International Flavors & Fragrances, Inc. engages in the manufacture and supply of flavors and fragrances used in the food, beverage, personal care, and household products industries. It operates through the following segments: Taste, Scent, and Frutarom. The Taste segment is sold to the food and beverage industries for use in consumer products such as prepared foods, beverages, dairy, food, and sweet products. The Scent segment comprises of fragrance compounds, fragrance ingredients, and cosmetic active ingredients. The Frutarom segment creates and manufactures a naturals-focused suite of flavor compounds, functional foods and specialty fine ingredients, largely targeting small, local and regional customers. The company was founded in 1833 and is headquartered in New York, NY.
For the six months ended June 30, 2019, adjusted operating margin excludes $54.8 million of charges related to operational improvement initiatives, integration related costs, restructuring and other charges, net, losses on sale of assets, and Frutarom acquisition related costs, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2018 adjusted operating margin which excludes $21.5 million consisting of operational improvement initiatives, integration related costs, restructuring and other charges, net, losses on sale of assets, FDA mandated product recall, and Frutarom acquisition related costs, which were partially offset by acquisition related costs. See "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below.
Cost of goods sold includes the cost of materials and manufacturing expenses. R&D includes expenses related to the development of new and improved products and technical product support. S&A expenses include expenses necessary to
support our commercial activities and administrative expenses supporting our overall operating activities including compliance with governmental regulations.