
 91.4
91.7
(0.3)
Net Income
chart-d3eb7819c32f533ba21.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Net income in 2018 for the three month period increased due to a change from an underwriting loss to an underwriting gain, a lower corporate Federal income tax rate and, to a lesser extent, an increase in net realized capital gains and net investment income. (For further discussion of investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results)
Net income in 2018 for the nine month period increased due to a higher underwriting gain, a lower corporate Federal income tax rate and, to a lesser extent, an increase in net investment income. (For further discussion of investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results)
 
Underwriting Gain (Loss)
chart-c42d808e89f550c4b04.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Underwriting gain (loss) changed from an underwriting loss to an underwriting gain for the three month period in 2018 compared to the three month period in 2017 primarily due to lower current accident year catastrophes, more favorable prior accident year reserve development and higher earned premium, partially offset by higher underwriting expenses.
Underwriting gain increased for the nine month period primarily due to lower current accident year catastrophes, a change from unfavorable prior accident year reserve development in 2017 to favorable development in 2018, higher earned premium and a lower current accident year loss and loss adjustment expense ratio before catastrophes, primarily related to lower loss costs for general liability and automobile. Partially offsetting the increase were higher underwriting expenses and a higher current accident year loss and loss adjustment expense ratio for workers' compensation.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Earned Premiums
chart-8a54e81cdcc55e62a72.jpg
[1]Other of $11 and $12 for the three months ended September 30, 2017, and 2018, respectively, and $35 and for both the nine months ended September 30, 2017, and 2018, respectively, is included in the total.
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Earned premiums increased in both the three and nine month periods reflecting written premium growth over the preceding twelve months.
Written premiums increased in both the three and nine month periods due to growth in middle market and small commercial and, for the nine month period, growth in specialty commercial, principally in financial products and bond. In standard commercial lines, renewal written price increases declined in the third quarter of 2018, mostly attributable to bigger rate decreases in Small Commercial workers' compensation. New business and renewal written premium increased across most lines of business except for a decline in workers' compensation.
Small commercial written premium increased for the three month period primarily due to higher new business, primarily driven by the business acquired under a renewal rights
 
agreement with Farmers Group to acquire its Foremost-branded small commercial business. For the nine month period, the increase in new business premium was largely offset by the decline in renewal premium. For the nine month period, the decline in renewal premium was driven by the effect of lower policy retention, partially offset by renewal written price increases.
Middle market written premium growth for both the three and nine month periods was primarily due to strong new business growth.
Specialty commercial written premium was flat for the three month period. The increase for the nine month period was driven by growth in financial products and bond.
Loss and LAE Ratio before Catastrophes and Prior Accident Year Development
chart-1724c05d9a875b09907.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Loss and LAE ratio before catastrophes and prior accident year development increased for the three month period primarily due to a higher loss and loss adjustment expense ratio in workers' compensation due to increased claim frequency and an increase in non-catastrophe property losses, partially offset by a lower loss and loss adjustment expense ratio in general liability and automobile.
Loss and LAE ratio before catastrophes and prior accident year development decreased slightly for the nine month month period primarily due to a lower loss and loss adjustment expense ratio in general liability and automobile, largely offset by a higher loss and loss adjustment expense ratio in workers' compensation, principally due to higher claim frequency.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Current Accident Year Catastrophes and Unfavorable (Favorable) Prior Accident Year Development
chart-176c7a2616345e0d9bf.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Current accident year catastrophe losses totaled $95, before tax, for the three month period in 2018 compared to $270, before tax, for the three month period in 2017. Catastrophe losses for the three month 2018 period were primarily due to wind and hail events in Colorado and hurricane
 
Florence. Catastrophe losses for the three month 2017 period were primarily from hurricanes Harvey and Irma.
Current accident year catastrophe losses totaled $238 before tax, for the nine month period in 2018, compared to $404, before tax, for the nine month period in 2017. Catastrophe losses for the nine month 2018 period were primarily due to multiple wind and hail events in Colorado, the Midwest, South and Mid-Atlantic and hurricane Florence as well as winter storms on the east coast. Catastrophe losses for the nine month 2017 period were primarily from Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, but also included wind and hail events in the Midwest, Texas and Colorado.
Prior accident year development was a net favorable $53 for the three month period in 2018, compared with $3 of net favorable prior accident year development for the three month period in 2017, and was a net favorable $145 for the nine month period in 2018 compared to unfavorable prior accident year development of $12, before tax, for the nine month period in 2017. Net reserve decreases for the three month 2018 period were primarily related to decreases in reserves for workers' compensation, professional liability and the 2017 hurricanes. Net reserve decreases for the nine month 2018 period were primarily related to decreases for workers' compensation and catastrophe reserves. Estimated losses for 2017 catastrophe events in Commercial Lines decreased by $93 in the nine month 2018 period resulting in a decrease in reinsurance recoverables of $43 as the Company no longer expects to recover under the 2017 Property Aggregate reinsurance treaty.
Net reserve decreases for the three month 2017 period were primarily related to reductions in package business and workers' compensation reserves, partially offset by an increase in bond reserves.
Net reserve increases for the nine month 2017 period were primarily related to commercial automobile liability, general liability, and bond, largely offset by a decrease in reserves for package business.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




PERSONAL LINES
Results of Operations
Underwriting Summary
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017Change 20182017Change
Written premiums$854
$924
(8%) $2,518
$2,738
(8%)
Change in unearned premium reserve5
3
67% (46)(47)2%
Earned premiums849
921
(8%) 2,564
2,785
(8%)
Fee income10
11
(9%) 30
33
(9%)
Losses and loss adjustment expenses


   
Current accident year before catastrophes565
663
(15%) 1,688
1,959
(14%)
Current accident year catastrophes [1]74
82
(10%) 222
253
(12%)
Prior accident year development [1](18)2
NM
 (21)(12)(75%)
Total losses and loss adjustment expenses621
747
(17%) 1,889
2,200
(14%)
Amortization of DAC68
76
(11%) 209
236
(11%)
Underwriting expenses155
145
7% 454
422
8%
Amortization of other intangible assets1
1
% 3
3
%
Underwriting gain (loss)14
(37)138% 39
(43)191%
Net servicing income [2]5
4
25% 13
11
18%
Net investment income [3]39
36
8% 116
107
8%
Net realized capital gains [3]5
2
150% 10
9
11%
Other income1
3
(67%) 1
1
%
Income before income taxes64
8
NM
 179
85
111%
 Income tax expense [4]13

NM
 33
20
65%
Net income$51
$8
NM
 $146
$65
125 %
[1]For discussion of current accident year catastrophes and prior accident year development, see MD&A - Critical Accounting Estimates, Property & Casualty Insurance Product Reserves, Net of Reinsurance.
[2]
Includes servicing revenues of $24 for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 and $66 for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017. Includes servicing expenses of $19 and $53 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively, and $20 and $55 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively.
[3]For discussion of consolidated investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results.
[4]
For discussion of income taxes, see Note 12 - Income Taxes of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Written and Earned Premiums
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
Written Premiums20182017Change 20182017Change
Product Line       
Automobile$583
$636
(8%) $1,750
$1,919
(9%)
Homeowners271
288
(6%) 768
819
(6%)
Total$854
$924
(8%) $2,518
$2,738
(8%)
Earned Premiums  
   

Product Line  
   

Automobile$591
$644
(8%) $1,787
$1,950
(8%)
Homeowners258
277
(7%) 777
835
(7%)
Total$849
$921
(8%) $2,564
$2,785
(8%)

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Premium Measures
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
Premium Measures20182017 20182017
Policies in-force end of period (in thousands)     
Automobile   1,547
1,768
Homeowners   948
1,071
New business written premium     
Automobile$47
$37
 $126
$117
Homeowners$12
$11
 $32
$35
Policy count retention     
Automobile83%80% 82%81%
Homeowners83%83% 83%82%
Renewal written price increase     
Automobile6.1%11.8% 7.9%10.8%
Homeowners10.0%8.5% 10.0%8.8%
Renewal earned price increase     
Automobile9.3%10.1% 10.1%9.1%
Homeowners9.6%8.7% 9.2%8.4%
Underwriting Ratios
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
Underwriting Ratios20182017Change 20182017Change
Loss and loss adjustment expense ratio       
Current accident year before catastrophes66.5
72.0
(5.5) 65.8
70.3
(4.5)
Current accident year catastrophes8.7
8.9
(0.2) 8.7
9.1
(0.4)
Prior year development(2.1)0.2
(2.3) (0.8)(0.4)(0.4)
Total loss and loss adjustment expense ratio73.1
81.1
(8.0) 73.7
79.0
(5.3)
Expense ratio25.2
22.9
2.3
 24.8
22.5
2.3
Combined ratio98.4
104.0
(5.6) 98.5
101.5
(3.0)
Current accident year catastrophes and prior year development6.6
9.1
(2.5) 7.9
8.7
(0.8)
Underlying combined ratio91.8
94.9
(3.1) 90.6
92.9
(2.3)
Product Combined Ratios
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017Change 20182017Change
Automobile  

   

Combined ratio98.9
106.3
(7.4) 97.2
101.5
(4.3)
Underlying combined ratio98.5
101.6
(3.1) 96.4
99.1
(2.7)
Homeowners  

   

Combined ratio96.9
97.9
(1.0) 101.5
101.6
(0.1)
Underlying combined ratio76.3
78.9
(2.6) 77.2
78.4
(1.2)

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Net Income
chart-7f97ce0a50a05c159b7.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Net income in 2018 increased for the three and nine month periods primarily due to a change from an underwriting loss to an underwriting gain, the effect of a lower Federal income tax rate and, to a lesser extent, higher net investment income.
Underwriting Gain (Loss)
chart-b8d85b8f8e265e37a2a.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Underwriting gain (loss) changed from an underwriting loss to an underwriting gain in both the three month and nine month periods primarily due to a lower current accident year loss and loss adjustment expense ratio before catastrophes in both auto and homeowners, lower current accident year catastrophes, and more favorable prior accident year reserve development, partially offset by higher expenses and the effect of lower earned premium. The increase in expenses was largely driven by an
 
increase in direct marketing spending, selling expenses, and operational costs to generate new business.
Earned Premiums
chart-1b037fdc749954848ca.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Earned premiums decreased in 2018, reflecting a decline in written premium over the prior six to twelve months in both agency channels and in AARP Direct.
Written premiums decreased in 2018 in both agency channels and in AARP Direct primarily due to not generating enough new business to offset the loss of non-renewed premium.
Renewal written pricing increases in 2018 were higher in homeowners and have decreased in automobile with mid single-digit price increases in automobile in the third quarter of 2018 and low double-digit price increases in homeowners driven by actions taken to improve profitability.
Policy count retention increased in automobile in both the three month and nine month periods as renewal written pricing increases decreased. Policy count retention in homeowners was flat for the three month period and increased for the nine month period despite higher renewal written price increases.
Policies in-force decreased in 2018 in both automobile and homeowners, driven by low new business and low policy count retention.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Loss and LAE Ratio before Catastrophes and Prior Accident Year Development
chart-c1790db490d05d45b23.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Loss and LAE ratio before catastrophes and prior accident year development decreased in both the three and nine month periods in 2018, primarily due to the effect of earned pricing increases in both the automobile and homeowners lines and lower non-catastrophe weather-related homeowners loss costs.
 
Current Accident Year Catastrophes and Unfavorable (Favorable) Prior Accident Year Development
chart-a21811978159556d9a6.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Current accident year catastrophe losses for the three month 2018 period were from catastrophe events across the country, principally wildfires in California and Colorado, wind and hail storms in Colorado and wind storms in the Midwest, Midatlantic and Northeast. Catastrophe losses for three month 2017 period were primarily due to hurricanes Harvey and Irma. Catastrophe losses for the nine month 2018 period included multiple wind and hail events across the Mountain West, Midwest, South, and Northeast and wildfires in California and Colorado as well as from east coast winter storms. Catastrophe losses for the nine month 2017 period were primarily due to hurricanes Harvey and Irma as well as multiple wind and hail events across various U.S. geographic regions, concentrated in Texas, Colorado, the Midwest and the Southeast.
Prior accident year development was favorable in the 2018 three month period primarily due to decreases in reserves for both auto liability and homeowners related to recent accident years. Prior accident year development for the 2018 nine month period included decreases in reserves for auto liability and for homeowners partially offset by increases in reserves for prior accident year catastrophes. Estimated losses

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




for 2017 catastrophe events in Personal Lines decreased by $30 in the 2018 nine month period, resulting in a decrease in reinsurance recoverables of $47, as the Company no longer expects to recover under the 2017 Property Aggregate
 
reinsurance treaty. Prior accident year development for the three and nine month periods in 2017 primarily included a decrease in reserves for catastrophes.
PROPERTY & CASUALTY OTHER OPERATIONS
Results of Operations
Underwriting Summary
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine months ended September 30,
 20182017Change 20182017Change
Losses and loss adjustment expenses  

    
       Prior accident year development [1]11

NM
 $27
$1
NM
Total losses and loss adjustment expenses11

NM
 27
1
NM
Underwriting expenses3
3
% 9
11
(18%)
Underwriting loss(14)(3)NM
 (36)(12)NM
Net investment income [2]22
26
(15%) 68
84
(19%)
Net realized capital gains [2]3
1
NM
 5
10
(50%)
Other income
2
(100%) 
4
(100%)
 Income before income taxes11
26
(58%) 37
86
(57%)
Income tax expense [3]2
8
(75%) 6
24
(75%)
Net income$9
$18
(50%) $31
$62
(50%)
[1]For discussion of prior accident year development, see MD&A - Critical Accounting Estimates, Property & Casualty Insurance Product Reserves, Net of Reinsurance.
[2]For discussion of consolidated investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results.
[3]For discussion of income taxes, see Note 12 - Income Taxes of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Net Income
chart-7d25e275564654b19fa.jpg
 
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Net Income decreased for the three months, primarily due to prior accident year reserve increases for the allowance for uncollectible reinsurance. Net income decreased for the nine month period due to reserve increases for the allowance for uncollectible reinsurance and certain mass torts as well as lower net investment income.
Underwriting loss increased for both periods, primarily due to unfavorable prior accident year development.
Comprehensive annual reserve reviews of A&E will occur in the fourth quarter of 2018. For information on A&E reserves, see MD&A - Critical Accounting Estimates, Asbestos and Environmental Reserves.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




GROUP BENEFITS
Results of Operations
Operating Summary
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine months ended September 30,

20182017Change 20182017Change
Premiums and other considerations$1,396
$822
70% $4,198
$2,481
69%
Net investment income [1]117
95
23% 353
278
27%
Net realized capital gains (losses) [1](3)9
(133%) (26)30
(187%)
Total revenues1,510
926
63% 4,525
2,789
62%
Benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses1,054
614
72% 3,198
1,893
69%
Amortization of DAC12
8
50% 33
24
38%
Insurance operating costs and other expenses319
204
56% 957
617
55%
Amortization of other intangible assets15

NM
 48

NM
Total benefits, losses and expenses1,400
826
69% 4,236
2,534
67%
Income before income taxes110
100
10% 289
255
13%
 Income tax expense [2]33
29
14% 62
70
(11%)
Net income$77
$71
8% $227
$185
23%
[1]For discussion of consolidated investment results, see MD&A - Investment Results.
[2]
For discussion of income taxes, see Note 12 - Income Taxes of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Premiums and Other Considerations
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine months ended September 30,

20182017Change 20182017Change
Fully insured – ongoing premiums$1,353
$803
68% $4,062
$2,410
69%
Buyout premiums

% 5
14
(64%)
Fee income43
19
126% 131
57
130%
Total premiums and other considerations$1,396
$822
70% $4,198
$2,481
69%
Fully insured ongoing sales, excluding buyouts$104
$68
53% $643
$346
86%
Ratios, Excluding Buyouts
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine months ended September 30,

20182017Change 20182017Change
Group disability loss ratio75.9%73.0%2.9 75.0%78.3%(3.3)
Group life loss ratio76.6%77.7%(1.1) 78.3%75.0%3.3
Total loss ratio75.5%74.7%0.8 76.2%76.2%0.0
Expense ratio [1]23.9%25.8%(1.9) 23.9%26.0%(2.1)
[1] Integration and transaction costs related to the acquisition of Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business are not included in the expense ratio.

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Margin
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine months ended September 30,
 20182017Change 20182017Change
Net income margin5.1%7.7%(2.6) 5.0%6.7%(1.7)
Less: Net realized capital gains (losses) excluded from core earnings, after tax(0.1%)0.5%(0.6) (0.5%)0.6%(1.1)
Less: Integration and transaction costs associated with acquired business, after tax(0.6%)%(0.6) (0.6%)%(0.6)
Less: Income tax benefit(0.9%)%(0.9) (0.3%)%(0.3)
Core earnings margin6.7%7.2%(0.5) 6.4%6.1%0.3
Net Income
chart-631b1a531e8a59c28d5.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Net income increased for both the three and nine month periods, primarily due to higher premiums and other considerations and higher net investment income, including from the acquisition of Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business, and the benefit of a lower corporate income tax rate, partially offset by higher insurance operating costs and other expenses, including integration costs, and amortization of intangible assets in connection with the acquisition. For both periods, the benefit of the lower corporate income tax rate was partially offset by $14 of additional tax expense that was primarily driven by the effect of the lower rate on deferred tax assets due to the filing of the Company's 2017 Federal income tax return and finalization of the opening balance sheet for the Aetna Group Benefits acquisition. Also driving the increase in net income was lower group life mortality for the three month period and favorable disability loss trends for the nine month period, including from favorable prior incurral year development.
Insurance operating costs and other expenses for the three and nine month periods increased primarily due to the acquisition of Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business, including integration costs and amortization of intangible assets. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018, the increase was partially offset by state guaranty fund
 
assessments incurred in the first quarter 2017 related to the liquidation of a life and health insurance company.
Fully Insured Ongoing Premiums
chart-471f73d981875fb0ba0.jpg
[1] Other of $53 and $60 is included in the three months ended September 30, 2017, and 2018, respectively, and $159 and $179 for the nine months ended September 30, 2017, and 2018, respectively is included in the total.
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Fully insured ongoing premiums increased 68% and 69%, respectively, for the three and nine month 2018 periods driven primarily by the acquisition of Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business, sales in excess of cancellations, strong group life and disability persistency and premium from the New York Paid Family Leave product.
Fully insured ongoing sales, excluding buyouts for the three and nine month periods increased 53% and 86%, respectively, primarily due to new business generated by our larger combined sales force following the acquisition of Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business. The Company also saw an increase in the sale of voluntary products and fully insured sales in disability in 2018 due, in part, to the addition of a new New York Paid Family Leave product.

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Ratios
chart-1e7fb0ac19e95a16854.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Total loss ratio increased 0.8 points for the three month period. For the nine month period, the total loss ratio was flat year over year as a decrease in the group disability loss ratio was offset by an increase in the group life loss ratio. The group life loss
 
ratio decreased 1.1 points for the three month period and increased 3.3 points for the nine month period. In the three month period, mortality continued to moderate from the higher mortality experienced in the first quarter of 2018 and improved from the comparable 2017 three month period.  Both the three and nine month periods also include higher 2018 expected loss ratios associated with the business from the Aetna acquisition.
The group disability loss ratio increased 2.9 points for the three month period and decreased 3.3 points for the nine month period with favorable incidence in both the three and nine month periods. Recoveries were unusually favorable in the three month period in 2017 largely due to a high number of death terminations. In addition, for both the three and nine month periods, the group disability loss ratio reflects a lower 2018 expected discount accretion on reserves acquired with Aetna's group disability business.
Expense ratio decreased 1.9 points and 2.1 points, respectively, for the three and nine month 2018 periods. The decline was driven by a greater mix of lower commission national accounts business due to the acquisition of Aetna's U.S. group life and disability business, higher revenues to cover fixed costs and, for the nine month period, the effect of state guaranty fund assessments in 2017 related to the liquidation of a life and health insurance company, partially offset by intangible asset amortization incurred in 2018.
MUTUAL FUNDS
Results of Operations
Operating Summary
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,

20182017Change 20182017Change
Fee income and other revenue$267
$251
6% $786
$735
7%
Net investment income1
1
% 3
2
50%
Net realized capital losses

% (1)
NM
Total revenues268
252
6% 788
737
7%
Amortization of DAC4
5
(20%) 12
16
(25%)
Operating costs and other expenses [1]212
207
2% 635
608
4%
Total benefits, losses and expenses216
212
2% 647
624
4%
 Income before income taxes52
40
30% 141
113
25%
Income tax expense11
14
(21%) 29
40
(28%)
Net income$41
$26
58% $112
$73
53%
        
Daily average total Mutual Funds segment AUM$119,897
$109,640
9% $118,098
$105,491
12%
Return on Assets ("ROA") [2]       
Net income13.6
9.5
43% 12.7
9.3
37%
Core Earnings13.6
9.5
43% 12.8
9.3
38%
[1]
Includes distribution costs of $48 and $140 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively, that were previously netted against fee income and are now presented gross in insurance operating costs and other expenses.
[2]Represents annualized earnings divided by a daily average of assets under management, as measured in basis points.

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




Mutual Funds Segment AUM
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017 [1]Change 20182017 [1]Change
Mutual Fund and ETP AUM - beginning of period$101,665
$91,581
11% $99,090
$81,507
22%
Sales - mutual fund5,176
5,364
(4%) 16,605
18,830
(12%)
Redemptions - mutual fund(5,192)(4,597)(13%) (15,892)(15,416)(3%)
Net flows - ETP261
60
NM
 683
115
NM
Net flows - mutual fund and ETP245
827
(70%) 1,396
3,529
(60%)
Change in market value and other3,623
3,189
14% 5,047
10,561
(52%)
Mutual fund and ETP AUM - end of period105,533
95,597
10% 105,533
95,597
10%
Talcott Resolution life and annuity separate account AUM [2]15,543
16,127
(4%) 15,543
16,127
(4%)
Total Mutual Funds segment AUM$121,076
$111,724
8% $121,076
$111,724
8%
[1]ETP AUM has been combined with mutual fund AUM. Previously ETPs were shown separately.
[2]Represents AUM of the Talcott Resolution life and annuity business sold in May, 2018 that is still managed by the Company's Mutual Funds segment.
Mutual Fund and ETP AUM by Asset Class
 September 30, 2018September 30, 2017Change
Equity$69,463
$61,163
14%
Fixed Income14,831
14,454
3%
Multi-Strategy Investments [1]20,062
19,571
3%
Exchange-traded Products1,177
409
188%
Mutual Fund and ETP AUM$105,533
$95,597
10%
[1]Includes balanced, allocation, and alternative investment products.
Net Income
chart-e8dd435fd2cf582cb30.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Net income for both the three and nine month periods increased compared to the prior year due to higher investment management fees, partially offset by higher variable costs, including sub-advisory and distribution and services expenses. Also contributing to the increase was the effect of a lower corporate Federal income tax rate.
 
Total Mutual Funds Segment AUM
chart-7cfa43681e375ec890f.jpg
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Total Mutual Funds segment AUM increased in 2018 primarily resulting from positive net flows and market appreciation. The increase in Mutual Fund business AUM was partially offset by the continued runoff of AUM still managed by the Company that is related to the Talcott Resolution life and annuity business sold in May, 2018.


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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




CORPORATE
Results of Operations
Operating Summary
 Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20182017Change 20182017Change
Fee income$15
$1
NM
 $21
$2
NM
Other revenue6

NM
 8

NM
Net investment income15
5
NM
 33
14
136%
Net realized capital gains4
1
NM
 9

NM
Total revenues40
7
NM
 71
16
NM
Benefits, losses and loss adjustment expenses [1]3

NM
 9

NM
Insurance operating costs and other expenses25
26
(4%) 59
60
(2%)
Amortization of other intangible assets

% 

%
Pension settlement

% 
750
(100%)
Loss on extinguishment of debt [2]

% 6

NM
Interest expense [2]69
79
(13%) 228
238
(4%)
Total benefits, losses and expenses97
105
(8%) 302
1,048
(71%)
Loss before income taxes(57)(98)42% (231)(1,032)78%
Income tax benefit [3](17)(30)43% (45)(364)88%
Loss from continuing operations, net of tax(40)(68)(41%) (186)(668)(72%)
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax5
89
(94%) 322
276
17%
Net income (loss)$(35)$21
NM
 $136
$(392)135%
[1]Represents benefits expense on life and annuity business previously underwritten by the Company.
[2]
For discussion of debt, see Note 11 - Debt of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
[3]
For discussion of income taxes, see Note 12 - Income Taxes of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Net Income (Loss)
chart-d38d4237132d5d19a0c.jpg
 
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Net loss for the three months ended September 30, 2018 compared to net income in the prior year period due to a decrease in income from discontinued operations as a result of the sale of the Talcott Resolution run-off life and annuity business which closed on May 31, 2018. The loss from continuing operations, net of tax, decreased for the three months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the prior year period, primarily due to higher net investment income as a result of an increase in short-term interest rates and reinvesting the proceeds from the sale of Talcott as well as lower interest expense, partially offset by a lower tax benefit that was principally due to the reduction in the corporate Federal income tax rate.
Net income for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to a net loss for the comparable period in 2017, primarily due to a pension settlement charge of $488, after tax in 2017. The settlement charge related to the purchase of a group annuity contract to transfer $1.6 billion of certain U.S. qualified pension plan liabilities to a third-party. Additionally, there was an increase in income from discontinued operations for the 2018 nine month period, partially offset by a lower tax benefit that was principally due to the reduction in the corporate Federal income

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




tax rate and the effect of non-deductible executive compensation. The increase in income from discontinued operations was primarily due to a reduction in loss on sale in 2018, partially offset by lower operating earnings from Talcott Resolution in 2018 since the business was sold on May 31, 2018. The reduction in loss on sale for the nine month period was largely attributable to an increase in the estimated retained net operating loss carryover tax benefits from Talcott Resolution as well as the reclassification to retained earnings of $193 of tax effects stranded in AOCI due to the accounting for Tax Reform. For more information on the reclassification of stranded tax effects, see Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies of Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Interest Expense
chart-0d8960ff279e5753abe.jpg
 
Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017
Interest expense decreased for both the three and nine month periods, primarily due to the redemption of junior subordinated debentures. On June 15, 2018, The Hartford redeemed $500 aggregate principal amount of its 8.125% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Junior Subordinated Debentures due 2068 and recognized a $6 loss on extinguishment of debt for unamortized deferred debt issuance costs. On March 15, 2018, the Company issued $500 of 4.4% senior notes due March 15, 2048 for net proceeds of approximately $490. The Company used a portion of the net proceeds to repay the Company's $320 of 6.3% notes at maturity. See Note 11 -Debt of Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT
The Company’s Board of Directors has ultimate responsibility for risk oversight, as described more fully in our Proxy Statement, while management is tasked with the day-to-day management of the Company’s risks.
The Company manages and monitors risk through risk policies, controls and limits. At the senior management level, an Enterprise Risk and Capital Committee (“ERCC”) oversees the risk profile and risk management practices of the Company.
The Company's enterprise risk management ("ERM") function supports the ERCC and functional committees, and is tasked with, among other things:
risk identification and assessment;
the development of risk appetites, tolerances, and limits;
risk monitoring; and
internal and external risk reporting.
The Company categorizes its main risks as insurance risk, operational risk and financial risk. Insurance risk and financial risk are described in more detail below. Operational risk and specific risk tolerances for natural catastrophes, terrorism risk and pandemic risk are described in the ERM section of the MD&A in The Hartford’s 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report.
 
Insurance Risk
The Company categorizes its insurance risks across property-casualty and group benefits products. Non-catastrophe insurance risk arises from a number of exposures including property, liability, mortality, morbidity, disability and longevity. Catastrophe risk primarily arises in the property, automobile, group life, group disability, and workers' compensation product lines. The Company establishes risk limits to control potential loss and actively monitors the risk exposures as a percent of statutory surplus. The Company also uses reinsurance to transfer insurance risk to well-established and financially secure reinsurers.
Reinsurance as a Risk Management Strategy
The Company uses reinsurance to transfer certain risks to reinsurance companies based on specific geographic or risk concentrations. A variety of traditional reinsurance products are used as part of the Company's risk management strategy, including excess of loss occurrence-based products that reinsure property and workers' compensation exposures, and individual risk or quota share arrangements, that reinsure losses from specific classes or lines of business. The Company has no significant finite risk contracts in place and the statutory surplus benefit from all such prior year contracts is immaterial. The Hartford also participates in governmentally administered reinsurance facilities such as the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (“FHCF”), the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program (“TRIPRA”) and other reinsurance programs relating to particular risks or specific lines of business.

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Reinsurance for Catastrophes- The Company has catastrophe reinsurance programs, including reinsurance treaties that cover property and workers' compensation losses aggregating from single catastrophe events.
Primary Catastrophe Treaty Reinsurance Coverages as of September 30, 2018
Per Occurrence Property Catastrophe Treaty for 1/1/2018 to 12/31/2018 [1] [3]
Portion of losses reinsured

Portion of losses retained by The Hartford
Losses of $0 to $350 from one eventNone100% retained
Losses of $350 to $500 from one event75% of $150 in excess of $35025% co-participation
Losses of $500 to $1.1 billion from one event [2]90% of $600 in excess of $50010% co-participation
Aggregate Property Catastrophe Treaty for 1/1/2018 to 12/31/2018 [3]  
$0 to $825 of aggregate lossesNone100% retained
$825 to $1.025 billion of aggregate losses100%None
Workers' Compensation Catastrophe Treaty for 1/1/2018 to 12/31/2018  
Losses of $0 to $100 from one eventNone100% retained
Losses of $100 to $450 from one event [4]80% of $350 in excess of $10020% co-participation
[1]In addition to the Property Occurrence Treaty, for Florida events, The Hartford has purchased the mandatory FHCF reinsurance for the period from 6/1/2018 to 5/30/2019. While final calculations are not made available by the FHCF until later in 2018, the estimate is that FHCF would cover $96 of per event losses in excess of a $32 retention.
[2]Portions of this layer of coverage extend beyond the traditional one year term.
[3]$100 of the Aggregate Property Catastrophe Treaty can alternatively be used as per occurrence cover in excess of $1.1 billion. The aggregate treaty is not limited to a single event; rather, it is designed to provide reinsurance protection for the aggregate of all events designated as catastrophes by PCS (Property Claims Services/Verisk) with a $350 limit on any one event.
[4]In addition to the limits shown, the worker's compensation reinsurance includes a non-catastrophe, industrial accident layer, providing coverage for 80% of $30 in per event losses in excess of a $20 retention.
In addition to the property catastrophe reinsurance coverage described in the above table, the Company has other reinsurance agreements that cover property catastrophe losses. The Per Occurrence Property Catastrophe Treaty and Workers' Compensation Catastrophe Treaty include a provision to reinstate limits in the event that a catastrophe loss exhausts limits on one or more layers under the treaties.
Reinsurance for Terrorism- For the risk of terrorism, private sector catastrophe reinsurance capacity is generally limited and largely unavailable for terrorism losses caused by nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological attacks. As such, the Company's principal reinsurance protection against large-scale terrorist attacks is the coverage currently provided through TRIPRA to the end of 2020.
TRIPRA provides a backstop for insurance-related losses resulting from any “act of terrorism”, which is certified by the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Attorney General, for losses that exceed a threshold of industry losses of $160 in 2018, with the threshold increasing to $200 by 2020. Under the program, in any one calendar year, the federal government would pay a percentage of losses incurred from a certified act of terrorism after an insurer's losses exceed 20% of the Company's eligible direct commercial earned premiums of the prior calendar year up to a combined annual aggregate limit for the federal government and all insurers of $100 billion. The percentage of losses paid by the federal government is 82% in 2018, decreasing by 1 point annually to 80% in the year 2020. The Company's estimated
 
deductible under the program is $1.3 billion for 2018. If an act of terrorism or acts of terrorism result in covered losses exceeding the $100 billion annual industry aggregate limit, Congress would be responsible for determining how additional losses in excess of $100 billion will be paid.
Reinsurance for A&E Reserve Development- Under an ADC reinsurance agreement, NICO assumes adverse net loss and allocated loss adjustment expense reserve development up to $1.5 billion above the Company’s net A&E reserves recorded as of December 31, 2016. Under retroactive reinsurance accounting, net adverse A&E reserve development after December 31, 2016 results in an offsetting reinsurance recoverable up to the $1.5 billion. Cumulative ceded losses up to the $650 reinsurance premium paid for the ADC are recognized as a dollar-for-dollar offset to direct losses incurred. As of September 30, 2018, $285 of cumulative incurred A&E losses had been ceded to NICO, leaving approximately $1.2 billion of coverage available for future adverse net reserve development, if any. Cumulative ceded losses exceeding the $650 reinsurance premium paid would result in a deferred gain. The deferred gain would be recognized over the claim settlement period in the proportion of the amount of cumulative ceded losses collected from the reinsurer to the estimated ultimate reinsurance recoveries. Consequently, until periods when the deferred gain is recognized as a benefit to earnings, cumulative adverse development of A&E claims after December 31, 2016 in excess of $650 may result in significant charges against earnings. Furthermore, there is a risk that cumulative adverse development of A&E claims could ultimately exceed the $1.5 billion treaty limit in which case all adverse

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Part I - Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




development in excess of the treaty limit would be absorbed as a charge to earnings by the Company. In these scenarios, the effect of these changes could be material to the Company’s consolidated operating results and liquidity.
 
Reinsurance Recoverables
Property and casualty insurance product reinsurance recoverables represent loss and loss adjustment expense recoverables from a number of entities, including reinsurers and pools.
Property & Casualty Reinsurance Recoverables
 As of September 30, 2018As of December 31, 2017
Paid loss and loss adjustment expenses$132
$84
Unpaid loss and loss adjustment expenses3,329
3,496
Gross reinsurance recoverables3,461
3,580
Less: Allowance for uncollectible reinsurance(126)(104)
Net reinsurance recoverables$3,335
$3,476
Group benefits reinsurance recoverables represent future policy benefits and unpaid loss and loss adjustment
 
expenses and other policyholder funds and benefits payable that are recoverable from a number of reinsurers.
Group Benefits Reinsurance Recoverables